Why the Chinese play cricket (an Imperial Federation timeline)

If it's stupid/unorthodox/Other words meaning 'bad' or 'disapproved of'/etc. And it works? Then it isn'st stupid/so on/so forth.

Glad it seems to have helped, and looking forward to the update!

It's more a reminder how different some parts of my world are from the norm. I just can't imagine anyone other than a sex worker following the line of logic which led her to do that. It's actually an incredibly caring act. Acknowledging my concerns are both reasonable and important plus trying to make it special as kind of apology for her actions. Even the women she chose were selected with extreme care haha.
 
It's more a reminder how different some parts of my world are from the norm. I just can't imagine anyone other than a sex worker following the line of logic which led her to do that. It's actually an incredibly caring act. Acknowledging my concerns are both reasonable and important plus trying to make it special as kind of apology for her actions. Even the women she chose were selected with extreme care haha.
Glad that your relationship issues are being worked through and you are happy with the results.
 
May-Aug 1892: Hints of the future
~May-Aug 1892: Hints of the future

May 1892: As planned at the Capolago Anarchist Congress a series of general strikes are launched on May Day throughout Europe. Despite their agreement to support the strikes at the at the Brussels Congress of the Second International, communist involvement is extremely limited. The strikes will bring a heavy handed response in many places, particularly in Germany and France. In Germany the strikes will lead to a reintroduction of Bismark's anti-socialist laws. Whereas in France, with memories of the boulangist coup attempt still fresh, it will lead to many anarchists being imprisoned or deported to penal colonies in New Caledonia and French Guyana. The boulangist movement will capitalise on the unrest along with the Panama Scandal to revitalise their failing support base, winning many seats in the Chamber of Deputies in the elections which follow.

May 1892: With land reform having advanced tenants rights in Ireland considerably since 1870, there has grown an increasingly vocal movement for similar reform, not only in Scotland but also England and Wales. In an effort to answer these calls the Tenants Holdings Bill is introduced. Patterned after the 1883 Land Law (Ireland) and 1888 Purchase of Land (Ireland) Acts, it would establish Land Courts and Commissions in Scotland, England and Wales. As with Ireland, the Land Courts are intended to adjudicate rent disputes between tenants and landlords, while the Land Commissions are meant to encourage tenants to purchase their own holdings and include a government fund to provide for such purchases. While the administration of these courts and commissions remains under the central government, in line with the Liberals policy of devolution there are separate bodies for each of the home nations.

May 1892: Viceroy of India, former Prime Minister George Trevelyan, now Lord Wallington, is successful in passing the Manufacturing Industries Act through the Indian Legislative Council. The act removes many of the restriction which have been imposed during British rule to hinder the development of Indian industry. The Act however attract fierce controversy in Parliament from both sides of the house with the concerns being raised not only by Conservatives, but Liberals concerned about the effect Indian competition might have on their industrial constituencies. Secretary of State for India Lord Ripon vigorously defends the act, claiming the threat is negligible and in fact the act will create a solid trading partner and market for British industry.

June 1892: General Kitchener's forces finally engage the Mahdists in the Battle of Ferkeh. Some 9,000 primarily Egyptian troops will engage and decisively defeat the a force of roughly 4,000 Mahdists. While not strategically significant, the Egyptians only lose 20 men against around 1,000 Mahdists killed with another 500 captured. This will result in a considerable moral boost for the Sudanese troops and corresponding fall for the Mahdists.

June 1892: The annual Royal Navy estimates include provision for a class of no less than twelve battleships to be ordered in groups of four over the next three years. The Majestic class will be broadly similar to the 1889 eight ship Royal Sovereign class, except with improved 12 inch guns replacing the Royal Sovereign's 13.5 inch weapons and armoured hoods over their barbettes. The estimates will also see a new type of warship, torpedo boat destroyers, or more simply destroyers, intended to replace the earlier torpedo gunboats. Basically enlarged torpedo boats, these destroyers will be built by specialist yards with the Admiralty simply issuing broad specifications regarding speed and armament, then allowing the yards to design the vessel they feel best fits the requirements.

July 1892: With cricket continuing to decline in North America in the face of baseball's growing popularity, a tour by the England team is organised in an effort to revive the game. While the tour will achieve moderate success in Canada, lingering anti-British sentiment in the US will continue to hamper the game.

July 1892: The British delegation to the Wellington Imperial Conference is once again headed by Prime Minister Campbell-Bannerman and includes Leader of the Opposition Lord Salisbury, Foreign Secretary Joseph Chamberlain, and Colonial Secretary Asquith, as well as Commander in Chief of the Army Field Marshall Wolseley and First Sea Lord Admiral Anthony Hoskins. The sheer number of senior British ministers and government officials attending is indicative of the importance the Conferences are now given. Unlike previous Imperial Conferences which have focused on security, the Wellington Conference focuses primarily on economic matters and Imperial integration. Colonial Secretary Asquith raises the possibility of an Imperial Customs Union once more. However as with the 1886 London Conference, the Dominions are unwilling to commit to that level of economic integration. However the death of Canadian Premier John MacDonald in 1891 has softened the Canadian stance to a degree. Eventually it is agreed to form a committee to establish an Empire wide scheme of unified tariffs, with Britain and the Dominions imposing a common duty on imported Imperial goods until such time the US reduce their tariff regime. The matter of the US McKinley Act is also raided, with almost unanimous agreement there should be an Empire wide retaliatory tariff imposed. With the completion of the All Red Line, the issue of an All Red shipping route is again raised. While most are opposed to the total exclusion of foreign shipping from internal Imperial transport, it is accepted that some form of preference for Imperial shipping lines should be instituted. Many of the Dominions express disappointment that only one Royal Navy Dockyard is being expanded, arguing further expansion of the shipbuilding industry throughout the Empire is required. While the massive economic benefits associated with the Triconmalee dockyard expansion are not mentioned directly, it is clear from the Dominions insistence any future expansions be undertaken in the Dominions that this is probably a very significant factor in their concerns. Campbell-Bannerman counters that the Triconmalee expansion is costing millions of pounds and further expansions are simply unaffordable.

July 1892: For the first time the possibility of an Imperial Federation is seriously discussed, with the focus on exactly how much power any Imperial government would retain in such a federation. The British prefer a model akin to Campbell-Bannerman's policy of devolution for the home nations, with a strong central government. All the Dominions oppose that, but are split between those wanting something akin to the Canadian confederation with a more limited central government, and those advocating something more like the Federal Council of Australasia, with the central government being simply an advisory body appointed by the member states. During these discussions the matter of responsible government for Fiji comes up. The Pacific Dominions are strongly in favour of it being granted to the colony, bringing it in line with the other Dominions. In fact the very use of the term Dominion is a matter of contention with it being agreed all those colonies with responsible government should formally be retitled Dominions. On matters of security, some concerns are raised about the slow progress of the Sudanese campaign. General Wolseley stresses how his own operations which relieved Khartoum in 1884 were seriously hampered by logistics and stresses his support for Kitchener's cautious approach. This settles the matter for the most part, though the Pacific Dominions are disappointed their troops have remained in Egypt. Wolseley again stresses this is simply the opening stages of the campaign, and he is sure one Kitchener has secured his supply lines, the Dominion forces will be fully employed. The next Imperial Conference is scheduled for Dublin in 1894.

August 1892: A Russian naval squadron conducts a reciprocal goodwill visit to Marseilles in return for the French squadron's visit to Krondsadt in 1890. As with the Krondsadt visit it is actually a cover for further diplomatic negotiations toward a Franco-Russian alliance. In this round of talks it is agreed both nations will mobilise their force if a hostile power should mobilise against either.

August 1892: In response to the McKinley Tariff Act and in line with the decision of the Wellington Imperial Conference, the British and Dominions begin imposing retaliatory tariffs against US imports. The most extreme will be imposed by Canada. However Foreign Secretary Joseph Chamberlain makes it clear to the US administration, the increased tariffs will be removed as soon as the McKinley Act is modified and tariffs reduced.
 
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Admiral George Tyron's
Tryon.

In the last version of this story, he avoided a watery grave and the RN went on to implement his TA system.
February 1893: During the withdrawal to Wadi Halfa now Lieutenant Zaitian Aisin-Gioro's detachment becomes isolated and is attacked by a large band of Mahdists. With only eight British engineers and twenty four Egyptian soldiers he holds off the attack for over twenty four hours before being relieved. During this time he displays great heroism and personally rescues two of his men under fire. As a result he is awarded the Distinguished Service Order.
I think that this merits the award of a VC.
When Digna himself is killed, the Mahdists morale breaks and they flee. However with little cavalry at their disposal, the British are unable to effectively pursue the routing troops.
British military doctrine has never concentrated much on pursuit and annihilation - partly because of an insufficiency of cavalry, and an even greater insufficiency of cavalry with brains. And partly because so many battles and campaigns were fought as part of a coalition, where coordination was difficult. After La Belle Alliance, it was the Prussians who pursued and disposed of the remnants of The Ogre's forces.
 
Tryon.

In the last version of this story, he avoided a watery grave and the RN went on to implement his TA system.

Same in this iteration. The uprising in Egypt saves him.

I think that this merits the award of a VC.

At this time the line between a VC and a DSO/DSM was pretty fine. Officers tended more to cop the DSO than the VC

British military doctrine has never concentrated much on pursuit and annihilation - partly because of an insufficiency of cavalry, and an even greater insufficiency of cavalry with brains. And partly because so many battles and campaigns were fought as part of a coalition, where coordination was difficult. After La Belle Alliance, it was the Prussians who pursued and disposed of the remnants of The Ogre's forces.

Very definitely and at this point they've one got some two bn (OTL regiments) so way too few
 
Sep-Dec 1892: Swimming upstream
~Sep-Dec 1892: Swimming upstream

September 1892: Since 1873 the US has persisted with the use of what is basically a trapdoor breach loading modification of the Civil War era M1863 Springfield muzzle loading rifle in 45-70” (11.6x53.5mmR) black powder round. Realising this weapon has long been obsolete, the US finally adopts a modern small bore repeating rifle as a replacement. The new 0.30-40" (7.8x59mmR) M1892 Krag-Jørgensen is a Norwegian designed bolt action rifle using a five round capsule magazine, dump loaded via a side gate. Unfortunately several US arms designers will immediately sue the government claiming corruption, requiring the entire trials process to be repeated, with the Krag-Jørgensen winning again. This, combined with problems in tooling up production and persistent minor issues will delay full scale production until spring 1894.

September 1892: The South American Naval Arms Race continues unabated with the Brazilians and Chileans each responding to the Argentines order of two armoured cruisers with a second of their own. By now both the US and British are concerned by the ongoing arms race, President Cleveland suggests a joint approach to attempt to find a diplomatic solution to halt the ongoing arms race. Prime Minister Campbell-Bannerman, equally as concerned agrees to cooperate to defuse tensions.

September 1892: Siamese governors in Laos, expel French traders on suspicion of opium dealing. This incident is shortly followed by the suicide of the French consul to the Laotian city of Luang Prabang on his way back to Saigon. The French Imperialist lobby uses these incidents to incite anti-Siamese feeling and as a justification for stronger action.

September 1892: The Sudan Military Railway finally reached Kosheh in August, beyond the unnavigable portion of the second cataract. A small dockyard was rapidly built, enabling ten armed river steamers to be dismantled and transported by rail to the new base. With the Nile in flood, these gunboats were then able to navigate the third cataract in preparation for an assault on the fortified Mahdist position at Dongola. However, after several days of bombardment by Commander Colin Keppel's flotilla and seeing the size of the approaching force the Mahdists abandon the town, allowing it to be taken without resistance. The fall of Dongola shocks the Khalifa, who expects the British to advance across the Nubian Desert to directly attack his capital at Omdurman and he immediately begins preparing to meet such an attack.

October 1892: With the successful completion of the Hanyang Arsenal, the Chinese decide to build a second similar facility at Chengdu in Sichuan Province. As with the Hanyang Arsenal this will be built with British assistance, however unlike Hanyang, the Chengdu Arsenal is intended to be able to produce all manner of artillery than than just light artillery pieces.

October 1892: With his final retirement from politics Gladstone is created Earl of Hawarden. Despite his retirement he does take the opportunity occasionally to speak in the Lords, particularly in opposition to further Imperial expansion.

October 1892: US Secretary of State Walter Gresham successfully negotiates a Treaty of Friendship with Chile. While as expected, the treaty would have little real impact, it does provide for a permanent joint US-Chilean committee to encourage a return of US investment and a reduction in the retaliatory tariffs the Chileans imposed on US goods in the wake of the 1885 US trade sanctions. However the treaty will falls 34 votes short of the two thirds Congressional approval required for ratification and consequently never goes into effect.

October 1892: The Tenants Holdings Bill has provoke extremely fierce opposition from the Conservatives, both due to its devolved nature and the erosion of landlord rights. They have successfully been able to have the bill considerably watered down. The act which is finally passed combines the English and Welsh bodies into a single Land Court and Land Commission for both home nations, while the government fund to advance loans have been removed and the entire act now only applies to holdings of 80 acres or less. Despite this set back, Campbell-Bannerman still regards the act as a success, hoping to extend it full intent at a latter date.

November 1892: While Prime Minister Afonso Celso's measures earlier in 1891 have mitigated the situation they did not prevent the collapse of the Brazilian economic investment bubble, pushing the country into depression. As a cost cutting measure three coast defence battleships built in the 187's are decommissioned and sold for scrap while the army is reduced from 18,000 to 12,000 men.

November 1892: The Italians, seeking to match the latest developments in small arms introduce the Carcano Fucile Modello 1891 chambering the rimless 6.5x52mm Carcano cartridge as their standard infantry rifle. Using a simplified Gew 1888 bolt designed by Salvatore Carcano and a six round Mannlicher en-bloc clip, the Carcano is a simple but effective weapon, ideally suited to the limited Italian industrial base. The long barrelled infantry rifle will be followed by the Moschetto Modello 1891 cavalry carbine in 1893.

November 1892: In repose to the controversy in Britain over the Manufacturing Industries Act, Viceroy of India Lord Wallington arranges for the Industrial Tools and Dies Act, limiting the importation into India of machine tools from non-Imperial manufacturers. The act imposes a system of licences and tariffs to effectively restrict the market solely to Imperial companies. While the act provokes a great deal of criticism from the more radical Indian nationalists, most of the moderates and Indian industrialists accept it as an unpleasant but necessary compromise to remove the restrictions on Indian industrial development, believing in time, India will be able to produce its own machine tools, rendering the act moot.

November 1892: In a landslide result caused by public anger over the McKinley Tariff act, incumbent Grover Cleveland wins a clear victory over the Republican challenger Benjamin Harrison. The election also results in the Republicans losing control of Congress for the first time since the Civil War. Cleveland campaigns on a program of continued civil service reform and anti-trust legislation, combined with lower tariffs and continuing to improve relations with the British, including a new free trade agreement to reduce barriers to trade.

December 1892: In line with his policy of fostering free trade and improving relations with Britain, President Cleveland proposes a renewed round of talks to once again attempt to negotiate a treaty acceptable to both sides.

December 1892: The Berlin to Baghdad railway reaches Ankara. Work begins on extending it to Konya.
 
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Interesting developments as always

I was thinking that if the British here are more focused on India, China, etc. than on Europe, would things like the future Anglo-French Entente be less likely? After all, I'd assume this Britain is more worried about the French in Indochina and the Russians in their Far East and Central Asian territories than the Germans. Of course I don't thik the Germans had as powerful a navy at this point, relative to the British, compared to what they'd have in another 20 years or so in OTL.

Will be interesting to see if we still get a Sino-Japanese War next year and what comes out of that. I do wonder which powers future Japan will be friendliest toward - if the British are getting closer with China, that probably means no Anglo-Japanese Alliance...
 
Bloody hell the Anarchists and Communists really like their committees and cat herding it seems.

Also with the Maxim guns you aren't wrong about how effective they are though when the Vickers Machine gun comes in it is a step up from the Maxin gun though it wasn't adopted before WW1 due to cost restrictions. Also wonder if the committee will consider how the machine gun could effect charging cavalry as well.
 
Interesting developments as always

I was thinking that if the British here are more focused on India, China, etc. than on Europe, would things like the future Anglo-French Entente be less likely? After all, I'd assume this Britain is more worried about the French in Indochina and the Russians in their Far East and Central Asian territories than the Germans. Of course I don't thik the Germans had as powerful a navy at this point, relative to the British, compared to what they'd have in another 20 years or so in OTL.

Will be interesting to see if we still get a Sino-Japanese War next year and what comes out of that. I do wonder which powers future Japan will be friendliest toward - if the British are getting closer with China, that probably means no Anglo-Japanese Alliance...

The alliance system in Europe is so far on track. But yes the increased British focus on the east is increasing rivalry with the French and Russians making the triple Entente less likely. Big questions are does Germany go down the risk fleet path, what happens with the Boers and how does China play out. Oddly the natural ally for Japan at the moment seems to be the US. Everything is up in the air right now. In the US Cleveland has just been scuppered by the 1893 collapse. With the advantage of being 5 years ahead there is nothing which will upset the Spanish American war nor the Sino-japanese war.
 
Bloody hell the Anarchists and Communists really like their committees and cat herding it seems.

Also with the Maxim guns you aren't wrong about how effective they are though when the Vickers Machine gun comes in it is a step up from the Maxin gun though it wasn't adopted before WW1 due to cost restrictions. Also wonder if the committee will consider how the machine gun could effect charging cavalry as well.
Anarchists and communists have always loved their committees. But what's happening now is the start of the irreparable break and the temporary triumph of the Communists for control of the radical left. But at the same time we're also seeing the rise of fascism (,under the guise of boulangism) in France.

The Maxim gun is going great but from an upcoming entry. "Despite its positive finding the report includes two caveats Firstly the Committee finds the primary determinant of victory remains disciplined massed rifle fire by volley. Secondly the Committee stresses while the Maxim gun's effectiveness against 'native' opponents is clear, there is no evidence to suggest it would be equally as effective against disciplined regular European troops."
 
Despite its positive finding the report includes two caveats Firstly the Committee finds the primary determinant of victory remains disciplined massed rifle fire by volley. Secondly the Committee stresses while the Maxim gun's effectiveness against 'native' opponents is clear, there is no evidence to suggest it would be equally as effective against disciplined regular European troops
I really look forward to seeing what happens when they are proved wrong or at the very least it would be better to say god help them when they are proved wrong.
 
The Maxim gun is going great but from an upcoming entry. "Despite its positive finding the report includes two caveats Firstly the Committee finds the primary determinant of victory remains disciplined massed rifle fire by volley. Secondly the Committee stresses while the Maxim gun's effectiveness against 'native' opponents is clear, there is no evidence to suggest it would be equally as effective against disciplined regular European troops."
Point two is essentially as OTL, at least according to the Gospel of Saint C&Rsenal. I believe the thought was that against 'proper' European troops, the Machine Gun crews would be overly vulnerable to being picked off by Marksmen/Snipers.

Point one I'm less sure about? At least, I'm less sure about it, if I'm assuming correctly that they're refering to Closed-Order, Thin-Red-Style style volley firing. It's my understanding that the 'Open Order Revolution' is in full spring by now. Then again, IIRC the British Army wasn't very good at actually choosing to fight in Open Order during the Boer Wars.

Technical note: Both En-Bloc Clips and Stripper Clips/Charger Loading are, I believe, extant by 1893. Mannlicher and Carcano for En-Bloc, Mosin-Nagant (and that presumably means also Mauser) for Stripper Clips/Charger Loading.
 
Point two is essentially as OTL, at least according to the Gospel of Saint C&Rsenal. I believe the thought was that against 'proper' European troops, the Machine Gun crews would be overly vulnerable to being picked off by Marksmen/Snipers.

Point one I'm less sure about? At least, I'm less sure about it, if I'm assuming correctly that they're refering to Closed-Order, Thin-Red-Style style volley firing. It's my understanding that the 'Open Order Revolution' is in full spring by now. Then again, IIRC the British Army wasn't very good at actually choosing to fight in Open Order during the Boer Wars.

Technical note: Both En-Bloc Clips and Stripper Clips/Charger Loading are, I believe, extant by 1893. Mannlicher and Carcano for En-Bloc, Mosin-Nagant (and that presumably means also Mauser) for Stripper Clips/Charger Loading.

Yep point two is going to take some hard knocks to get out of. Point one might be better phrased as simply disciplined mass rifle fire. It was a major factor in the OTL Sudan campaign.

And yep en bloc (mannlicher, gew 88 and Carcano) and stripper clips (Mauser and moist nugget) are available. But ITTL the British have actually carried through with issuing a second loaded mag so haven't adopted them yet. There was a note about it with the lee-metford in 1889

"No provision is made for rapid reloading, but each soldier is issued with an additional magazine, though in practice troops carry as many extras as they can obtain"
 
I really look forward to seeing what happens when they are proved wrong or at the very least it would be better to say god help them when they are proved wrong.

The British are actually treating MG primarily as an artillery piece, going as far as to put them into RA batteries, the guns attached to the infantry and cavalry are jusr sort of an emergency backstop.
 
Jan-Apr 1893: Trouble in the bazaar
~Jan-Apr 1893: Trouble in the bazaar

January 1893: Paul Mauser introduces another version of his successful 1889 design. While incorporating many detailed improvements, it introduces a flush five round staggered magazine and the high velocity, flat shooting 7x57mm Mauser cartridge. The rifle is immediately adopted by the Spanish who will also purchase a licence for domestic production. The rifle will also be adopted by the Brazilians and Ottomans.

January 1893: With the bulk of the British forces engaged in Sudan, Khedive Abbas II of Egypt launches an uprising to oust the British from Egypt. While initially only some 2,000 of the 16,000 Egyptian and Sudanese troops remaining in Egypt join the uprising, the revolt spreads quickly and soon only 2,000 mainly Sudanese troops remain loyal, though another 4,000 have deserted or been disarmed by the rebels. Hundreds of British officers serving with Egyptian army units are murdered. Nonetheless, the 3,500 strong Dominion Brigade under Brigadier William Gatacre, with the assistance of the remaining loyal Sudanese and supported by Admiral George Tyron's Mediterranean fleet manage to hold Alexandria. With his supplies lies now cut, Kitchener is forced to halt his operations in Sudan and disarm his 6,500 Egyptian troops, who are now regarded as unreliable. He however retains his Sudanese units, leaving him with just 13,000 men, along with 1,000 British troops holding the main supply base at Aswan. To secure his position, he falls back to his bases at Wadi Halfa, Kosheh and Dongola. Meanwhile, reinforcements are urgently dispatched to reinforce the Dominion forces holding out in Alexandria.

February 1893: Regardless of the experience of the Crash of 1873 and subsequent Long Depression, since the recovery in the mid 1880s, another speculative bubble in railway and industrial investment has developed in the US. The situation has been worsened by the persistence of bimetalist policies in the US resulting in an unstable currency. This has led to European and British investors liquidating their US commitments as concern over the US economy has grown. All exacerbated by the increasing diversion of British capital to the safer Dominions after the Barings Crisis of 1890, along with the restrictions on risky investments imposed by the Banking Security Act of 1891. The badly overextended Philadelphia and Reading Railroad collapses, finally triggering a treasury crisis. The crisis is widely blamed on the inflated prices of silver caused by the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. President Cleveland successfully convinces Congress to repeal the act in an effort to stabilise the US currency.

February 1893: During the withdrawal to Wadi Halfa now Lieutenant Zaitian Aisin-Gioro's detachment becomes isolated and is attacked by a large band of Mahdists. With only eight British engineers and twenty four Egyptian soldiers he holds off the attack for over twenty four hours before being relieved. During this time he displays great heroism and personally rescues two of his men under fire. As a result he is awarded the Distinguished Service Order. However the incident also highlights the danger in which the Emperor of China has now been exposed to. As a result he is order back to the rear base at Aswan and preparation made for his evacuation to safety.

March 1893: Seeking to take advantage of the uprising in Egypt, the Khalifa orders 30,000 Mahdists under Osman Digna, his ablest commander, to attack the 4,000 strong garrison at Dongola. Despite inflicting heavy casualties on the attackers and being supported by the Nile River flotilla, the garrison is forced to fall back to Kosheh due to a shortage of supplies. The supporting fire of of Keppel's flotilla prove vital in allowing the garrison to withdraw intact. Though Osman Digna advises immediate pursuit, the Khalifa orders his to fortify Dongola and construct artillery batteries covering the river.

March 1893: The French dispatch several armed columns into Laos demanding the Siamese withdraw and accept the area east of the Mekong as part of Vietnam and thus under French control.

March 1893: A force consisting primarily of Indian troops lands at Kossier on the Red Sea in an effort to reopen a supply line to Kitchener's forces in Sudan. The landing is unopposed and work begins immediately on constructing a road to Kena, allowing supplies to then be shipped up river to Aswan and on to Wadi Halfa. A limited supply line will be established by mid April, allowing Kitchener's forces to be resupplied sufficiently to defend their positions. In addition an Indian infantry battalion and cavalry battalion will move to increase his available forces.

March 1893: British Foreign Secretary Joseph Chamberlain hosts talks between the Conservative Canadian Premier John Thompson and US Secretary of State Walter Gresham With the rejection of the 1892 Treaty, the British and Canadians somewhat sceptical a mutually agreeable deal on trade and fisheries access can be reached. However with the new US Congress leaning toward lowering protectionism, they are willing to discuss the matter. Eventually a new draft treaty is negotiated. Under the proposed terms, both Canada and the US will reduce tariffs on a wide range of items by 2%, with another 3% reduction by mutual agreement to follow in two years, and a final 3% reduction, again by mutual agreement, five years after that. The fisheries deal is substantially unaltered from the 1892, only with the provision for improved access by either side on agreement to an annual payment in return.

March 1893: John Redmond, the new leader of the Irish Home Rule Party, successfully negotiates an compromise deal whereby all the three Irish parties represented in Parliament agree to cooperate and avoid competition in elections. While the agreement is purely informal, the new alignment will come to be commonly known as the Irish Parliamentary Coalition.

March 1893: With the situation in Egypt and Sudan appearing dire, the British propose a secret agreement with the French to allow the French a free hand in Laos in return for the French ending their support of Khedive Abbas II. The French, realising as Abbas was unable to expel the British in the initial uprising, he is very unlikely to be successful, agree to the terms.

April 1893: With the ongoing problems in the US economy, only four torpedo gunboats are ordered in the 1893 naval estimates, despite calls by the increasingly Mahanist dominated US navy and continuing support from Secretary of the Navy Hilary Herbert.

April 1893: The British forces in Alexandria having been reinforced to some 12,000 men under General Frederick Roberts launch an offensive toward Cairo in order to re-establish control over Egypt. They are opposed by Khedive Abbas II with some 10,000 Egyptian regulars, supported by 15,000 hastily raised and equipped Egyptian irregulars. Abbas has split his forces in two, with some 3,000 regulars and 6,000 irregulars guarding against a repeat of Wolseley's attack from Suez in 1882.

April 1893: The Thompson-Gresham Treaty on US-Canadian trade is presented to the US Congress for ratification. Despite some Congressmen's concerns over the growing US treasury crisis, the new Democrat controlled body agrees to it's ratification.

April 1893: With the French introduction of the Lebel Rifle the new Austro-Hungarian 11mm M1886 Mannlicher rifle was rendered obsolete. In an effort to adapt the rifle a 8x52mmR compressed black powder round was hastily developed and the M1886 modified to use it as the M1888. This solution however was always intended as a temporary measure pending the development of a smokeless round. Unfortunately this has proved difficult. With the continued failure to develop a full smokeless powder, a second new cartridge, the 8x50mmR M90 using a semi-smokeless powder is introduced as yet another interim measure. The existing rifles are updated as the M1886-90 or M1888-90 while a new M1890 rifle is developed with a stronger chamber for the higher pressures expected with a smokeless round. Unfortunately the strength of the wedge locking system of the original M1886 is nearing its limit, but it expected it will be capable of handling the pressures of a fully smokeless round. Eventually a fully smokeless round is developed in the form of the 8x50mmR M93, however only the M1890 rifle is capable of handling the new round, even then only marginally. The older updated M1886-90 and M1888-90 rifles are restricted to the semi-smokeless 8mm M90 cartridge.
 
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Opps, forgot this

February 1892: Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont, heir to a fortune, moves to Paris and begins studying engineering and aeronautics.

April 20th 1894: Alberto Santos-Dumont begins experimenting with electrically driven non-rigid airships.

==McUpdate==
 
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