Yet Another Parliamentary America Part 1

Who would you vote for in the 1868 US Federal elections?

  • Republican Party

  • Radical Republicans

  • State's Rights Party

  • American Party (Know Nothings)

Results are only viewable after voting.
Rest Easy, Mr Lincoln
Rest Easy, Mr. Lincoln
“Almighty God willed me to lead this country through its darkest times, through a war between brothers and callous political division. Yet the hour has come for me to step down as leader of the Republican Party- for my lovely family and beloved wife have great need of me. I humbly thank the people of this great nation for entrusting me to lead them, and I hope that I have done an effective job- though God alone will determine that.”

- Abraham Lincoln, 4 June 1868

“President Lincoln not to lead party in upcoming election”
- Chicago Tribune, 5 June 1868

“Abraham Lincoln is a great man and we are all greatly saddened to hear news of his resignation. But the time is nigh for a new breed of Republicans to head to the fore, Republicans willing to heal the divisions with the Radicals, Republicans willing to go even farther in ensuring equality for men of all color or creed. That is why I am running for leader of the Republican Party.”
- Schuyler Colfax in a speech to Republican Members of Congress, 9 June 1868

“Schuyler Colfax chosen as Republican leader”
- Vermont Daily Transcript, June 22 1868

“If the establishment is willing to support our policies regarding freedmen and former rebels, then of course we will consider working with them.”
- Charles Sumner, leader of the Radical Republicans, 25 June 1868

“Sumner: Radical Republicans may consider working with Colfax”
- Boston Herald, 26 June 1868

“On this anniversary of our independence, I must strongly endorse Schuyler Colfax and the Republican Party as the forces of progress for this great nation.”

- Abraham Lincoln, 4 July 1868

“Former President James Bayard survives State’s Rights Party leadership review”
- Holt County Sentinel, 10 July 1868.

“Apparently, the Republicans and their breakaways- the Radicals- seem to be getting closer after well-known anti-southerner Schuyler Colfax won their leadership. You know what that means for you and I? It means Yankee troops standing by as our former slaves rape our daughters and slaughter our sons. Trust me, that cannot and will not happen!”
- James A. Bayard, leader of the State’s Rights Party in a speech to party members, 10 July 1868.

“Longtime Know Nothing Mass. MC Timothy Davis dies”
- Salem News, 15 July 1868.

“American Party leader Carl Schurz: We will win the Salem by-election”
- St. Louis Dispatch, 18 July 1868

“Equality and Liberty” promises Radical candidate in Salem by-election.
- Salem News, 29 July 1868

“Radical Republicans win Salem by-election, Know Nothings come in fourth place.”
- Salem News, 9 August 1868

“Of course the result in Massachusetts is disappointing, but the American Party will continue to fight for the rights of the native Americans against foreigners and businesses.”
- Carl Schurz, American (Know Nothing) leader, 11 August 1868.

“Radicals bullish after by-election win.”

- Pennsylvania Inquirer, 15 August 1868.

“The Republicans and Radicals would only do harm to the relations between the races. We merely wish for a good and godly covenant between North and South, but the Radicals want revenge and little else.”
- Former Confederate General Robert E. Lee in an interview, 31 August 1868.

- Independent Monitor, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 7 September 1868

“The chaos and violence in the former confederacy is downright unchristian. If my party, God willing, wins the upcoming election I can promise you that we will do more to keep order in the southern states.”
- Schuyler Colfax, 21 September 1868.

“My father always had a couple of rifles in the house and he carried a knife on him at all times. He would tell me and my siblings never to leave the house after dark and to hide if we saw one of them Klansmen come riding. It wasn’t safe to be black back then. Still ain't, in a way.”
- Agnes Honeywood, interview with the American Historical Society, 13 April 1953.

“Colored man accused of rape, lynched by mob.”
- Athens Banner-Herald, 26 September 1868.

“He deserved it.”
- State’s Rights party congressional candidate when asked if the man lynched in Georgia was innocent, 28 Septwmber, 1868.

“Are we just to stand by and watch as innocent freedmen are murdered by bloodthirsty southern mobs? Nay! I urge President Lincoln and the Republicans to mend fences with the Radicals so we can fight this ungodly hate without one limb tied behind our backs!”
- Horace Greeley, 3 October 1868.

“Radicals condemn the Klan. Pledge to ban the organization if elected.”
- New York Times, 8 October 1868.

“The Ku Klux Klan? The group founded by Nathan Bedford Forrest, right? Well, to me it seems like a gentlemanly association of southern men dedicated to upholding their way of life.”
- James A. Bayard, 14 October 1868.

“Outrage at Bayard’s comments!”
- Milwaukee Sentinel, 16 October 1868.

“Veterans of the Union! Vote Radical Republican!”
Harper's Weekly, 22 October 1868.

“A vote for State’s Rights is a vote for liberty!”
- Richmond Dispatch, 23 October 1868.

“Only Colfax and the Republicans can cure this nation's ailments!”
- State Journal-Register, 26 October 1868.

“Why vote Know Nothing? No one knows.”
- Hancock Jeffersonian, 28 October 1868.

“Either the Radicals or Republicans are a good choice, in my opinion.”
General Ulysses S. Grant, 2 November 1868.

“Voting begins nationwide!”
New York Herald, 3 November 1868.

“Freedmen and coloreds turn out in droves!”
- Atlanta Constitution, 3 November 1868.

“Warning signs for Republicans in New England; Radicals predict gains.”
- Harper’s Weekly, 3 November 1868

“Let the count begin!”
Hartford Courant, 3 November 1868.
Of Radicals and Republicans
Of Radicals and Republicans
“A Joyous Day! The Republicans Triumphant!”
- National Republican, 4 November 1868

“Republicans giddy, but counting remains unfinished”
- Harper’s Weekly, 4 November 1868

“Gains for State’s Rights across the South”
- Public Ledger, 5 November 1868

“Republicans lose seats state-wide”
- Boston Herald, 5 November 1868

“Suspected Klansman elected in Mississippi”
- Alexandria Gazette, 5 November 1868

“Republicans lose seats, maintain majority in Congress”
- New York Times, 5 November 1868.

“Republicans victorious! Let Us Have Peace!”
- Chicago Tribune, 5 November 1868.

“I humbly thank the good people of this country for making the right choice in this election. Us Republicans shall do our utmost to ensure equality and prosperity for all Americans.”
- Schuyler Colfax, outside his home in South Bend Indiana, 5 November 1868

“My congratulations to the Republican Party and Mr. Colfax in particular. Hopefully we can accomplish great things together.”
- Charles Sumner, 5 November 1868

“State’s Rights leader and former President James Bayard loses Delaware seat!”
- Delaware State Journal, 5 November 1868

“Prime Minister Disraeli congratulates Mr. Colfax”
- The Times, 6 November 1868

“After gaining only one seat, will the Know Nothings Survive?”
- New York Herald, 6 November 1868

“Although our party won a great many seats, I lost my own. I cannot in good conscience continue to fight for the southern people without a seat in congress. I resign from the leadership.”
- James A. Bayard, 7 November 1868

“State’s Rights leader Bayard resigns after losing seat”
- Weekly Perrysburg Journal, 8 November 1868

“I hope that my fellow southerners and former rebels will be willing to accept this election result and welcome Mr. Colfax as our likely new President.”
- Former Confederate General and Republican Member of Congress, James Longstreet, 13 November 1868

“Longstreet is not only a traitor to his race, but a traitor to his people and culture as well!”
- Nathan Bedford Forrest, 14 November 1868

“Indian savages routed by Civil War hero George Custer”
- Evening Telegraph, 27 November 1868

“We have a great many qualified and intelligent individuals to fill the cabinet with. Maybe a few Radicals as well."
- Senior Republican Hamilton Fish, 8 December 1868

“Lincolns celebrate last Christmas in White House”
- Stars and Stripes, 25 December 1868

“New Year, New President! Hooray for Colfax!”
- Watertown Republican, 1 January 1869

“New Congress inaugurated, elects Colfax as President”
- States and Union, 1 January 1869

“I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
- Schuyler Colfax, swearing the oath of office, 1 January 1869

“In this, the year of our lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, our nation stands proud and determined. We crushed the Confederate rebellion, kept the Union together, and ended the ungodly practice of slavery. But there is so much more work for us to do, and neither I nor my party can do it alone. Hence, I am hereby offering to work with my former friends in the Radical Republicans, so we can go forward together.”
- Schuyler Colfax, inaugural speech, 1 January 1869

“If President Colfax is willing to work with us, we are more than willing to work with him.”
- Deputy Radical leader Thaddeus Stevens, 2 January 1869

“Amos T. Akerman of Vermont picked to be first Attorney-General”
- Harper’s Weekly, 4 January 1869

“I am of the distinct opinion that Mr. Akerman will be an excellent head of the new Department of Justice. His determination for the rights of freedmen inspires us all.”
- Charles Sumner, 6 January 1869

“It appears that President Colfax is not the moderate his predecessor was. Perhaps he may seek to bring the Radicals back into the Republican fold.”
- Henry Jarvis Raymond, 10 January 1869
What became of the Democrats?
The Democrats were totally taken over by their "fire-eater" pro slavery wing ahead of the civil war and thus ceased to exist in the north by 1862.

In fact its actually quite remarkable how the Democrats survived the civil war irl.
The Fourteenth Amendment
The Fourteenth Amendment
“Radical Republicans draft Constitutional Amendment to protect freedmen voting rights”
- New York Post, 14 January 1869

“Us God-fearing Americans cannot stand by and simply look on as our colored brothers are denied the right to vote en masse. This new amendment would go to great lengths to protect that most cherished right of any Americans.”
- James M. Hinds, Radical MC for Little Rock, AR, 14 January 1869

“I do not think this new amendment will be conducive to either American democracy or American women in general. It demeans good, christian, women by granting protecting the voting rights of former slaves before your own wives and daughters!”
- Elizabeth Cady Stanton, notable suffragette, testifying before the Congressional Judiciary Committee, 20 January 1869

“Protests against congressman Hinds across Arkansas”
- Arkansas Gazette, 28 January 1869

“President Colfax supports Radical Amendment”
- New York Dispatch, 30 January 1869

“New Amendment will ban poll taxes and literacy tests”
- The Aegis and Intelligencer, 3 February 1869

“Hail Southern Men! Oppose this new, TYRANNICAl, Amendment!”
- Jackson Clarion-Ledger, 8 February 1869

“Ku Klux Klan: A Menace to Society”
- The National Republican, 10 February 1869

“Congress passes draft Amendment”
- State and Union, 25 February 1869

“I am very grateful to see Congress pass this glorious amendment and am keen to see the states will ratify the document soon.”
- Charles Sumner, Radical Republican leader, 26 February 1869

“No citizen should be denied the most basic right to vote because of his color or former condition of servitude.”
- President Schuyler Colfax, 28 February 1869

“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
“The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
“No state or municipal government may institute poll taxes or literacy tests as a prerequisite for voting.”

- The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Draft)

“Nevada first state to ratify Amendment”
- Carson Daily Appeal, 1 March 1869

“Radical congressman and Amendment draftee James Hinds killed”
- Arkansas Gazette, 21 March 1869

“Southern mobs celebrate ignoble murder of congressman”
- Vermont Daily Transcript, 23 March 1869

“The heinous killing of a great American, Member of Congress James Hinds, is a sign of the hate still omnipresent in the former confederacy. My department will vociferously prosecute the malicious criminals behind this murder, as well as support the administration’s policy of aggressive reconstruction.”
- Attorney-General Amos T. Akerman, 26 March 1869

“New Jersey Governor Joel Parker chosen as leader of State’s Rights Party”
- Mercer County News, 31 March 1869

“I humbly accept the mantle of leadership of this great party, especially in such dire times. Already, Republicans and their Radical friends seem keen on helping former slaves more than the average working-class, God-fearing, American. Only our party, the State’s Rights party, can fight this growing national malaise.”
- Joel Parker, leader of the State’s Rights Party, 1 April 1869

“12 states have ratified 14th Amendment, more to follow”
- Harper’s Weekly, 3 April 1869
Talks of a Merger
Talks of a Merger

“Republicans and Radicals All the Same”
- Post and Courier, 11 April 1869

“In these past few months, my administration has diligently worked to heal the wounds wrought by secession and civil war. In this godly and noble crusade I am grateful to be joined by my allies in the Radical leaders Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens.”
- President Schuyler Colfax, 19 April 1869

“Will the Radicals and Republicans Reunite?”
- Providence Journal, 25 April 1869

“I am sorry, but I remain committed to leading this party into the next election.”
- Carl Shcurz, Congressman from Missouri and leader of the American (Know Nothing) party, 29 April 1869

Small appetite for change among Know Nothings”
- St Louis Globe-Democrat, 30 April 1869

“Transcontinental Railroad completed! Golden spike driven!”
- San Francisco Examiner, 10 May 1869

“Law passed allowing blacks on DC juries”
- Stars And Stripes, 14 May 1869

“This new law goes a long way to correcting the historical injustices suffered by the black community here in the Capitol itself.”
- Benjamin Wade, Radical MC from Ohio, 16 May 1869

“Secretary of the Interior Jacob Dolson Cox resigns!”
- New York Times, 28 May 1869

“I have survived my country and my party faithfully for many years but I cannot in good conscience continue to serve in this cabinet while the President breaks bread and even talks of a merger with party rebels.”
- Former Interior Secretary Jacob Dolson Cox and Republican MC for Toledo West, Ohio, 28 May 1869

“Former Secretary Cox claims Republicans and Radicals talking of Merging”
- Pennsylvania Inquirer, 30 May 1869

“For the sake of my party leadership, I sincerely hope Mr Cox is being false. Many Radicals cannot fathom a unification with the disingenuous sellouts of the Republican Party.”
- Lyman Trumbull, Radical MC for Chicago Center, 31 May 1869

“Cincinnati Red Stockings founded as first base-ball team”
- Cincinnati Enquirer, 1 June 1869

“President Colfax and the Republican leadership have been staunch allies in Reconstruction and, though I am in no position to affirm or deny anything, we are considering all options with them.”
- Thaddeus Stevens, Radical Deputy leader, 3 June 1869

“What are Sumner and Stevens thinking about? Merging? With those foul and protectionist Republicans? Outrageous.”
- Benjamin Wade, Radical MC, 8 June 1869

“A unification of the Radical and Republican parties would do wonders not only for the American people, but also for businesses and freedmen alike. I support such an act vociferously.”
- Secretary of State and Republican MC Hamilton Fish, 10 June 1869

“Secretary of State first major Republican to endorse merger”
- New York Herald, 11 June 1869

“Damn the talk of a merger! There are far larger priorities at hand, like my proposed annexation of Santo Domingo.”
- President Schuyler Colfax, 19 June 1869

“Annoyed by merger talk, Colfax side steps”
- Harper’s Weekly, 20 June 1869

“What Annexation of the Dominican Republic Means for You”
- New York Times, 25 June 1869

“Annexation: Do Americans support it?”
- Hartford Courant, 27 June 1869

“The merger is still planned, am I wrong?”
- Charles Sumner, Radical leader, in private, 1 July 1869
Wait, Carl Schurz, a German-American who actually spoke against Know-Nothing-ism IOTL, became the leader of the American Party?
Yup, but he is brought as a child into America in 1830 and had a radically different upbringing as a mennonite in fact. Through in reality I just thought it was amusing to have someone with totally opposite personality as OTL. After all, this tl isn't supposed to be historically accurate it's supposed to be interesting.
Yup, but he is brought as a child into America in 1830 and had a radically different upbringing as a mennonite in fact. Through in reality I just thought it was amusing to have someone with totally opposite personality as OTL. After all, this tl isn't supposed to be historically accurate it's supposed to be interesting.
I agree.
Foreign Policy and Gold
Foreign Policy and Gold
“The United Kingdom built the CSS Alabama in British shipyards, selling to an illegal state to conduct heinous acts of piracy on behalf of the secessionist confederacy. The United States demands compensation from the British government.”
- Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, 3 July 1869

“America demands compensation for Alabama claim”
- The Times, 5 July 1869

“Bloody Americans.”
- British Foreign Minister Edward Henry Stanely, 15th Earl of Derby, 6 July 1869

“Fire destroyed Swedish town; 8,000 homeless”
- Evening Telegraph, 10 July 1869

“Administration dispatches former General Orville E. Babcock to Dominican Republic”
- The Plain Dealer, 11 July 1869

“General Babcock’s purpose in Santo Domingo is to ascertain public and governmental support for annexation as well as to evaluate the worth of the territory to the American people.”
- President Schuyler Colfax, 13 July 1869

“There is no fair or reasonable reason why the administration wishes to annex the Dominican Republic. Annexation would merely corrupt the United States with more people of different races, harming our societal as well as national well-being. The American Party remains strongly opposed to annexation and to imperialism as a whole.”
- Carl Schurz, Missouri MC and Know Nothing leader, 19 July 1869

“Americans divided on Santo Domingo Annexation”
- New York Tribune, 26 July 1869

“No, Mr President, I cannot support annexation. It would do little than diminish independent states in the region, such as Haiti. However, I will refrain from going public until our merger talks are completed.”
- Charles Sumner, Radical leader, 30 July 1869 (in private)
“Rebels massacred in Cuba”
- New York Times, 5 August 1869

“16 states ratify Fourteenth Amendment; Administration criticizes slow progress”
- Chicago Tribune, 13 August 1869

“The ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment is of dire importance not just to freedmen, but to all Americans as it ensures the right to vote for every American man, irrespective of race or class.”
- Hiram Revels, Republican MC, 20 August 1869

“Irish scientist killed by steam machine”
- Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 31 August 1869

“Assistant Treasury Secretary Daniel Butterfield purchases $1.5 million in Gold”
- Erie Times, 1 September 1869

“General Babcock returns from Santo Domingo”
- Boston Herald, 4 September 1869

“Babcock’s report eagerly awaited”
- Post and Courier, 6 September 1869

“Mr President, as your Secretary of the Treasury it is my responsibility to advise and assist you in all matters financial or economical. As it stands, it was recently brought to my attention that the current administration’s policy of selling gold to pay back our egregiously large national debt has been rather harmful to Western farmers. While this policy, developed during the Lincoln Administration, has no doubt helped us stave off default- it has put undue pressure on hard-working farmers in the west, lowering the price of crops, fodder, and the like. I would like to recommend that we release less gold for public purchase in the next few months, so as to ease the pain on Western farmers."
- Treasury Secretary and Republican MC George S. Boutwell, letter to President Colfax, 7 September 1869

“In the name of God, what did you do, General? You had no authority to negotiate a treaty of annexation! Damn it all, you put me in a terrible spot, sir. Secretary Fish, draft a treaty of your own. Annexation is preferred but I will not have it said that my emissary disobeyed orders.”
- President Colfax, 9 September 1869 (In Private)

"Administration releases less gold than expected for Brokerage"
- Associated Press, 10 September 1869

“No word from Administration on Annexation”
- Harper’s Weekly, 14 September 1869

“Gold prices climb higher; investors decry hoarders”
- New York Herald, 20 September 1869

“Panic in Gold Room! Price of Gold collapses!”
- New York Post, 24 September 1869

“Black Friday: Stock Trading Halts”
- New York Times, 24 September 1869

“Treasury Secretary hints at fowl play in Black Friday chaos”
- Stars and Stripes, 25 September 1869

“Stock prices drop 20 Percent”
- Brooklyn Evening Star, 1 October 1869

“The chaos of Black Friday took the administration aback. Few saw it coming, least of all Colfax and most of the cabinet save Secretary Boutwell. Though an undoubtedly brilliant economist, Boutwell soon found himself caught up amidst the chaos. He may not have known the real cause behind the crash, but he had a very good idea. Writing in his memoirs years later, he would say ‘Damn that slippery Gould! I should never have trusted him! Nor should I have trusted Butterfield for that manner either.’”
- Excerpt from Radical Reconstruction: The Administration of Schuyler Colfax, 1869-1877 by James Kilgore
Last edited:
Gould, Gold, and George Boutwell

“Black Friday: Release of $4 million in Gold caused Shock”
- New York Herald, 2 October 1869

“You released $4 Million in Gold? All at once? Fool! How could you do that? Why did you do that? And without my knowledge or consent?”
- President Schuyler Colfax to Secretary Boutwell, 3 October 1869 (In Private)

“Treasury Secretary George S. Boutwell Sacked”
- Minneapolis Tribune, 5 October 1869

“This sacking is completely unwarranted. I did what was necessary in the moment. The release of the gold caused the price to drop and resulted in a minor shock, yes, but had the price kept rising exponentially- it would have led to an economic crash of catastrophic proportions.”
- Former Treasury Secretary and Republican MC George S. Boutwell, 5 October 1869

“Brokerage firms go Bankrupt in Black Friday Aftermath”
- Syracuse Telegram and Courier, 8 October 1869

“The firing of George Boutwell brought temporary relief for Colfax and the administration, but it did not last. A vengeful Boutwell, angry that he had been scapegoated in the aftermath, took matters into his own hands.”
- Excerpt from Radical Reconstruction: The Administration of Schuyler Colfax, 1869-1877 by James Kilgore.

“Jay Gould, an associate of President Colfax, colluded with Assistant Treasury Secretary Daniel Butterfield, another companion of the President, to corner the gold market and reap a fortune by artificially forcing the price of gold higher after buying up millions of dollars worth of the precious mineral. It was through my quick thinking that we avoided a true financial apocalypse while the administration sat on its hands and did nothing.”
- Republican MC George Boutwell, 10 October 1869

“Presidential Associates caused Panic, Boutwell says”
- Daily Advertiser, 11 October 1869

“Butterfield denies Boutwell claims”
- Associated Press, 12 October 1869

“Let me put the matter to rest. I had no prior arrangement with Mr Jay Gould and in the case of Assistant Secretary Butterfield, he was appointed on the basis of his merit and nothing else, thank you.”
- President Schuyler Colfax, 14 October 1869

“Mr Gould allegedly plays cards with President often”
- Akron Beacon Journal, 15 October 1869

“Boston house becomes first with indoor plumbing”
- Boston Herald, 16 October 1869

“The Black Friday crash and the resulting Gould-Boutwell affair severely harmed the public standing of President Colfax and the administration in particular. Jay Gould, an associate and fellow cards player of President Colfax had helped convince him to appoint Daniel Butterfield to be Assistant Treasurer. Gould then used Butterfield’s name to purchase $1.5 million in gold at a low price while successfully lobbying both Butterfield and Secretary Boutwell to reduce the amount of gold the Federal government was releasing, thereby increasing the price. When this succeeded, it was only a matter of time until Gould could sell his cheaply-purchased gold at enormous profit. Of course, Boutwell eventually found out that he had been duped and the rest is history.”
- Excerpt from Scandal and Taint: Corruption in the late 19th Century by Miranda Biame

“Farmers hit hard by Black Friday chaos; Wheat, Corn prices collapse”
- Des Moines Register, 18 October 1869

“US government discreetly drafts Santo Domingo annexation treaty amidst Gould scandal”
- The Times, 19 October 1869

“Assistant Treasurer Butterfield allegedly ‘friend’ of Gould”
- Philadelphia Inquirer, 20 October 1869

“I ask you, what has gotten into this administration? Not only do senior cabinet members not consult their superior on major matters of public policy, but the President’s cards partners are picking cabinet members!”
- State’s Rights Party leader and New Jersey Governor Joel Parker, 22 October 1869

“Daniel Butterfield, Gould associate and Assistant Treasurer, resigns”
- Burlington Free Press, 23 October 1869

“Congress plans investigation of administration over Gould-Boutwell affair”
- State and Union, 24 October 1869

“Black Friday Chaos: Goods ready for export ‘still impossible’ to ship”
- New York Tribune, 25 October 1869

“On behalf of not only the American people, but also on behalf of congress and businesses, I will lead this congressional investigation into the scandal with diligence, patience, and tenacity. Mark my words, no stone will go unturned. You have my word.”
- Republican MC James A. Garfield, head of the investigation into administration misconduct of the Gould-Boutwell affair, 26 October 1869

“Oh, fret not, Mr President. Congressman Garfield is a good, solid, and loyal party man. You will have no problems from him, do not worry.”
- Republican MC Alphonso Taft to President Schuyler Colfax (In Private)

“A Republican congressman investigating a Republican President”
- Alexandria Gazette, 27 October 1869

“Is there no end to the mismanagement and misdirection of this government?”
- American Party leader Carl Schurz, 31 October 1869

“Stay silent? Stay silent? How in the name of almighty God himself can we stay silent while our President, our erstwhile ally, runs our country into the ground? Is this because you have still continued to push for a merger of the parties behind our backs?”
- Radical MC Henry Wilson to party leader Charles Sumner, 1 November 1869

“Garfield committee to go after Gould, Butterfield in Black Friday investigation”
- Richmond Times-Dispatch, 3 November 1869

“I am innocent! Entirely innocent!”
- Jay Gould, 4 November 1869

“Gould hires famed attorneys David Dudley Field, Albert Cardozo for defense”
- New York Herald, 6 November 1869

“In aftermath of Black Friday, markets skittish but stable”
- Herald Standard, 9 November 1869