When would you prefer the "Fun Maps" to be set.

  • When the timeline ends.

    Votes: 7 25.0%
  • The present day.

    Votes: 18 64.3%
  • I don't care.

    Votes: 3 10.7%

  • Total voters
X-1: The War of Mexican Independence

Part X: The Revolutions of the Spanish Americas​

Chapter 1: The War of Mexican Independence​

—AD 1812 – AD 1821—
“Three Guarantees were made to ensure a proper nation.”
Neo-Codex of Mexico

Generals of the Army of the Three Guarantees [c]
The revolutionaries in New Spain were counting on the English Commonwealth to for fill the Fox Doctrine and come to their aid. The War of the Great Coalition ensured that the intervention would never come. Many of the more radical revolutionary leaders, such as Antonio López de Santa Anna, Vicente Guerrero, Nicolás Bravo, Guadalupe Victoria, and Manual Codorniu, had gambled everything they had on English aid. But even by AD 1812, the proverbial revolutionary ball was already rolling and nothing could stop it. To make up for this the radicals reacted by doubling down on their fervor. This drew a large wedge between them and the more moderate revolutionaries, most of whom were Roman Catholic clergy or had close relations to the Roman Catholic Church. This was not only because of the perceived excesses in violence against anyone who would speak against them, soldier or not, but also extreme anti-clericalism.

By AD 1816, the Republicanos generals largely operated independently but left each alone. The moderates, who would be later be known as the Trigarantos [74], attempted to coordinate but realities of war made it very difficult. Especially since the Republicanos would treat the Trigarantos like royalists and actively attack them. The Trigarantos would defend themselves but would not take any offensive actions against fellow revolutionaries or any civilians. A signifigant amount of the revolutionaries, if not most, sympathized more with the Trigarantos. But several factors made most revolutionaries side with the Republicanos, at least initially. The Republicanos were more widely known; their exploits were often more violent so news of them spread further and wider. In fact, by AD 1816 some New Spaniards would probably could probably be excused for not even knowing that a moderate faction still existed. The Republicanos would also often bully potential revolutionaries into joining them first. And the Republicanos had a been preforming better on the battlefield against the royalist than the Trigarantos.

This would continue until early AD 1821. Helped by other conflicts in the Spanish Americas and the strain of the post War of the Great Coalition world, Spain’s influence in its own colonial empire was collapsing. Seeing that the revolutionaries would win but fearing that radicalism would be the only direction the country would go, royalist general Agustín de Iturbide switched sides. In the city of Iguala, Gen. de Iturbide met with the other moderates. They proclaimed the three guarantees: religion, independence, and unity. Meaning that if they had control over the revolution, they would guarantee Roman Catholicism, independence from Spanish rule, and unity between the different castes. The Army of the Three Guarantees, led by Gen. Iturbide, offered to take the Republicanos in with open arms if they would agree to the three guaranties. This offer attracted revolutionary soldiers in droves. However, the Republicanos generals, who had embraced increasingly radical views over the years to survive. By AD 1821, Spain’s control over the area was more nominal that not, but it did have a few remaining strongholds.
Flag of Anahuac Republican AD 1816.png

Figure 1: Most Common Flag used by the Republicanos [xi]​

Flag of Anahuac AD 1824.png

Figure 2: Flag of the Three Guarantees [ci]​


74. ATL vocabulary: Spanish noun derived from trigarente, an adjective meaning “of the three guarantees.”​
c. (Bastin, et al., 1842)​
ci. (TownDown, 2009)​
Bastin, et al. Generals of the Army of the Three Guarantees. 1842. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Generales_del_Trigarante.jpg. Accessed 27 June 2023.​
TownDown. Flag of the Three Guarantees. August 2029. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_the_Three_Guarantees.svg. Accessed 5 November 2023​
X-2: Revolutions in South America

Chapter 2: Revolutions in South America​

—AD 1812 – AD 1821—
“Revolution was not confined to Mexico, it had distant cousins in South America.”
Neo-Codex of Mexico

El Libertador [cii]

Spanish South America experienced the same problems as its northern counterpart. And like Spanish Northern America rebels had been planning on help from the English Commonwealth. Unlike the Mexican Revolution, where the moderates eventually became the dominate faction, the South American revolutions had less moderates involvement. Because of this, the South American revolution had a normally unspoken relationship with the Mexican Republicanos.

There, despite the intentions of a few revolutionaries, there was no single revolution in South America. After the death of Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda, the revolutionaries filed behind General Simón Bolívar. Gen. Bolívar was immensely popular with the common soldiers of the revolution, but he often grated against the leaders. Often this was because of his authoritarian style of leadership, or his insistence that the goal of the revolution should be a unified, federal Pan-American state [a]. Gen. Bolívar favored gambling on high-risk high-reward actions. This did wonders for his popularity, which increased with every seemingly miraculous victory. However, it made the revolution’s gains to be a patchwork of territory that continually ebbed and flowed with Spain control.
Further south, General José de San Martín was the lead personality for the revolution. The even more fractured nature of the southern revolution, and its large area, prevented the any meaningful coordination, though that did not stop some from trying. However, this also meant that the Spanish had to divide all their forces between all the various revolutionary location. Gen. de San Martín began in Río de la Plata, moved west to Chile, and then look north to Peru. Peru had been, more-or-less, a royalist stronghold. Gen. de San Martín took advantage of the weak hold the Spanish had in Río de la Plata and Chile to invaded Peru. By this point Gen. Bolívar had kicked the Spanish out of New Grenada, and he too looked towards Peru. Taking his most loyal troops, Gen. Bolívar joined Gen. de San Martín.
Flag of Gran Colombia AD 1821.png

Figure 1: Flag Used by General Simón Bolívar [xi]​


Figure 2: Flag Use by General José de San Martín during and after the Invasion of Peru [ciii]​


a. At minimum this would include all Spanish America, some historians think that it would have included the entirety of the Americas.​
cii. (Lovera, 1830)​
ciii (B1 mbo, 2009)​
Lovera, Pedro. El Libertador. 1830. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:El_Libertador_(Pedro_Lovera)_1830_000.jpg. Accessed 1 July 2023.​
B1 nbo. Flag of the Liberating Expedition of Peru. 2009. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_the_Liberating_Expedition_of_Peru.svg. Accessed 1 July 2023.​
X-3: The Mexican Empire

Chapter 3: The Mexican Empire​

—AD 1821 – AD 1824—
Ninotlalia, Cetiliztli, Tlaceliliztli [*] [75]
Motto of the Mexican Empire (The three guarantees)
Arms of Anahuac AD 1824.png

Coat of Arms of Mexico [civ]​

Three years after Gen. de Iturbide took command of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the Spanish had lost all signifigant continental holdings outside of South America. The Spanish finally began to admit that its forces were spread too thin. This conclusion had been reached earlier, but Ferdinand VII was not convinced. He did not want to lose any parts of the empire so soon after rising to the throne (AD 1819). But the forces on the ground were left with little choice. At the Treaty of Xalapa in 1823, the last of the Spanish soldiers in New Spain surrender.

Gen. de Iturbide then took command of a provisional government which organized an election to choose who would be the monarch of Mexico. It had been highly implied during Gen. de Iturbide phase of the revolution that the throne would be offered to a member of the Spanish Bourbons. However, Spanish Bourbons were not the only options presented. Because of his performance in ending the violence of the Mexican Revolution Gen. de Iturbide had quickly rose in popularity. As such, Gen. de Iturbide was easily chosen to be Mexico’s monarch.

Gen. Santa Anna, and other Republicanos, where not part of the Treaty of Xalapa. They tried to continue to war, now exclusively against the Trigarantos. But the Republicanos’ more violent methods and insistence of treating other Mexicans as an evil that needed to be wiped out, cost them most of their support. Only the most devoted Republicano soldiers wished to continue fighting. These pockets of continued rebellions would continue for the next few years. Most would continue until their leadership was either captured and forced to surrender or left in self-imposed exile.

It is unclear if the now named Agustín I had a definite plan for his new empire. What did happen is that Agustín I championed an idea to reach back to Mexico’s history while not replacing the countries Spanish influence. Reaching back in history led the Mexicans to the only serious option for their composite political identity, Aztecs-Spanish. This was strengthened by the three guarantees. The Spanish component encouraged support from the ethnic Spanish elite, as well an maintaining the preexisting relation with the Roman Catholic Church. The Aztec component was meant to appeal to the lower classes, many of whom had Aztec heritage [†]. It also gave a sense that the revolution accomplished something for those not directly involved in government, things had truly changed even though not everything was different.

Mexican Empire​

Imperio México (spa)
Mēxihcoyotl (nah) [75]
State of Anahuac AD 1824.png

Flag of Mexico [ci], Arms of Mexico [civ], and Location of Mexico (red) [xcviii]​
Motto:“Independencia, Unión, Religión” (spa)
“Ninotlalia, Cetiliztli, Tlaceliliztli”
(nah) [75]
(Independence, Union, Religion)​
Anthem:“Come, Creator Spirit”
Capital:Tenochtitlan [76]
Official language:Spanish & Nahuatl
Common languages:Various native languages
Official religion:Roman Catholic
• Emperor​
• Prime minister​
Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Agustín I
José Manuel de Herrera
Legislature:Mexican national junta
Formed:from New Spain
Population:6,500,00 (est.)
Currency:Mexican quachtli (◊) [‡]

The Status of the Nahuatl Language​

While it would be proper to say that Nahuatl did share the status of official language with Spanish, the concept of an official language had not fully developed in AD 1824. Spanish was the language of the imperial court, government documents, etc. At first, Nahuatl received only symbolic status. Many people in the rural areas of the empire spoke their own dialect of the language, but these dialects were not what empire thinking when it referred to Nahuatl, it meant Classical Nahuatl. And since no one actually spoke Classical Nahuatl anymore it was relegated to only a few translated phrases that the empire used.

It would not be for quite some time that the Nahuatl dialects would be recognized as by the empire as proper Nahuatl. At that point the Modern Nahuatl was created. Modern Nahuatl is considered a descendant of Classical Nahuatl, but it used the other spoke dialects to modernized it into a functional language.

Duke of Extended Grace [77]​

While Agustín I was chosen to be the emperor without real contest, there were other candidates. Some of the more likely ones were Infante Carlos María Isidro, and Infanta Maria Luisa. The other notable idea was to crown Alfonso Marcilla de Teruel Moctezuma y García de Alcaraz, the noble descendant of Moctezuma. While the House of Moctezuma was not restored it was promoted to the dignity of a duchy. In truth, the descendants of Moctezuma were given the title as a count as a courtesy title. But the empire decided to increase the dignity of the title.

Mexican Pastimes​

Mexican chess (also referred to as Mesoamerican chess or Aztec chess) would develop at some time after the founding of the Mexican Empire. It would be the first surviving game to truly be called a descendant from modern chess. This was because it was not just a rule variation of chess and as all previous descendants were technically from earlier forms of chess (e.g., Shatranj). Mexican chess can be found in Mesoamerica and in the southwest part of north North America.

It is mostly agreed that Mexican Chess (called cuauhpatōlli in Mexico [78]) was first created as an attempt to replace the native game patolli. Patolli carried a very heavy gambling connection, something that the Mexican Catholic clergy were not a fan of. Chess did not have the same connection. A new winning condition was added to add a racing aspect and make it more suitable to the wants of pre-existing gamblers. The other changes, beyond the piece names, are a complete mystery. Some posit that they made the game better suited to gambling, but most people fail to see any connections.

The new win condition was: if a king reaches that player’s promotion line, that player won. Most gamblers try to race their kings to the other side, only using the other pieces to protect their king. The game could (and usually is in modern times) played normally. The board was enlarged to a 10x8 rectangle, in order to accommodate two new pieces and accompanying pawns. The camel (moves like a knight but (1,3) instead of (1,2)) was added in between the bishops and the knights. The game was often played with dice, but that is not necessary and has become less common.

There are four basic designs and name sets for Mexican Chess. International is rarely used, but is the standard for translating the names into other languages when the moves are what matter the most. For the rest the colors are normally green and white (white going first). The Old Mexican was the original, the pieces normally took the shape of their name (or at least their head on a column). Up until recently, the Spanish was the most common, which used normal chess pieces. And the New Mexican have become the most common modern design. The pieces are purposely named and designed not to hide the Aztec inspirations for their name; they generally look like Aztec warriors and civilians. Other Mesoamerican cultures will usually use the Old Mexican names and designs, often adding their own cultural motifs to the piece designs.

Figure 1: International Icon for Camel [cv]
The Mexican-suited playing cards are derived from the Spanish-suited playing cards, specifically the Castilian pattern. Like the Spanish-suited cards it has four suits: swords, cups, coins, and clubs. Numbered cards one through nine but it is face cards are slightly different. The first, face card is the maid (still called “sota" in Spanish), it is always a woman and is dressed like an Aztec commoner. The knight, these are various Aztec warriors, normally with large, exaggerated headdresses. While kings look like an Aztec nobleman.

This suit is used in Mesoamerica, the southwest region of northern North America, and areas of high Mexican influence.
Pok-ta-pok, or the Mesoamerican ballgame, is the most popular sport in the country. The game has changed little from its generic reconstruction. The only real differences are the addition of safety gear, and the obvious lack of death.

Bullfighting is also in Mexico. However, in modern times, bulls are no longer allowed to be intentionally harmed or killed in the ring. There is even I push to remove the bull altogether, how that would work is not clear though.

Old Mexican (translated)
Spanish (translated)
New Mexican (translated)
BishopHumming BirdBishopHumming Bird-Priest
CamelJaguarLong HorseJaguar-Knight
PawnPawnFoot soldierPawn

Mêlée Weapons of the Mexican Military​

As part of Mexico’s vision to bring back aspects of the Aztec Empire, its soldiers were not issued European style swords. Instead, they were issued modern tlāximaltepōztli, the modern version is normally simply called a tepoztli. This is a tomahawk like weapon, that originally had a stone or bronze head, but this was replaced with steal.

The exact reason for the tepoztli’s modernization and adoption, as opposed to more iconic ancient Aztec weapons (such as the mācuahuitl), is unknown. But there are several theories: the tepoztli is the easiest to modernize and maintain functionality and design. That there was no such thing as an “iconic” ancient Aztec weapon at the time. Mexico wanted to invoke Aztec culture without drawing attention to the human sacrifice connotation something like the mācuahuitl would have. And Mexico was coping what the Amerindian princely states were being issued, though it would be unknown as to why they would want to do this.


* nah: Independence, Union, Religion
† Even though many had heritage with other pre-Spanish groups, the Aztecs were portrayed as the main group.​
‡ The currency is inspired by the Aztec quachtli (standardized cloth used as a trade medium). Originally the coins looked like any other, but modern coins have become the shape of axe-monies, only smaller.​


75. Translation may not be accurate.​
76. ATL Mexico City, the name was reverted to avoid confusion.​
77. ATL Vocabulary: Nobility of Extended Grace. Noun. Derived from the Chinese title “Marquis of Extended Grace.” Used to refer to any ruler of a previous dynasty or empire that was given a consolatory title under the current regime.​
78. Cuauhpatōlli is supposedly an OTL Nahuatl word for chess. In ATL, it and the Spanish loanword equivalent normally refers to Mexican Chess, while the Spanish ajedrez and its equivalent Nahuatl loanword is used for OTL Chess.​
civ. (Ferdinandus, 2011)​
cv. (Francois-Pier, 2016)​
Ferdinandus, Ludovicus. Coat of Arms of the First Mexican Empire. 21 July 2011. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coat_of_Arms_of_the_First_Mexican_Empire.svg. Accessed 2 September 2023.​
Francois-Pier. Chess Glt45. 15 April 2016. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chess_Glt45.svg. Accessed 2 September 2023.​

Another dress code update. Same as the previous ones, this is modern "by the book" dress code. Also, the fact that Mexican culture has dictated the rest of Latin America's dress code is not a cultural ignorance on my part. It is a display of the greater influence Mexico has on the world in modern ATL (non-Mexican clothing is meant to serve as interesting quirks). This code generally applies to all of Latin America & what we would call the Southwest USA.

Pan-Latin American Dress Code​


FormalCharro outfit (gran gala) & SombreroCharro outfit w/ skirt (gran gala) & PeinetaBall gown, stole, evening gloves, high-heeled shoes & PeinetaParade dress w/ Campaign hatTraditional by denominationSpanish traditionCharro outfit (etiqueta)White Bridal gown,
evening gloves,
white high-heeled
Semi-formalCharro outfit (gala) & SombreroCharro outfit w/ skirt (gala) & RebozoPollera montuna & RebozoMess dress w/ Campaign hatTraditional by denominationSpanish tradition
InformalCharro outfit (media gala) & SombreroCharro outfit w/ skirt (media gala) & RebozoChina poblana & RebozoService dress w/ Boonie hatTraditional by denominationSpanish tradition
CasualCharro outfit (faena) & SombreroCharro outfit w/ skirt (faena) & RebozoPollera congo & RebozoBattle dressTraditional by denominationSpanish tradition
  • Nobility will wear etiqueta instead of a gran gala.
  • Non-Mexican cultures have derived there own versions of the charro outfit, normally swapping out the embroidery motifs with their own.
  • Cultures with less Mexican influence don't have a Women's Day category. These cultures tend to also have less equality for women.
  • There are a lot of variations within the code as pieces of national or regional costumes are often inserted.
  • All non-Jewish women wear a mantilla & peineta (or religious specific head covering) in religious buildings, even when not required.
  • All women's clothing have fully functional pockets in ATL.
  • All military dresses have an identical version with a dress skirt for women.
  • Parade dress usually resembles ATL 19th century uniforms, the rest are similar to OTL.
  • Religious denominations that currently use a business suit in OTL would use a Geneva gown without a clerical collar in ATL.
  • In ATL, nightshirts and nightgowns are still the most popular forms of nightware.
  • Hats are a lot more common, but are not necessarily fully required.
  • Casual isn't considered leisure wear but leisure wear isn't generally worn in public.
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X-4: South American Statecraft

Chapter 4: South American Statecraft​

—AD 1821 – AD 1830—
Arms of Rio de la Planta, Peru & Chile AD 1826.png

Arms of Peru and Río de la Plata [cvi]​

General Simón Bolívar had successfully removed the Spanish forces from New Grenada before leaving for Peru. Also, before he left, he was offered the title of “Emperor of Colombia.” Being an ardent believer in republican values Gen. Bolívar refused. However, he saw the situation in Peru as urgent for the liberty of those people so he left after a provisional federal government was set up. Gen. Bolívar was elected president, which he changed by declaration to president-for-life, then appointed Estanislao Vergara y Sanz de Santamaría to manage the republic in his absence.
With Gen. Bolívar, Gen. de San Martín was able to beat the royalist in Peru. This, finally, removed all significant Spanish holdings in mainland America (except Florida). Without any other options the Spanish military forces in America surrendered. The Spanish Crown, however, still did not recognize this surrender.

While Generals de San Martín and Bolívar worked very well together on the battlefield, when it came to statecraft, they could not see eye-to-eye. Gen. de San Martín originally offered Gen. Bolívar the crown. Gen. Bolívar refused, proposing multiple republican states, states that would eventually join his Gran Colombia. While the republican proposal did have its supporters, Gen de San Martín held the most influence. Talk of pure republicanism made him think of the horrors of the short-lived French Republic, or the violence of the Mexican Republicanos. Even the situation in Gran Colombia had deteriorated in Gen. Bolívar’s absence.

When Gen. Bolívar left attend to the chaos in Gran Colombia that matter was settled. Gen. de San Martín would have his constitutional monarchy, but two questions remained. Who should be the monarch? And what should the borders of this empire be? Since Gen. Bolívar proposed multiple states, and he did not leave on amiable terms, it was decided that Río de la Plata, Peru, and Chile shall be a united monarchy. In truth, this idea had been proposed earlier but since the revolution was not finished at the time it did not go anywhere.

The question of a monarch was much harder. Gen. de San Martín sent several envoys to Europe in an attempt to find a prince or princess willing to take the crown. All were either not interested or did not take the offer seriously. However, word that a monarch was needed made its way to Donna Carlota Joaquina of Spain, even though she was not on the list of monarchs Gen. de San Martín had made. She expressed so much interest in the matter that she left her husband’s court in Portugal to pursue the claim personally.

Lacking any other interest, Donna Carlota was given the crown, given her connection to the Spanish this was hesitantly, but she did seem to be the only option at the time. Almost all of the statecraft was finished before the future Queen Carlota had even arrived. This allowed Gen. de San Martín and his supporters to create liberal constitution that they had originally envisioned without any of the queen’s input. This would cause no lack of arguments after her coronation. Not everyone even liked the single state solution. Rebellion broke out in Chile almost immediately.

Culturally, the kingdoms were envisioned to be a mixed culture, like the Mexican Empire but substituting Aztec culture for the Inca. But Queen Carlota was able to enact enough pressure to prevent most of this. At least until after her death.

When Gen. Bolívar returned to Gran Colombia, he found the country had descended into chaos. Regional warlords, most of whom were high ranking military officers, had taken divided the country. And they were not particularly happy with the idea of submitting to the authority of Gen. Bolívar upon his arrival. Luckily for Gen. Bolívar, once exaggerations about his death in Peru where proven wrong, he saw a steady stream of recruits who had defected from the various warlord armies.

In early AD 1828, another election was held. Gen. Bolívar won again, as expected. He was offered the crown again, but he refused again. But not everyone recognized the results of the election, and the war continued. It would still be until AD 1829 before he would be the uncontested head-of-state (though he would never have complete control over of all the territory). In September of AD 1828, an near successful assassination attempt on Gen. Bolívar began to worry him and his staff. While they were worried for Gen. Bolívar’s life, that was not the biggest concern. It was the question, “what would happen after Gen. Bolívar’s death?” And the answer was clear, a full return of the warlords and chaos.

Finally, in an effort to save his country from its fate, General Simón Bolívar relented. He would not be just another monarch; he was going to be the “people’s protector.” Simón I, Protector of the Gran Colombians, declared his aide-de-camp, Daniel Florence O’Leary, to serve as his successor since he did not have any children of his own. Unlike the other countries in South America, Gran Colombia did not try to “revive” a pre-Spanish culture. It was intended from the start to be a completely new country. In all honesty, even before Simón I became protector his rule was much more dictatorial than any of the major kingdoms back in Europe.

United Kingdom of the Río de la Plata, Peru, and Chile​

Reino Unido del Río de la Plata, Perú y Chile (spa)
Hukllachasqa Qhapaq Suyu Río de la Plata, Piruw wan Chili (que) [75]
State of Peru and Rio de la Plata AD 1826.png

Flag of Río de la Plata, Peru, and Chile [cvii], Arms of Río de la Plata, Peru, and Chile [cvi], and Location of Río de la Plata, Peru, and Chile (pink) [xcviii]​
Motto: “Unión firme y feliz” (spa) [*]
“Sindicatopaq takyasqa hinaspa kusisqa”
(que) [75]
(Firm and happy union)​
Anthem:“We are free!” [*]
Official language:Spanish & Quechua [*]
Common language:Various native language
Official religion:Roman Catholicism
Demonym:Río de la Plata, Peru, and Chilean (informally Andean)
• Queen​
• Prime Minister​
Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Carlota I
Nicolás Peña
Legislature:Río de la Plata, Peru, and Chilean parliament
Formed:from New Spain
CurrencyRío de la Plata, Peru, and Chilean quipu (☀)

Gran Colombian Protectorate​

Protectorado Gran Colombiano (spa)
State of Gran Colombia AD 1829.png

Flag of Gran Colombia [cviii], Arms of Colombia [cix], and Location of Gran Colombia (gold) [xcviii]​
Motto:“Vivio y vencerá por amor a su patria” (spa)
(Live and conquer for the love of country)​
Anthem:"Liberation March"
Official language:Spanish
Common language:Various native languages
Official religion:None
Common religion:Roman Catholic
Demonym:Gran Colombian


• Emperor​
Parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
Simón I
• Upper house​
• Lower house​
Colombian Parliament
Chamber of Representative
Formed:from New Spain
Area:1,210,783 mi² (est.)
Currency:Gran Colombian dólar ($)

Marquees of Extended Grace​

Similarly, to Mexico, Río de la Plata, Peru, and Chile created a specific noble title for its descendant of the pre-Spanish empire. Dionisio Inca Yupanqui was given the title of Marquees of Oropesa. He was given this title to represent the former Incan Emperor.

South American National Games​

All the South American nations use Portugues-suited playing cards. The most common pattern is the Peru pattern, which gives the card an Incan like picture style.
Argentinian [†] draughts is really the only version of checkers outside of Brazilian influenced areas. It has flying kings which must stop on the square after its last capture. And a piece must capture all possible pieces in a chain. [79]
The popular chess variant is Argentinean chess. Argentinean chess differs from standard chess in a few ways, one is the pieces. Kings remain the same (except for castling). Pawns are replaced with quadrapawns, they can move in any orthogonal direction and capture in any diagonal direction, it is usually just called a pawn. The other pieces are the: saltador (jumper), loco (madman), faro (beacon), senora (lady). These capture like standard chess pieces, but in order move without capturing it must leap over another piece.

The starting positions are quite different. White’s king in the corner, flanked by the locos. The senora diagonal from the king flanked by the faros. Next to the faros are the saltadors, and the pawns fill out a 4x4 square. Black places a faro on h1 and another on a8. Then he fills in the pawns towards h8. When the pawns run out next goes the saltador then loco. The king goes in the corner. The senora is placed diagonal from the king. Black goes first. [80]

The pieces are usually designed to look like Incan status. The Argentinian piece icons are represented by a standard chess piece rotated 90° to the right.


* Was not used in any official capacity during the reign of Carlota I.​
† While its official name is Río de la Plata, the term Argentina is still used as an informal name.​


79. Supposedly, this is a real OTL variant.​
80. This is a combination of two so called “Argentinian” chesses. The piece moves come from a fairy chess term. The board setup and quadrapawn is a supposed Argentinian chess.​
cvi. (Modified from source: James2813, 2021), (Modified from source: Heralder, 2016), (Modified from source: Lemmens, 2010), (Modified from source: Heralder, 2011)
cvii. (Paula, 2007)
cviii. (L'Américain, 2010)
cix. (Milenioscuro, 2010)
Heralder. Arms of Anjou- Coat of Arms of Spain Template. May 2011. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arms_of_Anjou-_Coat_of_Arms_of_Spain_Template.svg. Accessed 3 November 2023.​
Heralder. Heraldic Crown of the First French Empire. 16 July 2016. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heraldic_Crown_of_the_First_French_Empire.svg. Accessed 3 November 2023.​
James2813. Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom of the River Plate, Peru and Chile. 23 May 2021. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/...he_River_Plate,_Peru_and_Chile.svg?uselang=en. Accessed 3 November 2023.​
L'Américain. Bandera de la Guerra a Muerte. 10 January 2010. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bandera_de_la_Guerra_a_Muerte.svg. Accessed 4 November 2023.​
Lemmens, Tom. Crown of a Napoleonic Prince Souverain. 16 December 2010. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crown_of_a_Napoleonic_Prince_Souverain.svg. Accessed 3 November 2023.​
Milenioscuro. Coat of arms of Gran Colombia (1820). 10 June 2010. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coat_of_arms_of_Gran_Colombia_(1820).svg. Accessed 4 November 2023.​
Paula, Guilherme. Flag of Argentina (1818). 6 August 2007. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Argentina_(1818).svg. Accessed 3 November 2023.​

Part X is now over.

Unfortunately, due to my new plan, the current ending point for this timeline (or at least this version) is about 1838ish. So, a lot of the planning I had done for Latin American won't be appearing.

Part XI will, again, go back in time a bit. It will catch Europe & Indian up to 1830. Then Part XII will be the last part.
It's a shame.
If you're referring to the end date, this was the original plan anyway. I just have enough ideas built up about what would happen next that I could keep going. (I could potentially turn this into a future history if it ran long enough.)

I will explain why this was the plan & give an epilogue as the last post. (It may include a bunch of for fun maps too!)

At the moment, I do want to do a third revision of the TL. I just don't know when I would start it.
Some changes would include, but aren't limited to:​
  • More research in India,
  • A different & fleshed out transition government for Columbia with lasting implications,
  • Changing terms used in the New Albion government (including the name),
  • A different cultural result for the Hanoverian Restoration (I love the idea of a contemporary Anglo-Saxon revival & there was historical supporters for it, I just can't get it to feel right. It may not get replaced, but it would be different).
  • European cultured buffer states in North America.

I don't want to do it too soon, it feels wrong just to start remaking it as soon as I finish. And I have another unrelated TL that I've wanted to work on for at least half a decade. Plus an actual AH book I want to write in this universe. (Technically, this whole TL was envisioned as a worldbuilding exercise for the book.)

I have no timeline (pun actually unintended this time) for any of this unfortunately. Not only do I have many other writing projects I want to do, but life, & the standard curses of writers.
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XI-1: The West after the British Revolutions

Part XI: Pax Mundi [*]

Chapter 1: The West after the British Revolutions​

—AD 1810 – AD 1829—
“Louis XVII may have been lucky his subjects were tired of war.”
From the Surviving King

Portrait of Louis XVII [81]

The period following the British Revolutions was a relative novelty for Europe. For once everyone from emperor to commoner was tired of war. Of course, everything was not completely perfect, unrest persisted in certain areas, and someone somewhere was certainly creating some machinations. But there was no current desire for an open conflict between the states and there was certainly not enough money to wage any.
Had the Congress of Hamburg been Louis XVII’s only scandal, it may have been forgotten. His stubborn idealism at the congress created for him many enemies in his own government, and no friends. But while his government hated him of the congress, the commoners were rather indifferent. Most of them were just happy that the wars were over, and the propaganda painting him as inept and naïve. But the myth of a king being superhuman had long been broken in France by this point, so, the propaganda did little to vilify him in the eyes of the commoners.

No one was surprised with Louis XVII marrying late. The beginning of his reign was rather hectic and unsuited for a family. However, when he was approaching his thirtieth birthday and was still not married, rumors began to spread. To add to this, a wife had been arranged for him, Maria Antonia of Naples and Sicily. He had already entered an engagement with her by AD 1802, but there was still no wedding by AD 1815. The most popular rumor was that Louis XVII had secretly married a commoner. This rumor quickly grew into a much larger conspiracy as it was added that the commoner was a German-speaking spy. Louis XVII never confirmed or denied any rumors and he is not known to have kept any mistresses. So, while every woman with a German accent in or near Paris was accused of being his secret wife [**]. Whether it was as a result of the rumors or he was finally ready, Louis XVII married Maria Antonia in October 1818. Regardless of the reason, the very long engagement did not ingratiate Louis XVII to his new bride, or France.
It had been clear for a while, that Charles XIII of Sweden would not have any relative to inherit the throne. He had adopted Charles August, a Danish prince, to become the new Swedish king. The problem was that Charles August predeceased Charles XIII by eight years. Since Charles August had no heirs, Frederick Christian II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, was the new crown prince of Sweden. Unfortunately, Frederick Christian II also predeceased Charles XIII by four years. Sweden did look for a new prince, while Christian August II, the new Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, claimed the crown of Sweden. By the time of Charles XIII’s death, in AD 1818, no other prince had accepted agreeable terms for the crown of Sweden.

Christian August I and II was crowned king of Sweden. This brought Sweden and Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg into personal union. The two states were ruled as completely separate entities.
The Neo-Waldensians were not the only new religion to start spreading in New Albion. In AD 1820, Joseph Smith began a new religion in the province of New York. The new religion began to grow, but it also gathered a lot of unwelcomed attention. Unlike groups like the Neo-Waldensians, several of the Church of Latter-day Saints’ claims were more novel [82]. As the religion grew New York became increasingly unsafe for them.
In AD 1822, an Englishman named William Harding discovered the fossils of a new species in England. The creature was unlike anything else found in the British Isles. Named the Iguanodon, this new species opened research into a new group of previously unknown extinct animals. Many more of these creatures were soon found. The public would come to call them, collectively, dragons because of their large reptilian appearance, this was despite Sir Richard Owen’s later attempts to call them something more “scientific.”

Diplomatic Uniforms [83]​

In both Britain and France, by 1815s many of the governmental positions were actual held by lesser or rural nobles. This was a result of many of the other noble families being viewed as disloyal due to their actions in their respective revolutions. There was also a large shift away from using military officers for governmental or diplomatic positions.

As a result, the simpler and more practical clothing of the rural nobles became a sign of loyalty and shifted popular clothing styles. While this was fine with day to day, Britian and France wanted their diplomats to still be instantly recognizable. The solution devised was to require a certain pattern for the suit, and the individuals tailor would create a suit following those specifications, but everything else would be subject to taste of the diplomat (similar how officer swords were handled at this time). For example, the British and French patters were:
  • British: Royal blue and gold trim, Edwardian collar, single cuffs, facings, shawl lapels and cockaded bicorn.
  • French: Bleu de France and gold trim, Napoleonic collar [84], French cuffs, facings, shoulder boards, double-breasted fleur-des-lys buttons and cockaded bicorn.
Other nations were soon to follow with their own patterns.


* The period name comes from the western European perspective, despite the ongoing conflict in the Spanish Americas.​
** The existence, lack of existence, and identity of this potential secret life wife is still the topic of fiction writers in the modern day.​


81. Karl Wilhelm Naundorff is not actually the real Louis XVII in ATL.​
82. All beliefs are the same as OTL.​
83. This is much earlier that the creation of OTL diplomatic uniforms, thought the two are not exactly interchangeable.​
84. Still named after Napoleon Bonaparte.​
cx. (Unknown, 1845)​
Unknown. Karl Wilhelm Naundorff, a man, who claimed to be King Louis XVII. of France, 1845. 1845. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Naundorff1.jpg?uselang=fr. Accessed 2 December 2023.​

It's hard to believe that I started posting this revised version of this timeline over two years ago! with 62 entries. And the original another year before that. I've had to start using the find function in my word doc to keep my names of places straight.

Also, extra thanks to the members who have recently binge read this timeline. It was quite nice to see 20+ likes on the thread at a time!
XI-2: And the World Continues On

Chapter 2: And the World Continues On​

—AD 1806 – AD 1829—

“Even after independence, Haïti struggled.”
from The Tragic Beginnings of Haïti

Jean Jacques Dessalines, president and then emperor of Haiti [cxi]

Under emperor Jacques I, Haïti had little stability. The empire was not only a pariah state, but also isolationist. Sugar and coffee were the states only contact with the outside world. Jacques I was determined to keep the plantations producing, but without using slave labor. Which he technically did do this, the lower production of the plantations was the lesser of the problems. After independence, most Haïtians wanted to practice substance farming on their own plots of land. This was completely at odds with goals of the empire, so people had to coerced to work on the plantations. And the emperor’s absolutist polices did not help to sooth the tensions.

In AD 1806, members of Jacques I’s own government started a revolt in Port-au-Prince intending to assassinate the emperor. While they did create a successful and very bloody riot, it failed in its goal of assassinating the emperor. Some stories, attribute Jacques I’s survival to the aid of a pirate captain. The unnamed pirate captain, is normally described as a former slave, who was captured during the Second Golden Age of Piracy, then he rose though the ship’s ranks until becoming captain. This mysterious captain heard about the plot, then went straight to the emperor. Giving him enough time to prepare. There are several issues with this story that make many historians doubt it. One, is the major inconsistency about the pirate’s name. Another, is that Jacques I never mentioned being helped by anyone, let alone a former slave pirate.

Regardless of how, after the riot was suppressed, Jacques I’s absolutist rule was increasingly mixed with paranoia. And Haïti was even transformed into a semi-feudal state. Where every able commoner was required to pay time working on the emperor’s plantations. Since working on the plantations took time away from the common people’s subsistence farms, Haïti’s population had little ability to improve their situation.
Not wanting to trigger another European war, British India began trying to contain French India. Its primary method of doing this was to conquer neutral state, thus denning French India access to them. Normally, the states that agreed to British Indian protection were granted princely state status, while those who resisted were annexed into British India proper. The biggest exception to this was Nepal, which was admitted as a princely state even after the Anglo-Nepalese War.

The closest these conflicts ever got to restarting the wars in Europe again, was the Third Anglo-Maratha War. Seeing what the British were doing, Maratha began aiding states against them. This drew the ire of British India who declared war in AD 1817. French India decided not to help the enemy of their enemy so that there would be no escalation. While France did not directly intervene, it did allow French soldiers to fight as mercenaries for Maratha.

In addition to be better supplied, the British Indian Army was primarily made up of veterans of the British Revolutionary Wars. And British India bribed Marathan princes with the promise of their own princely states within British India.

Between the rebelling princes and the rest, the Marathan armies were crushed by AD 1819. With its armies gone, the Marathan Confederacy fractured. Regions that were not conquered by British India willing became princely states of either British India or French India. Maratha itself became a very large rump state, independent, but because of the distance between it and the British & French Indias. It still had several vassal princes, but these were mostly nominal.

After the dissolution of the Marathan Confederacy, Britain turned their attention to further expand into Burma.
While the British expanded through conquest and protectionism, French India sought to further secure their hold on the subcontinent. Their tactic was economical in nature. They had already loaned out large amounts of money to certain princely states and allies to build their military and infrastructure. When the various princely states could not make their payments, French India confiscated land in lieu of payment. French India, of course, reserved the right to choose who to foreclose on and who to give more time. Its influence was also expanded due to many princes wanting protection from British India’s aggression.
Map of India AD 1830.png

Figure 1: Map of the Indian Subcontinent, AD 1830 [85]​


85. Please do not take this map too seriously. It’s meant to be more for a general idea rather than accuracy [86].​
86. That said, no, the situation in India is not stable, it is not meant to be.​
CXI. (Rigaud, 19th Century)​
Rigaud, Louis. Jean Jacques Dessalines, president and then emperor of Haiti. 19th Century. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_Jacques_Dessalines.jpg. Accessed 11 December 2023.​
XI-3: Louis XVII and Reforms

Chapter 3: Louis XVII and Reforms​

—AD 1830—
“For Glorious Times!”
Rally Cry

The Canut Revolt in Lyon, October 1831 [cxii]

The Bourbon Reform government had been very much based on the government of United Kingdom (specifically before the English Revolutions). That said, there was very little in actual checks and balances on power. This was especially true for the king, the only thing that really prevented Louis XVII to take a more direct approach to ruling, was the fact that he did not want to at the time. So, when Louis XVII’s popularity began to significantly fall, there were many fears that he might exercise his abilities more. This combined with a resurgence in more liberal ideas, creating a call for new liberal reforms.

According to some, the rise in more liberal thinking was caused by the machinations of republican secret societies. Supposedly, these societies had been sneaking back into France for the past decade or more. And they had begun to infiltrate lower-level governmental positions, so that they could spread their influence. Regardless of where the ideas came from, Louis XVII’s political opponents decided to capitalize on the ideas for their potential as a weapon against Louis XVII.

Louis XVII was not actually opposed to enacting more liberal reforms, but he was not blind. He knew the real reason that many in his government wanted them. Thus, he used his powers to dragged his feet on entertaining any proposals. Ironically, it was only the fear that Louis XVII’s power needed to be limited that actual got him to use that power. While he had plenty of enemies, at least the conservatives were on his side due to his status as the legitimate king. At least until his religious opinions became public.

First, was Louis XVII’s public promotion of the return of Gallicism. Second, were his personal mysticism beliefs. These looked as though he tried to syncretize Catholicism with Occultism [*]. Needless to say, he lost almost all of his support with the clergy, and most of his conservative support.

Poor harvests further agitated several riots in outlying areas. The riots themselves, were not actual much of a problem. However, it was what happened with the news of the riots that became important. When the Parisian papers got news about the riots, they could not stop publicizing them, despite the government’s attempts to control them. All cases painted these riots as the beginnings of a new revolution. The politicians took these claims and blamed them on Louis XVII. Demonstrations broke out in the streets of Paris, though only minor relatively violence occurred. This was enough to get the House of Peers and the king to discuss proposals.

Louis XVII pulled the same tactic he used at the Congress of Hamburg, though this time it was intentional. He publicly announced his desire for large scale liberal reforms, including lowering the voting requirements and reforming the requirements on the House of Peers. Of course, the rest of the government would have to agree to any proposals, but the populace in Paris was taken by the king’s announced intentions. The king’s opponents were in great anxiety over the potential damage, the proto-mob in Paris (who did not care about his unorthodox religious views) were now in the king’s camp.

But when the first draft of the Charter of 1830 was revealed, Louis XVII’s opponents were stunned. The charter included very little in terms of day-to-day governance. Instead, the charter focused on the king’s ability to call national referendums, the Council of the King (privy council), Royal Assembly (a legislature that mostly delt with national referendums). It also mentioned reorganizations of the King’s Household, but the only things of interest to most people there was that the Constable, now Cst. Jean-de-Dieu Soult after Cst. Bonaparte’s death from stomach cancer, maintained supreme control of the French military, while still being an agent of the king. And that tax collection fell under the jurisdiction of the king’s agents as well. The last thing the charter did was reinforce the language the French State land was the personal property of the king.

This unexpected turn of event left the Louis XVII’s enemies speechless. They had expected to be forced into a defensive conflict to maintain their positions. The Charter of 1830 should not have shocked them as much as it did. Despite his initial hesitancy for reforms, Louis XVII had never hidden his enlightenment inspired idealism, what he was worried about was becoming nothing more than a “rubber stamp” or worse. But most of his enemies never thought of him as anything other than the “fool who lost the chance of economic gains at the Congress of Hamburg” or a popular opinion character of his mother. The shock let the king’s few allies to get the head start on their reform process.

The first thing that was discussed in the Constitution of 1830 [†], was voter expansion. No one, not even the most radical liberal supported universal suffrage. This was because the rural areas had vastly larger conservative populations, and it was feared that if they all obtained the right to vote, that they would return France all the way back to the ancien régime. Voter enfranchisement was limited to household franchise system, were only those who paid enough taxes could vote. This was actually the same system that was used previously, but the amount of taxes was significantly lowered. As for the House of Peers, hereditary seats were discarded. However, a peer still needed some sort of noble title, but any title could for fill this requirement, and could be conferred on the individual immediately before taking their seat. While the House of Peers still existed, it’s primary duty was now accepting what the House of Deputies presented to it. The House of Deputies functioned much the same, each department elected their own deputy, and through the deputy the voters would have an indirect voice into the governance of the country. What changed was that the House of Deputies became the primary legislative body in the country. There were other minor changes, but they were not as apparent to the average person.
During this time, Louis XVII also over saw several other changes. He was always fascinated with machinery and even tinkered with his own models. So, it was no surprise that the king encouraged earlier adoption of new military inventions. These included steam powered warships, mechanical grenades, and recoilless rifles.


* Almost all of his beliefs have since been declared heretical at some point by the Catholic Church.​
† This meant that France had two, equally legitimate, constitutions.​
xcii. (Anonymous, 19th century)​
Anonymous. Canut revolt of October 1831. 19th century. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Revolte_des_Canuts_-_Lyon_1831_-_1.jpg. Accessed 17 December 2023.​

The last chapter, before before I start the last part.

I will admit, I did rush this one a little. I'm eager to start working on the final part, but I needed to finish this one for context. That's also why I didn't bother finding names Louis XVII's allies & opponents. If you see anything that doesn't make any sense please point it out & I will try to fix it.

Part XII will focus almost entirely on the Americas & mostly on New France & New Albion.
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XII-1: The Binding of Canada
A little preview of Part XII with the first chapter. I hope to have more either by the end of the month or sometime during February.

Part XII: The Nations Shall Be Like the Stars in the Sky​

Chapter 1: The Binding of Canada​

—AD 1816 – AD 1837—
“They finally had their nation back; they then needed to find themselves.”
Children of the Plains of Abraham

Joseph-Octave Plessis, Catholic bishop of Quebec [cxiii]

Very little was done in the last few months of AD 1815. Most of the New French were still in shock that the English were finally gone. The following year, everyone was hard at work trying to rebuild. That was until the arrival of New Year’s Eve, New Year’s Day had always been a major holiday for the New French, being that it was also the Feast of the Circumcision of the Lord, and the day that the Christ Child brought presents to Canadian children [*]. But in AD 1816-1817, it took on an almost nationalistic meaning as well. New France had just spent a full year free of English occupation. For those who could afford it, the celebration did not end until January 6th AD 1817, on the Feast of the Kings.

While in the following years, the celebrations would again be confined just to January 1st and St. John the Baptist day would become the primary national holiday. New Years would maintain a mild nationalist connotation. And many of the Francophonic practices would eventually be adopted by the non-Francophone populations.
Politically and governmentally, New France was left in a very awkward position. The French government refused to acknowledge the existence of New France (unless it was to collect their taxes) since that could possibly be seen as sanctioning Louis XVII’s actions at the Congress of Hamburg. Technically, the actual status of New France would be most similar to an English style crown colony. Louis XVII was either uninterested in the area or too busy to take any actions to help rebuild. He did not even seem realize the area’s addition after the finalization of the congress [†]. Most historians assume that he simply happy with the idea that the Francophones were now “under the protection of the French crown.” Unfortunately, all of this left New France quite on its own.

The first institution to recover from the English occupation was the Church. A large part of this was because the Catholic Church did not leave New France abandoned after the English left. Bishop Joseph-Octave Plessis was promoted to archbishop and the Diocese of Moncton was created to serve the Acadians. With the Church rebuilt, there was some form of social support and governance. But, since it was the only institution with any real influence, corruption grew rampantly.

The Governor-General, Viscount de Léry, did manage to organize is own cabinet and kept the military in order. However, he functioned more like the governor of Québec. The colony was just too rural and devastated for him to have any direct control, in addition to his old age. Outside of the very few cities, whatever duties that the Church did not perform was left up to the individual seigneurs. And even if an induvial seigneur was inclined to help the habitants on his seigneurie, the practice of making grand seigneurs [‡] instead of making new seigneurs ensured that they were normally overwhelmed.
During the occupation, the non-Francophone populations were often singled out and targeted by the English, especially the Anglophone communities. In an effort to escape, many fled to the wilderness creating small settlements of their own. The non-Fracophone population of the western cities did not disappear entirely, but did greatly decrease.

Many of these settlements did not even have roads to them. So, when New France changed hands, it took longer for these settlements to find out, and when they did, most people stayed where they were. The benefit these settlements had was that they were isolated from the political troubles in the rest of New France. The downside, they were completely isolated and without most sources of help. Since being small was a benefit during the occupation, they did not have much in terms of local government or internal support. This situation tended to include Amerindian settlements as well, even though they were not created under the same conditions.

Meanwhile, English settlements in Acadia found themselves in much the same predicament as the non-Fracophone communities elsewhere. The English had never fully settled the area that created the new Acadia [87]. A few did leave for New Albion, but most just stayed isolated in their own settlements as much as possible.
In essence, the mantra of all of French America now seemed to be, “keep your head down and you will stay out of trouble.”


* As opposed to Father Christmas delivering presents on Christmas like in Britian and New Albion, or Saint Nick on St. Nicolas Day in Dutch speaking regions etc. This practice is still continued in New France.​
† All of French America was considered under the style “King of the French,” so new title was not even added.​
‡ A seigneur with more than one seigneurie.​


87. OTL New Brunswick.​
xciii. (Durand, 1810)​
Durand. Joseph-Octave Plessis, catholic bishop of Quebec. 1810. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Joseph-Octave_Plessis.png. Accessed 1 January 2024.​
Just reached 60,000 words in my working document! 🥳

It won't actually change anything important, but I also decided to split Part 12 into two parts. I think it works better thematically this way.
XII-2: Children of the Bondsmen

Chapter 2: Children of the Bondsmen​

—AD 1820 – AD 1837—
“Until all men are free!”
Abolitionist motto.

Liberty Displaying the Arts and Sciences [cxiv]​

New France had a few slaves, those were considered domestic, and almost all of them were captured Amerindian warriors. There had been an attempt to start maple syrup plantations, but these proved to be unviable. Despite this French law still had very few restrictions on the practice, unless their country of origin was a French ally. This was so that the sugar islands could continue to operate as they always had.

This was in contrast to the situation in New Albion. New Albion had signifigant autonomy, as did each of its provinces. But the government in London was growing increasingly hostile to the institution of slavery. Britain had already outlawed the acquisition of new slaves from Africa and was in the process of banning slavery in areas it had direct control over, though this proved to be a very slow and uneven process.

New Albion itself was greatly divided on the subject. The northern provinces banned slavery, while southern provinces accepted and promoted the practice. And in the middle provinces, things were a bit more complicated. The practice was perfectly legal but its popularity was decreasing for non-legal reasons.

While the British government playing favorites with the abolitionists and close proximity to centers of abolitionist propaganda certainly played a part, the biggest reason was probably economics. Large scale plantations, with hundreds of slaves, were just not as profitable as they used to be. Market changes made them too expensive maintain [*]. In Delaware and Maryland, many plantation owners began to convert their plantations over to other thing in an effort to maintain profits. Some tried to convert their land over to non-agricultural production. While others converted over to sharecropping, expecting to make their profits off of land rental rather than the crops. Not everyone was successful, but it was enough to continue the trend. Slavery stayed legal, but the decrease in plantations meant the decrease in slaves. Unfortunately, this did not mean the slaves were freed, though some were lucky, most were sold to the few plantations still in operation or the plantations in the south.

The southern provinces had the same economic troubles as the middle provinces, but unlike the middle provinces they doubled down on slavery and plantations claiming that it was part of their heritage and culture. But like most other crops, cotton was just too labor intensive, even when you were not paying for the labor. When the smaller plantations when bankrupt they were incorporated into larger plantations, only prolonging their own slow decline, and further concentrating the province’s internal power into fewer and fewer people.
Escapes from slavery was difficult and uncommon, but not impossible. Especially with the large amounts of slaves changing hands now, sometimes opportunities would present themselves. Most escaped slaves tried to make their way to the northern provinces. If they made it, they were legally considered free. But if they were caught before reaching a free province, they would be returned and punished.

Among the European-Americans in the northern provinces, Colonization Societies were quite popular. The societies intended to provide free African-Americans the ability to repatriate back to Africa. These societies were less popular among African-Americans, but this did not seem to matter to them. Besides lack of support from the African-American, the societies lacked enough funds. Large donations were common, but it is extremely expensive to ship that many people a crossed the Atlantic Ocean. What many members were searching for ended up being a closer and cheaper destination. Some suggested various areas in the Caribbean.
After being occupied for years, many in New Albion lost interest in New France for a while. In the minds of most, the threat of a Papist horde descending from the north just did not seem that much of a threat anymore. There was still some claiming that the New French would bring about New Albion’s Armageddon. But these were mostly relegated to fringe Apocalyptic religious sects.

The new religion of the Church of Latter-Day Saints, was facing division at this time. The main division was caused when the religions prophet, Joseph Smith, revealed that polygamy was acceptable. But not everyone agreed, not just within the religion, but outside of it as well. The acceptability of the practice drew the ire of all the Neo-Waldensians and others. Many of the Neo-Waldensians were determined to burn them out. Many members of the church fled upper New York, resettling in eastern British Indiana. Mostly those who supported polygamy left. Many of the members who did not support polygamy ended up staying, later, the groups would gain unique denomination names, but those had not arisen yet.

Neo-Waldensians had always been congregationalist. And during the last great awakening, many differences were overlooked because of a perceived greater threat, mainly Universalism. But know the disagreements within Neo-Waldensian cooperation began to show. For some, the faction of the Church of Latter-Day Saints, that stayed in New York, provided former Neo-Waldensians a third option.


* Sugar plantations were an exception, but they were also uncommon in New Albion due to the climate.​
cxiv. (Jennings, 1792)​
Jennings, Samuel. Liberty Displaying the Arts and Sciences. 1792. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/...ging_the_Emancipation_of_the_Blacks,_1792.jpg. Accessed 4 January 2024.​
XII-3: The not Promised Land

Chapter 3: The not Promised Land​

—AD 1820 – AD 1837—
“Desiring the Sea.”
Anonymous description of New Albion feelings

Lithograph of Opothleyahola [cxv]

Even after decades of the existence of British Indiana, many New Albions were unhappy with having an enforced western border. And the longer British Indiana existed, the more unhappy about it the New Albions seemed to grow. Officially, they could not create a new settlement on British Indianan land. This did not prevent them from moving to already settled places withing British Indiana. Trading centers like Chicago and Detroit, which already had large European-American populations, grew, expanding their borders into the surrounding areas. These areas were under direct British governance, so their expansion to accommodate the population growth did not violate boundaries of British Indiana. And the cultural shock for these migrants was also lessened.

Turning trading centers into cities was not good enough for all New Albions. They wanted the ability to create homesteads, to build their small communities away from the urban areas. Many of the Amerindian were also still holding grudges against the New Albions for being the initial cause of their displacement during the Cherokee Wars. Small raids on either side were common among the frontier.

In theory, raiders on either side were to be tried under British law, but the area’s remoteness among other reasons often left the raids untaken care of. Amerindian villages formed village bands for defense and raids, while the New Albions formed “vigilante” groups. Both tried to limit themselves so killing livestock or burning crops, the purposeful mass killings often drew more attention than they wanted.

There was only one signifigant exception to this, a former commonwealth militia captain named Andrew Jackson. Andrew Jackson had rose to prominence and became very powerful during the commonwealth years. He was one of the first to invade Cherokee territory in an attempt to annex more land. When the commonwealth fell, he remained on the annexed land setting up his own plantation. Using the influence, he had gained to become quite powerful. His outspokenness for the plight of the common man did much to ingratiate him to those in his local area. His vigilantes routinely killed Amerindians and burned entire villages. Militia General Jackson believed that it was the duty of “civilized” people to claim Amerindian land and give to “civilized” peoples. He used his influence to keep prevent himself and his vigilantes from being prosecuted properly. This worked for about five years, but then Gen. Jackson was killed. Despite Gen. Jackson’s habit of leading his vigilantes into combat, he did not die fighting. Instead, he was shot unceremoniously, by a man named Edward Lawrence. Edward Lawrence appeared to want to kill Gen. Jackson to “gain the general’s fame.” He was ruled insane during his trial.

The death of Gen. Jackson put an end to his vigilantes, but it did not stop the raids as a whole. Those would still continue for a long time.
While New France was neglected, French Indiana was at least reformed. Louisiana was officially broken off so that it could still be administered as a proper colony. The rest of the French Indiana was reformed to resemble British Indiana more closely. Like French India, the members of French Indiana were more independent than their British counterparts.

Figure 1: French Indiana & Louisiana [cxvi]​

Location of French Indiana 1837.png

cxv. (King, 1837)​
cxvi. (Hadril, 2018)​
Hadaril. 1848 The Springtime of the Peoples. “The NextGen OTL Worlda Series.” alternatehistory.com, XenForo Ltd., 22 February 2018. https://hadaril.github.io/nextgen/1848.png. Accessed 17 January 2024.​
King, Charles Bird. Lithograph of Opothleyahola. 1837. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Opothle_Yaholo.jpg. Accessed 8 January 2024.​

I have to edit the last chapter to part XII & then I can post it.
I have also started to work on the 2nd to last proper chapter in the timeline!

After that, the epilogue is basically going to be a bunch of bullet points, it will include both things that would happen in the future & "neat" facts. Such as: what the standard work day looks like (hint: it's not the same). But it won't go into too much detail as to how it got that way. Feel free to ask if something is particularly interesting for you.

After that, I'm going to do a series of a bunch "Fun Maps," things like, languages, political systems, religions, most popular sport, chess variant, &c.
I have a dilemma though with them. I could make the maps based on when the timeline ends c. 1840. Or I could project the timeline to the present day for the maps.

I really like projecting to the present day, the problem is that it would be fairly inaccurate in several places as I haven't done much thinking in those places (such as Africa). As well as there will be a few places that I know I would want for the present day, haven't 100% decided on how it would happen, & you guys would have absolutely 0 context for.

I'll set up a poll & see if it matters for you.
I'd love to see present day maps of this world.
I'll try to include most of the most important events in the epilogue, that said, the maps will suffer quite a bit from coincidental OTL borders just because I'm not going to redefine a border just to be different from OTL when I haven't developed enough context on the area to do it properly.

There will also be a few areas that I'm not going to have any explanation for other than, "I like how it looks" :)
I'll try to include most of the most important events in the epilogue, that said, the maps will suffer quite a bit from coincidental OTL borders just because I'm not going to redefine a border just to be different from OTL when I haven't developed enough context on the area to do it properly.

There will also be a few areas that I'm not going to have any explanation for other than, "I like how it looks" :)
That's OK, it's kinda hard not to have OTL borders or space filling empires in areas you know less about and thus have less of an idea of what to do with. I say this from firsthand experience.

I have to edit the last chapter to part XII & then I can post it.
I have also started to work on the 2nd to last proper chapter in the timeline!

After that, the epilogue is basically going to be a bunch of bullet points, it will include both things that would happen in the future & "neat" facts. Such as: what the standard work day looks like (hint: it's not the same). But it won't go into too much detail as to how it got that way. Feel free to ask if something is particularly interesting for you.

After that, I'm going to do a series of a bunch "Fun Maps," things like, languages, political systems, religions, most popular sport, chess variant, &c.
I have a dilemma though with them. I could make the maps based on when the timeline ends c. 1840. Or I could project the timeline to the present day for the maps.

I really like projecting to the present day, the problem is that it would be fairly inaccurate in several places as I haven't done much thinking in those places (such as Africa). As well as there will be a few places that I know I would want for the present day, haven't 100% decided on how it would happen, & you guys would have absolutely 0 context for.

I'll set up a poll & see if it matters for you.
Overall, this is an excellent timeline, and I've enjoyed reading it. It's a shame, in my opinion, that you plan to end it circa 1840 because there's so much to explore. Regardless, I'm looking forward to the various fun facts you have planned out and the potential mapping of this world.