It is highly unlikely that there will be a USSR backed part of China. Keep in mind that unlike what most people think the USSR was not 100% behind the communist in the civil war. they were playing the wait and see game and only when the communist was about to achieve total victory did USSR support Mao. Chiang jie shi like Mao was a Chinese nationalist and wanted the best for the country, his vision is more similar to modern day capitalistic China than Mao's idea of a Communist China. Mongolia would have been part of China again either through diplomacy with USSR or a direct military invasion. i would think would have happened would have happen is China takes the role of Japan in the 50's and 60's. this is because the only reason the USA backed Japan and revitalized their economy was because China was "lost" and Japan was the last bastion of Capitalism in Asia. Diplomatically China would not be 100% behind the USA, China would have played the "middle" road and accept both Russian and American aid and support for the first 10 years. Chiang knows if he is to rebuild China he has to do this and avoid being in a war that he strongly believed was inevitable between the USSR and USA. Militarily China would have been a powerhouse due to the amount of weapons that the USA sent them in the civil war and most likely have conducted their own nuclear program and got their first bomb (with american assistance) the same time Britain got hers. China's air force would have been equipped with both the Soviet Migs and American ones and possibly as time progress would have bought the Canadian Avro Arrow. Mao himself would have either escaped to North Korea, USSR, or a Eastern European country. However the most important issue for the new government of China is to tackle the corruption issue otherwise their may well be a new Revolution. More to come.