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Islam is an Abrahamic faith related to Christianity and Judaism. It was founded in the 7th century by Mohammed/Muhammad and spread quickly, both through conquest and missionary activity. Today, it is the world's second most followed religion.
This page lists links to discussions about various potential points of divergence in the religion's history - some more plausible, some more far-fetched, but all of them interesting options for alternate developments of Islam and its interaction with other religions and predominantly non-Muslim OTL cultures.