http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_hungary#900.E2.80.931910 What if Hungary was ruled by strong and competent Kings in it's late stage, instead of weak-handed and incompetent ones, like Vladislaus II and Louis II? Let's say that King Mathias's son - or relative of some sort, or ANY strong noble - took the throne instead of Vladislaus II, and successfully defended against the Ottomans. The main point is... - to prevent Hungary from being conquered by the Ottomans and Habsburgs - to prevent Hungarians from becoming a minority in Greater Hungary (minus Croatia) - to make Transylvania, Transcarpathia, Vojvodina and Northern Hungary (Slovakia) remain parts of Hungary to this day In 1490, Greater Hungary's population was about 5 000 000, and it was an estimated between 70% of 90% Hungarian. In 1711 however, Greater Hungary's population was only 2 500 000 and it was only 45% Hungarian. This was caused by the repopulation policies implemented by the Habsburgs, who brought Czech, Serbian and Romanian settlers into Greater Hungary. Why was there a need for repopulation? Because 150 years of Ottoman rule devastated Hungary. Famines were common, Habsburgs-Ottoman wars, also played a role in this. The taxation system was rather crude, which also played a role in food shortages, and ultimately, the decline of the population. If we prevent the Ottoman occupation, we butterfly all of this. This means that there will be no need for immigration: Hungarians remain the majority. If Hungary manages to defend itself against the Ottomans, it might could just defend itself against the Habsburgs too, yes? Thus, it would have time to modernize itself, and maybe they could retain their independence to this very day. Off course, it might turn into a Republic in the 19th or 20th century, but there is also a chance that it would remain a Kingdom to this day. I wonder about WW1 and WW2 though.