I've downloaded PDFs of place-name books on English place-name meanings from the Internet Archive and am trying to understand the grammar etc. to construct place-names. It's a fair bit to understand, but I am using secondary sources that are now in the public domain, being published around 1896-1900s. This is slightly different to some AHs on here, in that I haven't got a specific POD, but rather am trying to work out when it could be for the names to be different. This is a key to abbreviations used ----- So far, I've been trying to come up with alternative names for these towns and cities: Blackburn Lancs Birmingham West Midlands Lincoln Lincolnshire (possible WIs: what if the Romans didn't colonise it, but a city was still founded, alternative names??) Liverpool Merseyside Luton Beds. Middlesbrough Teesside Preston Lancs Reading Berkshire Sheffield South Yorkshire Walton-le-Dale Lancs (WI if the British had never lived there, Walton meaning "farm of the British people", from Old English wala "foreigner" + tun "farm", what could this suburb be called instead, and still reflect the geography?) Westminster Greater London (This has some possibilities for a WI: especially if the mynster, or church, hadn't existed. I know that Westminster is shorthand for politics now, but people would have to refer to British politics in some other way). This is a sort of "WI city-name was different and what could be plausible reasons for the meaning?" I'm trying to work out where a POD could be for these to have very different names to what we have now, whether they be Old English, Old Norse or British (I'm assuming British refers to Romano-British or Celtic). I know a bit about the basics of place-name elements and formations but would be interested to know if anyone here could come up with possible alternate names and meanings that would fit the Anglo-Saxon/ Viking time periods. This isn't for a timeline (yet) but is its own standalone discussion. I should point out, I'm new-ish to this and trying to understand the ins and outs of place-names and their meanings (British ones anyway) and the pre-1900 part of alternatehistory.com. I'm new-ish to this, and would be interested to see where this goes.