When would you prefer the "Fun Maps" to be set.

  • When the timeline ends.

    Votes: 7 25.0%
  • The present day.

    Votes: 18 64.3%
  • I don't care.

    Votes: 3 10.7%

  • Total voters
    28
Overall, this is an excellent timeline, and I've enjoyed reading it. It's a shame, in my opinion, that you plan to end it circa 1840 because there's so much to explore. Regardless, I'm looking forward to the various fun facts you have planned out and the potential mapping of this world.
Thank-you!

I'm looking at it as I am only finishing the 2nd draft. And when I do get to the 3rd draft it will go even longer.

Given that I have hundreds of project ideas that never make it this far & that people are enjoying this, I see it as giant achievement just to get to the minimum I planned :happyblush

I do very much plan on doing a 3rd draft. There are several revisions I want to make & I want to use this idea for the basis for a published AH work. I'm just not sure which I'm going to do first, & there is an unrelated TL I've been wanting to do for years inbetween.
 
XII-4: Mexican Overreach

Chapter 4: Mexican Overreach​

—AD 1820 – AD 1836—
“Mexico to had its growing pains”
Unknown
550px-Coat_of_arms_of_the_Mosquito_Monarchy.svg.png

Arms of Mosquito [cxvii]​

For the first few years after the independence, the former New Spanish were mostly in agreement. The Spanish were gone and that was good. But as the reality of the Mexican Empire settled in, discontent begin to show. Some of this was due to republican sentiments. Many former Republicanos were still around and held signifigant local influence. But more often than not, problems coalesced around two other issues. First, Mexico was very large. This one of the reasons the Spanish lost the war, there was just too much area to cover for the size of the army. The second was cultural. Mexico promoted a cultural synthesis between Spanish culture and a Neo-Aztec revival, and this was the only option. This did not go over well with those who had no connection with the Aztecs.

The first place these problems erupted into fighting was in the southern extremes of Mexico. The non-Aztec cultures were much more noticeable there, and they were often ignored by the government all the way in Tenochtitlan. With a formal declaration, seven self-proclaimed regions declared independence. Mexican troops were dispatched to quelle the rebels. However, those who fought for independence knew their jungle. The Mexicans could win any pitched battles, but they could not root out a resistance that kept fleeing into the jungle. By AD 1823, Mexico had given up. It was an unpopular decision, but this was not the only rebellion they had to deal with and it was the furthest away.

There was no question for the local governments, the newly independent region was going to be a unified state. None of the regions felt safe on their own. Disagreements were smoothed over when it was decided to make the new country federal. Each of the states had their own right to their own cultural expression and government, though Spanish would be used federally to prevent favoritism. The original plan was to create a form of republic. However, there were concerns that native and extremely rural populations may be persuaded into betraying the nation because they would view it as lacking legitimacy without a monarch (the legitimacy of these fears is up for debate, but they were raised). A solution was developed. A purely symbolic monarch would be chosen, while all the governing would be left to the head of government. But who to crown? No European noble would agree to such an arrangement, and none of the revolutionaries had more legitimacy than Agustín I. That left a native monarch. The Miskito had previous experience working with a European system, and their monarch technically already held the dignity of king. George Frederic Augustus I of the Miskito accepted the crown, with one condition. Miskito land was broken off to function as a federal territory.

While Mosquito was the first, it was not the only independence movement in Mexico’s south. A rebellion in the Yucatán would follow only a few months after Mosquito gained its independence. Besides being later, the Yucatán Revolution was different from the Mosquito revolutions. One was that the Yucatán revolutionaries wanted to be an independent country and not part of an alliance or federation, the other is the Yucatán revolutionaries’ cultural bias was exclusively Mayan based. The revolution in the Yucatán unfolded in the same way as the Mosquito revolutions, however Mexico did not capitulate this time. The thought at the time, which is not entirely untrue, is that Mosquito’s independence encouraged other revolts. So even though they only able to hold particular fortresses and cities, Mexico continued to claim all of the Yucatán and continued to send reinforcements.

With only one planed culture group, in the Yucatán was less paranoid about legitimacy than Mosquito. Instead, they looked to South America, partially Chilean political thinkers, for ideas about how to create a government. This led to an elected monarchy led by a caudillo (or cacique). Due to the constant state of war, unclear boundaries of the caudillo’s authority, and internal religious troubles, few considered there to be a government there.
§​
About ten years after the independence of Mosquito, and while the conflict in the Yucatán was still ongoing. Both Spain and Mexico view the northern areas in the same way. However, Spain had limited ability to influence area due to the long distance and trying to keep the rest of New Spain in line. At the same time Mexico was encouraging settlement in the Tejas region, they tried increasing their control over the Amerindians there. Most of the Amerindians could not resist the Mexican Army. The exception was the Apache and the Commanche.

Both of these tribes mounted a partisan war against the Mexican forces. Mexico had to split its forces between the north and the south, as well as keep enough of the army free to pacify any unrelated small-scale events. With split forces, and most of the Amerindians in the area not hostile, the empire decided to take a different approach. They looked to France and Britian and attempted to create a situation similar to British and French Indiana. The biggest difference was that Mexico would hold its Amerindian protectorates directly, rather than through an intermediary state. Mexico then claimed that it was now in the same league as the European imperial powers, since it had protectorates of its own.

Mexico expected the terms of a protectorate to appeal to the Apache and Commanche enough to get them to settle down. After all, they fought with each other just as much as they fought Mexico. And this new arrangement would give them a chance to settle their disputes threw the “guidance” of Mexico. Neither cooperated. Mexico would continue to claim both the Apache and Commanche as protectorates, despite evidence to the contrary. Which they would brush of as supposed independent dissidence.
***​

Figure 1: Map of Mexico & Protectorates [cxvi]​

1707153215014.png


United Kingdom of Mosquito​

Reino Unido de Misquito (spa)
1707153381413.png

Flag of Mosquito [cxviii], Arms of Mosquito [cxvii], & Location of Mosquito (light blue) [cxvi]
Motto:
“Dios, Unión y Libertad (spa)
(God, Union, and Freedom)​
Anthem:“The Grenadier”
Capital:Bluefields
Official language:Spanish
Common languages:Many native languages
Common religion:Catholicism & Presbyterianism [*]
Demonym:Mosquito
Government:
• King​
• Prime Minister​
Federal constitutional monarchy
George Frederic Augustus I
Juan Vicente Villacorta
Formed:from Mexico
Currency:Mosquito axe-money (Ƭ) [†]

Amerindian Board Games​

The history behind the Apache-Suited playing cards [88] is unknown. What is known is that they were originally made from animal hides and were based on the Spanish-Suits. The art on each card was highly stylized in the particular style of where it was made. Suits were spears, cups, suns, and clubs. There were seven numbered cards, each displayed their number only by the number of objects depicted. And just as in the Spanish-Suits, there are three faces cards for each suit. The lowest is the youth, then warrior, and finally chief, often called a king. With the exception of the warriors, which included the addition of a horse, face cards were depicted with a well decorated rectangular blanket, its suit marker on one side, and a Europeanized headdress. Apache-Suited cards would become the dominate suit in Amerindian areas, though they would eventually be printed on paper like other cards.

Footnotes​

* As a result of the English Revolution​
† Banknotes where normal paper. Coins were originally round, but have since been made into little axe blades for their namesake.​

Endnotes​

88. This is based off OTL artifacts.​
cxvii. (Sarumo74, 2013)​
cxviii. (Roshan220195, 2013)​
Roshan220195. Flag of Miskito – Minahan. 30 March 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Miskito_-_Minahan.svg. Accessed: 16 January 2024.​
Sarumo75. Coat of arms of the Mosquito Monarchy. 19 December 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coat_of_arms_of_the_Mosquito_Monarchy.svg. Accessed: 16 January 2024.​
 
Map of the World AD 1834.png

Map of the World in AD 1834, Three Years Before the Laurentian War [cxvi]​


Part XIII will happen basically exclusively in New France (it only leave New France to reference politics that effect New France in France).

And now to finish the last official chapter & edit all ~6 chapters, while listening to Le Vent du Nord!
 
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XIII-1: Les Patriotes

Part XIII: The Last Conflict of Colonial French North America​

Chapter 1: Les Patriotes

—AD 1834 – AD 1837—
Ne pas se souvenir derrière, en avant ![*]
A Patriote slogan
Louis-Joseph_Papineau_1878.jpg

Portrait of Louis Papineau [†] [cxix] [89]

The situation in New France could not continue forever. The question was, how would it break? For a few years, discontents had been gathering and speaking to each other. Chief among the discussion topics was how to reduce corruption. But other topics were discussed as well. Such meeting often resembled those that took place just prior to the Columbian Revolt. As such, many viewed the discontents as being un-New French. This led to many abandoning the meetings, but others doubled down on the association, ostracizing themselves from the rest of New French society.

Louis Papineau was one of the New Frenchmen that continued attending these meetings. He was undeterred by the accusations of being an Anglophile, going so far as to even founded his own society modeled on the Son’s of Liberty [‡], the Columbian Club, so named for Louis Papineau’s wish to follow in the ideals of the Columbian Revolt. But it was not just democratic reforms the Columbian Club advocated for far more. Independence from France, the abolishment of the seigneurial system, and complete secularization of the government, among others.

In an event that many at the time connected to Martin Luther, Louis Papineau presented an ultimatum of ninety-two resolutions to the governor-general’s cabinet, in February AD 1834. The cabinet rejected his resolutions (due to his health, the governor-general was not present, however it is doubtful that he would have accepted all of them if he was). As soon as Louis Papineau left governor’s palace, he shouted to the public [§] and a small riot broke out. An attempt was made to arrest him, but he escaped in the chaos.

Louis Papineau hid near the New Albion border. There he stockpiled supplies, weapons, and grew the membership of the Columbian Club. Much of the club’s leadership were lawyers, and merchants. They knew they would not be able to field a revolution on their own. So, they focused on recruiting disillusioned younger adults. Due to the near non-existent oversight of the seigneurs and clergy, there was no shortage of habitats’ sons wanting revenge. The youth were too young to remember the British occupation; too young to remember before the corruption, when the arrival of the local fugitive priest brought news and hope. Because to that, Louis Papineau’s ardent anti-clericalism did not push them away like it did most inhabitance of New France.
***​

Figure 1: Patriote’s Flag [cxx]​

Patriote Flag AD 1837.png

Footnotes​

* fra: “Do not remember behind, go forward!”​
† An older Louis Papineau​
‡ There is no direct historic connection between the Columbian Club and the Son’s of Liberty besides inspiration. Conspiracy theories, however, are constantly connecting the two by means of powerful behind the scenes secret societies.​
§ It is unknow exactly what he said, sources at that time, are highly biased in what they claim​

Endnotes​

89. OTL Louis-Joseph Papineau. Louis Papineau is an ATL version, but not meant to be exact same person.​
cxix. (Alfred Boisseau, 1878)​
cxx. (Dual Freq, 2006)​
Boisseau, Alfred. Portrait of Louis-Joseph Papineau. 1878. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Louis-Joseph_Papineau_1878.jpg. Accessed 25 January 2024.​
Dual Freq. Naval jack of the United States (1776–1777). 2006. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Naval_jack_of_the_United_States_(1776–1777).svg. Accessed 26 January 2024.​

The beginning of the end 🥹
 
XIII-2: Les Royalistes

Chapter 2: Les Royalistes​

—AD 1834 – AD 1837—
“His [the Viscount of Léry’s] death marked the beginning of the end of colonial New France.”
from the Children of the Plains of Abraham
408px-Vicomte_de_L%C3%A9ry.jpg

Général François-Joseph d'Estienne Chaussegros de Léry [cxxi]

A few days after Louis Papineau presented his resolutions, the Governor-General of New France, the Viscount of Léry died. His funeral was observed all over New France; they did not just lose their governor-general; they lost the war hero that saw them threw the English Occupation. It is said that even the most radical patriote kept a moment of silence in his memory. Unfortunately, no one was appointed as his replacement. Louis XVII was aware of the vacancy but he never appointed a new governor-general, and it was well known in both France and New France that he would never accept a purchased position. As such the duties of the governor-general were unofficially filled by the Viscount’s wife.

The viscount’s first wife, Marie-Cécile de Kellermann, had died in the final year occupation. And while he did stay single for several years he did eventually remarry. His second marriage was entirely a political move. He needed a way to gain the loyalty of those who had survived the occupation in the cities. They had a much different experience during the occupation, having to live with English occupationary force as their neighbors. Anne-Caroline le Moyne was the Baroness of Longueuil [*], once a widow herself, had managed to gather influence during the occupation by being a businesswoman. Most of that influence she managed to keep afterwards. And that type of influence was exactly what the governor-general needed to keep some semblance of order in the chaotic political atmosphere of New France.

By the time of his death, the governor-general’s council consisted more of powerful businessmen and grand seigneurs that needed to be appeased to get anything done, rather than public servants working together for the good of the nation. Luckily, the influence the baroness had built up before her marriage ensured that none of the council challenged her legitimacy. But just because they recognized her as unofficial governess-general did not mean they made her job easy. Instead, she often had to resort to bribery and possibly even blackmail to keep them cooperative.

The Baroness of Longueuil did sympathize with the patriotes, her and her late husband’s troubles with the governor-general’s council was a symptom of many of the same problems the patriotes had. However, she could not agree with all the resolutions that Louis Papineau demanded.
***​

Footnote​

* Post-revolution, continental France did not recognize women inheritance, but some regions of France did have precedence for the practice before the revolution. Helped by France’s neglect of New France, the baroness was able to use that precedent and her own influence to have her inheritance recognized after the occupation ended.​
cxxi. (Sulte)​
Sulte, Benjamin. Général François-Joseph d'Estienne Chaussegros de Léry. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vicomte_de_Léry.jpg. Accessed 27 January 2024.​
 
XIII-3: The Laurentian War

Chapter 3: The Laurentian War​

—AD 1834 – AD 1838—
“One cannot arm for patriotism and not use them”
Unknown
Battle_of_Saint-Charles.jpg

The Battle of Saint-Charles [cxxii]
Even though they were still outnumbered, Louis Papineau and his Columbian Club had arms, supplies, and young men. What it lacked, was the one thing Louis Papineau wanted most of all for his revolution, a foreign ally. And the only real option for a foreign ally was New Albion. In the three years since he presented his resolutions, Louis Papineau traveled to New Albion several times. At first, he had to deal with being called a spy, and even when he managed to get passed that, there was always a catch. New Albion would only help if Louis Papineau surrendered New France them afterwards. They would impose his liberties on their new colony. Of course, he found these terms unacceptable. But that did not stop him from repeatedly trying to renegotiate the deal.

While Louis Papineau was trying to secure an ally, the rest of the Columbian Club had to wait. And that was something that a group of disgruntled youth are not good at. After about a year and a half, the Columbian Club began to start trouble, despite orders to the contrary. It started with nighttime vandalism. Then it moved to raiding farms and stealing livestock. It did not take long before the militia began to rally against the Columbian Club. But due to the club’s hit-and-run-tactics and the length of time it took to martial the militia, there would not be any major actions until AD 1837. The royal regiments in New France did not particularly get involved in fighting the Columbian Club. Their standing orders were to man the forts and protect from New Albion. The Columbian Club tended to avoid the forts as they did not have the organization to seize a fort.

The first actual battle happened quite by happenstance in Saint-Charles. A member of the Columbian Club from Saint-Charles had returned. And he had begun to brag that, “they [the residence of Saint-Charles] would soon have revenge upon the Church.” The early warning gave the militia time to assemble. And they caught members of the Columbian Club getting ready to light fire to the church building. Neither side at the Battle of Saint-Charles was particularly experienced, which led to a rather “lackluster” fight. In the end the Columbian Club retreated from the field.

While the battle itself was not all that important, it finally brought the two forces together in open conflict. From that point on, the Columbian Club would constantly be hounded by the militia. And now that their relative position was known beforehand, it was not so easy to melt away into the country side. Skirmishes and minor battle would continue for the next year. The Columbian Club was finally cornered in late AD 1838, on the Seigneury de Léry [90]. There, they had one of their large supply cashes. The barn the cash was stored in the club made their last stand, surrounded my militia. After an hour of exchanging volleys, the remainder of the Columbian Club surrendered. Luckily for the last of the Columbian Club, the militia captains were able to scrape together a plan to take them prisoner.

When Louis Papineau hear that the open conflict had begun, he stayed in New Albion in self-imposed exile. This was not an action made out of cowardness though. Had there been any reasonable chance of his Columbian Club wining he would have eagerly joined them. But he did not hear about the fighting until it was already early AD 1838 and he still had no allies to bring. The only chance for his ideas to survive was to stay away and avoid being captured with the rest.
§​
Membership in the Columbian Club seemed to be entirely a Francophone phenomenon. Non-Francophones generally saw the club as against their best interest. To them New Albion and Britain were the biggest danger and infighting would only make them weaker. In addition, almost all of them were Catholic, many had fled religious persecution, so the club’s anticlericalism was not welcomed by them. Amerindians generally agreed with the non-Francophones.

In Acadia, the club had no presence. The Acadians had fewer people and more to rebuild. There had been a hope that the Acadians in Louisiana would return, but few did. Louis Papineau did not try to recruit there, simply because it was obvious that they had too much to do already.
***​

Endnotes​

90. OTL Napierville, in ATL the town that would grow there would later be known simply as Saint-Cyprien.​
cxxii. (Clark, 1837)​
Clark, Edward Adams. 1837. The Battle of Saint-Charles. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_of_Saint-Charles.jpg. Accessed 29 January 2024.​
 
Seems odd that governor-general had no deputy? At least, military commander or intendant of Canada would be unofficial deputies?
Think of it this way:

The French military commander's orders were to only guard from the New Albions. They were not to distract themselves with internal affairs.

There was no intendant, France had abandoned that style of governance after the restoration. The duties of an intendant was taken up by the governor-general (& his staff) because there was no one else to do it.

The king was too distracted to appoint anyone new, even if those distractions were his own doing.

The French government was still pretending New France didn't exist to appoint anyone, as long as the taxes kept coming (eventually they would have done something after de Léry's death, when the taxes stopped, but the rebellion happened first, rendering that moot).

And, when he was alive, de Léry didn't appoint a lieutenant-governor because he had been conditioned to distrust everyone around him who had influence, so he didn't trust anyone enough to make them a lieutenant. I'm sure there was someone, somewhere who could have done the job loyally, but that doesn't mean he would have given that person the chance.

Even this long after the end of the occupation, the entire government of New France was still recovering, & was still an absolute mess. Most of the people de Léry was working with he either had to bribe or trick into doing anything that was not directly in their personal interest, because they were the people who seized power first when the leaving English officials left a vacuum. Had de Léry been younger, things probably would have turned out very different.
But as thing were, this was a "no win scenario."
 
Think of it this way:

The French military commander's orders were to only guard from the New Albions. They were not to distract themselves with internal affairs.

There was no intendant, France had abandoned that style of governance after the restoration. The duties of an intendant was taken up by the governor-general (& his staff) because there was no one else to do it.

The king was too distracted to appoint anyone new, even if those distractions were his own doing.

The French government was still pretending New France didn't exist to appoint anyone, as long as the taxes kept coming (eventually they would have done something after de Léry's death, when the taxes stopped, but the rebellion happened first, rendering that moot).

And, when he was alive, de Léry didn't appoint a lieutenant-governor because he had been conditioned to distrust everyone around him who had influence, so he didn't trust anyone enough to make them a lieutenant. I'm sure there was someone, somewhere who could have done the job loyally, but that doesn't mean he would have given that person the chance.

Even this long after the end of the occupation, the entire government of New France was still recovering, & was still an absolute mess. Most of the people de Léry was working with he either had to bribe or trick into doing anything that was not directly in their personal interest, because they were the people who seized power first when the leaving English officials left a vacuum. Had de Léry been younger, things probably would have turned out very different.
But as thing were, this was a "no win scenario."
Didn't they had some regional governer there in Quebec area?
 
Didn't they had some regional governer there in Quebec area?
The governor-general was the regional governor.

The king appointed de Léry immediately after the occupation ended when it was still on his mind, as a reward for "fighting for France" during the occupation.
While he did that, the French government decided to go with the whole pettiness thing of refusing to acknowledge New France.
If I'm reading the map right, California is British ITTL?
Officially, it's a protectorate of one of other Mexican protectorates. The shades are just similar.

California didn't go through its major settlement period yet. And the Mexican government considered the Native American tribes that lived there less "civilized" than the ones it had more regular contact with. So, the gave the area to the "care" of one of the other tribal states.
All this, of course, is just what is on paper. The on the ground reality is less "neat."

It's the same basic system Britain & France are using in their respective Indianas. Mexico want to "join the club" so to speak.
 
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XIII-4: France Hears about the War

Chapter 4: France Hears about the War​

—AD 1838 – AD 1839—
“All for Canada, and Canada for all!”
from The Three Musketeers in America [91]
800px-Mousquetaires-noire-1815.jpg

Black Musketeers [*] [cxxiii]
When news of the Laurentian War reach France, the first thing that happened was that Louis XVII’s opponents accused him of brining radical republicanism back to the kingdom by bringing New France back. These accusations did not go anywhere. The French populace who would listen had already become saturated with accusations against the king, one more made no difference. It also helped that while France did have loose restrictions on its newspapers, they were not completely unrestricted. And by now, those restrictions had become more refined, and filtered out much of the negativity towards the king.

Louis XVII was not really bothered by just another insult, but the Laurentian War, itself, did concern him. He had always considered himself an enlightened monarch, but given his experiences as a child with the French Revolution, he did not like political clubs or calls for republicanism. Unwilling to take any chance the king took immediate action against the Columbian Club (the club had already surrender by the time he heard about them, but he did not know that at the time). He could have requested the grand constable to send the army. It would be unlikely that the constable would refuse, however Louis XVII did not want to wait. While the French Army was under the control of the constable, the royal household did have military branch that was still under the direct control of the king. And the company Black Musketeers set sail for New France, by the king’s order.

Upon the musketeers’ arrival, they were greeted with all the fanfare possible. Many of those on the governor-general’s council showered the musketeers with gifts and tried to treat the captain of the musketeers as though he was the king himself. This did little to impress the musketeers, who thought of everyone in New France as provincials. The musketeers also did not recognize the Baroness of Longueuil’s unofficial position as acting governor-general. However, because she was cooperative and seemed loyal to the king, they were not overtly rude or dismissive of her.

Without rebels to fight, most of the musketeers just sat around Québec causing problems. Their captain, Étienne d’Orfeuille, felt that it was is duty to prepare New France for whatever the king wished to do with it. And while he did not have any details, he knew that Louis XVII was going to send someone to take charge of the political situation once he himself had “pacified” the locals. The captain turned his attention to New France’s political and corruption issues. He did not actual care about doing this for the good of New France or its people. He was doing it so that the Louis XVII would have an easier time enforcing whatever his plan was.

Captain d’Orfeuille took time to test the powerful players. One of his favorite methods was to feign a conspiracy and offer someone a hand in it. But most of the time all he had to do was look the individual performance. Before his arrival, there was little need to hide anything as the late governor-general and his wife could not afford to lose any support. And since Capt. d’Orfeuille needed none of their support, he full authority of the king to act as judge, jury, and prosecutor, and since the French Parliament disavowed any connection to New France, no one with authority over him was going to object. And Anyone in New France who complained would have to worry about the marauding musketeers.
***​

Footnotes​

*Named after the color of their horses.​

Endnotes​

91. An ATL fictional black and white film set in this time period.​
cxxiii. (Finart, 1815)​
Finart, David Noël Dieudonné. Black Musketeers. 1815 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mousquetaires-noire-1815.jpg. Accessed 30 January 2024.​
 
Why wouldn't French Parliament/Government refuse to recognise New France? And how exactly is that possible with Louis still being a absolute ruler?
 
Why wouldn't French Parliament/Government refuse to recognise New France?
Because back during the Congress of Hamburg, Louis XVII acted without consulting them & prioritized his own idealism over their economics.

They wanted France to force Britain to give them some sugar island, but Louis XVII signed the agreement with only New France & Acadia being handed over. So, they were being "humanly" butthurt over it.
And how exactly is that possible with Louis still being a absolute ruler?
He's not.

Louis XVII has much more power than what we typically think of as constitutional monarch, mostly it stops him from declaring war without consent/move the military proper (as seen in the latest chapter) or change domestic laws/taxation on a whim. But he doesn't form his own government.

The upper house of parliament is still hereditary nobility & there is nothing Louis XVII can do to change that besides create more peers. While the lower parliament is made of representatives elected by the department governments.
And while parliament became much "friendlier" to the king after the 1830 reforms, that's less than 10 years before the death of de Lery. That's not a lot of time to change policy on a region that doesn't play significant part in the country, it doesn't even pay a lot of taxes.
 
XIII-5: A Gamble for New France
Since tomorrow is Ash Wednesday, I won't be on my laptop (may be on my phone periodically though). So, I'm posting the next chapter a few hours early.


Chapter 5: A Gamble for New France​

—AD 1838 – AD 1840—
“No longer was New France just a new France.”
Children of the Plains of Abraham

Old_Parliament_Building_%28Quebec%29.png

The Bishop's Palace, Québec [cxxiv] [92]

Captain d’Orfeuille had made it no secret that the king intended to a French bureaucrat to take charge of New France, he just did not know anything more. This worried many in New France. And not just those who used the previous chaos to gain power. A French bureaucrat would certainly mean that New France would be reshaped to match France itself, or worse, any other colony of France. In its over three-hundred years, New France had developed its own traditions apart from France. A metropolitan bureaucrat could destroy all of it.

Cpt. d’Orfeuille would not be concerned with the replacement of New French culture. But he would care about potential issues with French rule. Both Archbishop Plessis and the Baroness of Longueuil began to ask the captain what his plan was for keeping unrest under control after the king’s bureaucrat took charge. In their questions, they seemed to exaggerate the presence of unknown Columbian Club sympathizers, sympathizers that, in reality, could not pose a threat to France’s stability. And a solution was floated around (it is unknown if the two coordinated their questions and were working together at this point). The solution was creating an insulating government, something that would be independent enough to respond to any rebellions, but also a government that would provide a few layers that would need to fall before any trouble could reach France. Certainly, any bureaucrat from France would not take the word of someone from New France that this new government would be in the king’s best interest. But he would take Cpt. d’Orfeuille word.

At first, the captain was suspicious of the idea of a “local” government and the only reason he entertained the idea is that both the archbishop and the baroness had already proven themselves loyal to the king. An assembly was created by the archbishop and the baroness, under the supervision of the captain. While they would have denied it at the time, the plan that was developed was clearly inspired by the dominion concept used by the British.
§​
When André Louis Mamyneau arrived in early AD 1840, the plan was presented to him almost immediately. Mgr. Mamyneau was unsure about the actual function of the government, he knew very little about New France. But since the captain had not rejected it, he sent it off to France. The king liked the idea of being monarch of two countries at the same time. He was already king of the French nation, but no one said the nation was contained to only one country. The king made a few small adjustments, approved it.

After the liberal reforms of AD 1831, the French Parliament was no longer a direct enemy of Louis XVII. But that did not mean they did not view the king with suspicion. He was still the same king who twice acted without consulting his advisers or the government, even if the second time gave many of them their positions. They too had ignored New France, but the recent revolt had drawn the colony to their attention as well. They saw the new government in New France as another way to limit the amount of damage the king could do. With New France in the governmentally quasi-limbo position it was in, it was possible that Louis XVII could eventually come up with another one of his plans and use the colony to circumvent normal governmental procedures... again. The government proposal established the French Parliament a legal say in what happens a crossed the Atlantic. Giving them reason to approve the plan as well.
***​
 
Because back during the Congress of Hamburg, Louis XVII acted without consulting them & prioritized his own idealism over their economics.

They wanted France to force Britain to give them some sugar island, but Louis XVII signed the agreement with only New France & Acadia being handed over. So, they were being "humanly" butthurt over it.

He's not.

Louis XVII has much more power than what we typically think of as constitutional monarch, mostly it stops him from declaring war without consent/move the military proper (as seen in the latest chapter) or change domestic laws/taxation on a whim. But he doesn't form his own government.

The upper house of parliament is still hereditary nobility & there is nothing Louis XVII can do to change that besides create more peers. While the lower parliament is made of representatives elected by the department governments.
And while parliament became much "friendlier" to the king after the 1830 reforms, that's less than 10 years before the death of de Lery. That's not a lot of time to change policy on a region that doesn't play significant part in the country, it doesn't even pay a lot of taxes.
Well, then he's parliamentary ruler like OTL current British king. Rubber stamp mostly.
In that case, how could he sign such treaty against wishes of Parliament/Government?
 
Well, then he's parliamentary ruler like OTL current British king. Rubber stamp mostly.
In that case, how could he sign such treaty against wishes of Parliament/Government?
Because the French government at this time was still attempting to "balance" power between parliament & monarchy, monarchical authority wasn't just an on or off thing. So, he was not just a rubber stamp because it he still retaining authority to act alone in certain areas, (poorly defined authority, but authority nonetheless). It was not an exact copy of the British system (infact the OTL British monarch at this time was much more than a rubber stamp as well, though British law would have prevented him from doing this).

The parliamentary piece of the government was developed in the wake of the French Civil War & was designed specifically to address the issue of that war. Thus parliament was mostly designed for domestic, colonial, & advisory affairs.

In ATL, they had taken to handling foreign affairs because up until around this point Louis XVII had shown little interest in direct governance, not because he didn't have the authority to but because he was young & mostly listened to his advisors (like his uncle & mother).

He decided to actually act up on his authority here because he had little care for "just another economic gain for economic gain's sake." He saw it has his duty as King of the French to "protect" all Frenchmen. And there were Frenchmen living in North America under the English thumb.
 
XIII-6: The Potentate of Canada

Chapter 6: The Potentate of Canada​

—AD 1840—
“Que né sous le lys” [*]
Motto of Canada
Arms of Canada AD 1840.png

Arms of Canada [cxxv]​

The new government was called the Potentate of Canada. Canada was obviously taken from the historic use of the term for the area. The term potentate (often referred to as “Puissance” (power in French) was the French term created to describe the form of government the British called dominion, and the two terms are often translated interchangeably. The King of France was given the official style of Potentate of Canada, though he was normally referred to as the King of France or even, sometimes, informally the King of Canada.

The potentate would have the exact same succession rules as the King of France who would always be Canada’s monarch. Canada’s national legislature would still be the French Parliament. The potentate’s representative in Canada would be the governor-general. He would be appointed by the potentate, approved by parliament, and would serve as long as the potentate wished. It would be the governor-general’s job to present issues to concerning Canada to the French parliament.

The governor-general would have two governmental bodies to help him. The first would be the Superior Council, which would act as an executive council. It would always contain the Archbishop of Québec and eight other members who were appointed by the governor-general. The other body was the Legislative Council. Its job was to handle any national legislation not dictated by the French government. The Legislative Council was also appointed by the governor-general and the other governors, who also had to approve any new legislation as the potentate’s representative. While there were no requirements as to who could make up the fifteen members, in the beginning of the country, all of Canada’s sparse hereditary noble families were on the council in some form.
§​
Canada was divided into five provinces. Acadia, Hochelaga (Montréal area), Ontario, Saint-Maurice (Trois-Rivières area), and Stadacona (Québec area). Stadacona was governed directly by the general-governor, while the other provinces had lieutenant-governors appointed by the general-governor. The exception to this was Acadia, which had a governor instead, though there was not functional difference. The title of governor was awarded as an honorary title due to the Acadian people’s past.

The various types governors had several duties. One was to govern their capital city. Another was to command the militia within their province. Lastly, they appointed the seigneurs within their provinces. While the habitants had no control over who was appointed seigneur, they could sue for a replacement if the seigneur was not upholding his duties. For those who owned enough property or any type of noble title (none of the habitants) were able to elect a representative to a Legislative Assembly, which handled local legislation. And to the provincial council, which drafted new laws to propose to the Legislative Council.
§​
Hereditary nobility in Canada was all but prohibited. The four remaining hereditary titles were not revoked: Marquis de Saint-Denys, Count of St. Laurent, Vicomte de Léry and Baron of Longueuil, however all further uses of noble titles were to be non-hereditary. The governor-general always received the title Châtelain of St. Louis until he left the post. While the seigneurs were not considered hereditary, they often were awarded to the son of the previous seigneur unless there was some reason not to. The practice of granting grand seigneurs was prohibited. Those who had grand seigneuries had them removed. If they cooperated, they retained a seigneury, if they did not, they lost all of them.

Anyone chosen to be on the Superior Council or the Legislative council would also receive the title of monseigneur as well as former governors-general. Monseigneur would also be occasionally used as a reward for service to Canada [†].
§​
The regiments that were stationed in Canada were transferred over Canadian control. The commander-in-chief was the governor-general. In addition to the Canadian military, he was allowed to keep one company of the Governor-General’s Guard, these could function either has a personal guard or in a similar manner as the King’s Musketeers. Despite having an independent commander-in-chief, Canada could not declare war or sign treaties on its own accord. These had to be done by the government of France.
§​
The potentate reinforced France’s current religious policies. Non-Catholics would be allowed to live in Canada, at least Jews, Lutherans, and Calvinists, anyway. However, the Catholic Church would still have primacy. And the dioceses would still receive a portion of the provincial taxes. In the short run it did not make much difference. There were so few non-Catholic, non-Amerindians in Canada that they had little in pact.

The only direct influence the Catholic Church had on the government was the archbishop’s permanent seat on the Superior Council. However, it did have indirect influence, all governmental posts in Canada, including seigneurs, had to pass a proficiency exam. These exams were administered by the clergy, (normally monks) and each year the bishops would be able to approve adjustments to the exam suggested by the clergy.
§​
Canadian industry was not particularly affected by the implementation of the new government. There was a minor and short-lived increase in demand for Canadian good though. This was due to all the attention Canada was receiving, keeping it in people’s minds. The biggest good affected was maple syrup, though there were some other things that began to crop up in France, such as Canadian style clothing for colder weather, even Canadian Checkers [93] could be seen in France. These trends ended up being a fad, but did establish their existence a crossed the Atlantic.

Relations with New Albion were also rather unaffected. Though there was hope things could improve. Certain areas of New Albion figured out it would be cheaper to buy Canadian timber. And both Britain and France now appointed diplomatic aids specifically for handling their respective countries. Though it would be quite some time before these aids would actually come from those countries.
§​
The Potentate of Canada accomplished exactly what it was designed to do. For France it created a theoretical stopgap for future rebellions. And for the Canadians it enforced oversight and requirements on their government officials. It did not work for everyone though. The intent was for the seigneurs to represent the lowest classes, mainly the habitants. However, habitants were not the only ones. Especially in Ontario, many non-Francophone Canadians did not live on a seigneury nor did they own enough property to vote for the provincial council member or Legislative Assembly members. And they would continue to be unrepresented for a long time.

Another unrepresented group would be the Amerindians. For all intents and purposes their status would not change with the new government. Most would continue to live in their villages receiving help from the missionaries. “Indian Masses” [‡] were legally guaranteed equal primacy with other Catholic Masses.
§​
The full transition to the new government did not happen immediately. Captain d’Orfeuille did succeed in removing most of the old government, ruining many powerful New French lives in the process. That allowed Governor-General Mamyneau to fill the positions with all new people he knew and could trust. But it still took several years before every aspect of the government to be implemented. And several more years before the old corruptions were weeded out at the local levels. And even then, there were still new corruptions to be dealt with.

But no child grows up overnight, even a child of the Plains of Abraham.

***​

Potentate of Canada​

Potentat du Canada (fra)
State of Canada AD 1840.png

Flag of Canada [cxxvi], Arms of Canada [cxxv], and Location of Canada (blue) [cxvi]​
Motto:“Que né sous le lys” (fra)
(That born under a lily)
Anthem:“À la claire fontaine”
Capital & largest city:Québec
Official language:French
Common languages:English, German, Irish, various Amerindian languages
Official religions:Roman Catholicism
Common religions:Various Amerindian religions
Demonym:Canadian
Government:
• Potentate​
• Governor-General​
Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Louis XVII
André Louis Mamyneau
Legislature:Canadian Superior Council
Formed:from New France
Area:341,493 mi² (est.)
Population:c. 847,000 (est.)
Currency:Canadian livre (£)

Figure 1: Canadian Symbols (Canadian civil flag, Canadian state flag, Canadian civil ensign, Canadian state ensign, Canadian cockade) [§] [cxxvi, cxxvii, cxxviii]​

Flags of Canada AD 1840.png

Figure 2: Canadian Military Uniforms (infantry, artillery & engineers, cavalry, Governor-General’s Guard) [xviii, xix, cxxiv]​

Uniforms of Canada AD 1840.png


Footnotes​

* fra: “That born under a lily”​
† Before the reestablishment of the Order of Good Cheer.​
‡ These are an approved variant on the Tridentine Masses; preformed in the vernacular language.​
§ With in a few decades the blue would change shades, and the fleur-des-lys would change orientation to be upright [94]. Canadian regiment flags would retain the old position however. This would lead to a very common myth that the old flag is the Canadian war flag. A myth so popular that even government officials would repeat it.​

Endnotes​

93. This is an OTL checker variant played on a 12x12 board with slightly different piece rules.​
94. Becoming the OTL Quebec flag.​
cxxv. (Modified from source: Bluebear2, 2009) (Modified from source: Ec.Domnowall, 2011)​
cxxvi. (Modified from source: Judicieux, 2014) (Modified from source: Calvo, 2009)​
cxxvii (Judicieux, 2014)​
cxxviii (Modified from source: Jsdo1980, et al., 2010)​
cxxiv (Modified from source: McDonough)​
Bluebear2. Pavillon Louis XIV. 2009. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pavillon_LouisXIV.svg. Accessed 7 February 2024.​
Calvo, Vincent. Pavillon Louis XIV. 4 November 2009. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pavillon_Louis_XIV.png. Accessed 7 February 2024.​
Ec.Domnowall. Blason province Canada. 15 August 2011. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blason_province_Canada.svg. Accessed 7 February 2024.​
Jsdo1980, et al. HSQuébec. 18 April 2010. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HSQuébec.svg. Accessed 7 February 2024.​
Judicieux. Carillon Filiatrault Drapeau. 17 February 2014. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CarillonFiliatrault_Drapeau.png. Accessed 7 February 2024.​
McDonough, Sean. Montreal Brigade, Canadian Militia 1775. https://juniorgeneral.org/index.php/figure/view/CanadianMilitia. Accessed 7 February 2024.​
End​
 
Thank-everyone!!! :extremelyhappy:

Any thoughts, comments, complaints, deserved or otherwise?
Not just on the timeline itself, but for the format as well? (Like having the chapter grouped into parts instead of going continuously.)

Things I wasn't as happy about would include:
  • It needs lot more India! It's a knowledge gap for me, which is why I only went there when I had to.
  • The English Revolution I thought was rather weak. I still think the plot line could work, it just needs more work put into it.
    • Maybe instead of declaring a full out republic, they hold the king as a hostage monarch?
    • Also, maybe something different with Mediterranean islands?
  • While I like the new British dragon flag & the name "New Albion" I know I would change those in a re-revised edition. Essentially, when I write the book set in this timeline I think those are too large of jumps for someone who doesn't have the proper context to still recognize. The "Anglish" Revival may still happen though, I'd still change the British flag, it would just still be inspired by the Union Flag.
  • After reviewing it, I'd probably extend Canada's dominionhood out a bit. It seems a bit rushed.
  • I'm sure I would find others if I went back & looked.

I'm going to take a few days break on this before continuing work on the epilogue maps (I still haven't finished the modern day political, which is the base I will use for the others).
But I will not begin work on my next timeline before I finish those though!
 
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