Why the Chinese play cricket: 1870-1899 (an Imperial Federation timeline)

Thank you. And I was actually thinking of running the Portuguese passed you. I have a basic understanding of Spanish, Italian and French but Portuguese is out of my league.
Feel free to contact me, I'd be honored and reply as soon as I saw the message
And Brazil has SO much potential at this point of history. From what I've read, it wasn't so much republicanism which did the Empire in at the end
Big understatement x3
The way the Republic came to be here was kinda like a soap opera
Some officers pissed about the abolition turned republican and convinced a good friend of the Emperor that he had turned against him because the Emperor appointed his rival(who he was disputing a widow whom was their mutual love interest) premier, making he believe he was going to be sent to jail next so he went "LEMME SIGN THIS BULLSHIT" and the Emperor just kinda accepted it because he hated his job anyway
The rest of military and the people werent really republican but while they adored the Emperor they werent in love with the monarchy either so most just played along
the US sent a military mission to Brazil in 1885 and the head of that mission got wind of the planed coup and tipped Celso off. This meant he could preempt the plotters and force them to act before they were ready. The navy stayed loyal and they were able to put the coup down. The failed coup then allowed Celso to basically gut the army's officer corps and deprive the conservatives of their 'muscle.'' Celso still has to dance a very fine line with the conservatives, but it does seem he was good at that. If he can lay the foundations for reform, I think there's a good chance Brazil can come out an industrialized democratic power in the 30s and 40s.
Yes, we got an efficient premier for once!
Im very happy about this
 
Feel free to contact me, I'd be honored and reply as soon as I saw the message
Thank you, it is much appreciated. If you don't object I also ask advice. My knowledge of Brazil is sadly lacking.
Big understatement x3
The way the Republic came to be here was kinda like a soap opera
Some officers pissed about the abolition turned republican and convinced a good friend of the Emperor that he had turned against him because the Emperor appointed his rival(who he was disputing a widow whom was their mutual love interest) premier, making he believe he was going to be sent to jail next so he went "LEMME SIGN THIS BULLSHIT" and the Emperor just kinda accepted it because he hated his job anyway
The rest of military and the people werent really republican but while they adored the Emperor they werent in love with the monarchy either so most just played along
That would be Deodoro de Fonseca? He was implicated in the coup ITTL and forced to resign, but otherwise survived. It was Benjamin Constant, Floriano Pexiota and Rofino Enéias who took the fall. Constant ended up executed while Pexiota and Enéias fled to Argentina.
Yes, we got an efficient premier for once!
Im very happy about this
Well ITTL he's already reached five years as premier which I believe is a record lol. He's played his cards well. The Constitutional Court was a big step, basically it takes over as the moderating branch, leaving Isabel as a ceremonial figurehead. Plus introducing compulsory education. That will eventually produce a literate population and thus increase the franchise. He hasn't been able to introduce an adult literacy program, I figured the elites would see that as direct challenge.

The big problem he has now is Dom Pedro dies in 1894, putting Isabel on the throne. That I think will be a big boost for conservative support. Basically watch this space lol. I don't think he'll manage to reform the Senate, just too much of a threat to the elites, but with luck someone will in the future.
 
Feel free to contact me, I'd be honored and reply as soon as I saw the message

Big understatement x3
The way the Republic came to be here was kinda like a soap opera
Some officers pissed about the abolition turned republican and convinced a good friend of the Emperor that he had turned against him because the Emperor appointed his rival(who he was disputing a widow whom was their mutual love interest) premier, making he believe he was going to be sent to jail next so he went "LEMME SIGN THIS BULLSHIT" and the Emperor just kinda accepted it because he hated his job anyway
The rest of military and the people werent really republican but while they adored the Emperor they werent in love with the monarchy either so most just played along

Yes, we got an efficient premier for once!
Im very happy about this
BTW, Is Lei da Reconciliação correct for Law of Reconciliation?
 
That would be Deodoro de Fonseca?
Yep
it is much appreciated. If you don't object I also ask advice.
I dont, feel free to ask advice whenever you want, we're all buddies here
The big problem he has now is Dom Pedro dies in 1894, putting Isabel on the throne. That I think will be a big boost for conservative support. Basically watch this space lol. I don't think he'll manage to reform the Senate, just too much of a threat to the elites, but with luck someone will in the future.
Very true, but you must also take into account Isabel's proximity with the Pope and the Catholic Church
A big part of her support for abolitionism was due to the views of those she consulted in the Church and unlike her father she wasnt all too keen on secularism & putting the brazilian constitution above her loyalty to her religion
Which depending on how you handle it can be both good or very bad, as you could use that to either reinforce Isabel's position due to the support of the catholic traditionalists - allowing her to continue her progressive reforms with a little bit of more stability, specially if the Pope speaks in her favour - or have she butch it by undermining the separation between the Church and the State by acting as a pawn of the former over the later
 
Very true, but you must also take into account Isabel's proximity with the Pope and the Catholic Church
A big part of her support for abolitionism was due to the views of those she consulted in the Church and unlike her father she wasnt all too keen on secularism & putting the brazilian constitution above her loyalty to her religion
Which depending on how you handle it can be both good or very bad, as you could use that to either reinforce Isabel's position due to the support of the catholic traditionalists - allowing her to continue her progressive reforms with a little bit of more stability, specially if the Pope speaks in her favour - or have she butch it by undermining the separation between the Church and the State by acting as a pawn of the former over the later

I haven't thought Isabel's role through yet, but I'm getting to the point where I have to. I've got up till 1897 completed, or at least did have. However I'm now having to review all those years to take account of the changes I've just made. Plus I've not factored in the Brazilian economic problems of the 1890s.

Social reform is all good, but the Brazilian economy is imploding and Celso's policies to buy off the conservatives prior to the 1889 coup were a significant factor in that. ITTL he keeps them going which is only going which means he faces the same problems as Republic did in the 1890s. He can use the collateral built up in the 1880s only for so long before he has to do something about it.
 
Hmm, I think he can still endure it if he plays his cards right, Floriano had to deal with a far worse hand than his(the "Encilhamento" economic policy, the Federalist rebellion in the South, the Navy's rebellion near the capital and losing a bunch of armies against the rebellious city of Canudos in the North) but he survived, though of course he was a dictator while Celso isnt so who knows, it sure will be a rocking boat in either case
 
May-Aug 1893: One night in Bangkok
~May-Aug 1893: One night in Bangkok

May 1893: The repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, has caused a rush of people seeking to convert their silver notes to gold. Eventually this causes US gold reserves to fall to their statutory minimum, preventing further silver notes being converted. The result is a panic, followed by a series of bank and railway collapses, triggering another massive depression in the US. Fortunately the prior divestment of their US portfolios by European and British investors limits the international fall out and the depression is largely confined to the US.

May 1893: The Khalifa finally allows Osman Digna, now with 40,000 men to attack Kosheh. However Kitchener is now receiving supplies and the garrison is now 7,0000 strong, supported by the Nile River Flotilla. Digna's attacking forces come under withering rifle and Maxim gun fire, and are unable to break the British defences. When Digna himself is killed, the Mahdists morale breaks and they flee. However with little cavalry at their disposal, the British are unable to effectively pursue the routing troops. Nonetheless, some 8,000 Mahdists are killed or captured.

June 1893: The radical Government of India Act is passed. This act firmly establishes the principle that the administration of India should be handled at the provincial level as far as possible, and that Indian opinion must be well represented. The nine major provincial councils of Assam, Bengal, Bombay, Burma, Central Provinces, Madras, Pashtunistan, Punjab, and United Provinces councils are to consist of thirty elected members, four members appointed to represent the main ethnic and religious groups in the province including two reserved for Anglo-Indians, and finally fourteen members appointed by the provincial governor. The four minor provinces of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Ajmer-Merwar, Baluchistan, and Coorg will be governed by a council of 15 elected members and ten members appointed by the Chief Commissioner. The central legislative council is to consist of eighteen members appointed by the nine major provincial councils, four members appointed by the minor provinces, sixteen members appointed by the eight major Princely States of Baroda, Gwalior, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jammu and Kashmir, Jodhpur, Mysore, and Travancore, six elected members to represent the Dilat, Parsi and Sikh communities, four members elected by the Anglo-Indian community, and lastly twenty members appointed by the Viceroy. The central council is only to retain power over defence, railways, economic development, famine relief, maintenance of public order, relations with the Imperial government, weights, measures and other standards, and foreign affairs. The governor of each province and viceroy retain the right to veto any legislation, with a further veto held by the Secretary of State for India in London. The act will result in a major increase in Indian support for the moderate Indian National Congress over the more radical Indian National Association.

June 1893: General Roberts engages Abbas army at Tandata. While in a strong defensive position, the Egyptians most serious issue is a lack of artillery, with only 30 pieces, all with only limited ammunition. Against this, the British have 60 pieces amply supplied. The vast majority of the Egyptians are also only equipped with obsolete single shot rifles, while the British are armed with modern Lee-Metford magazine rifles. Nonetheless, the Egyptians offer heavy resistance, but eventually the British advantages begin to tell, with the morale of Abbas irregular troops collapsing under sustained British assault. Abbas is forced to retreat toward Cairo, abandoning much of his artillery. With it clear he can no longer hope to oppose the British advance, Abbas flees to the Ottoman Empire several days latter. Abbas flight destroys what remains of his army's morale and it disintegrates. Robert's quickly occupies Cairo and moves to fully restore British control over Egypt.

July 1893: In April a French Colonial Inspector and seventeen Vietnamese militia were killed by Siamese forces in Laos. In what will become known as the Paknan Incident, the French use this as a pretext for military intervention, sending two warships up the Chao Phraya River toward Bangkok. Still believing they have British support, the Siamese fort at Paknan opens fire on the vessels. The French return fire and force passage to Bangkok, then issuing an ultimatum demanding the Siamese withdraw from all Laotian territory east of the Mekong River, pay and indemnity and punish those responsible for the deaths in Laos. The Siamese appeal to the British for support, however in accordance with their agreement with the French, they advise the Siamese to obtain the best terms they can.

July 1893: Thus far the US and British attempts to halt the South American Naval Arms Race have proved fruitless with the Brazilians now ordering another pair of protected cruisers from British yards.

July 1893: Former British Indian civil servant Allan Hume and founder of the Indian National Congress has managed to establish a thriving textile business, now owning three mills. Seeking to diversify he cooperates with Parsi industrialist Jamsetji Tata to found the Tata and Hume Iron and Steel Company to use the Imperial Development Act to construct an advanced steel mill capable of producing steel equally in quality to the best in the world.

July 1893: Despite fierce opposition US Congress enacts the Howard Act bring the terms of the Gresham-Thompson Treaty into effect. The reduced tariffs on Canadian goods will lead to Canada becoming a major transshipment point for British and Dominion goods entering the US market re-branded as Canadian goods. This will create a great deal of public opposition to the treaty in the US.

August 1893: With Egypt once again firmly under British control, Kitchener's supply line has been restored. The Dominion Brigade and an additional British brigade, supported by cavalry and artillery are dispatched to reinforce his army, replacing the now disbanded Egyptian units. This brings the number of troops at his disposal to 23,000, allowing him to feel confident in resuming the offensive. His initial move is a drive to regain control of Dongola.

August 1893: The Third Congress of the Second International at Zurich is dominated by the disastrous results of the 1892 May Day strikes. The anarchist blame the communist for their lack of support, while the communists condemn the anarchists for the crackdown on socialist movements which followed. The acrimonious argument will eventually lead to the expulsion of the anarchist movement from the Second International, marking the final split between the two socialist revolutionary groups. With the removal of the anarchist elements the Congress will pass a resolution condemning Jewish influence in international capitalism and also calling for the establishment of a 'dictatorship of the proletariat as a precursor to the establishment of a true classless socialist state.

August 1893: Brazilian Prime Minister Afonso Celso successfully gets the Lei dos Direitos Básicos or Law of Basic Rights passed. The law guarantees freedom of the press, speech and religion as well as abolishing the death penalty. While once again not welcomed by the conservatives, the law finds wide support with the lower and middle classes.

August 1893: Admiral George Tryon is appointed as First Sea Lord. He begins a program of reforms based around his TA signalling system. Under this system the previous complex process of issuing orders with multiple signal flags and awaiting acknowledgement is replaced with a few simple orders with no requirement for acknowledgement. Instead, officers are to simply follow the lead ship and exercise their own judgement as required. While highly controversial, it will greatly increase officer initiative and the flexibility of the Royal Navy.
 
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Sept-Dec 1893: Who's got the gun
~Sept-Dec 1893: Who's got the gun

September 1983: Since obtaining the exclusive licence to market the German Gew 1888 Commission rifle worldwide, the Austro-Hungarian company ÖWG engineer Otto Schönauer has been working to correct the designs many faults. The result is a highly successful design, adopted by the Romanians as the M1893, the Netherlands as the M1895 and to a limited extent, the Portuguese as the M1896, all using the identical 6.5x53mmR round.

September 1893: With their fears regarding British expansion growing, the Transvaal and Orange Free State will issue a combined order for 30,000 new 7mm Mauser rifles to equip their citizen militias, along with significant amounts of high quality Krupps artillery.

September 1893: Premier Richard Seddon of New Zealand becomes the first Dominion to introduce universal Women's suffrage, though they are not yet allowed to stand for election. This will bring about a massive increase in the momentum for Women's suffrage throughout the Empire, with South Australia following suit next year and even extending the right to stand for election the next. In particular it will lead to increased suffragette agitation in Britain.

October 1893: Under the terms of the 1883 Treaty of Ancòn which ended the War of the Pacific between Chile and Peru, the former Peruvian provinces of Arica and Tacna were supposed to be occupied by Chile for a period of ten years before a plebiscite would decide their final fate. Nevertheless, though the scheduled date for the plebiscite has now arrived the Chileans and Peruvians have been unable to reach agreement over the terms on which such a plebiscite is to be held, particularly whether or not Chilean migrants and works in the disputed territory should be allowed to participate. This dispute will dominate relations between Chile and Peru for many years to come.

October 1893: Though Egypt is once again firmly under British rule, they are now faced by a dilemma. Clearly a new Khedive is required. However technically Egypt is a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire and only the Sultan has the power to remove Abbas from his position. In an effort to resolve this legal problem, they pressure the Governing Council of Egypt to declare that Abbas has abdicated his position by his flight, installing Khedive Tewfik's younger brother Hussein Kamel as his successor. This causes a diplomatic rift between the British and Ottomans. Sultan Abdul Hamid II refuses to recognise the new Khedive, instead continuing to regard Abbas as legitimate, giving him sanctuary in Constantinople. Regardless, Hussein Kamel assumes the title, though Egypt is now effectively a British Protectorate in all but name. The Egyptian army is reduced in size to just eight infantry battalions and single cavalry battalion with only two mountain artillery batteries. However a new separate Sudanese army of ten infantry battalions, two cavalry and a camel battalion, supported by four field artillery batteries is to be organised around the loyal Sudanese troops. The terms of service for the Sudanese, who formerly were little more than slaves are to be massively improved, bringing in modern terms of regular service.

October 1893: After the tumultuous Zurich Congress of the Second International the anarchist Black International's Congress in London focuses on the way forward. It is clear the communist movement currently has greater support outside Britain and the Empire, especially as the more moderate parliamentarian socialist groups have decided to side with the Second International. It is decided the anarchist movement should focus on grass roots labour organisation and building up a support bases, while engaging in the principle of 'propaganda of the deed' to build the environment where a true socialist revolution can occur. The major resolution of the Congress is to declare the communist movement as enemies of the people and legitimate targets for 'direct action.' This will result in an undeclared war between the two threads of revolutionary socialism which will persist well into the future, with communism coming to dominate the radical left in Europe while anarchism will dominate in the British Empire and US.

October 1893: Without British support during the Paknan Incident, the Siamese were left with no option but to concede to the French Ultimatum. However in the wake of the incident, many in France called for the establishment of a full Protectorate over Siam. This greatly alarmed the British, who having now restored their control over Egypt, feel able to take a more aggressive stance. They inform the French, their agreement only covered the absorption of Laos and demand the French respect Siamese territorial integrity beyond this. This British pressure brings a negotiated settlement where the Siamese agree to the terms of the original French ultimatum, but preserve their independence. Despite British support in rejecting any wider French demands, their initial refusal to assist will lead the Siamese to begin looking for support from other powers.

November 1893: The two Japanese Wakasa class battleship are completed, making them the most powerful warships in commission in Asia. They will be finally delivered to the Imperial Japanese Navy in February.

November 1893: The French Navy complete the submarine Gustav Zédé, and enlarged version of the earlier Gymnôte. The submarine was laid down as the Sirène but renamed Gustav Zédé after his death in 1891. Armed with one fourteen inch fixed torpedo tube and two addition torpedoes in drop collars designed by Polish engineer Stefan Drzewiecki, supposedly able to fire at torpedo at an angle from the hull. These Drzewiecki drop collars will become a feature of French and Russian submarines. Again powered solely by an electric motor, the Gustav Zédé will undergo extensive trial before finally being commissioned in 1900.

November 1893: With Osman Digna's defeat at Kasheh and the British suppression of Khedive Abbas II's revolt in Egypt, the Khalifa reverts to a defensive strategy, returning with his main army to Omdurman, leaving 12,000 men to garrison Dongola and 15,000 to block the sixth cataract at the Shabluka gorge while concentrating his main army in defence of Omdurman. Kitchener's forces reach Dongola in early November. With the Nile River Flotilla bombarding the forts, Kitchener orders an assault. On the town. The battle lasts for around three hours and results in the Mahdists being routed after suffering 4,000 dead. With Dongola retaken, Kitchener resumes extending the railway from Wadi Halfa to Abu Hamad.

December 1893: French anarchist Auguste Viallant throws a bomb from the public gallery into the Chamber of Deputies in Paris. While the bomb does relatively little damage it will spark a series of laws known as the 'Lois Scélérates' or villainous laws restricting the freedom of the press and attacking the anarchist movement in France.

December 1893: The new Qing Hanyang arsenal finally begins production in China. Built with British assistance it includes the latest manufacturing equipment and techniques, being theoretically capable of producing small arms and light artillery on a par with any in the world. Unfortunately, the quality of Chinese manufactured steel still lags behind the industrialised western powers, resulting in poorer quality weapons. The arsenal is also capable of producing cordite under licence. The arsenal begins production of a licensed copy of the German Gew 1888 Commission rifle in 7.92mm Patronne 88 as the Type 18 for their standard service rifle.

December 1893: The RSAF Enfield begins production of Maxim guns for the British and Imperial forces. The vital role the two Dominion Maxim's played in the initial defence of Alexandria is seen as clear vindication of the wisdom of directly attaching a few such weapons to battalions for such situations with some calling for the number per battalion to be increased, though many argue they are still generally better employed together as batteries to provide concentrated fire which can be deployed where required. Nonetheless, a Machine Gun Committee is formed to investigate the results of their use in the ongoing Sudan Campaign to determine the ideal method for this new weapon's deployment. All however agree, the Maxim is far superior to the older manually operated machine guns and these older weapons should be replaced as rapidly as budgetary considerations allow.
 
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Well every entry between 1891 and 1896 has come put pushing my 2K word limit and I wanted to add extra. So I've broken up those years into three four month blocks rather than two six month blocks. This has allowed me to add the following :)

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May 1891: With the collapse of the Argentine banking system and their sovereign default in the wake of the Baring Crisis the International financial community has been imposing extremely high interest rates on all Latin American borrowers. The Brazilian Prime Minister Afonso Celso has been granting large loans on very favourable terms to conservative landowners as a way to placate their opposition to his reforms. Many of these landowners have been using these funds in 'get rich quick' schemes rather than productive investments, creating a large economic bubble which is now collapsing. In an effort to halt the collapse, Celso abandons his loan scheme and previous plans for a private central bank based around the Banco do Brasil, in favour of a state owned central bank to be known as the Banco Imperial do Brasil.

October 1891: The Russians introduce the Pekhotnaya Vintovka Obrazca 1891-go goda, or Infantry Rifle Model 1891, more commonly known as the Mosin M1891. Designed by Sergei Mosin, the rifle is a conventional turn bolt action weapon using a 7.62x53mmR cartridge fed by a five round stripper clip. The rifle is unusual in being sighted assuming the bayonet is fixed. While the bolt mechanism will be shown to be somewhat complicated, the Mosin will prove to be a dependable service weapon and equip the Russian army. Most will be produced in Russia, however initial lack of domestic facilities will lead to a large number being manufactured in France for some years.

April 1892: The new Chinese arsenal at Hanyang is completed and begins producing modem weapons. Unfortunately a major fire breaks out a few weeks after production starts, inflicting major damage and requiring extensive repairs. However despite this setback it is seen as a great success.

October 1892: With the successful completion of the Hanyang Arsenal, the Chinese decide to build a second similar facility at Chengdu in Sichuan Province. As with the Hanyang Arsenal this will be built with British assistance, however unlike Hanyang, the Chengdu Arsenal is intended to be able to produce all manner of artillery than than just light artillery pieces.

October 1892: With his final retirement from politics Gladstone is created Earl of Hawarden. Despite his retirement he does take the opportunity occasionally to speak in the Lords, particularly in opposition to further Imperial expansion.

November 1892: While Prime Minister Afonso Celso's measures earlier in 1891 have mitigated the situation they did not prevent the collapse of the Brazilian economic investment bubble, pushing the country into depression. As a cost cutting measure three coast defence battleships built in the 187's are decommissioned and sold for scrap while the army is reduced from 18,000 to 12,000 men.

November 1892: The Italians, seeking to match the latest developments in small arms introduce the Carcano Fucile Modello 1891 chambering the rimless 6.5x52mm Carcano cartridge as their standard infantry rifle. Using a simplified Gew 1888 bolt designed by Salvatore Carcano and a six round Mannlicher en-bloc clip, the Carcano is a simple but effective weapon, ideally suited to the limited Italian industrial base. The long barrelled infantry rifle will be followed by the Moschetto Modello 1891 cavalry carbine in 1893.

April 1893: With the French introduction of the Lebel Rifle the new Austro-Hungarian 11mm M1886 Mannlicher rifle was rendered obsolete. In an effort to adapt the rifle a 8x52mmR compressed black powder round was hastily developed and the M1886 modified to use it as the M1888. This solution however was always intended as a temporary measure pending the development of a smokeless round. Unfortunately this has proved difficult. With the continued failure to develop a full smokeless powder, a second new cartridge, the 8x50mmR M90 using a semi-smokeless powder is introduced as yet another interim measure. The existing rifles are updated as the M1886-90 or M1888-90 while a new M1890 rifle is developed with a stronger chamber for the higher pressures expected with a smokeless round. Unfortunately the strength of the wedge locking system of the original M1886 is nearing its limit, but it expected it will be capable of handling the pressures of a fully smokeless round. Eventually a fully smokeless round is developed in the form of the 8x50mmR M93, however only the M1890 rifle is capable of handling the new round, even then only marginally. The older updated M1886-90 and M1888-90 rifles are restricted to the semi-smokeless 8mm M90 cartridge.

September 1983: Since obtaining the exclusive licence to market the German Gew 1888 Commission rifle worldwide, the Austro-Hungarian company ÖWG engineer Otto Schönauer has been working to correct the designs many faults. The result is a highly successful design, adopted by the Romanians as the M1893, the Netherlands as the M1895 and to a limited extent, the Portuguese as the M1896, all using the identical 6.5x53mmR round.

=McUpdate=
 
Former British Indian civil servant Allan Hume
Hume was a remarkable man: a competent and honest administrator, a noted ornithologist, and full of good ideas on what we'd now call Development Economics. One of such people, alas a minority, that the British Empire produced.
November 1893: The two Japanese Wakasa class battleship are completed, making them the most powerful warships in commission in Asia. They will be finally delivered to the Imperial Japanese Navy in February.
This slightly predates IOTL's Fuji class, commissioned in 1897.
 
Miss Construction said:
Former British Indian civil servant Allan Hume
Hume was a remarkable man: a competent and honest administrator, a noted ornithologist, and full of good ideas on what we'd now call Development Economics. One of such people, alas a minority, that the British Empire produced.

Indeed he was and this TL has not seen the end of him, he will be critical in the development of India

Miss Construction said:
November 1893: The two Japanese Wakasa class battleship are completed, making them the most powerful warships in commission in Asia. They will be finally delivered to the Imperial Japanese Navy in February.
This slightly predates IOTL's Fuji class, commissioned in 1897.

ITTL the Guangxu Emperor didn't halt naval spending, being busy with his education in Britain, so the Qing kept up their naval construction. The two Japanese ships were ordered in response to this continued build up. These two ships are basically a version of the British Trafalgar class, except with their main armament in barbettes rather than turrets, with a corresponding improvement in freeboard.

Imperial Japanese Navy Wakasa class battleship
12,200 tons, 4 x 12" BL barbette, 4 (8) x 4.7", 1 (4) x 14” TT 1 fwd, 1 stn, 18" Compound belt, 3" Compound deck, 16 knots
- Wakasa, ordered 1889, commissioned 1893
- Noto, ordered 1889, commissioned 1893
 
A minor but very important update

February 1886: Following the Guangxu Emperor's example, his three year old half brother Zaifeng is sent by his father Prince Chun to join the Emperor in Britain for his education.

=McUpdate=
 
Jan-April 1894: Treaties are the treat
~Jan-April 1894: Treaties are the treat

January 1894: The French and Russians formalise their alliance in an exchange of governmental notes. While not a formally treaty, rather a set of understandings which will come to be known by the French term entente, the Franco-Russian alliance will divide Europe into two competing blocs. With the Austro-Hungarian, German and Italian Triple Alliance on one side and the Franco-Russian Entente on the other.

January 1894: While it has received the most attention, the South American Arms Race has not been confined solely to naval construction, nor confined solely to the three ABC powers. Over the past eight years, most nations in Latin American have been purchasing large quantities or arms and other military equipment. Argentina in particular purchased a licence to produce the 7.65mm M1889 Mauser in 1891, while the Brazilians adopted the M1893 variant. Both have then sold their surplus arms on to other Latin American nations, with Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru all seeking to improve their armed forces. The only nation thus far holding back has been Chile. However, no longer able to ignore the situation, the Chileans order 50,000 modified Lee-Metfords and 30 Maxim guns in 0.303” British from London Small Arms Company and Vickers in Britain. The Chilean Lee-Metfords feature a new deeper pattern of rifling to deal with an ongoing issue of excessive barrel wear caused by the new cordite ammunition.

January 1894: Concerns over the growing number of migrants leads the US Congress to pass the Dowes Act. The new law imposes quotas authorises the President to impose quotas on migrants and requires competency in English for permanent entry. President McKinley immediately uses the act to slash migration from Asia and Eastern Europe.

February 1894: Five Welsh Liberal MPs led by David Lloyd George defect to form a new Welsh Nationalist party Cymru Fydd. While this ends Campbell-Bannerman's majority. The new party will continue to vote with the government on virtually all issues, maintaining their position. The defections also occur in the Welsh Regional Administration Board, though here eighteen of the twenty four Liberal members of the thirty two member board defect, giving the party control of the board.

February 1894: Until now, cricketing tours have been organised on a ad hoc basis. However they are now becoming a regular annual occurrence and it felt some form of organisation is required. To this end, representatives of the British MCC, Dominion, Indian and US cricketing bodies meet in London to establish the Imperial Cricket Council to coordinate the game. It is agreed while the MCC should continue to be the custodian of the laws of cricket which govern the game, the ICC should organise tours to ensure regular rotation of teams.

February 1894: With the Sudan Military Railway now again making good progress towards Abu Hamad, General Kitchener dispatches the Dominion Brigade, supported by two Sudanese battalions under Brigadier William Gatacre to secure the town. In the wake of the recapture of Dongola, the Khalifa has built up the garrison to some 9,000 men. In a fierce five hour battle the Dominion Brigade successfully captures the town, killing over 4,000 Mahdists, holding it until the railway finally reaches it in late June.

March 1894: Since the end of the Great Eastern War in 1878, the Armenian people in the Ottoman Empire, already treated as second class citizens, have been struggling for reform, Sultan Abdul Hamid II has responded with increasing levels of persecution, encouraging local Kurds and Circassians to raid and loot Armenian villages and towns. In response the Armenian Sots'ial Demokrat Hnch'akyan Kusakts'ut'yun (SDHK) or Social Democratic Hunchakian Party, a communist Armenian political party organises a resistance around Sassoun. The Ottoman response is launch a series of brutal reprisals which rapidly develop into full scale massacres of Armenians and Assyrian Christians.

March 1894: To further strengthen their fleet, the Japanese order two further battleships and two protected cruisers. While the two Fuji class battleships are ordered from British yards, the two Suma class cruisers will be the first major warships constructed in Japan to Japanese design using entirely Japanese materials.

March 1894: Emperor Pedro II of Brazil contracts a fever and dies three weeks later. His death causes a massive outpouring of grief in Brazil and he widely mourned throughout the world. His surviving daughter succeeds him as Empress Isabel. Though her succession is entirely constitutional, her accession to the throne causes a great deal of disquiet in conservative circles in Brazil. Not only is there opposition due to her gender, her liberal sympathies are well known as is her deep commitment to her Catholic faith. However it also widely celebrated amongst the lower classes, especially those of African descent.

March 1894: The Wolseley Reforms to the Indian army have proven to less than ideal, with the British two battalion regiment model not being a good fit for the army. A new inquiry under General Frederick Roberts is commissioned to investigate further reforms.

April 1894: Since the beginning of the regeneration of the US Navy in 1883, 62 new warships have been ordered. However only 19 of those are suitable for patrol, commerce protection and security roles while 23 are optimised almost entirely for fleet combat, the remaining 20 being torpedo boats only suitable for coastal defence. In light of this, serious questions are asked in Congress regarding the 'top heavy' nature of the new US navy, with many feeling the dedication to Mahanist doctrine has gone too far. Despite Secretary of the Navy's request for more more ships suitable for the line of battle, Congress instead orders two small fast protected cruisers, four torpedo gunboats and ten torpedo boats for coastal defence, along with an increase in funding for coastal defence around the main US harbours.

April 1894: With their attempts to undermine British control of Egypt and Sudan through Khedive Abbas II's revolt having failed, the French begin supplying Emperor Menelik II weapons in an effort to expand their influence into Abyssinia, and thereby provide a base to threaten Sudan. He immediately gains the support of Russia unwilling to see an Orthodox Christian nation under Catholic control.

April 1894: In addition to the issues with barrel wear in the Lee-Metford due to the new cordite ammunition, operations in the Sudan have shown up some serious defects in the manufacture of British rifle ammunition, with problems regarding headspacing and bursting cases. In an effort to resolve these issues, entirely new machine tooling is imported from Germany and the US, while inspection for quality control is greatly tightened up. In particular the previous system whereby a manufacturer may resubmit a fail batch for a new round of testing is abandoned. These policies will result in a significant improvement in the quality of British military munitions, not only for small arms but across all army and navy weapons. The situation will also result in the creation of the National Development Board to ensure British industry remains abreast of technology. This is followed by the Technical Education Act later in the year, further encouraging engineering and scientific education.

April 20th 1894: After having mastered the basics of flight in balloons, Alberto Santos-Dumont begins experimenting with petrol driven non-rigid airships.
 
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