The former Kingdom of Bohemia (including the Margravate of Moravia and bits of Silesia), former part of the Habsburg Empire, Austria-Hungary and the various incarnations of Czechoslovakia. Became an independent country on the 1st of January 1993.
The historical lands of the country are Bohemia/Czechland (Čechy), Moravia (Morava) and southern/Czech Silesia (Slezsko). These are also divided into smaller historical regions. As with many European countries, the modern administrative divisions don't really mirror the historical ones (or only do so in minor ways).
This page could sure use an additional wity summary about the country and its history. (Feel free to write one !)