Until Liberty Enlightens The World: An Alternate America and an Alternate Cold War

How many seats are in the House ITTL, and how are they apportioned?


Alabama 15
Alaska 2
Arizona 19
Arkansas 9
Baja California 11
California 121
Colorado 15
Connecticut 11
Dakota 2
Delaware 2
District of Columbia 2
Florida 54
Georgia 29
Hawaii 4
Idaho 4
Illinois 38
Indiana 20
Iowa 10
Jefferson 2
Kansas 8
Kentucky 12
Louisiana 13
Maine 4
Maryland 18
Massachusetts 20
Michigan 30
Minnesota 15
Mississippi 8
Missouri 19
Montana 3
Nebraska 5
Nevada 8
New Hampshire 4
New Jersey 26
New Mexico 6
New York 54
Newfoundland 2
North Carolina 29
Ohio 32
Oklahoma 6
Oregon 13
Pennsylvania 39
Puerto Rico 11
Rhode Island 3
Sequoyah 6
South Carolina 13
Tennessee 19
Texas 71
Utah 9
Vermont 2
Virginia 22
Washington 20
West Virginia 6
Wisconsin 17
Wyoming 3

1900 box.png
The 1900 United States presidential election was the 29th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1900. Incumbent President George Gray of Delaware narrowly lost re-election to Republican congressman James Sherman of New York. It was the second consecutive election to require a contingent election in Congress to decide the winner, as Sherman won only 220 electoral votes, eleven
shy of the 231 necessary to win outright. It was the first time that a contingent congressional election led to the President and Vice President being from different parties. Aged 45 on inauguration day, Sherman is the youngest person to ever become President.

The American economy had recovered somewhat during the presidency of George Gray, as trade barriers were lowered, and the worst depths of the Panic of 1893 receded. However, in spite of this economic improvement, the economy was overshadowed by foreign policy, which played a much more significant role in the election than it had in 1896. The Republican Party supported the annexation of Hawai'i, which had recently seen its native monarchy overthrown and replaced by a republic dominated by American business interests. Many Republicans also supported intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence, arguing that the Monroe Doctrine required the United States to oppose the colonial efforts of Spain in the Western Hemisphere. However, there was significant opposition to both these propositions, led by anti-imperialists in the Democratic and Populist parties, with William Jennings Bryan, the Populist nominee for a second time in 1900, being one of the leading members of the faction. While President Gray was not an anti-imperialist, he was much more conservative with intervention that many Republicans thought he should have been, refusing to back
1900 ec.png
Cuba in their war against Spain, and not advocating for the annexation of Hawai'i.

Gray was re-nominated with little opposition at the Democratic National Convention in Kansas City, as Bryan decided to stick with the Populist Party, rather than trying to challenge the incumbent within his own party. Senator David Turpie of Indiana was chosen as Gray's vice presidential running mate, replacing 77-year-old Henry Davis. The platform put forth was generally conservative, supporting the gold standard and relatively low tariffs, while opposing American intervention into the Cuban war, and making no statement on the possible annexation of Hawai'i. Bryan was nominated without much controversy at the Populist convention, and many of his supporters saw it as being almost inevitable that the Populists would make even more progress in 1900 than they had in 1896 and 1892.

The Republican convention, held in Philadelphia, was significantly more competitive than the Democratic or Populist ones. Candidates under consideration included former Speaker of the House Thomas B. Reed of Maine, Senator William Allison of Iowa, and Progressive Senator Albert Beveridge from Indiana. There was even a quixotic imperialist faction that sought to re-nominate the unpopular former President McKinley against his will. However, the candidate that came out on top, after several indecisive rounds of balloting, was Representative James S. Sherman from Utica, in upstate New York. Sherman was a moderate conservative who was popular among House members, and had a strong record as a supporter of the gold standard. Sherman was able to gather the support of a considerable number of easterners, and he was an acceptable enough candidate among most of the party to receive the nomination, in spite of some opposition from progressives. Robert Todd Lincoln, the son of beloved President Abraham Lincoln, and a former Secretary of War, was nominated as the party's Vice Presidential candidate. The party's platform supported the annexation of Hawai'i, and made statements in support of Cuban independence, and in favor of some sort of American intervention, although it put forth no specific details on the party's position.

For the second election in a row, no candidate won a majority of the electoral vote. Several northeastern states which had voted for Gray in 1896 swung back to the Republicans and Sherman, now that the unpopular McKinley was not on the ticket. Moreover, the improving economy and the significant role that foreign policy played in the election resulted in disappointing losses for Bryan, who saw several states he had won in 1896 flip away from him - to both the Republicans and Democrats. However, the 53 electoral votes won by Bryan meant that neither Gray or Sherman could win a majority. The election was sent to Congress, with the Senate choosing between Lincoln and Turpie for the vice presidency, and the House choosing between Gray, Sherman, and Bryan for the presidency. The Senate majority narrowly voted for Democrat Turpie to become the Vice President, but Sherman, the Republican, was chosen by the House of Representatives, where he was a popular leader, and the Republicans were stronger. This led to the unusual situation of the President and Vice President being of different parties, which had not happened since Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson in 1864.
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Here's an experiment for showing control of the different districts. I don't love how this looks, but I think I prefer it to how I did Alabama, and it will probably be easier, too. It bugs me that the two .gifs are out of sync, but I have no idea how to fix it.


Governor Doug Ducey (Republican)

First Elected: 2014
Senator Barbara Barrett (Republican)
First Elected: 2000
Senator Meghan McCain (Republican)
Appointed: 2018

1. Ken Bennett (Federal Freedom)
2. David Gowan (Federal Freedom)
arizona phoenix.gif

3. Michael D. Hawkins (Republican)
4. Jonathan Lines (Republican)
5. Jan Brewer (Republican)
6. Jim Lane (Republican)
7. Michael Bidwill (Republican)
8. Martha McSally (Republican)
9. Ruben Gallego (Popular)
10. Anna Tovar (Popular)
11. John Giles (Republican)
12. Carlos Noriega (Popular)
13. Jeff Flake (Republican)
14. Stephen Roe Lewis (Popular)
15. Mary Peters (Republican)
16. Steve Smith (Federal Freedom)
17. Jeff Rein (Republican)
18. Raúl Grijalva (Popular)
19. Arturo Garino (Popular)
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Here is Alabama in the same style.


Governor Mike Rogers (Democratic)
First Elected: 2018
Senator Jeff Sessions (Democratic)

First Elected: 2000
Senator Robert Aderholt (Democratic)

First Elected: 2016

1. Tim Melson (Democratic)
2. Arthur Orr (Democratic)
3. Mo Brooks (Democratic)
4. Ron Sparks (Democratic)
5. Doug Jones (Democratic)
6. Terri Sewell (NAACP)
7. Bobby Singleton (NAACP)
8. Walt Maddox (Democratic)
9. Gary Palmer (Democratic)
10. Joe F. Edwards (Democratic)
11. Joe Turnham (Democratic)
12. Steven Reed (NAACP)
13. Martha Roby (Democratic)
14. John McMillan (Democratic)
15. Bradley Byrne (Democratic)

june 22 trump infobox.png
Donald John Trump
is an American businessman, real estate magnate, television personality, and politician. He was the Republican Party nominee for Governor of New York in 2002 and 2014, and is the owner of a number of hotels, golf courses, and casinos. He has been the host and producer of The Apprentice, owner of the New York Yankees baseball team, owner of the Miss Universe beauty pageants, host of the talk show Trump Time!, and has co-written several successful books on business.

Trump was born in Jamaica, New York, and, after attending Fordham University and the University of Pennsylvania, took over his father's real estate company, re-naming it The Trump Organization, and expanding its influence and reach throughout the New York metropolitan area during the 1970s and 1980s. He later branched out into innumerable other fields, with Trump-branded hotels, casinos, and golf courses appearing all over the world. His book The Art of the Deal was a New York Times best-seller, and the New York Yankees won the World Series under his ownership in 1996.

In 2002, Trump ran for the governorship of New York as a Republican. He campaigned on a populist center-right platform, railing against the perceived corruption of the Tammany machine that ran New York politics, and the scandals that had plagued the Ferraro administration. Trump's campaign emphasized his business experience and outsider status, as someone who had never been in politics before, in contrast to his opponent, the career politician Chuck Schumer.

Many observers felt that the difference between Trump winning and losing the election was a much-publicized gaffe at a debate when he seemed to not be aware that the Governor of New York was based in Albany, rather than New York City. The Schumer campaign also ran a series of television ads showing repeated accusations of racial discrimination in Trump's businesses, that was also seen as hurting him. Schumer beat Trump by just 1.7 points, the closest New York gubernatorial election in more than two decades.

Trump publicly considered running for Mayor of New York, the United States Senate, and the presidency of the United States in the years following his narrow loss to Schumer, but did not run for any office again until 2014, when the New York governorship came open once again, having focused on his television and business commitments in the mean time. His 2014 campaign was much less successful. Trump was seen as erratic on the campaign trail, and only narrowly managed to win the Republican primary, despite being much more well-known than the other candidates. He was widely criticized for a series of offensive statements he made regarding immigrants, Muslims, and Jews, and was publicly rebuked by Mitch Daniels, the sitting President of his own party. Trump lost to the Tammany candidate, Joe Crowley, by nearly 20 points, running behind Crowley even in the upstate regions that he had won comfortably against Schumer. Trump retired from politics following the election, but remains chairman of The Trump Organization, as well as host of The Apprentice.

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Hillary Diane Rodham
(formerly Hillary Rodham Clinton) is an American attorney, author, and jurist who serves as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, and a senior lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School. She was Second Lady of the United States from 1997 to 2000, during her marriage to Vice President Bill Clinton. After working in private practice, as a law professor, and on her husband's political campaigns, Rodham was appointed to the Seventh Circuit by President Jim Webb in 2002. As a judge who could be supported by both Democrats and Progressives, she was widely listed as a candidate for the Supreme Court in 2004, 2005, and 2007, but she was passed over on each occasion.

Raised in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, Rodham graduated from Wellesley College in 1969, and earned a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1973. After serving as a congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas and married future Vice President Bill Clinton in 1975; the two had met at Yale. In 1977, she co-founded Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families. She was appointed the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978, and became the first female partner at Little Rock's Rose Law Firm the following year. Rodham was the first lady of Arkansas from from 1983 to 1990, and was one of Bill Clinton's foremost advisors during his governorship, as well as during his unsuccessful presidential campaigns in 1988 and 1996.

Following Clinton's election as Vice President in 1996, Rodham spent a considerable amount of time in Washington, working on various campaigns associated with the White House and the vice presidency. Rodham was seen as a relatively rare example of a feminist Democrat, and as a part of a new, more open Democratic Party. However, the relationship between Clinton and Rodham fell apart following a series of accusations of sexual harassment, sexual assault, and adultery against Clinton, which led to his resignation in February 2000, and their divorce the next year. Rodham returned to her home city of Chicago, and was hired by the University of Chicago Law School, where she still works today.

President Webb nominated Rodham to the Seventh Circuit during his second term in office, more than two years after Clinton had resigned the vice presidency. Although some criticized the selection as nepotism, due to the connection between Webb and his former Vice President's ex-wife, she was confirmed easily by the United States Senate. Rodham was on Webb's shortlist to replace Sandra Day O'Connor on the Supreme Court in 2004, but Webb chose the more experienced judge Karen J. Williams, instead. She was also considered as a "wildcard option" for the Supreme Court during Christine Gregoire's presidency, but was overlooked in favor of Sheldon Whitehouse and Elena Kagan.

Rodham is generally seen as a leader of the liberal-progressive wing of the Seventh Circuit, and has written several noteworthy opinions, including Bloch v. Frischholz, which held that the Fair Housing Act prohibited housing associations from banning the placement of certain religious symbols on homes, and Hively v. Ivy Tech, which held that state discrimination against people on the basis of their sexuality violated the 23rd Amendment. Both decisions were later upheld by the Supreme Court. Rodham has written several books on legal matters, as well as a memoir, Living History: From Chicago to Arkansas to Washington and Back.
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june 23 treaty of madrid.png
The Treaty of Madrid (also known as the Lincoln-Almodóvar Treaty, or the Puerto Rico Purchase) was a treaty signed by the United States and Spain on March 10, 1902. It saw the United States purchase Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Subic Bay Naval Base from Spain, in exchange for $85 million and a guarantee of American non-intervention into the ongoing War of Cuban Independence.

The Spanish government hoped that, by relieving some of the financial burdens that Spain was incurring during the war, they would be able to achieve victory in Cuba, especially if the morale of the revolutionaries would be hurt by removing the possibility of American assistance. However, this was not successful, and the government was unable to retain control of Cuba, leading to it being forced to accept the island’s independence in late 1905. The combination of the loss of Cuba, the loss of the areas sold to the United States, and the loss of the rest of the Philippines in the following decade, marked the end of the Spanish Empire.

For the United States, the treaty served to enhance her naval power projection throughout the world. Puerto Rico strengthened her Caribbean capabilities, while Guam and Subic Bay, combined with the recently annexed Hawai'i, made the U.S. the major force in the Pacific. The treaty allowed President Sherman to take advantage of the Cuban situation, without having to go to war with Spain, something that he was reluctant to do. The U.S. expanded its power and reach, at a relatively low cost.

The treaty was primarily negotiated between U.S. Secretary of State Robert Todd Lincoln and Juan Manuel Sánchez, Duke of Almodóvar del Río, the Spanish Minister of State. It came into legal effect on June 23, 1902, following ratification by the United States Senate. It is now regarded as the major success of the Sherman Administration, although there was controversy at the time regarding the size of the payment that the U.S. made to Spain. Additionally, President Sherman was also criticized by many imperialists in his party, who wanted to see the U.S. military intervene against Spain, and uphold the Monroe Doctrine. There were also imperialist Republicans who thought that the U.S. should have tried to purchase all of the Philippines from Spain, or at least a much more significant area than just a single naval base. However, it eventually won bipartisan support in the Senate, as a middle ground between war and anti-imperialism.

The Duke of Almodóvar del Río and Secretary of State Robert Todd Lincoln


Governor Asa Hutchinson (Democratic)

First Elected: 2014
Senator Blanche Lincoln (Democratic)
First Elected: 1998
Senator John Boozman (Democratic)
First Elected: 2010

1. Steve Womack (Democratic)
2. Courtney Rae Hudson (Democratic)
3. Tom Cotton (Democratic)
4. Missy Irvin (Democratic)
5. Robert Marion Berry (Democratic)
6. Charles Blake (NAACP)
7. Rick Crawford (Democratic)
8. Kim Hammer (Democratic)
9. Jimmy Hickey, Jr. (Democratic)

But are there any reason for the population to accept this flag?
The flag was made by a local Jeffersonian in the run-up to statehood. It's become one of those (admittedly objectively ugly) pieces of local pride and individuality that few in the state would want to change.