What if there was a Buddhist Rebellion, either in Ming or Qing China, which was on the scale of the Taiping Rebellion? What would be the effects on China? What would be the effects on Chinese Buddhism? Ming scenario: Ming persecution of Buddhism in favor of Confucianism leads to a backlash by lay Buddhists, and when Ming authority starts crumbling, a charismatic Buddhist leader declares revolution. Qing scenario: Decadent Qing rule in the face of increasing Western domination and exploitation and crumbling authority leads to a charismatic Buddhist preacher (preferably monk) declaring that China must be cleansed by of impurity and that only a China that fulfills its Dharma will be strong enough to repel both internal (very much including moral) and external threats (to many religious fanatics, vices are an extraordinary threat to society).