Human beings need to consume food and water on a regular basis, and gathering a sufficient food supply has been a great concern (but also a kickstarter of innovation) for virtually every society since the dawn of history. Among the greatest technological and societal revolutions of all time was the gradual invention of true agriculture, with fully domesticated plants and animals. It brought an end to the mostly nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle of human prehistory and gave birth to the earliest of known, settled civilizations.
Over the millennia, agriculture has further diversified and many crops that were once native to only one region of Earth have often become cosmopolitan and widespread thanks to the steady rise of global trade and geographic exploration. As an old saying goes, “An army marches on its stomach” - and therefore, even something as seemingly mundane as agriculture can massively affect the development of human civilization, even moreso than the usual idea of wars, battles, cunning diplomacy or ideological upheavals.