What empires could relocate to a new area, like the Byzantines or Mughals?

SeaCambrian

Gone Fishin'
What empires do you know of that, like the Eastern Roman Empire, withdrew from their former core territory and reestablished themselves in a new area?

Some examples:
  • The Umayyad Caliphate fell in the Middle East, but established the Emirate of Cordoba, and later the Caliphate of Cordoba.
  • The Seljuk Empire disintegrated in the east, but the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum survived in Anatolia
  • The Golden Horde survived beyond the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty
  • The Timurids re-established themselves in India as the Mughal Empire
What alternate empires could have done the same thing and retreated to their own "Byzantium"?
 
I don't think the Roman or Umayyad exemples are really spot on.
Rome ceased to be "the" imperial core a long time before WRE collapsed : Nicomedia and Constantinople were, as much as everyone was concerned, Roman cores in the East with the addition of Antioch.
It would be, if you will, as considering an hypothetical new American capital set in the West coast and that would rule the remnants of USA from there as a "government in exile".

For the latter, Umayyad Spain was rather a political takeover due to the failure of a rotating leadership (amusingly relatively close to visigothic anti-dynastic kingship) : Abd al-Rahman was enough of a prestigious candidate and Umayyads being perceived as champions of Arabity in the aftermath of the Berber Revolt...Note that it wasn't unanimous and you had Abassid supporters in the peninsula up to quite a late date.
Eventually Abd al-Rahman didn't seem to have claimed the caliph title or function (there's mentions but they're rather dubious), which was taken back as a reaction against Fatimids, in a contest of generalized revolt of muladi.
I don't think that in this case as well, we can really consider it as an "empire-in-exile" as well.
 
What about the example of the Portuguese empire being ruled from Rio de Janeiro for 12 years in the early 19th century?
 
The Han Dynasty did it.The Eastern Han Dynasty was named so because the new capital(Luoyang) was east of the old one(Chang’an).
 
You could even apply it to the Netherlands, if you like; it started as a Flemish-Brabantine led thing, because that's where the greatest wealth was; but as Brabant and Flanders were lost, the seat of power shifted north.

Of course this is a bit of a quick summary and there were northern tendencies from the start, but...
 
Its somewhat easy to do during the colonial era. If there was a revolution in the UK furing the victorian era for instance, we could see the monarch's capital moving to elsewhere in the UK or somewhere like India.
 
Are you sure about that? You have the legal system and the language and the population originally from England, for a large part, and the country started as colonies of England. (I feel confused here. Am I wrong?)
The United States is not the continuation of the Kingdom of England. It is composed of regions once settled and administered by the English, true, but the state itself was based on conscious secession from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Contrast to Babur and the Tetrachs, who did shift their ruling seats from one area to another, from which followed a discernible change in the nature of their domains.
 
I don't think the Mughal Empire counts. It was radically different from the Timurids, after all, in both territory and culture. It was an entirely different empire that was simply connected in dynasty to the Timurids and was formed after Babur was kicked out of his rump emirate.
 
The Indo-Greeks, kind of.

Alexander the Great was not actually the Greek that went the furthest into India—that was Menander I Soter over a century later, who was recorded in Indian sources to have even sieged Pataliputra. Even after Baktria was conquered by the Saka Indo-Greek statelets persisted until ~10 AD
 
i was reading that Byzantine Emperor Heraclius did plan of abandoning the core eastern territory to Persia (including Constantinople) and relocating to either Carthage or Sicily. Also during the Persian wars Athens did threaten to move all its population to one of its colonies in Sicily i believe.
 

SeaCambrian

Gone Fishin'
Armenian Cilicia, created by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia, would be another one.

Arguably it existed contemporaneously with three other "Byzantiums" -- Byzantium itself, the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, and the Kingdom of Cyprus.



I don't think the Roman or Umayyad exemples are really spot on.
Rome ceased to be "the" imperial core a long time before WRE collapsed : Nicomedia and Constantinople were, as much as everyone was concerned, Roman cores in the East with the addition of Antioch.
It would be, if you will, as considering an hypothetical new American capital set in the West coast and that would rule the remnants of USA from there as a "government in exile".

For the latter, Umayyad Spain was rather a political takeover due to the failure of a rotating leadership (amusingly relatively close to visigothic anti-dynastic kingship) : Abd al-Rahman was enough of a prestigious candidate and Umayyads being perceived as champions of Arabity in the aftermath of the Berber Revolt...Note that it wasn't unanimous and you had Abassid supporters in the peninsula up to quite a late date.
Eventually Abd al-Rahman didn't seem to have claimed the caliph title or function (there's mentions but they're rather dubious), which was taken back as a reaction against Fatimids, in a contest of generalized revolt of muladi.
I don't think that in this case as well, we can really consider it as an "empire-in-exile" as well.
Very true, but I meant any non-migratory empire that changes location, regardless of whether this occurs in duress (Armenian Cilicia, Song Dynasty), as a steady development (Eastern Roman Empire, Seljuk Sultanate), or as a prince of a former empire conquering new land as the old one collapses (Umayyads, Mughals).

Yes, they are all different situations, but they have common elements in that an empire changed location, often adopting a new identity but having a clear connection to the old empire.
 
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