User Tools

Site Tools


resources:language_help_-_native_american_languages

Resources : Language Help - Native American languages

Resources on various native languages from the Americas, past and present, be it North America, Central America and the Caribbean or South America.

Know of any other resources ? Feel free to add them.

The basic version of this article is currently under construction and should be finished by the end of 2018. It will attempt to be a reasonably exhaustive (though not necessarily complete) overview of native languages from the New World.


General info

Native Languages of the Americas: American Indian Dictionaries and Language Books - “Preserving and promoting American Indian languages”. Many resources on the native languages of the Americas.

Inwewinan - Native American Languages - Older site, with plenty of resources on the native languages of the Americas.

Swadesh lists by family at Wiktionary - Includes many Native American and other native language families, with their individual Swadesh lists.

Loanwords or derived words from Amerindian languages


North American native cultures

Native American languages - Includes maps of their distribution and of the main native language groups of North America.

Common Lakota Words - A dictionary from A to Z. With playable sample recordings for each word, serving as a pronunciation guide.

New Lakota Dictionary Online - Offers both a desktop version and an online version.

The Ojibwe People's Dictionary

FirstVoices.com - Audio recordings of the First Peoples indigenous languages of Canada.

The First Nations Languages of British Columbia - Especially useful for its bibliography lists on each of the featured languages.

List of extinct Uto-Aztecan languages

Map of pre-contact distribution of North American language families north of Mexico

The following table overview lists (in alphabetical order) links to online resource articles on North American native languages (i.e. ones from the modern day territory of the US and Canada). The alphabetical order is applied to both language families and the individual languages of each family. Only the language families accepted by current consensus are listed, hypothetical language families are noted where applicable. Major resource websites used for this overview include Omniglot.com, Native-languages.org, Wikipedia.org, ydli.org/ydindex & ydli.org/fnlgsbc (Yinka Déné Language Institute) and Cla.berkeley.edu (California Language Archive). Each language entry on the list includes useful vocabulary and phrases, downloadable materials and further useful and relevant links. Language families

Language family Language or dialect Vocabulary Location Notes
Algonkian (Algonquian) languages
(Swadesh list 1
Swadesh list 2)
Abenaki (Alnôba)
Abnaki-Penobscot (Abenaki language)
Abenaki language
Abenaki and Penobscot terms Canada: Quebec
USA: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire
- Eastern Algonquian languages
- Named after its two major dialects, Abenaki and Penobscot. Abenaki had an eastern and western dialect, the eastern one is extinct.
Algonquin (Anicinâbemowin)
Algonquin Language (Algonkin, Anishnabe, Anishnabeg)
Algonquin language
Algonquin terms
Algonquin numbers
Canada: Quebec and Ontario, Central Algonquian languages, Ojibwan group
Arapaho (Hinónoʼeitíít)
Arapaho (Arapahoe)
Arapaho language
Arapaho phrases
Arapaho terms
Arapaho numbers
Bambi in Arapaho !
USA: Wyoming, Oklahoma Plains Algonquian languages, Arapahoan group
Atikamekw
Atikamekw (Attikamek, Tęte-de-boule)
Atikamekw language
Atikamekw terms Canada: southwestern Quebec - Central Algonquian languages
- A relative of Cree.
Beothuk (Beothuck)
Beothuk language
Beothuk terms Canada: Newfoundland - Extinct (in 1829).
- Beothuk has never been classified while it was still in use, but it is generally assumed to be an Algonquian language.
Blackfoot (Siksiká / ᓱᖽᐧᖿ)
Blackfoot (Siksika, Peigan, Piegan, Kainai, Blackfeet)
Blackfoot language
Blackfoot terms
Blackfoot numbers
Canada: southern Alberta
USA: Montana
Plains Algonquian languages
Cheyenne (Tsėhesenėstsestotse)
Cheyenne
Cheyenne language
Cheyenne phrases
Cheyenne terms
Cheyenne sample texts
USA: Montana and Oklahoma Plains Algonquian languages
Chippewa (Ojibwemowin)
Chippewa (Ojibway, Anishinaabe, Ojibwa)
Chippewa language
Ojibwe/Chippewa/Ojibway terms
Chippewa language resources
USA: from upper Michigan westward to North Dakota - Central Algonquian languages, Ojibwan group
- Technically a dialect of Ojibwe/Ojibwa (see below).
Cree (ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ / Nēhiyawēwin) Cree
Cree language
Cree phrases
Cree terms
Other language materials
Cree bibliography
Canada: Northwest Territories, Alberta, Labrador
USA: Montana
Central Algonquian languages, Cree-Innu languages
Etchemin
Etchemin language
Etchemin terms USA: Maine - Eastern Algonquian languages
- Unclear classification within the Eastern Algonquian group, due to insufficient or confusing data. The language might not have existed, and might have been “created” by confusion with an existing Algonquian language or dialect by early European settlers who recorded it.
Gros Ventre (Ahe, Ahahnelin, Aane, Atsina)
Gros Ventre (Atsina) language
Gros Ventre (Atsina) terms USA: Montana Plains Algonquian languages, Arapahoan group
Kickapoo (Kikapú)
Kickapoo (Kikapoo, Kikapu)
Kickapoo language
Kickapoo terms USA: Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, historically Indiana, Minnesota Central Algonquian languages
Loup language
Nipmuc language (based on Loup A)
Loup A
Loup B
USA: Massachusetts, Connecticut - Eastern Algonquian languages
- Two known sets of vocabulary survive, known as Loup A and Loup B. “Loup” was a generic term of French origin for the many related native nationalities and languages in New England. It is unclear whether the Loup A or Loup B vocab sets are fragments of a lost dialect, or of a local Algonquian creole, or a misinterpreation of existing terms from known tongues. Loup A might be the original language of the Nipmuc. Both Loup A and Loup B went extinct in the 18th century.
Lumbee (Croatan, Croatoan, Pamlico, Carolina Algonquian)
Carolina_Algonquian_language (Lumbee, Croatan, Pamlico)
Lumbee terms USA: Croatan island, North Carolina - Eastern Algonquian languages
- The language of the natives of Croatan island off the Carolina coast. They also developed a creole of Lumbee and English in later times. Extinct (by the 1790s).
Maliseet-Passamaquoddy
Malecite-Passamaquoddy language
Maliseet-Passamaquoddy terms Canada: New Brunswick
USA: Maine
- Eastern Algonquian languages
- Named after its two major dialects, Maliseet (Malecite, Malecites, Malisit) and Passamaquoddy.
Massachusett (Wôpanâak / Wampanoag)
Wampanoag (Massachusett, Natick, Massassoit, Nantucket, Mashpee)
Massachusett (Wampanoag) language
Massachusett (Wampanoag) terms
Massachusett (Wampanoag) sample texts
Massachusett (Wampanoag) audio recording of the Lord's Prayer (from this sound archive)
USA: Massachusetts - Eastern Algonquian languages, Mohican-Loup group
- Extinct, but undergoing a revival.
Menominee (Omāēqnomenew)
Menominee (menomini)
Menominee (Menomini) language
Menominee terms USA: northeastern Wisconsin Central Algonquian languages
Mesquakie-Sauk (Sac and Fox)
Fox language (Mesquakie, Meskwaki, Sac and Fox), Sauk
Mesquaki-Sauk (Sac and Fox) terms USA: central Oklahoma, northeastern Kansas, Iowa
Mexico: Coahuilla
Central Algonquian languages
Mohican (Mahican, Stockbridge, Wappinger)
Mahican language
Mohican terms
Names and relations of Mahican, Mohecan, Mohican, Mohegan, Stockbridge-Munsee
USA: New York state Eastern Algonquian languages, Mohican-Loup group
Miami (Myaamia)
Miami-Illinois (Maumee, Myamia, Twightwee)
Miami-Illinois language
Miami-Illinois terms USA: Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma Central Algonquian languages
Michif
Michif (Mitchif, Metis Creole, French Cree)
Michif
Michif terms Canada: Manitoba, Saskatchewan and northwestern Ontario
USA: North Dakota
Central Algonquian languages, Cree-Innu languages
- Creole language, developed from Cree and European languages (mainly French). The traditional dialect of the (Francophone) Métis.
Mi'kmaq (Míkmawísimk)
Mi'kmaq (Mi'kmawi'simk, Mi'kmaw, Micmac, Mikmaq)
Mi'kmaq language
Míkmaq phrases
Míkmaq terms
Mi'kmaq numbers
Canada: Nova Scotia Eastern Algonquian languages
Mohegan
Mohegan (Pequot)
Mohegan-Pequot language
Mohegan (Pequot) terms
Mohegan numbers
Names and relations of Mahican, Mohecan, Mohican, Mohegan, Stockbridge-Munsee
USA: Connecticut
Long Island, New York state
Eastern Algonquian languages, Mohican-Loup group
Montagnais (Innu-Aimun)
Montagnais Innu (Innu-Aimun, Innu Aionun)
Innu (Innu-aimun, Montagnais) language
Montagnais terms
Innu (Montagnais) numbers
Canada: Quebec, Labrador - Central Algonquian languages, Cree-Innu languages
- Montagnais and Naskapi are Innu dialects, both close relatives of Cree.
Munsee (Huluníixsuwaakan)
Munsee Delaware (Minsi, Muncey, Minisink)
Munsee
Munsee terms Canada: Ontario
USA (historically): New York state, New Jersey, Pennsylvania
- Eastern Algonquian languages, Lenape-Renape (Delaware) group
- Two major dialects, Munsee and Unami.
Nanticoke
Nanticoke language
Nanticoke terms USA: Delaware, Maryland Eastern Algonquian languages, Lenape-Renape (Delaware) group
Narragansett (Nipmuc)
Narragansett language
Narragansett terms USA: Rhode Island Eastern Algonquian languages, Mohican-Loup group
Naskapi (ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ / Iyuw Imuun)
Naskapi Innu (Innu-aimun)
Naskapi (Iyuw Iyimuun) language
Naskapi terms Canada: Quebec, Labrador - Central Algonquian languages, Cree-Innu languages
- Montagnais and Naskapi are Innu dialects, both close relatives of Cree.
Ojibwe (Anishinaabemowin / ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ)
Ojibwe (Ojibway, Anishinaabemowin, Chippewa, Ojibwa)
Ojibwe language
Ojibwe phrases
Ojibwe/Chippewa/Ojibway terms
Ojibwe numbers
Ojibwe sample texts
Chippewa language resources
Ojibwa audio recording of ceremonial song (from this sound archive)
Canada: Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, partly Alberta, British Columbia
USA: Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, partly North Dakota, Montana
Central Algonquian languages, Ojibwan group
Oji-Cree (Anishininiimowin / ᐊᓂᔑᓂᓂᒧᐏᐣ)
Ojibwe (Ojibway, Anishinaabemowin, Chippewa, Ojibwa)
Oji-Cree language
N/A Canada: Ontario, Manitoba Central Algonquian languages
Ottawa (Nishnaabemwin / Daawaamwin)
Ottawa (Odawa, Odaawa)
Ottawa dialect
Canada: Ontario
USA: Michigan, Oklahoma
- Central Algonquian languages, Ojibwan group
- Technically a dialect of Ojibwe/Ojibwa.
Potawatomi (Neshnabémwen)
Potawatomi (Nishnabek, Pottawatomie, Pottawatomi)
Potawatomi language
Potawatomi terms
English to Potawatomi online dictionary
Canada: southern Ontario
USA: Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin and Kansas
Central Algonquian languages
Powhatan (Powatan, Powhattan)
Powhatan language (Virginia Algonquian)
Powhatan terms USA: Virginia - Eastern Algonquian languages
- Extinct (by the late 18th century).
Quiripi (Quinnipiac, Unquachog, Wampano, Naugatuck, Mattabesic)
Quiripi (Quiripi-Unquachog, Quiripi-Naugatuck, Wampano)
Quiripi sample text (17th century) USA: central Long Island, New York state, southwestern Connecticut - Eastern Algonquian languages
- Extinct (by the early 20th century).
Shawnee (Sawanwa)
Shawnee (Shawano, Savannah, Sewanee)
Shawnee (Ša˙wano˙ki) language
Shawnee terms USA: central and northeastern Oklahoma, historically Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania Central Algonquian languages
Unami
Unami (Lenape, Delaware, Lenni Lenape)
Unami
Lenape (Unami) terms Lenape (Unami) numbers USA: lower Delaware and Hudson rivers, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania, some groups in Oklahoma - Eastern Algonquian languages, Lenape-Renape (Delaware) group
- Two major dialects, Munsee and Unami. Unami went extinct in 2002 (with its last fluent speaker), but there is a revival effort.
Algic isolates (distant relatives to all other Algonkian languages) Wiyot
Wiyot language
Wiyot
Wiyot terms
Wiyot resources and audio recordings
USA: California One of two small isolates of the Algic language family, all other Algic langs are in the Algonkian subgroup. Extinct, but some revival attempts.
Yurok (Puliklah)
Yurok
Yurok language
Yurok
Yurok terms
Yurok resources and audio recordings
USA: northwestern California One of two small isolates of the Algic language family, all other Algic langs are in the Algonkian subgroup. Extinct, but undergoing a major revival.
Caddoan languages (Swadesh list, pre-contact map) Arikara
Arikara (Sanish, Arikari, Arickaree)
Arikara language (Sáhniš)
Arikara terms
Arikara numbers
USA: north-central North Dakota - Northern Caddoan group, Pawnee-Kitsai subgroup, Pawnee languages branch
Caddo (Has-sii'-nay)
Caddo (Hatsinai)
Caddo language (Hasí:nay)
Caddo terms
Caddo numbers
USA: Caddo County, Oklahoma - Caddo (proper) group
- Several dialects: Hasinai and Hainai, Kadohadacho, Natchitoches and Yatasi
Kitsai (K'itsash, Kichai, Keechi)
Kitsai language (Kichai)
Kitsai terms USA: west-central Oklahoma, eastern Texas - Northern Caddoan group, Pawnee-Kitsai subgroup
- Extinct (by 1940).
Pawnee (Pâri)
Pawnee
Pawnee language
Pawnee terms
Pawnee (Pâri) numbers
USA: north-central Oklahoma - Northern Caddoan group, Pawnee-Kitsai subgroup, Pawnee languages branch
Wichita
Wichita (Witchita)
Wichita language
Wichita terms USA: west-central Oklahoma - Northern Caddoan group
- Extinct (as of 2016), but there is a revitalisation project.
Chimakuan languages Chimakum
Chemakum language (Chimakum or Chimacum)
N/A USA: Olympic Peninsula, Washington - Previously thought to be a language isolate, but now in the tiny Chimakuan language family, along with Quileute.
- Extinct (by the 1940s).
Quileute (Quillayute, Hoh)
Quileute language (Quillayute)
Quileute terms USA: Olympic Peninsula, Washington - Previously thought to be a language isolate, but now in the tiny Chimakuan language family, along with Chemakum/Chimakum.
- Extinct (by 1999), but there is a revival project.
Chumashan languages (Swadesh list; speculated to be part of the hypothetical "Hokan" family) Barbareño language (Shmuwich, Šmuwič)
Barbareño
Ineseño (dialect)
Barbareño resources
Ineseño dialect resources
Ineseño dialect terms
USA: Santa Barbara, Santa Ynez, California - Southern Chumash group, Central Chumash subgroup
- Had a dialect, Samala (Sʰamala, Ineseño).
- Extinct (by 1965), there are some revival efforts.
Cruzeño (Isleño, Island Chumash)
Island Chumash
Island Chumash resources USA: Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Santa Cruz Island, San Miguel, Santa Rosa Island, southern California - Southern Chumash group, Island Chumash subgroup
- Extinct.
Cuyama N/A USA: Cuyama and Sisquoc River, north San Joaquin Valley, California - Interior Chumash group
- Extinct. Little is known about the Interior Chumash languages.
Emigdiano N/A USA: San Emigdio, Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, California - Interior Chumash group
- Extinct. Little is known about the Interior Chumash languages. Emigdiano seems to have been a variety or dialect of Barbareño, and influenced by the neighbouring non-Chumashan language Buena Vista Yokuts.
Obispeño (Northern Chumash)
Obispeño
Obispeño resources USA: San Luis Obispo County, southern California - Northern Chumash group
- Extinct.
Purisimeño language
Purisimeño
Purisimeño resources and audio recordings USA: Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, California - Southern Chumash group, Central Chumash subgroup
- Extinct.
Ventureño language (Mitsqanaqa'n)
Ventureño
Ventureño resources USA: southern California (coastal areas) - Southern Chumash group, Central Chumash subgroup
- Extinct.
Eskimo–Aleut languages (Swadesh list 1
Swadesh list 2)
Aleut (Unangam Tunuu)
Aleut (Unangan, Aleutian, Atkan)
Aleut language (Unangam Tunuu)
Aleut terms (Eastern Aleut and Western Aleut)
Aleut phrases
Aleut sample texts
USA: Alaska (Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands, Commander Islands, Alaskan Peninsula)
Russia: Commander Islands, Kamchatka Krai
- Aleut group
- Two main dialect subgroups: Western-Central Aleut (Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering) and Eastern Aleut (Unalaskan, Pribilof). Attuan is extinct.
Alutiiq
Alutiiq (Sugpiaq, Koniag, Chugach Eskimo)
Alutiiq_language (Sugpiaq, Pacific Gulf Yupik, Koniag-Chugach)
Alutiiq phrases
Alutiiq terms
USA: coastal Alaska - Eskimo (Yupik-Inuit) group, Yupik subgroup
- Two main dialects: Koniag Alutiiq and Chugach Alutiiq
Central Alaskan Yup'ik (Yugtun)
Yup'ik (Cup'ik, Yup'ik Eskimo)
Yup'ik language (Central Alaskan Yup'ik)
Yup'ik terms
Yugtun (Alsaka) script
Central Alaskan Yup'ik sample texts
USA: western and southwestern Alaska - Eskimo (Yupik-Inuit) group, Yupik subgroup
- Three main dialects or branches: general central Alaskan Yup'ik, Chevak Cup’ik (Cup’ik, Cugtun) and Nunivak Cup'ig (Cup'ig, Cugtun)
Central Siberian Yupik (Юпик)
Yupik (Cup'ik, Yup'ik Eskimo)]
Central Siberian Yupik language (Yuit)
language_help_-_native_american_languages USA: St. Lawrence Island, Alaska
Russia: Bering Strait
- Eskimo (Yupik-Inuit) group, Yupik subgroup
- Two main dialects: Chaplino dialect (Uŋazigmit) and St. Lawrence Island Yupik (Sivuqaghmiistun)
Greenlandic (Kalaallisut)
Greenlandic language (Kalaallisut)
Greenlandic (Kalaallisut) phrases
Greenlandic (Kalaallisut) sample texts
English to Greenlandic (Kalaallisut) online dictionary
Denmark: Greenland - Eskimo (Inuit-Yupik) group Inuit subgroup, Greenlandic branch
- Three major dialects: Kalaallisut (West Greenlandic), Tunumiit oraasiat (East Greenlandic) and Inuktun (Avanersuaq, Polar Eskimo).
Inuktitut
Inuktitut (Eskimo/Inuit language)
Inuktitut (ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ,Eastern Canadian Inuktitut)
Inuktitut terms
Inuktitut phrases
Inuktitut sample texts
English to Inuktitut online dictionary
Canada: Northwest Territories, Newfoundland and Labrador (Nunatsiavut), Quebec (Nunavik), Nunavut
USA: Alaska
- Eskimo (Inuit-Yupik) group, Inuit subgroup, Inuktitut branch
- Several major dialects: Inuttitut (Inuttut, Labrador Inuktitut, Nunatsiavummiutut), Nunavik dialect (Nunavimmiutitut), North Baffin dialect (Qikiqtaaluk uannangani, Iglulingmiut), South Baffin dialect (Qikiqtaaluk nigiani), Aivilik dialect (Aivilingmiutut, Aivilimmiutut, Aivillirmiut, Kangiqłniq, East-Central Nunavut), Kivalliq_dialect (Kivallirmiutut, Caribou Eskimo, Keewatin, Southeast Nunavut)
Iñupiaq (Inupiatun)
Inupiaq language (Inupiat, Inupiatun, Iñupiatun, Inupiaqtun, Alaskan Inuit)
Iñupiaq (Inupiatun) phrases USA: Big Diomede Island, Alaska
Canada: Northwest Territories
Russia: historically
- Inuit group, Inupiaq subgroup
- Two major dialects: Qawiaraq (Seward Peninsula Inupiaq) and Inupiatun or Northern Alaska Inupiaq (the latter includes Uummarmiutun, Canadian Iñupiaq).
Inuvialuktun (Western Canadian Inuit, Western Canadian Inuktitut, Western Canadian Inuktun) Inuvialuktun phrases and terms (see page 14 of the syllabus) Canada: Northwest Territories, Nunavut - Eskimo (Inuit-Yupik) group, Inuit subgroup, Inuvialuktun branch
- Three major dialects: Natsilik (Natsilingmiutut, Netsilik, Nattiliŋmiutut) (Nunavut), Siglitun (NWT) and Inuinnaqtun (NWT, Nunavut). The last one is speculated by some to be closely related to Inuktitut dialects too.
Naukan Yupik (Naukan Siberian Yupik) language Russia: Bering Strait region Eskimo (Yupik-Inuit) group, Yupik subgroup
Sirenik Eskimo language (Sireniki Yupik, Old Sirenik, Vuteen) Russia: Bering Strait region, around Sireniki - Eskimo (Yupik-Inuit) group, Yupik subgroup
- Extinct (as of 1997).
Na-Dené (Dené, Athabascan) languages
(Swadesh list)
Ahtna (Atnakenaege’)
Ahtna (Atna, Copper River Athabascan)
Ahtna language
Ahtna (Atnakenaege’) terms USA: Copper River region, Alaska - Northern Athabaskan languages, Southern Alaskan group
- Has four major dialects: Lower Copper River dialect, Central Copper River dialect, Western Ahtna dialect and the Upper Ahtna dialect.
Apache (eastern form)
Eastern Apache
N/A USA: New Mexico, historically also Texas - Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) languages, Eastern Apachean group
- Eastern Apache includes the Jicarilla (Abáachi mizaa) dialect and the extinct Lipan dialect.
Apache (western form)
Apache (Tinde, Nde, Ndee, Dine'e, Na'isha)
Western Apache language
Western Apache terms USA: southeastern Arizona - Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) languages, Western Apachean group
- Apache proper has two major subdivisions, Western and Eastern, with many regional dialects. Major offshoot dialects are Mescalero and Chiricahua (see further below), while minor dialects of Western Apache proper include Tonto, White Mountain, San Carlos and Cibecue.
Babine-Witsuwit'en
Babine-Wet'suwet'en (Northern Carrier, Takla)
Babine-Witsuwit'en (Nadot’en-Wets’uwet’en) language
Babine-Witsuwit'en
Babine-Witsuwit'en terms
Babine-Witsuwit'en bibliography
Canada: British Columbia Northern Athabaskan languages, Central British Columbian group
Cahto (Kato)
Cahto (Kato) language
Cahto (Kato)
Cahto (Kato) terms USA: Eel River, California - Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages, Californian group
- Extinct (since the 1960s). Related to Wailaki (Eel River) language.
Chipewyan (Dënesųłıné / ᑌᓀᓱᐠᑦᕄᓀ)
Chipewyan (Dene Suline)
Chipewyan (Dënesųłiné, Dene Suline) language
Chipewyan phrases
Chipewyan terms
Canada: northern Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, southern Northwest Territories and Nunavut - Northern Athabaskan languages
- Also includes the Yellowknife Dené dialect of the Yellowknife/Copper tribe (T'satsąot'ınę).
Chilcotin (Tŝinlhqut’in)
Chilcotin (Tsilhqot’in)
Chilcotin language
The Chilcotin language
Chilcotin bibliography Canada: Chilcotin Plateau, British Columbia Northern Athabaskan languages, Central British Columbian group
Dakelh (Carrier)
Carrier (Dakel, Dakelh) language
Carrier (Dakel, Dakelh) terms
Carrier (Dakelh) sample texts
Various language resources
Canada: central interior of British Columbia Northern Athabaskan languages, Central British Columbian group
Dane-zaa (Danezaa ZaageɁ / ᑕᓀᖚ ᖚᗀᐥ)
Beaver (Dane-zaa, Dunne-za)
Dane-zaa language
The Beaver language
Beaver (Dane-zaa, Dunne-za) terms
Beaver (Dane-zaa, Dunne-za) bibliography
Canada: British Columbia, Alberta - Northern Athabaskan languages, Northwest Canadian group
- Seven dialects, with high and low tone characteristics: Boyer River, Child Lake, Prophet River, Blueberry River, Doig River (high tone), Halfway River, West Moberly Lake (low tone).
Deg Xinag (Degexit'an)
Degexit'an (Ingalik, Deg Xinag, Deg Xit'an)
Deg Xinag language
Deg Xinag (Degexit'an) terms
Deg Xinag (Degexit'an) numbers
USA: lower Yukon River, Anvik River, Innoko River, Alaska Northern Athabaskan languages, Central Alaska-Yukon group
Eyak (I·ya·q)
Eyak
Eyak language
N/A USA: mouth of Copper River, Cordova, south-central Alaska - Na-Dene languages
- Generally classified in its own group within the Na-Dené languages. Along with Haida and Tlingit, it is not within the family's Athabascan group.
Galice (Nabiltse, Applegate Creek language) USA: Taltushtuntede (Galice Creek) and Dakubetede (Applegate Creek), Oregon - Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages, Oregonian group
- Possible relatively of Tututni (see below). Extinct after the 19th century, few surviving records.
Gwich'in (Dinjii Zhu’ Ginjik)
(Gwichin, Kutchin, Tukudh)
Gwich’in (Dinju Zhuh K’yuu) language
Gwich'in terms
Gwich'in sample texts
Canada: Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory
USA: Alaska
Northern Athabaskan languages, Central Alaska-Yukon group
Haida
Haida
Haida language
Haida terms
Haida numbers
Haida bibliography
Canada: Haida Gwaii archipelago, British Columbia
USA: Prince of Wales Island, Alaska
- Na-Dene languages
- Generally classified in its own group within the Na-Dené languages. Along with Eyak and Tlingit, it is not within the family's Athabascan group. The relation of Haida to other Na-Dene languages is disputed, it might even be a partial isolate.
Hän (Häł gołan)
Han-Kutchin (Hankutchin, Hwech'in, Moosehide, Dawson)
Hän language
N/A USA: Alaska
Canada: Yukon Territory,
Northern Athabaskan languages, Central Alaska-Yukon group
Holikachuk (Innoko)
Holikachuk (Doogh Qinag) language
N/A USA: lower Yukon River, Innoko River, Alaska - Northern Athabaskan languages, Central Alaska-Yukon group
- Extinct (by 2012).
Hupa
Hupa (Hoopa)
Hupa (Na:tinixwe Mixine:whe') language
Hupa
Hupa terms
Hupa resources and audio recordings
Chilula resources and audio recordings
Whilkut resources and audio recordings
Hoopa Valley, California - Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages, Californian group
- Currently the only surviving living language of the Californian group.
Jicarilla (Abáachi mizaa)
Jicarilla Apache
Jicarilla language
Jicarilla (Abáachi mizaa) terms USA: New Mexico - Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) languages, Eastern Apachean group
- Relatives include Eastern Apache and the extinct Lipan.
Kaska (Nahanni)
Kaska language
The Kaska language
Kaska terms
Kaska (Nahanni) bibliography
Course Materials for UBC Kaska Language Course
Canada: southwestern Northwest Territories, southeastern Yukon Territory, northern British Columbia Northern Athabaskan languages, Northwest Canadian group, Kaskan (Central Cordillera) subgroup
Koyukon (Denaakk'e)
Koyukon (Ten'a)
Koyukon (Denaakk'e) language
Koyukon (Denaakk'e) terms USA: middle Yukon River, Koyukon River, Alaska Northern Athabaskan languages, Central Alaska-Yukon group
Kwalhioqua (Clatskanie, Tlatskanie, Klaatshan)
Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie language
Clatskanie terms USA: Washington - Northern Athabaskan languages
- Extinct (by the early 1930s). Had two major dialects: Kwalhioqua (with subdialects) and Clatskanie.
Lipan Apache
Lipan language
N/A USA: New Mexico, Texas - Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) languages, Eastern Apachean group
- Extinct. Relatives include Eastern Apache and Jicarilla.
Mattole (Bear River language)
Mattole (Mattole-Bear River) language
Mattole
Mattole (Bear River language) terms
Mattole resources and audio recordings
USA: Mattole River, California - Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages, Californian group
- Extinct (since the 1930s).
Mescalero-Chiricahua (Ndee bizaa)
Mescalero Apache
Chiricahua Apache
Mescalero-Chiricahua language
Mescalero-Chiricahua (Ndee bizaa) terms USA: New Mexico, Oklahoma - Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) languages, Western Apachean group
- Relatives include Western Apache and Navajo.
Navajo (Diné Bizaad)
Navajo (Diné)
Navajo language
Navajo phrases
Navajo number
Family terms
Navajo sample texts
English to Navajo online dictionary
WWII "Windtalker" glossary
Star Wars in Navajo !
USA: Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah - Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) languages
- Possibly the largest Native American language in North America today, by number of speakers (ca 150 000). Closely related to both Western and Eastern Apache.
Nicola Valley language (Stuwix) Nicola Valley language (Stuwix) bibliography Canada: Similkameen Valley and Nicola Valley, British Columbia - Northern Athabaskan languages, Central British Columbian group
- Extinct. Possibly a dialect of Chilcotin.
Plains Apache
Plains Apache
Plains Apache language
N/A USA: central Oklahoma (predominantly) Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) languages
- Forms a subgroup of its own in the Apachean group. Extinct as a living language, might see revitalisation. Sometimes called Kiowa-Apache, but this is a misleading term, as it has no relation to the language of the Kiowa.
Sekani (Tsek'ehne, Sikanni)
Sekani language
The Sekani language
Sekani (Tsek'ehne, Sikanni) terms
Sekani (Tsek'ehne, Sikanni) bibliography
Canada: British Columbia Northern Athabaskan languages, Northwest Canadian group
Slavey language (northern form)
Hare Tribe language
Deline (Bear Lake) language
Mountain Dene (Mackenzie, Tulita) language
North Slavey language and its dialects
The Slavey languages
Slavey languages bibliography Canada: Northwest Territories Northern Athabaskan languages, Northwest Canadian group, Slavey subgroup
Slavey language (southern form)
Slavey (Dene Tha, Hare, Slave)
South Slavey language and its dialects
The Slavey languages
Slavey languages bibliography Canada: Northwest Territories, Northern Athabaskan languages, Northwest Canadian group, Slavey subgroup
Tagish
Tagish language
The Tagish language
Tagish bibliography Canada: Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory Northern Athabaskan languages, Northwest Canadian group, Kaskan (Central Cordillera) subgroup
Tahltan
Tahltan language
The Tahltan Language
Tahltan bibliography Canada: British Columbia Northern Athabaskan languages, Northwest Canadian group, Kaskan (Central Cordillera) subgroup
Tanacross
Tanacross language
N/A USA: middle Tanana River, Alaska - Northern Athabaskan languages, Central Alaska-Yukon group
- A relative of Tanana (see below).
Tanana
Tanana language
Tanana terms USA: Alaska
Canada: Yukon Territory
- Northern Athabaskan languages, Central Alaska-Yukon group
- Has two major dialects (or forms): Upper Tanana (Nebesna), Lower Tanana (Minto)
Tanaina (Dena'ina, Kenaitze)
Dena’ina (Tanaina) language
N/A USA: Cook Inlet region, Lake Clark, Lake Iliamna, Alaska Northern Athabaskan languages, Southern Alaskan group
Tlingit (Lingít, Łingít)
Tlingit
Tlingit (Lingit) language
The Tlingit language
Tlingit terms
Tlingit numbers
Tlingit alphabet
Tlingit bibliography
USA: Alaska, Washington state
Canada: British Columbia, Yukon Territory
- Na-Dene languages
- Generally classified in its own group within the Na-Dené languages. Along with Eyak and Haida, it is not within the family's Athabascan group.
Tłı̨chǫ (Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì, Dogrib)
Dogrib Language (Tlicho, Tli cho Dinne, Thlingchadine)
Dogrib language (Tłı̨chǫ, Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì)
Tłı̨chǫ (Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì, Dogrib) terms
Tłı̨chǫ numbers
Tłı̨chǫ sample texts
Canada: Northwest Territories Northern Athabaskan languages, Northwest Canadian group
Tolowa (Taa-laa-wa Dee-niʼ Wee-yaʼ)
Tolowa (Hawuwut)
Tolowa (Siletz Dee-ni) language
Tolowa
Tolowa terms
Tolowa numbers
Tolowa resources and audio recordings
USA: southwest Oregon - Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages, Oregonian group
- Chetco is a variant of the language. It's often called Chetco-Tolowa.
Tsetsaut (Ts'ets'aut)
Tsetsaut language
The Tsetsaut language
Tsetsaut bibliography Canada: northern British Columbia - Northern Athabaskan languages
- Extinct.
Tsúùt’ínà (Sarcee)
Sarcee Language (Tsuu T'ina, Sarsi)
Tsuut'ina language (Sarcee, Sarsi)
Tsúùt’ínà (Sarcee) terms
Tsúùt’ínà (Sarcee) numbers
Canada: Alberta Northern Athabaskan languages
Tutchone (Dän k'í / Dän k'è)
Tutchone (Selkirk) language
Tutchone language
N/A Canada: Yukon Territory Northern Athabaskan languages, Central Alaska-Yukon group
Tututni (Rogue River Athapaskan, Mishikhwutmetunne, Coquille)
Tututni (Dotodəni) language
Tututni terms USA: Oregon - Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages, Oregonian group
- Extinct (in the early 1980s), but there is a revival project. Major dialects include: Coquille, Tututni (proper), Euchre Creek and Chasta Costa.
Umpqua (Upper Umpqua, Etnemitane)
Upper_Umpqua_language
USA: Umpqua Valley, Oregon - Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages, Oregonian group
- Extinct in the 1950s.
Upper Kuskokwim Language (Kolchan, Goltsan, McGrath)
Upper Kuskokwim language
N/A USA: middle Yukon River, Koyukuk River, Alaska Northern Athabaskan languages, Central Alaska-Yukon group
Wailaki (Sinkyone, Lassik, Nongatl, Eel River Athabaskan)
Wailaki (Eel River) language
Eel River Athabaskan (Nongatl, Sinkyone, Lassik, Wailaki)
Wailaki terms
Wailaki resources and audio recordings
Sinkyone resources and audio recordings
Lassik resources and audio recordings
Nongatl resources and audio recordings
USA: Eel River, California - Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages, Californian group
- Extinct. Its dialects were those of the Sinkyone, Wailaki, Nongatl, and Lassik tribes.
Iroquoian languages
(Swadesh list 1
Swadesh list 2)
Cayuga (Goyogo̱hó:nǫ’)
Cayuga language
Cayuga language
Cayuga terms
Cayuga numbers
Canada: Ontario
USA: New York state
Northern Iroquoian languages, Lake Iroquoian group, Seneca-Onondaga subgroup
Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ / Tsalagi)
Cherokee (Tsalagi)
Cherokee (Tsalagi Gawonihisdi) language
Cheroke phrases
Cherokee terms
Cherokee numbers
English to Cherokee online dictionary
Other language materials
USA: Great Smoky Mountains and Qualla Boundary, North Carolina, east Oklahoma, Arkansas a community in California Southern Iroquoian languages
Erie Iroquois
Erie people
language_help_-_native_american_languages USA: western New York state, northwestern Pennsylvania, and northern Ohio (17th century) Northern Iroquoian languages, Huronian group
Laurentian (St. Lawrence River Iroquois, Stadaconan)
Laurentian language
Laurentian terms Canada: along the Saint Lawrence River, Quebec, Ontario (16th century) Northern Iroquoian languages, otherwise unclear classification
Mohawk (Kanien'keha)
Mohawk (Kanienkehaka)
Mohawk language
Mohawk terms
Mohawk numbers
Mohawk sample texts
Other Mohawk language resources
Canada: Ontario, Quebec
USA: northern New York state
Northern Iroquoian languages, Lake Iroquoian group, Mohawk-Oneida subgroup
Nottoway
Nottoway language
Nottoway terms USA: Virginia - Northern Iroquoian languages, Central Iroquoian group
Extinct by ca 1838.
Oneida (Onʌyotaʼa:ka)
Oneida
Oneida language
Oneida numbers and terms
Oneida color terms
Oneida animal terms
Oneida body part terms
Canada: Ontario
USA: Green Bay, Wisconsin, central New York state
Northern Iroquoian languages, Lake Iroquoian group, Mohawk-Oneida subgroup
Onondaga (Onǫda’gegá’ / Onoñda’gegá’)
Onondaga
Onondaga language
Onondaga terms
Onondaga audio recording
Canada: Ontario
USA: central New York state
Northern Iroquoian languages, Lake Iroquoian group, Seneca-Onondaga subgroup
Seneca (Onödowá'ga:')
Seneca
Seneca language
Seneca terms
Seneca numbers
Canada: Ontario
USA: western New York state
Northern Iroquoian languages, Lake Iroquoian group, Seneca-Onondaga subgroup
Susquehannock (Susquehanna)
Susquehannock (Conestoga)
Susquehannock terms USA: New York state, Pennsylvania, Maryland Northern Iroquoian languages, otherwise unclear classification
Tuscarora (Ska:rù:rę')
Tuscarora
Tuscarora language
Tuscarora terms Canada: southern Ontario
USA: northwestern New York state, eastern North Carolina
- Northern Iroquoian languages, Central Iroquoian group
- Few current native speakers.
Wendat (Waⁿdat)
Huron / Wyandot
Wyandot language
Wyandot terms
Wyandotte Language Lessons (non-profit license)
Canada: Quebec, Ontario
USA: northeastern Oklahoma
Northern Iroquoian languages, Huronian group
Isolates (languages with no clear connections to larger families) Adaizan (Tenánat Hadéyas)
Adai language
Adaizan phrases
Adai terms
Adaizan numbers
USA: northwestern Louisiana - Language isolate.
- Also known as Adaizan, Adaizi, Adaise, Adahi, Adaes, Adees, Atayos.
Cayuse (Waiilatpu)
Cayuse language
N/A USA: Oregon - Language isolate. Some have speculated it might belong to or be a relative of the Caddoan languages (Pawnee, Caddo, etc.).
Chimariko (Djimaliko)
Chimariko language
Chimariko
Chimariko (Djimaliko) terms
Chimariko resources and audio recordings
USA: California Probable language isolate, some put it under the hypothetical "Hokan" language family.
Chitimacha (Čitimaaša)
Chitimacha
Chitimacha language
Chitimacha (Čitimaaša) terms USA: southern Oklahoma - Language isolate. Some have proposed a relation to the hypothetical Totozoquean languages family.
- Extinct (since the 1940s).
Esselen
Esselen language
Esselen
Esselen terms
Esselen resources and audio recordings
USA: northern California Probable language isolate, some put it under the hypothetical "Hokan" language family.
Haida
Haida
Haida language
Haida numbers
Haida bibliography
Canada: Haida Gwaii archipelago, British Columbia
USA: Prince of Wales Island, Alaska
Generally classified in its own group within the Na-Dené languages. Along with Eyak and Tlingit, it is not within the family's Athabascan group. The relation of Haida to other Na-Dene languages is disputed, it might even be a partial isolate.
Karankawa
Karankawa language
Karankawa terms USA: coastal Texas (Galveston Island to Corpus Christi) - Unclassified, possibly an isolate.
- Extinct (in 1858), before classification could be undertaken.
Keres (Keresan, Queresan, Queres)
Keres language
Keres terms USA: New Mexico - Language isolate.
Kootenay (Kootenai, Kutenai, Ktunaxa)
Kutenai language
The Kootenay language
Kootenai (Ktunaxa) terms
Kootenai (Ktunaxa) bibliography
Canada: British Columbia
USA: Montana, Idaho
- Language isolate.
Natchez (Naacee)
Natchez
Natchez language
Natchez terms USA: Mississippi, Louisiana, Oklahoma - Language isolate.
- Extinct in the 1950s, ongoing revival attempt by the early 2010s.
Salinan
Salinan language
Salinan
Salinan terms
Salinan resources and audio recordings
USA: central coast California - Extinct. Two known dialects, Antoniaño and Migueleño.
- Language isolate, probably. In the past, speculated to be part of a Salinan-Seri languages group in the hypothetical "Hokan" language family, but this has not been confirmed.
Timucua
Timucua
N/A USA: northeast and north central Florida, southeast Georgia - Language isolate.
- Speculated by some researchers to be a distant relative of Muskogean, Arawakan and other language families, but none of this has been confirmed to date.
Tonkawa
Tonkawa language
USA: western Oklahoma, south-central Texas, New Mexico - Language isolate.
- Extinct (since the 1930s).
Tunica (Luhchi Yoroni)
Tunica language
Tunica numbers USA: central and lower Mississippi valley, central Louisiana - Language isolate.
- Extinct (since the late 1940s), but there is a successful revitalisation effort.
Washo (wá:šiw ʔítlu)
Washo (Washoe)
Washo language
Washo
Washo terms
Washo resources and audio recordings
USA: California, Nevada - Language isolate, some put it under the hypothetical "Hokan" language family.
- Endangered, but with revitalisation efforts.
Yana (Yahi)
Yana (Yanan) language
Yana
Yana (Yahi) terms
Yana (Yahi) resources and audio recordings
USA: northern and north-central California - Language isolate, some put it under the hypothetical "Hokan" language family.
- Extinct. Had four dialects: Northern Yana, Central Yana, Southern Yana and Yahi. A famous native Californian speaker of Yahi was Ishi, with whom the dialect died out in 1916.
Yuchi/Euchee (yUdjEha)
Yuchi (Euchee, Uchi, Yuchee, Tsoyaha)
Yuchi language
Yuchi terms USA: east central Oklahoma - Language isolate.
Zuni (Shiwi'ma, Zuñi)
Zuni (Shiwi, Ashiwi)
Zuni language
Zuni terms USA: Arizona, New Mexico - Language isolate.
Karok-Shasta languages (speculated to be part of the hypothetical "Hokan" family; "Hokan" family Swadesh list) Achumawi (Achomawi, Pit River Indians)
Achumawi language
Achumawi
Achumawi terms
Achumawi resources and audio recordings
USA: California Palaihnihan subgroup
Atsugewi (Hat Creek Tribe)
Atsugewi language
Atsugewi
Atsugewi terms
Atsugewi resources and audio recordings
USA: California - Palaihnihan subgroup
- Extinct (since late 1980s).
Karuk (araráhih)
Karuk (Karok)
Karuk language
Karuk
Karuk phrases
Karuk terms
Karuk numbers
Karuk Language Resources on the Web
Karuk dictionary
Karuk resources and audio recordings
USA: Klamath River area, northwest California - Karok subgroup
- Karok's closest related languages are Shasta and Chimariko. It is often classified as a member of the hypothetical "Hokan" language family's Karuk-Shasta group.
Konomihu language
Konomihu
Konomihu resources USA: Salmon River, northern California - Shastan languages subgroup
- Extinct.
New River Shasta language
New River Shasta
USA: Salmon River, northern California - Shastan languages subgroup
- Extinct.
Okwanuchu language
Okwanuchu
N/A USA: northern California - Shastan languages subgroup
- Extinct.
Shasta
Shasta language
Shasta
Shasta terms
Shasta resources and audio recordings
USA: northern California - Shastan languages subgroup. Shasta's closest related languages are Karuk and Chimariko. Often classified as a member of the hypothetical "Hokan" language family's Karuk-Shasta group.
- Extinct (by the end of the 20th century).
Kiowa-Tanoan languages (Swadesh list 1,
Swadesh list 2)
Kiowa
Kiowa language (Cáuijògà)
Kiowa terms USA: western Oklahoma Kiowa group
Tewa (Tano)
Tewa language
Article on Pueblo Languages (including Tewa)
Tewa terms
Preservation of Tewa stories
USA: New Mexico Tanoan group
Tiwa
Tiwa languages
Article on Pueblo Languages (including Towa)
English to Tiwa online dictionary USA: Arizona, Piro Pueblo, Taos Pueblo, Picuris Pueblo, New Mexico, Ysleta del Sur, El Paso, Texas - Tanoan group
- Several dialects or sublanguages: Piro (Piro Pueblo, New Mexico, extinct by the early 1900s), Taos (Taos Pueblo, New Mexico), Picuris (Picuris Pueblo, New Mexico), Southern Tiwa (Isleta Pueblo in New Mexico, Ysleta del Sur near El Paso, Texas), et al.
Towa (Jemez)
Jemez (Towa) language
Article on Pueblo Languages (including Towa)
N/A USA: New Mexico (Jemez Pueblo (Walatowa), historically also Pecos Pueblo) - Tanoan group
- Unique for not having any written form, as tribal rules forbid the practice.
Muskogean languages Acolapissa Choctaw terms (similar to Acolapissa) USA: Louisiana uncertain classification
Alabama (Albaamo innaaɬiilka)
Alabama
Alabama language (Alibamu)
Alabama terms USA: Oklahoma, Texas - Eastern Muskogean group, Apalachee–Alabama–Koasati subgroup (Haas classification)
- Northern Muskogean group (Munro classification)
- Central Muskogean group, Alabama-Koasati subgroup (Kimball classification) (Kimball classification)
Apalachee (Appalachee, Appalachi)
Apalachee language
Apalachee terms USA: Florida - Eastern Muskogean group, Apalachee–Alabama–Koasati subgroup (Haas classification)
- Southern Muskogean group, Southwestern Muskogean subgroup (Munro classification)
- The only Muskogean language (i.e. not dialect) known to be extinct (during the early 18th century).
Chickasaw (Chikasha)
Chickasaw (Chikasha, Chickasha)
Chickasaw language (Chikashshanompa, Chikashshanompa’)
Chickasaw (Chikasha, Chickasha) terms USA: (mainly south central) Oklahoma - Western Muskogean group (Haas classification)
- Southern Muskogean group, Southwestern Muskogean group, Western branch (Munro classification)
- Western Muskogean group (Kimball classification)
Choctaw (Chahta Anumpa)
Choctaw
Choctaw language (Chahta, Chacato)
Choctaw phrases
Choctaw terms
Choctaw numbers
Choctaw sample texts
USA: southeastern Oklahoma, east central Mississippi, Louisiana and Tennessee - Western Muskogean group (Haas classification)
- Southern Muskogean group, Southwestern Muskogean group, Western branch (Munro classification)
- Western Muskogean (Kimball classification)
Koasati (Kowassaati)
Koasati
Koasati language (Coushatta)
Koasati terms
Koasati numbers
USA: Louisiana, Texas - Eastern Muskogean group, Apalachee–Alabama–Koasati subgroup (Haas classification)
- Southern Muskogean group, Southwestern Muskogean subgroup, Alabama–Koasati branch (Munro classification)
- Central Muskogean group, Alabama-Koasati subgroup (Kimball classification)
Mikasuki
Miccosukee (Mikasuki, Hitchiti)
Hitchiti
Mikasuki language (Miccosukee, Mikisúkî, Hitchiti-Mikasuki)
Mikasuki (Miccosukee) terms
Hitchiti terms
USA: Georgia, southern Florida - Eastern Muskogean (Haas classification)
- Southern Muskogean (Munro classification)
- Central Muskogean (Kimball classification)
Mvskoke (Creek)
Muskogee (Creek, Seminole)
Muscogee language (Mvskoke, Creek, Seminole, Maskókî, Muskogee, Maskoke)
Muskogee (Creek, Seminole) terms
Mvskoke (Creek) numbers
USA: east central Oklahoma, south Alabama Creek, Florida - Eastern Muskogean group (Haas classification, Kimball classification)
- Northern Muskogean group (Munro classification)
Penutian languages (proposed/hypothetical language family; Swadesh list) Alsea (Yaquina, Yakona, Alcea, Alse)
Alsea_language
Alsea terms USA: along Yaquina Bay, Yaquina River, Oregon (Yaquina dialect)
along Alsea River and Yachats River, Oregon (Alsea dialect)
- Maritime Penutian group, Coast Oregon Penutian subgroup
- Two dialects, Yaquina and Alsea, both extinct in the 20th century.
Chico (Valley Maidu) language N/A USA: northern California - Inland Penutian group, Maiduan (Maidun, Pujunan) subgroup
- Extinct at some unknown date.
Chinook (Tsinúk)
Chinook (Coastal Chinook, Lower Chinook)
Lower Chinook
Chinook terms USA: mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon, Washington state - Maritime Penutian group, Chinookan subgroup
Dialects: Clatsop (Tlatsop), Shoalwater Bay dialect (Shoalwater, Chinook proper) and Chinook Jargon (see below).
Wasco-Wishram (Upper Chinook, Kiksht, Clackamas) Upper Chinook language (Kiksht, Columbia Chinook, Wasco-Wishram) Wishram terms USA: Columbia River, Oregon - Maritime Penutian group, Chinookan subgroup
- Extinct (by 2012), but there are revival efforts since the 2000s. Several dialects, all extinct: Watlalla (Watlala, Cascades Chinook dialect), Hood River dialect, White Salmon dialect, Wasco-Wishram dialect, Clackamas, Multnomah (Sauvie Island dialect), and the not mutually intelligible Kathlamet (Katlamat, Cathlamet).
Chinook Jargon (chinuk wawa)
Chinook Jargon (Tsinuk Wawa)
Chinook Jargon (Chinuk Wawa, Chinook Wawa, Chinook Lelang, Lelang)
Chinook Jargon
Chinook Jargon (Tsinuk Wawa) terms USA: Oregon, Washington - Maritime Penutian group, Chinookan subgroup
- Trade pidgin, developed from Chinook, English, French and the Nootka (Nuu-Chah-Nulth) language (from the Wakashan language family).
Coos (Coosan, Hanis, Miluk)
Coosan
N/A USA:
Coos Bay, Coos River, Oregon (Hanis dialect)
Coos Bay, lower Coquille River, Oregon (Miluk dialect)
- Maritime Penutian group, Coast Oregon Penutian subgroup
- Two dialects, Hanis and Miluk, both extinct in the 20th century.
Kathlamet (Katlamat, Cathlamet)
Kathlamet (Katlamat, Cathlamet)
Kathlamet terms (Katlamat, Cathlamet) USA: Washington state, Oregon - Maritime Penutian group, Chinookan subgroup
- Extinct (by the 1930s).
Klamath & Modoc (?ewksiknii & moowat'aakknii)
Klamath-Modoc
Klamath language (Klamath-Modoc)
Klamath-Modoc terms USA: southern Oregon and northern California Inland Penutian group, Plateau Penutian subgroup
Konkow language (Koyoomk'awi, Concow-Maidu, Northwestern Maidu)
Konkow
Konkow resources and audio recordings
Recording of Konkow
USA: California - Inland Penutian group, Maiduan (Maidun, Pujunan) subgroup
- Revival efforts ongoing.
Maidu (Maidun, Nisenan, Konkow)
Maidu (Northeastern Maidu, Mountain Maidu) language
Maidu
Maidu and Nisenan terms
Maidu resources and audio recordings
USA: California - Inland Penutian group, Maiduan (Maidun, Pujunan) subgroup
- Extinct as a first language since 2007, but there's an ongoing revival with hundreds of new speakers. Currently the only extant language of the Maiduan subgroup.
Molale (Molalla)
Molala (Molele, Molalla)
Molale (Molalla) terms USA: central Oregon and Washington state - Inland Penutian group, Plateau Penutian subgroup
- Extinct (by 1958).
Nez Percé (Nimi'ipuu, Nimipu)
Nez Perce (Nez Percé, Nezperce, Niimi'ipuutímt)
Nez Percé terms USA: Idaho Inland Penutian group, Plateau Penutian subgroup, Sahaptin branch
Nisenan language (Southern Maidu, Neeshenam, Nishinam, Pujuni, or Wapumni)
Nisenan
Maidu and Nisenan terms
Nisenan resources and audio recordings
USA: central California - Inland Penutian group, Maiduan (Maidun, Pujunan) subgroup
- Extinct as a first language, but there's a smaller revival, including detailed documentation.
Sahaptin (Shahaptin, Ichishkíin Sɨ́nwit) Sahaptin terms
Yakama dialect terms
USA: Washington state, Oregon, and Idaho - Inland Penutian group, Plateau Penutian subgroup, Sahaptin branch
- Several major dialects: Tenino (Warm Springs dialect, Celilo), Umatilla (Tamalúut), Walla Walla and Yakama (Yakima, Klickitat).
Siuslaw (Lower Umpqua)
Siuslaw language
USA:
Siuslaw River, Siltcoos Lake, Oregon (Siuslaw dialect)
Winchester Bay, lower Umpqua and Smith rivers, Oregon (Kuitsh dialect)
- Maritime Penutian group, Coast Oregon Penutian subgroup
- Two dialects, Siuslaw and Kuitsh.
Tsimshian (Sm’algya̲x)
Coast Tsimshian (Sm'algyax)
Coast Tsimshian dialect (Sm'álgyax)
The Coast Tsimshian language
Coast Tsimshian (Sm'algyax) terms
Coast Tsimshian (Sm’algya̲x) numbers
Coast Tsimshian bibliography
Canada: northwest British Columbia
USA: southeast Alaska
- Maritime Penutian group, Tsimshianic subgroup
- The extant dialect of the two dialects of the Tsimshian language, the other being the recently extinct Southern Tsimshian (Sgüüx̣s, Ski:xs).
Southern Tsimshian (Sgüüx̣s, Ski:xs, Old Klemtu)
The South Tsimshian language
South Tsimshian bibliography Canada: northwest British Columbia - Maritime Penutian group, Tsimshianic subgroup
- The extinct dialect of the two dialects of the Tsimshian language, the other being the extant Coast Tsimshian (Sm'algyax).
Nisga’a (Nisg̱a’a)
Gitxsan-Nisga'a (Nass-Gitksan)
Nisga'a language
The Nisga'a language
Nisga'a bibliography Canada: northwest British Columbia - Maritime Penutian group, Tsimshianic subgroup
- One of the two dialects of the Nass–Gitksan group, both extant. Also known as Nass, Nisgha, Nisg̱a’a, Nishka, Niska, Nishga, Nisqa’a. (Warning: Do not use the Nisga'a dictionary link at n-l.org, it seems busted/compromised.)
Gitxsan (Gitksanimx̱ / Gitx̱sanimx̱ / Gitx̱senimx̱)
Gitxsan-Nisga'a (Nass-Gitksan)
Gitxsan language
The Gitksan language
Gitksan bibliography Canada: Skeena region, British Columbia - Maritime Penutian group, Tsimshianic subgroup
- One of the two dialects of the Nass–Gitksan group, both extant. Also known as Gitxsanimaax, Gitksan, Giatikshan, Gityskyan, Giklsan.
Pomoan languages (speculated to be part of the hypothetical "Hokan" family; "Hokan" family Swadesh list) Central Pomo
Central Pomo
Central Pomo language
Central Pomo
Pomo terms (Central, Eastern and Northern Pomo)
Central Pomo numbers
Central Pomo resources and audio recordings
USA: northern California - Western Pomo group, Southern subgroup
- Extinct (by 2016), but there is a transcription project since the early 2010s. Might be followed up by a revival.
Eastern Pomo (Bahtssal)
Eastern Pomo
Eastern Pomo language
Eastern Pomo
Pomo terms (Central, Eastern and Northern Pomo)
Eastern Pomo resources and audio recordings
USA: northern California Eastern Pomo group
Kashaya (Kʼahšá:ya)
Kashaya (Kashia, Southwestern Pomo)
Kashaya language (Southwestern Pomo, Kashia)
Kashaya
Kashaya terms
Kashaya resources and audio recordings
USA: Sonoma County, California - Western Pomo group, Southern subgroup
- One of only three currently extant Pomo languages, the other being Southeastern Pomo and Southern Pomo.
Northeastern Pomo
Northeastern Pomo language
Northeastern Pomo
Northeastern Pomo resources and audio recordings USA: northern California - Northeastern Pomo group
- Extinct (by 1961).
Northern Pomo
Northern Pomo
Northern Pomo language
Northern Pomo
Pomo terms (Central, Eastern and Northern Pomo)
Northern Pomo resources and audio recordings
USA: northern California - Western Pomo group, Northern subgroup
- Extinct.
Southeastern Pomo
Southeastern Pomo (Elem Pomo, Lower Lake Pomo)
Southeastern Pomo
Southeastern Pomo resources and audio recordings USA: northern California - Southeastern Pomo group
- Ongoing revival in the early 2010s. One of only three currently extant Pomo languages, the other being Kashaya (Southwestern Pomo) and Southern Pomo.
Southern Pomo
Southern Pomo
Southern Pomo language
Southern Pomo resources and audio recordings USA: northern California - Western Pomo group, Southern subgroup
- Extinct (almost no speakers remain as of the early 2010s), though still considered extant, along with Southeastern Pomo and Kashaya (Southwestern Pomo).
Salishan languages (Swadesh list
A Bibliography of Salish Linguistics)
Coeur d'Alene (Snchitsu'umshtsn)
Coeur d'Alene (Schitsu'Umsh, Skitswish)
Coeur d'Alene (Cœur d'Alène, snchitsu'umshtsn) language
Coeur d'Alene (Schitsu'Umsh, Skitswish) terms USA: northern Idaho Interior Salish group, Southern Interior subgroup
Columbian (Wenatchee)
Columbia-Moses (Columbia-Wenatchi, Nxaảmxcín) language
Columbia-Wenatchi terms USA: northern Idaho, eastern Washington state Interior Salish group, Southern Interior subgroup
Comox (Saɬuɬtxʷ / Salhulhtxw)
Comox (Sliammon, Salhulhtxw)
Comox language
The Comox/Sliamon language
Comox/Sliamon bibliography Canada: British Columbia Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup, North-Central branch
Cowlitz (Stl'pulimuhkl, Lower Cowlitz)
Cowlitz language
Cowlitz terms USA: southwestern Washington - Coast Salish group, Tsamosan subgroup, Maritime Tsamosan branch
- Extinct (by 1990). Close to Upper Chehalis (see below). There is no Upper Cowlitz language, as the Upper Cowlitz tribe spoke a different language altogether.
Halkomelem (Halq̓eméylem)
Halkomelem
Halkomelem (Halq̓eméylem, Hul̓q̓umín̓um̓, Hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓) language
The Halkomelem Language
Halkomelem terms
Halkomelem language lessons
Halkomelem bibliography
Canada: southwestern British Columbia
USA: northern Washington
Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup, South-Central branch
Klallam (Nəxʷsƛʼayʼəmúcən)
Klallam (Clallam, S'Klallam)
Klallam language (Clallam, Na'klallam, S'klallam, Nəxʷsƛ̓ay̓əmúcən)
The Klallam language
Klallam terms
Klallam bibliography
USA: Washington state Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup, South-Central and Straits branch
Lillooet (St'át'imcets, Stl'atl'imx)
Lillooet language (St’át’imcets)
The Lillooet language
Lillooet bibliography Canada: British Columbia Interior Salish group, Northern Interior subgroup
Lower Chehalis
Lower Chehalis language
Lower Chehalis terms USA: south of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington state - Coast Salish group, Tsamosan subgroup, Inland Tsamosan branch
- Extinct at some point in history, exact date unknown.
Lushootseed (dxʷləšúcid)
Lushootseed (Whulshootseed, Puget Sound Salish)
Lushootseed
Lushootseed terms Canada: southern British Columbia
USA: northern Washington
- Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup
- Also known as xʷəlšucid, dxʷləšúcid, Puget Salish, Puget Sound Salish or Skagit-Nisqually.
Nooksack
Nooksack (Lhéchalosem) language
Nooksack terms USA: Whatcom County, Washington state - Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup, South-Central branch
- Extinct (in the late 1980s), the revival project had its first new fluent speaker by 2010.
Northern Straits Salish (Samish, Lummi, Saanich)
North Straits Salish language
Saanich (SENĆOŦEN)
Straits Salish terms (in the Luumi, Saanich and Samish dialects) Canada: Vancouver Island, British Columbia
USA: Washington state
- Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup, South-Central and Straits branch
- Several dialects, only two with active speakers: Lummi (extinct), Saanich, Samish (extinct), Semiahmoo (SEMYOME, Tah-tu-lo) (extinct), T'sou-ke (Sooke) (extinct), Songhees
Nuxalk
Nuxalk (Bella Coola, Salmon River Salish)
Nuxalk (Bella Coola) language
The Nuxalk language
Nuxalk terms
Nuxalk bibliography
Canada: Bella Coola area, Central Coast region, British Columbia Bella Coola group
Okanagan (Nselxcin, Colville, Nespelem, Sanpoil)
Okanagan (Colville-Okanagan) language
The Okanagan/Colville language
Okanagan terms
Okanagan/Colville bibliography
USA: southern interior of British Columbia
USA: central-northern parts of Washington state
Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup, South-Central branch
Pentlatch (Qualicum)
Pentlatch language
The Pentlatch language
Pentlatch bibliography Canada: Vancouver Island, British Columbia - Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup, North-Central branch
- Extinct (by 1940), an though documented by Franz Boas, there is little research bibliography.
Quinault
Quinault language
Quinault terms USA: Olympic Peninsula, Washington state - Coast Salish group, Tsamosan subgroup, Inland Tsamosan branch
- Extinct at some point in the 20th century. A few native speakers still know some vocabulary.
Sechelt
Sechelt language
The Sechelt Language
Sechelt bibliography Canada: British Columbia Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup, North-Central branch
Shuswap (Secwepmec, Secwepemctsin)
Shuswap language (Secwepemctsín)
The Shuswap language (Secwepmectsín)
Shuswap bibliography Canada: central and southern interior of British Columbia Interior Salish group, Northern Interior subgroup
Spokane/Kalispel/Flathead Salish
Salish (Séliš)
Salish-Spokane-Kalispel language (Séliš, Montana Salish)
Spokane/Kalispel/Flathead Salish terms USA: Montana, Washington - Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup, South-Central branch
- Kalispel is also known as Pend d'oreille and Flathead is often called Salish proper. (So many names, LOL. :-D)
Squamish
Squamish language (Sḵwx̱wú7mesh sníchim)
The Squamish language
Squamish bibliography
Squamish language resources
Squamish resources (ortography)
Squamish resources (phonology)
Squamish sample texts
Canada: British Columbia Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup, South-Central branch
Tillamook
Tillamook language
Tillamook online dictionary
USA: northwestern Oregon - Coast Salish group
- Extinct (since the 1970s), Tillamok community members and researchers have created a 120 page dictionary.
Thompson River language (Nlaka'pamux)
Thompson language (Thompson River Salish, Nlaka'pamuctsin)
The Thompson language
Thompson River Salish (Nlaka'pamux) bibliography Canada: British Columbia
USA: Washington state
Interior Salish group, Northern Interior subgroup
Twana (Skokomish)
Twana language (təw'ánəxʷ, Skokomish)
Twana terms USA: east of the Puget Sound, Washington state Coast Salish group, Central Coast Salish subgroup
Upper Chehalis
Upper Chehalis language (Q̉ʷay̓áyiłq̉)
N/A USA: south of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington state - Coast Salish group, Tsamosan subgroup, Maritime Tsamosan branch
- Extinct (by 2001). Placed more closely to Cowlitz.
Siouan languages
(Swadesh list)
Assiniboine (Nakoda / Nakota) Assiniboine numbers Canada: southern Saskatchewan
USA: Montana
Western Siouan group, Mississippi Valley subgroup, Dakotan branch
Biloxi
Biloxi language
Biloxi terms USA: Mississippi, Louisiana - Western Siouan group, Ohio Valley subgroup, Mississippi Siouan branch
- Extinct (in the 1930s).
Catawba
Catawba (Katapa) language
Catawba (Katapa) terms USA: South Carolina - Eastern Siouan (Catawban) group
- Extinct (by the early 1960s), but there is a revival effort.
Chiwere (Iowa-Otoe-Missouri)
Chiwere language
Chiwere (Otoe) terms USA: Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas - Western Siouan group, Mississippi Valley subgroup, Chiwere–Winnebago branch
- Extinct (by 1996), with a revival effort. Its closest relative Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) is still spoken.
Crow (Apsáalooke)
Crow (Apsaaloke, Apsaroke, Absarokee)
Crow phrases
Crow terms
Crow numbers
USA: southern Montana Western Siouan group, Missouri River subgroup
Hidatsa (Hiraaciré’)
Hidatsa terms
Hidatsa terms
Hidatsa numbers
USA: North and South Dakota, Montana Western Siouan group, Missouri River subgroup
Ho-Chunk (Hocak, Hocąk, Winnebago)
Winnebago language
Ho-Chunk (Hocak) terms
Winnebago audio recording of flute song 1
Winnebago audio recording of flute song 2 (from this sound archive)
USA: Wisconsin, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Illinois and Minnesota - Western Siouan group, Mississippi Valley subgroup, Chiwere–Winnebago branch
- Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) is still extant, though with a smaller number of speakers, but its closest relative Chiwere (see above) is extinct.
Kaw (Kansa, Kanza)
Kansa language
Kaw (Kansa, Kanza) terms USA: Kansas, Oklahoma - Western Siouan group, Mississippi Valley subgroup, Dhegihan branch
- Extinct (by 1983), but there is a revival effort.
Mandan
Mandan language
Mandan terms USA: North Dakota Western Siouan group, Mandan subgroup
- Extinct as a first language very recently (2016), but there is an ongoing revival effort to generate new fluent speakers.
Ofo (Ofogoula, Ofoe)
Ofo language (or dialect)
Ofo terms USA: Mississippi - Western Siouan group, Ohio Valley subgroup, Mississippi Siouan branch
- Extinct at some point in the late 17th century, possibly due to tribal warfare. Seems to be a relative of Biloxi.
Omaha-Ponca (Cegiha, Dhegiha)
Omaha–Ponca language
Omaha-Ponca terms USA: Nebraska and Oklahoma Western Siouan group, Mississippi Valley subgroup, Dhegihan branch
Osage (Wazhazhe)
Osage (Wazhazhe ie) language
Osage (Wazhazhe) terms USA: Oklahoma - Western Siouan group, Mississippi Valley subgroup, Dhegihan branch
- Extinct (by 2005), but there is a revival effort. A new alphabet standard for the language (based on the Latin script) was devised in 2006 and is now available in Unicode.
Quapaw (Alkansea, Arkansas, Ogahpah, Kwapa)
Quapaw (Arkansas) language
Quapaw (Arkansas) terms USA: Oklahoma, Arkansas Western Siouan group, Mississippi Valley subgroup, Dhegihan branch
Sioux (Dakota, Lakota)
Sioux language
Lakota (Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) language
Dakota (Dakhótiyapi, Dakȟótiyapi) language
Lakota phrases
Lakota terms
Dakota sample texts
Sioux language resources
USA: northern Nebraska, southern Minnesota, North and South Dakota and northeastern Montana
parts of Canada
Western Siouan group, Mississippi Valley subgroup, Dakotan branch
Stoney (Nakoda)
Stoney (Nakota, Nakoda, Isga)
Stoney terms Canada: Alberta - Western Siouan group, Mississippi Valley subgroup, Dakotan branch
- Only major group of Siouan speakers wholly in Canadian territory.
Woccon
Woccon language
Woccon terms USA: North Carolina - Eastern Siouan (Catawban) group
- Extinct by the early 18th century. Only a small vocabulary of some 143 words survives, recorded in a printed publication from 1709. A factor in the language's early extinction was the conquest and assimilation of the Woccon by the Tuscarora.
Uto-Aztecan languages
(Swadesh list)
Comanche (nʉmʉ tekwapʉ̱)
Comanche (Numinu)
Comanche
Comanche words and phrases
Comanche terms
USA: Oklahoma, historically also Texas, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado Northern U-A languages, Central Numic division
Chemehuevi
Chemehuevi
Chemehuevi terms USA: Great Basin, western United States Northern U-A languages, Southern Numic division
Cupeño (Kupangaxwichem) Cupeño
Cupeño
Cupeño terms
Cupeño resources
USA: southern California - Northern U-A languages, Takic Cupan division
- Extinct
Hopi (Hopilàvayi)
Hopi
Hopi
Hopi terms
Hopi numbers
USA: northeastern Arizona Northern U-A languages
Ivilyuat (ʔívil̃uʔat / 'Ívillu'at)
Ivilyuat (Cahuilla / Iviatim)
Ivilyuat / Cahuilla
Cahuilla
Ivilyuat / Cahuilla terms
Ivilyuat / Cahuilla resources and audio recordings
USA: southern California (Coachella Valley, San Gorgonio Pass, San Jacinto Mountains) Northern U-A languages, Takic Cupan division
Kawaiisu (Nɨwɨ'abigidɨ / Nüwü'abigidü)
Kawaiisu (Tehachapi, Nuooah)
Kawaiisu
Kawaiisu
Kawaiisu terms
Kawaiisu resources and audio recordings
USA: southern Sierra Nevada range, California Northern U-A languages, Southern Numic division
Kitanemuk
Kitanemuk
Kitanemuk
N/A USA: southern California (San Gabriel Mountains and foothills) - Northern U-A languages, Takic Serran division
- Extinct
Luiseño (Cham'teela)
Luiseño (Cham'teela)
Luiseño
Luiseño
Luiseño (Cham'teela) terms
Luiseño resources and audio recordings
USA: southern California Northern U-A languages, Takic Cupan division
Mono
Mono (Monache)
Mono language
Mono
Mono (Monache) terms
Mono (Monache) resources and audio recordings
USA: central California Northern U-A languages, Western Numic division
Northern Paiute
Northern Paiute (Paviotso, Bannock)
Northern Paiute
Northern Paiute terms
Northern Paiute resources and audio recordings
USA: Nevada, California, Oregon, Idaho Northern U-A languages, Western Numic division
Oʼodham (Oʼodham ñiok)
Tohono O'odham (Papago) & Akimel O'odham (Pima)
Oʼodham
Oʼodham terms
Oʼodham numbers
USA: southern Arizona
Mexico: northern Sonora
Southern U-A languages, Tepiman division
Serrano (Maarrênga'twich)
Serrano
Serrano
Serrano
Serrano phrases
Serrano terms
Serrano resources and audio recordings
USA: southern California - Northern U-A languages, Takic Serran division
- Extinct
Shoshone (Sosoni' da̱i̱gwape) Shoshone USA: Nevada (Western Shoshone), Utah (Gosiute), southern Idaho and northern Utah (Northern Shoshone), Wyoming (Eastern Shoshone) Northern U-A languages, Central Numic division
Tataviam
Tataviam (Alliklik)
Tataviam resources USA: southern California Northern U-A languages, Takic division
Timbisha (Tümpisa) / Panamint / Koso
Timbisha / Panamint
Timbisha
Panamint
Timbisha / Panamint terms
Timbisha numbers
Timbisha / Panamint resources and audio recordings
USA: eastern California (Death Valley, Owens Valley) Northern U-A languages, Central Numic division
Tongva (Gabrieleño)
Gabrieleño (Kizh, Tongva)
Tongva
Gabrielino
Tongva (Gabrieleño) terms
Tongva numbers
Gabrielino (Tongva) resources
USA: southern California Northern U-A languages, Takic division
Tubatulabal
Tübatulabal
Tubatulabal
Tübatulabal terms
Tübatulabal resources and audio recordings
USA: Kern River, California - Northern U-A languages
- Extinct
Ute (Southern Paiute) Ute (Southern Paiute) terms USA: Utah, Nevada, Colorado and Arizona Northern U-A languages, Southern Numic division
Yaqui
Yaqui (Yoeme)
Yaqui terms
Yaqui numbers
English to Yaqui online dictionary
(also Sonora and Sinaloa in Mexico)
USA: Arizona
Southern U-A languages
Wakashan languages (Swadesh list) Ditidaht (diid̓iitidq)
Ditidaht language
Ditidat bibliography Canada: Vancouver Island, British Columbia Southern Wakashan group
Haisla (X̄a'’islak̓ala / X̌àh̓isl̩ak̓ala)
Haisla
Haisla language, (X̄a’islak̓ala, X̌àh̓isl̩ak̓ala)
The Haisla language
Haisla terms
Haisla bibliography
Canada: British Columbia Northern Wakashan group
Heiltsuk (Haiɫzaqvla)
Oowekyala (’Uik̓ala)
Heiltsuk (Bella Bella)
Heiltsuk-Oowekyala language
The Heiltsuk-Oweek'ala language
Heiltsuk language audio and school resources
Heiltsuk terms
Heiltsuk bibliography
Canada: Central Coast region, British Columbia - Northern Wakashan group
- The Heiltsuk-Oowekyala language is divided into the Heiltsuk dialect (Haíɫzaqv, Bella Bella and Haihais) and the Oowekyala dialect (Ooweekeeno, Wuikyala).
Kwak̓wala
Kwakiutl (Kwak'wala, Kwakwaka'wakw)
Kwak'wala language
The Kwakw'ala language
Kwakiutl terms
Kwakw'ala bibliography
Canada: Queen Charlotte Strait Northern Wakashan group
Makah (qʷi·qʷi·diččaq)
Makah
Makah language
Makah terms USA: northwestern corner of Olympic Peninsula, Washington state Southern Wakashan group
- Extinct in 2002, but survives as a second language and is undergoing a revival.
Nuu-Chah-Nulth (Nuučaan̓uł / T'aat'aaqsapa)
Nuu-Chah-Nulth (Nootka)
Nuu-chah-nulth language
Nuuchanulth language (Nootka)
Nootka terms
Nuu-Chah-Nulth (Nootka) bibliography
Canada: British Columbia Southern Wakashan group
Wintuan languages (speculated by some to be part of the Penutian family, but newer evidence suggests looser ties) Nomlaki
Nomlaki (Noamlakee, Central Wintu)
Nomlaki
Nomlaki terms
Nomlaki resources and audio recordings
USA: northern California - Northern Wintuan group
- Extinct at some point, but there is a partial speaker in the 2010s.
Patwin
Patwin language (Patween)
Patwin
Patwin terms
Patwin resources and audio recordings
USA: northern California (Colusa, Lake, Napa, Solano, and Yolo Counties) - Southern Wintuan group
- Extinct by around 2003, but there is a revival effort. This is the only currently extant Wintuan language. Three main dialects: River Patwin (Sacramento River, Colusa County), Hill Patwin (hills and plains in the lang's western range) and Southern Patwin (rather poorly documented).
Wintu (winthu:h)
Wintu (Wintun)
Wintu language (Wintu proper, Northern Wintu)
Wintu
Wintu terms
Wintu resources and audio recordings
USA: Shasta County, Trinity Country, California - Northern Wintuan group
- Extinct by around 2003, but there is a revival effort in progress since 2011.
Yuki-Wappo languages Wappo
Wappo language (Ashochimi)
Wappo terms USA: Alexander Valley, California - Extinct (by 1990).
- Initially thought to be a language isolate, it was placed along with Yuki into the Yuki-Wappo language family, due to them being distantly related.
Yuki
Yuki language (Ukiah, Ukomno'm)
Yuki terms USA: Eel River area, California - Extinct (in the 20th century).
- Initially thought to be a language isolate, it was placed along with Wappo into the Yuki-Wappo language family, due to them being distantly related.
Yuman-Cochimí languages (Y-C are speculated to be part of the hypothetical "Hokan" family; Swadesh list 1
Swadesh list 2)
Cocopah (Cocopah)
Cocopah language
Cocopah (Cocopah) terms USA: Arizona Core Yuman group, Delta-Californian subgroup
Havasupai-Yavapai-Hualapai language (Pai, Walapai)
Havasupai–Hualapai (Havasupai–Walapai) language
Havasupai terms USA: Arizona Core Yuman group, Pai (Upland Yuman) subgroup
- Two dialects, Havasupai and Hualapai (Walapai), spoken by the eponymous two tribes. Sometimes referred to collectivelly as the Pai language.
Kumeyaay (Diegueńo, Tipai, Kumiai)
Kumeyaay language
Kumeyaay
Kumeyaay terms
Kumeyaay resources and audio recordings
USA: California Core Yuman group, Delta-Californian subgroup
Maricopa
Maricopa (Piipaash)
Maricopa
Maricopa terms
Maricopa resources and audio recordings
USA: Arizona Core Yuman group, River Yuman subgroup
Mohave (Mojave)
Mojave (Mohave) language
Mojave
Mojave terms
Mojave resources and audio recordings
USA: California, Arizona Core Yuman group, River Yuman subgroup
Quechan/Yuma
Quechan (Kwtsaan, Yuma) language
Quechan
Quechan/Yuma terms
Quechan/Yuma resources and audio recordings
USA: California, Arizona - Core Yuman group, River Yuman subgroup
- Not to be confused with the Quechua languages of South America.

A few notes on some ambiguities of language family classification:
To date, the classification of some North American native language families has not been entirely closed. This counts especially for some of the native languages of the western and southern United States, and western Canada. Some language families, such as Hokan, Penutian, “Gulf” and others are currently considered “hypothetical” or “proposed” by the professional linguistic community. The language overviews provided in the table above reflect this unresolved nature of the research.

For example: Some language branches speculated to fit under Hokan are listed separately here, and the individual languages speculated to fit under Hokan are listed as language isolates. However, each of these entries includes a note that they are hypothesised to belong under “Hokan”. Whether Hokan is a concise interrelated language family still remains controversial among linguists, even after many decades of research, and our decision is to not present it as a language family until the issues are fully cleared up.

The “Penutian” language family is generally approached as less theoretically nebulous (when compared with Hokan), and though it has undergone revisions, is listed as a substantial language family (for simplicity's sake). The classification used for the Penutian family in this overview is based on the latest classification revision by Scott DeLancey (bear in mind there can be minor variations to this system, depending on the linguist). The “Gulf” languages are listed as isolates for now, as their relation to the proposed language family is still undergoing research and revision.


Central American (Mesoamerican) and Caribbean native cultures

English to Mayan (Yucatec) - A dictionary.

The Dictionary of the Taino language - Reliable, but may include a few goofs.

The following table lists links to articles on Central American and Caribbean native languages at Omniglot.com and Native-languages.org, including lists with useful phrases, downloadable materials and further useful and relevant links.

Language family Language or dialect Useful phrases Location Notes
Arawakan (Maipurean) languages Arawak
Arawak (Lokono, Arawaks)
Arawak
Arawak numbers Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana, Venezuela, historically Barbados ad others Northern Maipurean languages,
Caribbean Ta-Arawakan division
Asháninka / Ashéninka
Ashaninka (Asháninka, Campa)
Asháninka
N/A Peru and Brazil Southern Maipurean, Campa division
Garifuna (Garífuna)
Garifuna
Garifuna
Garifuna phrases
Garifuna numbers
Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Belize Northern Maipurean languages, Caribbean Inyeri division
Taíno syllabary
Taino
Taino
Taíno-Borikenaíki (Taínonaíki) - reconstructed Taíno Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas - Northern Maipurean languages, Caribbean Ta-Arawakan division
- Extinct, creole revival effort
Isolates (languages with no clear connections to larger families) Seri (Cmique, Comcaac)
Seri (cmiique iitom)
Seri terms Sonora, Mexico Language isolate, probably. In the past, speculated to be part of a Salinan-Seri languages group in the hypothetical “Hokan” language family, but this has not been confirmed.
Tequistlatecan languages (Swadesh list; speculated to be part of the hypothetical "Hokan" family) Highland Oaxaca Chontal
Highland Oaxaca Chontal (Chontal de la Sierra de Oaxaca, Slijuala xanuk)
Highland Oaxaca Chontal terms
Highland Oaxaca Chontal audio recordings (from this sound archive)
Mexico: Oaxaca state Extant.
Huamelultec (Lowland Oaxaca Chontal, Huamelua)
Huamelultec (Huamelula Chontal, Lowland Oaxaca Chontal)
N/A Mexico: Oaxaca state Extant.
Tequistlatec
Tequistlatec language
N/A Mexico: Oaxaca state Extinct.
Uto-Aztecan languages
(Swadesh list)
Cora
Cora (Corapan)
Cora
N/A Mexico: Nayarit, Jalisco and Durango Southern U-A languages, Corachol division
Guarijio (Varihio, Huarijio, Warihio)
Huarijio
N/A Mexico: northern Mexico (Sonora) Southern U-A languages, Taracahitic division
Huichol (Wixárika Niukiyari)
Huichol
Huichol
Huichol numbers Mexico: Jalisco, Nayarit, Zacatecas, Puebla, Durango Southern U-A languages, Corachol division
Mayo (Cahita) N/A Mexico: northern Mexico Southern U-A languages, Taracahitic division
Nahuatl (nāhuatl / nawatlahtolli)
Nahuatl (Aztec)
Nahuatl
Nahuatl phrases
Nahuatl numbers
Mexico: Puebla, Veracruz, Hildago, San Luis Potosi, Guerrero, Mexico, El Distrito Federal, Morelos, Tlaxcala, Oaxaca
El Salvador
Southern U-A languages, Aztecan division
Ópata (Teguima, Eudeve, Heve, Dohema)
Ópata (Eudeve, Heve, Teguima)
N/A Mexico: northern central Sonora - Southern U-A languages, Taracahitic division
- Extinct
Pipil (Nawat/Náhuat)
Pipil (Nawat)
Pipil
N/A El Salvador: Sonsonate department, Ahuachapán department Southern U-A languages, Aztecan division
Pima Bajo (O:b No'ok, Nevome) N/A Mexico: Sonora, Chihuahua Southern U-A languages, Tepiman division
Tarahumara
Tarahumara
N/A Mexico: Chihuahua Southern U-A languages, Taracahitic division
Tepehuán (O'otham)
Tepehuán
N/A Mexico: Chihuahua, Durango Southern U-A languages, Tepiman division
Tubar (probably related to Tarahumara) N/A Mexico: Chihuahua, Durango -Southern U-A languages
-Extinct
Yaqui
Yaqui (Yoeme)
Yaqui numbers Mexico: Sonora, Sinaloa
(also present in Arizona)
Southern U-A languages, Taracahitic division
Yuman-Cochimí languages (Y-C are speculated to be part of the hypothetical "Hokan" family; Swadesh list 1
Swadesh list 2)
Cochimi (Cochimí)
Cochimí language
Mexico: Baja California - Cochimí group
- Extinct.
Cocopah (Kwikapa)
Cocopah (Cocopah)
Cocopah language
Cocopah (Cocopah) terms Mexico: Sonora, northern Baja California Core Yuman group, Delta-Californian subgroup
Kiliwa (Kiliwi, Ko'lew)
Kiliwa language
Mexico: northern Baja California - Its own group within the Yuman languages.
- Very marginal, only 4 native speakers left as of 2018.
Kumeyaay (Diegueńo, Tipai, Kumiai)
Kumeyaay language
Kumeyaay terms Mexico: Baja California Core Yuman group, Delta-Californian subgroup
Paipai Language (Akwa'ala)
Paipai language
Mexico: northern Baja California, Core Yuman group, Pai (Upland Yuman) subgroup

South American native cultures

See Also

Natives - Useful resources on native cultures around the world, including Native American cultures.

Points of Divergence: Native Americans - A collection of PODs focusing on Native American cultures.

Other language help articles:
Period and dialect English | German | French | Italian | Latin | Russian | Other Slavic languages | Various European languages | African languages


resources/language_help_-_native_american_languages.txt · Last modified: 2018/10/01 13:31 by petike