The 2008 AH.com Constitutional Convention was held from September 30, 2008 to November 19, 2008.
The idea to draft a constitution came about in the Crisis of 2008. Currently, AH.com lacks such a document, which is partly intentional due to the bad example Alternia set with their joke of a constitution and political system - the difference being that Alternia truly used it as method to run the site, whereas His Administratorness' Government holds no real power over the forums. When Acting President Midgard intervened to end the crisis, he made plans for such a convention to be part of his intervention. The idea received broad support by the AH.com politics public, who had been shocked by the events of the crisis. The new constitution was planned to codify many of the traditions and procedures used by His Administratorness' Government, thereby preventing anything like the Crisis of 2008 from happening again.
A Constitutional Committee was formed to prepare the Convention and place before it a first draft for a constitution. The Committee consisted of Acting President Midgard, Acting Prime Minister Douglas, Vice President Thande and Susano, Chairman of the Federalist Federation of Federalists.
The draft of the proposed constitution was presented to the Constitutional Convention on September 30, 2008, but There was immediate disagreement about various portions of the draft by members of the convention and the discussion stalled on October 10. On October 27, citing a lack of progress, Susano presented his own draft of the constitution.
Also on October 27, President Sargon voiced his growing concerns over the constitution and AH.com Politics in general: “I am very concerned that despite this being a role play, Ian won't be happy about this constitution, as he'll feel it not only reinforces our cliquishness, but also could cause a lot of arguments when members break it, and that could lead to flamesfests, nastiness and a bad atmosphere such as what happened at Alternia. Yes, I know they had a board constitution and not a government one, but nevertheless, I can see it causing many problems down the line, and I really don't want to see Ian having a go at us because of it.”
Sargon's fears were realized on October 29, when Ian the Admin stepped in: “You know, this whole thing is getting quite confusing. I don't like new members getting confused and thinking this isn't a roleplay (it's not obvious). Someone actually came to me once before to ask if you guys were really running things, who knows how many didn't. I would prefer a disclaimer at the top of any “constitution” that it's roleplay and does not represent the actual administration of the site.” Afterwards, His Administratorness moved the Convention from Non-Political Chat to Shared Worlds. Initially, there was support for this move and several members requested a separate sub-forum for AH.com Politics, a request that was flatly denied by His Administratorness, who went on to state: “And actually, the whole thing should be in here, and not in the Roleplaying subforum, which is intended for people pretending to play specific roles. Hard-to-categorize stuff goes in more general forums.”
Shortly after, President Sargon spoke with His Administratorness, Ian and pleaded with him not to move the entire government to Shared Worlds, lest AH.com Politics be utterly destroyed by lack of traffic and interest. Ultimately, Ian relented, but only on the assurances that Sargon would do everything he could to make clear that His Administratorness' Government was only a roleplay and not affiliated with the actual administration of the forums.
Debate on the proposed constitution sporadically continued until November 19, when the Convention finally closed. One final draft proposal was published by Puget Sound on January 22, 2009, but was immediately rejected by members of His Administratorness' Government, with President Sargon stating:
“I know this has taken you a lot of work, and I do appreciate that you have gone to a lot of effort but we have agreed to not do anything Constitution related because of the threat of us being closed down. This is probably going to doom us to Shared Worlds after all the hard work I have done to try and persuade Ian otherwise.”
As of the 2009 Parliamentary term, there is no further interest in pursuing a constitution. Any mention of “the C-word” is quickly stifled.
1. Constitution and the Structure of Government
The AH.COM Constitution is the supreme law by which the AH.COM Government shall transact the business of governance. It supercedes any prior legislation, although it is specifically stated not to supercede admin decisions and actions, of which it is independent.
The purpose of AH.COM Government is to serve as an elected body of AH.COM members to deal with the matters pertaining to the site. It shall also serve to provide a unified voice to the site members, and as a moderating force in the site politics.
The AH.COM Government shall be separated in three primary branches. The legislative branch (the Parliament and the Landsraad) shall be responsible for the introduction and the ratification of laws, rules, and regulations. The executive branch (the Presidency) shall be responsible for the enactment of laws and resolutions of the legislative. The judiciary branch (the Supreme Court and the High Court) shall be responsible respectively for ensuring any legislation and government decisions maintain the spirit of the law, and for conflict arbitration and resolution.
2. The Legislative Branch
The legislative branch shall be composed of two entities, the Parliament of 15 members elected for the term of one year, and the Landsraad of 5 members elected for the term of one year. The Parliament shall be responsible for the introduction and the ratification of legislation, as well as approval of amendments to the Constitution, approval of economic decisions, and major policy decisions. The Landsraad shall have the power of introducing legislation for the Parliament approval, and placement of veto on Parliamentary resolutions and legislation by at least 80% vote.
The Parliament shall be led by the Prime Minister, appointed by the Parliament and approved by the President. Landsraad shall have the power to veto the ratification of the Prime Minister by at least 80% vote.
The Prime Minister shall be the senior member of the Parliament, with the power to call the Parliament in session, announce inactive members, create, regulate, and disband Parliamentary Commissions, and act as a spokesperson for the Parliament.
The Parliament has the power to call for resignation of the President or a justice of the Supreme Court by at least 2/3rds Vote of No Confidence. Should such a vote pass, it will require at least 80% vote of the Landsraad to become binding.
The Landsraad shall be led by the Speaker of the Landsraad, selected by the members of the Landsraad by the majority vote and approved by the President. The Speaker shall act as a spokesperson for the Landsraad.
As a part of the legislative process, new bills have to be introduced to the Parliament by a Member of Parliament or a Peer of the Landsraad. Any bill introduced to the Parliament in such manner must be seconded by another Member of Parliament or Landsraad Peer. A bill requires the majority of the quorum of the Parliament to approve it, at which point it is given to the Landsraad for 24-hour review process. Should Landsraad voice no objections within 24 hours of receipt of legislation, the bill is sent to the President for signature. Once the President signs the bill, it becomes law.
3. The Executive Branch
The executive branch shall be headed by the President, elected by the popular vote for the term of one year. The President cannot be a member of any other branch of government, and shall resign from any other government position upon being sworn in.
The President shall have the power to veto the Parliamentary legislation and resolutions, which can be overruled by at least 2/3rds of the Parliament AND a majority of the Landsraad.
The President is the Commander-In-Chief of the AH.COM Military, and is permitted to initiate military action with the approval of at least 2/3rds of the Parliament and the majority of the Landsraad. The President is allowed to appoint ministers to assist with the performance of executive duties. Each ministerial appointment and the creation of new ministerial positions is subject to approval of majority of the Parliament. The President is able to appoint any number of Presidential advisors who shall serve as advisory body only.
The President has the power to declare Martial Law for the duration of no more than 30 days for the purpose of resolving extraordinary circumstances, during which the normal Constitutional order is suspended. The Martial Law can be lifted by direct Presidential order before the 30 day term, and it expires automatically on the end of the 30th day from it being declared. A President is allowed to declare Martial Law once over the course of his/her term.
A President shall be limited to no more than two full consequtive terms. A “full” term is defined as that lasting for at least 1/2 of the calendar year or more.
3a. Presidential Succession
In the event the President resigns the position, or is impeached, the Senior Vice President becomes President, with full powers and responsibilities thereof. The next in line of succession is the Junior Vice President (providing we decide that such position exists), followed by the Speaker of the Landsraad, then Prime Minister, then Majority Leader of the Parliament.
In the event the President is unable to perform his/her official duties over the course of the term, the line of succession is followed as above, however, instead of a replacement President, an Acting President is appointed with all powers and responsibilities of the Presidency, until such time as the President is fit to resume his or her duties. In order to resume Presidency from the Acting President, the President has to make an offician announcement stating so.
4. The Judiciary Branch
The judiciary branch shall be composed of two Courts. The Supreme Court shall consist of five justices, selected for the term of one year, and shall be responsible for the adherence of legislation, executive decisions, and judicial rulings to the Constitution. A Supreme Court majority decision shall be the definite word as to the constitutionality of any legislation and executive actions.
The High Court shall consist of three justices, selected for the term of one year, and shall be responsible for the resolution of dispute, and judicial matters not pertaining to the constitutional law. A majority decision of the High Court shall be required for the appropriate judgement.
5. Rights of the Citizens
The following rights are guaranteed by the AH.COM Constitution: right to assembly, right to free speech that does not infringe on others' rights, right to fair trial, right to vote and to stand for office. No citizen shall be deprived of these rights other than as a punishment for a crime committed, after a fair trial has been held.
6. Amendments to the Constitution
The Constitution can be amended to better serve the needs of the changing times. An Amendment must be proposed to the Parliament by the Member of Parliament or a Peer of the Landsraad. Upon 2/3rds approval from the Parliament, 80% approval from the Landsraad, and Presidential signature, the Amendment goes to the Supreme Court for review. Once the Supreme Court approves the Amendment, it becomes a part of the Constitution.
I. Purpose of the AH.com Constitution.
1. The Purpose of the AH.com Constitution is to provide a framework for the AH.com Political System. All AH.com affairs outside the AH.com Political System are not affected by this constitution.
2. The AH.com Constitution will regulate the rights of the AH.com citizens and the structure of the AH.com government. Any aspect of either field must be regulated by the constitution, and any change in either field must be reflected in the constitution.
3. The AH.Com Constitution is the highest law of the AH.com Political System. No ordinary law may be in contradiction of it.
4. Loyalty to the AH.com Constitution is ti trump any personal or ideological loyalty.
5. The AH.com Constitution may only be changed only with a 2/3 majority of Parliament, a simple majority of the Landsraad and consent by the President; or by a referendum that can be called in by either of those three bodies and a simple majority of the Landsraad.
II. Rights of the AH.Com Citizens within the Political System
6. Every AH.com member, as long as he or she is not banned or a sockpuppet, has the right to particpate in the AH.com Political System within the rules it provides.
7. Every AH.com member, as long as he or she is not banned or a sockpuppet, has the right to personal honour and dignity. Political discourse in the AH.com Political System may not violate it, and may not become slanderous or insulting.
8. Every AH.com member, as long as he or she is not banned or a sockpuppet, has the right to end his or her politcial activity at any time, and to try to start or resume it at any time.
III. Political Structure of AH.com
9. AH.com Government will be divided into the three classical spheres of Executive, Juidicative and Legislative. None of those spheres might usurp powers of any other sphere, except in an official state of emergency.
10. No particpant in the political system may sit in more than two of the four principial bodies, Cabinet, Parliament, Landsraad and the Courts.
11. The AH.com political system will incoprorate elements of democracy, aristocracy and monarchy.
12. The Executive of AH.com is formed by the Cabinet, consisting of the President, the Vice President, the Ministers and the Chancellor.
13. The President is elected in an open, free, equal and secret personal election.
14. The President names the Vice President and the Ministers. He or she can set up ministries as he sees fit within the limitations on the amount of ministers.
15. Every ministry needs to be headed by a minister. There may not be at any point any more ministers and hence ministries than members of the Landraad and the Courts taken together.
16. The President is the Commander in Chief of the AH.com Armed Forces, and can initiate military action at any time. A military action may not last longer than 30 days without a formal declaration of war, either against a state or a non-state entity.
17. A majority of both Houses, or a 2/3 majority of the Landsraad that is not vetoed by a 2/3 majority of Parliament, can order the President to stop military actions, or can tempoerarily suspend the Presidential power to initiate military actions for no more than 100 days.
18. In case of the President being absent from AH.com for a longer time, the Vice President may take over as Acting President.
Should both President and Vice President be absent from AH.com for a longer time, the Speaker of the Landsraad will become Acting President, in which case he or she has to appoint an Acting Speaker of the Landsraad for the time of his or her Acting Presidency.
If the President, the Vice President and the Speaker of the Landsraad all be absent for AH.com for a longer time, the Chancellor will become Acting President, in which case he or she has to appoint an Acting Chancellor for the time of his or her Acting Presidency.
19. Should the President for whatever reason permanently depart AH.com, the Vice President will become President with the consent of the Landsraad, and name a new Vice President. Should both the President and the Vice President for whatever reason permanently depart AH.com at the same time, the Speaker of the Landsraad will become President with the consent of the Landsraad, and name a new Vice President, while the Landsraad will elect a new Speaker. Should the President, the Vice President and the Speaker of the Landsraad for whatever reason all permanently depart AH.com at the same time, the Chancellor will become President with the consent of the Landsraad, and name a new Vice President, while the Landsraad will elect a new Speaker and Parliament will elect a new Chancellor.
20. Should Landsraad not consent to any successions as described in §15, new presidential elections have to be held within at most two months, and the Landsraad will elect a caretaker government for that period.
21. The President can be impeached by a 2/3 majority of Parliament and a simple majority of the Landsraad; or by a 2/3 majority of the Landsraad and a simple majority in Parliament; or by popular referendum and a simple majority of the Landsraad; or by a popular referendum with a 2/3 majority. In this case elections have to be held within at most two months, and the Landsraad will elect a caretaker government for that period.
IVa. The AH.com Territories
22. AH.com Territories are annexed by Presidential decree, which can be vetoed by a 2/3 majority in Parliament and a simple majority in the Landsraad, or a 2/3 majority in the Landsraad.
23. The Administrators of the AH.com Government shall be appointed by the President. They can be recalled and repalced at any time. The Adminsirtators in turn appoint their own government along the same lines the President appoints his ministers.
24. A 2/3 Majority in Parliament and a simple majority in the Landsraad, or a 2/3 majority of the Landsraad may impeach any Administrator or any Territorial Minister. An impeached person may not be appointed again for at least one year.
25. The Legislative of AH.com consists of Parliament as Lower House and the Landsraad as Upper House.
26. The Legislative can declare war, or ratify peace treaties with a simple majority in both houses, with no vetos allowed in this issue.
27. Parliament is the primary lawmaking body of AH.com. Laws are first introduced and voted upon here.
28. Members of Parliament are elected in a free, open and secret election using a system of proportional representation, in which the AH.com population votes for party lists.
29. Parties have to submit an ordered list of at least five people to the Election Leader in time before the election. If they fail to do so, they are barred from the election. As many list members will enter parliament as the party has won seats, starting with the uppermost list place and then going down. Only in case of the party having won more seats than having nominated people for their list are they allowed to nominate people for their seats immidatly after the election.
30. Parties are not allowed to alter their lists after the election, or after having filled up the list if having won more seats than their original list.
31. Parliament elects the Chancellor, who will function both as the Speaker of Parliament, leading its session, and also as Parliaments emmisary to the Executive, being a full member of Cabinet. Since hence he already is part of two institutions, Parliament and Cabinet, he may not be part of any more of the 4 institutions.
31a. Parliament can recall the Chancellor at any time using a constructive vote of non-confidence offering an alternative candidate. Such a vote must be introduced by a group of no less than a fifth of all Members of Parliament.
31b. As an exception to §30a, Parliament cannot recall the Chancellor if it has been determined that the President, Vice President and Speaker of the Landsraad are all absent or have all left AH.com.
32. The President can dissolve Parliament with the consent of a simple majority of the Landsraad. This can be vetoed by Parliament with a 2/3 majority, which can be overturned by a 2/3 majority in the Landsraad.
33. The Landsraad is the Upper House of the AH.com Political System. Its tasks are to represent the nobility, and to act as a check and balance against the other institutions.
34. The Five Peerages of AH.com each get a share of the Landsraad seats, upon which they will vote seperatedly. The Landsraad has 3 seats for the American peerage, 3 seats for the British peerage, 2 seats for the German peerage, 2 seats for the Chinese peerage and 1 seat for the Miscellanous peerage.
35. Every member of the nobility and only members of the nobility will have active and passing voting rights according to his or her peerage and title.
35a. If a person is a noble in several peerages, he or she can vote in all peerages he or she is listed in.
35b.In the election for Landsraad seats, votes will be weighted according to the highest title in the respective peerage the voter holds: Duke/Maharajah/Kung: 4 Landgrave/Margrave/Marquis/Emir/Hou: 3 Prince: 2 Count/Earl/Jarl/Po/Shi: 1 Nan: 0
35c. This vote weighting does not apply to votes in the Landsraad. Once elected, all members of the Landsraad have an equal vote weighting in the issues brought before the Landsraad.
35d. Elections will be open and non-secret to ensure all voters are members of the nobility.
35e. Elections will be personal. The nobles will vote directly for candidates, and the number of candidates appropriate to how many seats a peerage has with the most votes will enter the Landsraad.
35f. Elections must happen in all five peerages at the same time.
36. The definition of nobility is based on the official list of nobles maintained by the Earl Marshall and Lord Lyon of AH.com
37. The Landsraad elects the Speaker of the Landsraad, who will lead the sessions of the Landsraad.
37a. The Landsraad can recall the Speaker of the Landsraad at any time using a constructive vote of non-confidence offering an alternative candidate. Such a vote must be introduced by a group of at least three Members of the Landsraad.
37b. As an exception to §37a., the Landsraad cannot recall the Speaker of the Landsraad if it has been determined that both the President and the Vice President are absent or have all left AH.com.
38. The President can dissolve the Landsraad with the consent of a simple majority of the Parliament. This can be vetoed by the Landsraad with a 2/3 majority, which can be overturned by a 2/3 majority in Parliament, or with a 3/4 majority, which cannot be overturned.
Vc. The Lawmaking Process
39. Laws, Bills and other Acts can be introduced in Parliament, by either single Members of Parliament, groups of Members of Parliament or by the President.
40. The President can veto any measure taken by Parliament, this can be overturned by a 2/3 majority in either Parliament or the Landsraad, where it needs to be brought by at least three Members of the Landsraad.
41. If the President has consented to the measure, a group of at least three Members of the Landsraad can bring the measure to the Landsraad, where it can be overturned with simple majority, which Parliament can in turn overturn with a 2/3 majority. A 2/3 majority of the Landsraad to veto the measure cannot be overturned.
42. If an initiative manages to gain the signatures of at least 20 members of AH.com with at least 20 posts, the measure can be vetoed in a referendum. If it is, this veto cannot be overturned.
43. Alternatively, if an initiative manages it to gain the signatures of at least 20 members of AH.com with at least 20 posts, a law, bill or other measure may be voted on in a referendum. Both the President and the Landsraad can veto the measure, except if it got a 2/3 majority, and the Landsraad can overturn the President’s veto with a 2/3 majority.
VI. The Judiciary
44. The Judiciary of AH.com is compromised of the High Court and the Constitutional Court.
45. The task of the Constitutional Court of AH.com is to guard the Constitution. Any measure taken by any institution of AH.com, or any political process in the AH.com political system can be challenged for their constitutionality here. The Constitutional Court will then judge the case based upon the relevant passages of the Constitution.
46. The Constitutional Court is compromised of three members, one each named by the President, Parliament and the Landsraad.
47. Violations of common law passed by the AH.com political system are brought before the AH.com High Court, who will judge the issues based on those laws.
48. The High Court is compromised of three members, one each named by the President, Parliament and the Landsraad.
VII. State of Emergency
49. In times of crisis, a State of Emergency can be declared, during which all or parts of the constitution can be suspended.
50. A State of Emergency ends with a Presidential decree saying so, or automatically after 60 days.
51. At the end of a State of Emergency, an automatic, non-constructive vote of no confidence will be held in both Parliament and the Landsraad against the President, if it was the President who had declared the State of Emergency. A single majority in either House suffices in this case to impeach the President. In this case elections have to be held within at most two months, and the Landsraad will elect a caretaker government for that period. Should the President pass the vote of no confidence he may renew the State of Emergency if he deems it necessary, but again only for the maximum period of time.
52. During the State of Emergency, the Landsraad can impeach the President with a 3/4 majority. In this case, the Landsraad will elect a caretaker government for the remainder of the State of Emergency, and after its end, there will be automatically new elections for both the Presidential Office and the Landsraad. This cannot be done in a State of War.
53. The Landsraad can proclaim at any time a State of Emergency with a 3/4 majority, which Parliament can veto with a 2/3 majority. In this case the Landsraad will elect a Provisional President for the time of the State of Emergency. This cannot be done in a State of War.
54. At the end of a State of Emergency, a popular referendum of no confidence will be held against the Landsraad if it was the Landsraad who had declared the State of Emergency. Should the population vote against the Landsraad, the institution will be suspended for a whole year, after which there will be new Landsraad elections. Should it pass, there will immidatly be new Landsraad elections. In either case, there will also immidatly be new Presidential Elections.
55. In a State of Emergency, §17 and all regulations about overturning a presidential veto are automatically suspended. All other parts of the constitution must be suspended per decree by the President, or else the President can violate them even in a State of Emergency. All suspensions automatically end with the end of the State of Emergency. Sections VII and VIII cannot be suspended, neither in whole nor in parts.
56. Should the President in a State of Emergency suspend Subsection Vc, he can make laws by decree. Those laws are automatically ended once the State of Emergency is.
57. The President can in a State of Emergency change the composition of Parliament and the Courts if he suspends the relevant parts of the constitution first. Any such changes will automatically end once the State of Emergency is over. The President can never change the composition of the Landsraad.
58. The Constitution cannot be changed in a State of Emergency.
59. All laws, bills, acts and other measures made during a State of Emergency automatically end at the end of the State of Emergency.
60. In the case of a State of War being in place, President can with the consent of a simple majority in Parliament and a 2/3 consent in the Landsraad declare a State of Emergency that will last as long as the State of War, as an exception to §45.
VIII. Passing the Constitution, Introduction of the Constitution, Transformation Time
61. The Constitution must be passed by a simple majority in the Constitutional Convention and a simple majority in a popular referendum.
62. Once the Constitution is passed, the State of Emergency will be ended, and Parliament reinstituted in its latest form.
63. Once the Constitution is passed, there will immidiatly be Landsraad Elections. Three months later there will be Parliament Elections, and yet three months later there will be Presidential Elections. This will set the new election cycles. During this time, no impeachment of the President and no dissolution of either Parliament or the Landsraad may happen.
Article 1; Rights Inviolable Regardless of Crisis, Emergency, or/and Status
1a.) A sentient being is defined as a being who is self-aware or/and will or has been self-aware in the past or future.
b.) No law, varying the compensation for the services of Parliament, shall take effect, until an election of Parliament shall have intervened.
c.) Parliament shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of sentient beings peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
b.) A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
d.) No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
e.) The right of sentient beings ple to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
f.) No sentient being shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any sentient being be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
g.) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him or her; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his or her favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his or her defense.
h.) In suits at common law, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
i.) Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. The death penalty is illegal.
j.) The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
k.) The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
l.) Freedom of movement throughout AH.com (excepting admin forums) is guaranteed to all members of AH.com. The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
m.) All members of AH.com have the right to vote in AH.com elections with one vote. The Parliament may pass regulations designed to ensure free and fair elections.
n.) All members of AH.com have the right to defend others from abuse without fear of retribution. No sentient being may be enslaved or forced to work.
o.) The Great Ian may override may part of this Constitution as he sees fit.
2a.) All sentient beings who are members of AH.com and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of AH.com and of the subforum(s) wherein they reside. No government under AH.com shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens or/and legal residents of AH.com or/and deprive any citizen of their citizenship; nor shall any government under the United States deprive any sentient being of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any sentient being within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
b.) This amendment shall not affect the interpretation of this Constitution in regards to abortion in the case of rape and or medical necessity. Also, the Great Ian may impower moderators to ban trolls and spammers, defined as accounts created primarily for the the purpose for spamming HA.com or/and trolling on the forums. Ian may also ban any member as He sees fit.
3.) Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by AH.com or by any subforum on account of sex; sexual identity or/and orientation; race and/or national origin; age; religious beliefs; health and/or mental status, including genetics; disability; and/or association with organizations.
4.) Unless otherwise provided in this Article, the rights of the people and legal residents of AH.com, as well as sentient beings, as enumerated by this Constitution shall not be rescinded, waived, reduced, or violated, regardless of any national or regional condition of crisis or emergency, be it declared by the AH.com government or any agent or organ thereof.
5.) No person shall, within AH.com, acting under the color of law or otherwise, deprive or reduce from any citizen or/and legal resident of AH.com, as well as sentient beings, the rights enumerated by this Constitution in violation of any Section of this Article or this Constitution, regardless of any national or regional condition of crisis or emergency, be it declared by the AH.com government or any agent or organ thereof.
6.) The Parliament shall have the power to enforce this Article with appropriate legislation.
Article 2; The Parliament
1.) The Parliament of AH.com shall be made up of a House of Representatives and a Senate. All bills must pass both Houses by majority vote to become law.
2a.) The House of Representatives shall be made up of 2 members elected from each subforum in Discussion and Off-Topic. All members of AH.com wishing to vote in elections must register as a citizen of a subforum (also known as a State). Members may only vote for House elections in that state. The House shall be elected with every general election. The Senate shall be made up of 10 members elected from all of AH.com, to be elected with every general election by all voters. General elections must be held at least once a year. Parliament may dissolve itself by majority vote at any time and hold a new general election.
b.) When vacancies happen in the Parliament, the Executive shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
c.)The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers. The Vice President shall preside over the Senate. The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of AH.com.
d.) The Parliament shall meet continuously, after during a general election.
3.) Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide. All members of AH.com have the right to run for Parliament.
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member.
Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
4.) Impeachment of any official shall be done by three-fourths vote by both Houses in separate votes in a joint session, presided over by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
5.) The Parliament shall have power to provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of AH.com;
To regulate Commerce with foreign websites, and among the several subforums; and to establish governments for the subforums;
To fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;
To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
To constitute Tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;
To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
To provide and maintain a Navy;
To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of AH.com, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Parliament, and;
To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of AH.com, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
6.) Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of AH.com; If he or she approves he or she shall sign it, but if not he or she shall return it, with his or her Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Parliament by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
Article 3; The Executive
1.) The executive Power shall be vested in a President of AH.com. He or she shall hold his or her Office during a term between General Elections, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected by all members voting. If any candidate shall fail to get at least half plus one of the vote, a runoff election between the top two candidates in votes shall take place. All members of AH.com have the right to run and vote for the offices of President, Vice-President, and Parliament.
2.) The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of AH.com, and of the Militia of the several subforums, when called into the actual Service of AH.com; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and h or shee shall have power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against AH.com, except in Cases of Impeachment.
He or she shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Parliament, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the members of Parliament in each house concur; and he or she shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Parliament, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other Officers of AH.com, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Parliament may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
3.) He or she shall from time to time give to the Parliament Information of the State of the Forum, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he or she shall judge necessary and expedient; he or she shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he or she shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of AH.com.
4.) The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of AH.com, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.
Article 3; The Judiciary
1.) The judicial Power of AH.com, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Parliament may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior.
2.) The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of AH.com, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which AH.com shall be a Party; to Controversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens of another State; between Citizens of different States; between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Parliament shall make.
3.) Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Parliament may by Law have directed.
4.) Treason against AH.com, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
The Parliament shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person so tainted. There shall be no corruption of blood and/or forfeiture for any crime.
Section 4; The Subforums
1.) Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each subforum to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other subforum. And the Parliament may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
2.) The Citizens of each subforum shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several subforums.
3.) A Person charged in any subforum with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the subforum from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the subforum having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
4.) The Parliament shall have power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to AH.com; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of AH.com, or of any particular subforum.
5.) AH.com shall guarantee to every subforum in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.
Section 5; Amendment
1.) The Parliament, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, to be approved by two-thirds of all voters voting in the next General Election.
Section 6; Misc.
1.) This Constitution, and the Laws of AH.com which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of AH.com, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every subforum shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any subforum to the Contrary notwithstanding.
2.) The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several subforum governments, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of AH.com and of the several subforums, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious, philosophical, and/or political Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under AH.com.
3.) All laws and acts of the old AH.com Parliament shall be valid under this Constitution, unless they violate this Constitution, in which the offending parts shall be invalid.
Section 7; Ratification
A majority of voters voting in favor in an election in which all AH.com members can vote in shall be sufficient for the ratification of this Constitution.