TL-191: After the End

What is typical housing like for the upper, lower and middle class households in TTL’s US in 2021?

In 2021, the US housing market as a whole still hasn’t recovered from the Great Housing Crash of 2019. This has resulted in large numbers of homeowners defaulting on mortgage payments, as well as evictions; evictions have been especially prominent in the new exurbs (TTL’s equivalent to OTL suburbs), and many former homeowners have been forced to move into major cities as renters.

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Housing, and US government policies related to housing, took a different path in comparison to our world, which was also shaped by wider economic conditions. During the first generation after the end of the Second Great War, there was not an equivalent in most of the US to the OTL post-WWII suburbanization, although there were some areas where new exurbs were constructed, such as southern California. Exurbs, during the first generation after the war, were more likely to be constructed around US cities that did not have extensive public transportation, at least in comparison to the major cities in the Northeast and Midatlantic states.

After the end of the SGW, the trend in most major US cities, especially in the Northeast, Midatlantic, and Midwest, was for investment in housing within the major cities themselves, and to improve on already existing housing infrastructure. The ideal that developed in many areas of the US during the first postwar generation was to gain admission, so to speak, to the new, modern high rise apartments going up in the major cities. The tendency in most US cities during the postwar years was to address housing needs by building up, instead of out.

One effect of this trend in housing and high rise construction in US cities in TTL was that Federally-funded highways were not as a rule built through major cities.

During the postwar period, housing trends in the new Canadian states, the Midsouth, and the Caribbean also tended to copy trends in other regions, such as the emphasis on building new high rises and improving existing housing and transportation infrastructure. However, housing projects in the Midsouth were also affected in the long run by a relative lack of demand for new housing caused by the region’s longstanding demographic and economic problems.

The Humphrey administration (1961-1973) left a lasting mark on the housing landscape in most US cities with its heavy investment in public housing. Urban renewal was an issue of personal interest for President Humphrey, and his administration focused heavily, especially before the Fourth Pacific War, in improving the quality of life for big city residents. Public housing projects built during the Humphrey administration were generally praised, by residents and later historians alike, for reflecting both high levels of Federal investment and for the emphasis placed on trying to ensure a “neighborhood” quality. The popularity of the Humphrey-era public housing projects was such that succeeding administrations that did not place a similar emphasis on these kinds of urban renewal and housing projects, such as the Blackford and Reynolds administrations, did not dramatically reduce Federal support for such projects.

Trends in housing and urban development shifted in most of the US during the late Twentieth Century due to two larger trends: high levels of foreign immigration, and a large wave of internal migration from the Midsouth to other regions of the country. This contributed, beginning in the 1980s, to increased demands for new housing.

One of the new government agencies created during the Reynolds administration was the Bureau of Housing and Home Ownership (BHHO). The BHHO was the first US government agency to encourage private home ownership, and was instrumental in encouraging private investment both into a new generation of urban high rise apartments and into new exurban (suburban) housing outside of the major cities. Although the demand for new housing in the US temporarily declined in the early 1990s due to the Tech Recession, demand had surged again in most of the country by the late 1990s.

The Reynolds administration (1981-1989) was the first administration to publicly emphasize and push for greater private home ownership, though without reducing funding for popular Humphrey-era public housing projects. The 1980s also saw the emergence of a powerful Congressional Business and Prosperity Caucus, an alliance of pro-business politicians on Capitol Hill from all three parties. The Business and Prosperity Caucus would play an important role over the next several decades in promoting greater private home ownership. This Caucus would successfully engage with the DeFrancis (1993-1997), Gutierrez (1997-2005), Hernandez (2005-2013), and Astaire (2013-2021) administrations to enact policies meant to encourage greater private home ownership.

The Astaire administration in particular made private home ownership a core element of its government programs. For President Astaire, encouraging greater private ownership was part of a wider effort to support private enterprise. The Astaire administration, through the BHHO, engaged in higher levels of lending to would-be home owners than in previous administrations. In 2013, with the support of the Business and Prosperity Caucus in Congress, the Astaire administration also succeeded in eliminating regulations, enacted in the 1930s in response to the Business Collapse, which was intended to separate investment banking.

The Astaire administration’s policies in regards to encouraging greater private home ownership and private investment in home ownership, were echoed in similar policies that were enacted in the 2000s and 2010s in other countries, including in all of the other great powers (Austria-Hungary, Bharat, Brazil, China, Germany, Russia). The 2000s and 2010s also saw a significant increase in private lending and investment by major banks and private companies, from multiple countries, into different national housing markets. This ultimately led to the creation of real estate bubbles in many local housing markets, including in all of the great powers.

The Great Housing Crash of 2019 was the result of the simultaneous bankruptcies of several private firms, in several countries, that had been heavily engaged in speculative lending in multiple housing markets. As with the Great Recession in our world, the Great Housing Crash in TTL would be exacerbated by the temporary freeze in the now extensive system of private credit.

The United States, as well as other countries affected by the Great Housing Cash, including all of the great powers, were somewhat better equipped to respond to the emergency, due to the wide ranging powers available to governments around the world to intervene to support their respective vital industries or businesses, in the name of national security. However, the US government response to the Great Housing Crash would be hampered by the policy failures of the administration of President George Novak (2021-2025), as well as the unmitigated disaster that was the Charles Holst administration (2025-2027). The USA would not recover economically from the Great Housing Crash until the end of the 2020s.
 
David, how extensive is TTL's Interstate Highway System? With former Canadian Provinces and Cuba, one would expect the system to be much more extensive than TTL.
 
David, how extensive is TTL's Interstate Highway System? With former Canadian Provinces and Cuba, one would expect the system to be much more extensive than TTL.

The Interstate Highway System is very extensive in TTL. It was constructed during the first generation after the end of the Second Great War by the US government in significant part due to national security reasons: to enable the US military to rapidly deploy to different regions of the country. The US government, for similar reasons, also funded the extension of the US interstate system during the first postwar generation into Texas, Mexico, the countries of Central America, and Quebec.

The expansion of the Federal highway system during the first postwar generation also took place alongside a US government-funded expansion of rail and air infrastructure in both the USA, which was also closely linked to similar infrastructure constructed in the North American member states of the CDS.
 
How does Britain's motorway system compare ITTL to OTL?

Also, what became of:
George Ivatt
JF Harrison (who you mentioned got the job of the LNER CME over Edward Thompson)
Agatha Christie
Ronald Searle
Sid James
Stanley Holloway
John Redmond (IPP leader and supporter of Home Rule)
Alec Douglas-Home
Edward Heath
Rab Butler
William Whitelaw
 
What's the status of these Canadian statesmen?
--R.B. Bennett
--M.J. Coldwell (Co-founder of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, the forerunner to the NDP IOTL. Helped introduce welfare and social security policies,)
--Tommy Douglas (Dubbed "The Greatest Canadian" by CBC in 2004 and the father of the universal healthcare system. First to lead a dem-soc government in North America as Premier of Saskatchewan.)
--John Diefenbaker
--Wilfrid Laurier (Died after GW1, but does he accept the loss of his country and Quebec separatism? Though he did lead the opposition during the war, he wasn't a Quebec nationalist like Henri Bourassa. How is he received by the Francophone population and by the former Canadian population as well? He tried rapprochement with the US but would've lost to Robert Borden in 1911 over the issue just like IOTL.)
--Vincent Massey
--Lester B. Pearson
--William Lyon Mackenzie King (PM during WWII)
--Georges Varnier (First Francophone Governor General.)
--J.S. Woodsworth (Co-founder of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, the forerunner to the NDP IOTL. Major religious and labor movement leader.)

Was goin add Quebec leaders but realized there's already the TTL Premier list made by Lord Caedus. On that note, does Quebec have a unicameral or bicameral legislature?

This reply will be divided into several parts.

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Richard Bedford Bennet’s life and career began to diverge from OTL when he did not begin a friendship with Max Aitken (Lord Beaverbrook IOTL). Because of this lack of a friendship with Aitken, Bennett was never ran in the election for the first Town Council of Chatham. Unlike IOTL, Bennett remained in New Brunswick and did not move west, although he began a legal career in Miramichi

In 1914, Bennett attempted to enlist in the Canadian armed forces, but was turned down due to age. Bennett was devastated by the defeat of Canada in the First Great War. After the end of the FGW, Bennett joined a wave of Canadian emigrants who moved abroad; Bennett settled in the United Kingdom.

Bennett, like many Canadian emigres who settled in Britain after the FGW, was intensely anti-US. Bennett would later become a staunch supporter of the Conservative-Silver Shirt Coalition, and would find a role in the United Empire Bureau, established by the Coalition government to produce propaganda aimed at residents of US-Occupied Canada.

In 1944, Bennett was among those killed in the German superbombing of London.

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Lester Pearson, TTL’s analogue to our world’s Lester B. Pearson, eventually joined the Canadian Army. He was killed during fighting on the Ontario Front in 1916.
 
What's the status of these Canadian statesmen?
--R.B. Bennett
--M.J. Coldwell (Co-founder of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, the forerunner to the NDP IOTL. Helped introduce welfare and social security policies,)
--Tommy Douglas (Dubbed "The Greatest Canadian" by CBC in 2004 and the father of the universal healthcare system. First to lead a dem-soc government in North America as Premier of Saskatchewan.)
--John Diefenbaker
--Wilfrid Laurier (Died after GW1, but does he accept the loss of his country and Quebec separatism? Though he did lead the opposition during the war, he wasn't a Quebec nationalist like Henri Bourassa. How is he received by the Francophone population and by the former Canadian population as well? He tried rapprochement with the US but would've lost to Robert Borden in 1911 over the issue just like IOTL.)
--Vincent Massey
--Lester B. Pearson
--William Lyon Mackenzie King (PM during WWII)
--Georges Varnier (First Francophone Governor General.)
--J.S. Woodsworth (Co-founder of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, the forerunner to the NDP IOTL. Major religious and labor movement leader.)

Was goin add Quebec leaders but realized there's already the TTL Premier list made by Lord Caedus. On that note, does Quebec have a unicameral or bicameral legislature?

The analogue in TTL to John Diefenbaker was George Diefenbaker, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. Unlike in our world, his family did not move west. In 1914, he was already serving in the Canadian Army as part of his required term of service. He was killed in action on the Ontario Front in 1915.

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JS Woodsworth spent the First Great War in Winnipeg, and was there when the city was captured by the US military at the end of the FGW. Woodsworth, even during the war, maintained his pacifist beliefs, which had resulted in the loss of his pastorship. Woodsworth, in spite of his pacifism, was strongly opposed to the US military occupation, and attempted to organize protests against the US presence in Winnipeg, which always resulted in his arrest. Woodsworth was killed during the First Canadian Uprising in 1924, under unclear circumstances. While many Winnipeg residents would blame the US military for the death of Woodsworth, documentary evidence uncovered by local historians in the early 1980s revealed that Woodsworth had actually been murdered by Canadian rebels under the false belief that Woodsworth has been secretly collaborating with the US military authorities.

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James Coldwell, in TTL, emigrated to Australia in 1910 from Britain, instead of Canada. He settled in Melbourne, where he worked as a teacher. In the 1930s, Coldwell became involved in the Melbourne Mutual Assistance Society (MMAS), which provided assistance to British immigrants. Coldwell, privately, also provided what assistance he could to those British immigrants who had trouble finding work due to their status as former political prisoners under the Conservative-Silver Shirt Coalition in Britain. By 2021, the former headquarters of the MMAS in Melbourne, preserved as a museum, includes a specific wing dedicated to Coldwell and his activities on behalf of British immigrants.

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The analogue to Vincent Massey in TTL was Charles Massey, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. He was commissioned as an officer in the Canadian Army, only to be wounded in the Ontario Front in 1915. Charles Massey was thrown into despair at Canada’s defeat in 1917. The Massey family was also financially ruined by the war. The Massey family left Occupied Canada in 1919 for New Zealand, vowing to return only if Canada became independent again. In 2021, the Massey family still lives in New Zealand.

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The analogue in TTL to Tommy Douglas was Clement Douglas, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. Unlike in our world, his family remained in Scotland instead of emigrating to Canada. Douglas also did not injure his knee in an accident, unlike in our world. In 1919, following Britain’s defeat in the FGW, and the resulting economic problems, Douglas’s family emigrated to Australia, eventually settling in Sydney.

Clement Douglas spent the rest of his life working in a variety of industrial jobs. He did become enthusiastically involved in labor organizing, after the authorities in New South Wales lifted all restrictions on organized labor activity following the end of the Second Great War and the fall of the pro-British Australian government.
 
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How does Britain's motorway system compare ITTL to OTL?

Also, what became of:
George Ivatt
JF Harrison (who you mentioned got the job of the LNER CME over Edward Thompson)
Agatha Christie
Ronald Searle
Sid James
Stanley Holloway
John Redmond (IPP leader and supporter of Home Rule)
Alec Douglas-Home
Edward Heath
Rab Butler
William Whitelaw

My reply will be divided into several parts.

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The analogue to Sid James in TTL was Solomon Cohen, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. Cohen, after the end of the Second Great War, would eventually emigrate to Australia with his family, as the political situation in the Union of South Africa became more and more repressive. Solomon Cohen spent the rest of his life in Melbourne, where he worked in a variety of jobs.

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Ronald Searle doesn’t exist in TTL, although an analogue to the Searle family does. By 2021, the Searle family still primarily lives in and around Cambridge.

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The analogue to Edward Heath in TTL was Richard Heath, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. Richard Heath served in the British Army in the Second Great War. He was wounded in action during the fighting in north Germany, and was sent home. Heath was personally devastated by the three German superbomb attacks on Britain. After the end of the SGW, Heath would emigrate to Australia, settling in Melbourne.

Heath was a talented musician, and would make a living in Melbourne by playing with a number of local orchestras. He never became involved in local politics.
 
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How does Britain's motorway system compare ITTL to OTL?

Also, what became of:
George Ivatt
JF Harrison (who you mentioned got the job of the LNER CME over Edward Thompson)
Agatha Christie
Ronald Searle
Sid James
Stanley Holloway
John Redmond (IPP leader and supporter of Home Rule)
Alec Douglas-Home
Edward Heath
Rab Butler
William Whitelaw

The career of George Ivatt in TTL did not change dramatically in comparison to our world until the 1930s. He remained in Glasgow as Divisional Mechanical Engineer. He was opposed to the Conservative-Silver Shirt Coalition, but kept his real political opinions to himself during the Coalition’s time in power. Following the end of the Second Great War, and the resulting bleak economic and political situation in Britain, Ivatt accepted the offer of recruitment for immigration to Australia by an Australian poacher (immigration agent) in Glasgow. Ivatt worked in the Australian railway system until the mid-1950s, when he joined a consultancy firm in Sydney specializing in railway engineering. He spent the rest of his life in Sydney.

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The analogue to Robert Austen Butler in TTL was Austen Butler, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. As with his OTL counterpart, Butler studied at Cambridge in the 1920s. Unlike in our world, Austen Butler came to hold strongly anti-German views, which was not uncommon in the generation that came of age after Britain’s defeat in the First Great War. Butler was also politically radicalized by the General Strike of 1925, and called for the harshest possible response to the labour movement. Butler would become a staunch supporter of the Coalition government that emerged in the early 1930s, and was eventually elected to Parliament as a firm government loyalist. Unlike in our world, Butler did not serve in any high ranking government positions. He was killed in the German superbomb attack on London in 1944.

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The analogue in TTL to Agatha Christie was Mary Christie, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. Mary Christie, like her OTL counterpart, was a voracious reader and developed a talent for writing. However, unlike her OTL counterpart, she would be known for writing in a different genre: science fiction.

Her interest in this genre was sparked by her discovery of the “scientific romances” of HG Wells, which were more pessimistic and dystopian in comparison to OTL. Her first attempt at a “scientific romance,” written in 1917, was Reflection Pool, which was strongly influenced by The Time Machine. It was rejected by publishers in the bleak postwar economic environment. Christie, who was married by 1917, to a different person to OTL, would move with her husband and both their families to Australia. Her family settled in Melbourne.

Christie continued to write, both short stories and novel drafts, as her family adjusted to the new city and found a new circle of friends in the growing British expatriate community. It took Christie several years before she started to move beyond her original writing style and subjects, strongly influenced by Wells, towards a distinctive style of her own. Her first novel accepted for publication, in 1927, was Betrayal on the Starship Prosperity. This novel, a murder mystery set amongst the feuding crew of a futuristic space exploration vessel, proved to be a surprise bestseller in both Australia and New Zealand, and would also later become a bestseller in the US after its publication there in the late 1960s. This success allowed her family to endure the Business Collapse in relative comfort. Betrayal on the Starship Prosperity was the first in what proved to be a series of twelve books, detailing the misadventures of the crew of the Imperial Starship Prosperity, of the futuristic Starward Empire; the crew of this starship was notable in the series for its constant feuding, shameless corruption, and for utterly ignoring Imperial regulations in a never ending quest for profit.

Christie, as noted by later cultural historians, was distinct in her science fiction writing both in featuring ordinary people in extraordinary situations, and for having most of her protagonists being either morally ambiguous or even outright villains. Cultural historians would later also observe how many of her futuristic settings showed feature that would have been recognizable to her readers, instead of being utopian. A thread of black comedy also ran though many of her works, especially the Starship Prosperity series.

Christie continued to write during the long period marked by the rise of the Conservative-Silver Shirt Coalition government in Britain and the Second Great War; Christie would later deny that any of her works were intended to be allegorical to the Coalition. She was, however, part of a circle that worked to assist HG Wells himself after he arrived in Australia following his harsh imprisonment in Britain by the regime. The character of the exiled writer and philosopher Higgson in Christie‘s 1947 Starship Prosperity novel Robbery at the Starport Ursus was later thought by critics and cultural historians to have been based partially on Wells.

Cultural historians would also later argue that Christie’s science fiction, particularly that written in the 1930s and 1940s, was also directly satirizing the British expatriate community in Melbourne.

Christie would write other science fiction series and standalone novels during her long career, with many of her works also finding a loyal readership in the United States. She died in 1978.

In 2021, there are plans in the works for joint Australian-US film productions of Christie’s Starship Prosperity series. Several of Christie’s novels and stories, including the novel Betrayal on the Starship Prosperity, have long-since inspired Australian, British, and US Space Operas.
 
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How does Britain's motorway system compare ITTL to OTL?

Also, what became of:
George Ivatt
JF Harrison (who you mentioned got the job of the LNER CME over Edward Thompson)
Agatha Christie
Ronald Searle
Sid James
Stanley Holloway
John Redmond (IPP leader and supporter of Home Rule)
Alec Douglas-Home
Edward Heath
Rab Butler
William Whitelaw
The postwar British motorway system was initially negatively affected by the country’s harsh economic problems during the first postwar generation. Beginning in the 1960s, there was greater public investment in both the motorway and railway systems throughout the country. By 2021, the motorway system is not as extensive in comparison to our world, incompatible to the railway system.

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The career of JF Harrison was not dramatically different until he was named Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London and Northeastern Railway. Harrison held this position until the end of the Second Great War, when he lost his job as part of the postwar British government’s program of economic austerity, which had a severe impact on the British rail system, as it did on other sections of the British economy and transportation infrastructure. Harrison, like a number of his colleagues, immigrated to Australia. He remained in Melbourne for the rest of his life.

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The analogue in TTL to Stanley Holloway was Henry Holloway, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. As in our world, Holloway displayed an early interest and skill in singing and acting. Unlike in our world, he did not join a theatrical troupe touring the United States; such British overseas acts were more likely to visit Canada, the CSA, or Argentina if they went to the Western Hemisphere, in any case. Holloway was in Britain in 1914, where he enlisted in the British Army at the outbreak of the First Great War. He fought on the Western Front, where he was wounded in 1915. He was subsequently sent home.

Holloway attempted to resume a stage and singing career in London after he recovered from his injuries. However, the harsh postwar economic environment was not kind to the London theatrical world. Following the violent unrest that accompanied the 1925 General Strike, Holloway left Britain for Australia, settling in Melbourne.

Holloway found greater success in the growing Melbourne theater world, especially in musical theater. Among Holloway’s noteworthy performances was originating the role of the villainous John the Suitor in the Mary Blyton musical The Librarian of Dandenong, first performed in 1940.

Holloway, in spite of having left London, had continued a correspondence with a number of friends in the London theater world. A number of his London theater friends, unfortunately, did not survive the 1944 German superbomb attack. Holloway never really recovered from this personal loss.

Holloway continued to act in Melbourne plays and musicals until his retirement in 1970. He died in 1984.

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The career of John Redmond was not dramatically different in comparison to our world in TTL, until the First Great War. As in our world, Redmond called for Irish enlistment into the British Army. In TTL, however, Redmond was assassinated in 1916 by an Irish nationalist during the wartime Irish uprising against British rule.

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William Whitelaw didn’t exist in TTL.

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The analogue in TTL to Alec Douglas-Home was Frederick Douglas-Home, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. Douglas-Home, as in our world, was a talented sportsman. Unlike in our world, Douglas-Holme did not go into politics, and was not elected to Parliament prior to the Second Great War.

After the end of the Second Great War, Douglas-Home was briefly involved in efforts to revive the Conservative Party, but was discouraged when the Conservatives continued to see their share of the electorate decline in comparison to a resurgent Labour Party. After dabbling briefly in politics politics in the late 1940s and early 1950s, to disappointing results, Douglas-Home permanently retired from public life.
 
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The postwar British motorway system was initially negatively affected by the country’s harsh economic problems during the first postwar generation. Beginning in the 1960s, there was greater public investment in both the motorway and railway systems throughout the country. By 2021, the motorway system is not as extensive in comparison to our world, incompatible to the railway system.

-
The career of JF Harrison was not dramatically different until he was named Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London and Northeastern Railway. Harrison held this position until the end of the Second Great War, when he lost his job as part of the postwar British government’s program of economic austerity, which had a severe impact on the British rail system, as it did on other sections of the British economy and transportation infrastructure. Harrison, like a number of his colleagues, immigrated to Australia. He remained in Melbourne for the rest of his life.

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The analogue in TTL to Stanley Holloway was Henry Holloway, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. As in our world, Holloway displayed an early interest and skill in singing and acting. Unlike in our world, he did not join a theatrical troupe touring the United States; such British overseas acts were more likely to visit Canada, the CSA, or Argentina if they went to the Western Hemisphere, in any case. Holloway was in Britain in 1914, where he enlisted in the British Army at the outbreak of the First Great War. He fought on the Western Front, where he was wounded in 1915. He was subsequently sent home.

Holloway attempted to resume a stage and singing career in London after he recovered from his injuries. However, the harsh postwar economic environment was not kind to the London theatrical world. Following the violent unrest that accompanied the 1925 General Strike, Holloway left Britain for Australia, settling in Melbourne.

Holloway found greater success in the growing Melbourne theater world, especially in musical theater. Among Holloway’s noteworthy performances was originating the role of the villainous John the Suitor in the Mary Blyton musical The Librarian of Dandenong, first performed in 1940.

Holloway, in spite of having left London, had continued a correspondence with a number of friends in the London theater world. A number of his London theater friends, unfortunately, did not survive the 1944 German superbomb attack. Holloway never really recovered from this personal loss.

Holloway continued to act in Melbourne plays and musicals until his retirement in 1970. He died in 1984.

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The career of John Redmond was not dramatically different in comparison to our world in TTL, until the First Great War. As in our world, Redmond called for Irish enlistment into the British Army. In TTL, however, Redmond was assassinated in 1916 by an Irish nationalist during the wartime Irish uprising against British rule.

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William Whitelaw didn’t exist in TTL.

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The analogue in TTL to Alec Douglas-Home was Frederick Douglas-Home, born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. Douglas-Home, as in our world, was a talented sportsman. Unlike in our world, Douglas-Holme did not go into politics, and was not elected to Parliament prior to the Second Great War.

After the end of the Second Great War, Douglas-Home was briefly involved in efforts to revive the Conservative Party, but was discouraged when the Conservatives continued to see their share of the electorate decline in comparison to a resurgent Labour Party. After dabbling briefly in politics politics in the late 1940s and early 1950s, to disappointing results, Douglas-Home permanent retired from pu
*Rest of post missing.
 
What's the status of these Canadian statesmen?
--R.B. Bennett
--M.J. Coldwell (Co-founder of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, the forerunner to the NDP IOTL. Helped introduce welfare and social security policies,)
--Tommy Douglas (Dubbed "The Greatest Canadian" by CBC in 2004 and the father of the universal healthcare system. First to lead a dem-soc government in North America as Premier of Saskatchewan.)
--John Diefenbaker
--Wilfrid Laurier (Died after GW1, but does he accept the loss of his country and Quebec separatism? Though he did lead the opposition during the war, he wasn't a Quebec nationalist like Henri Bourassa. How is he received by the Francophone population and by the former Canadian population as well? He tried rapprochement with the US but would've lost to Robert Borden in 1911 over the issue just like IOTL.)
--Vincent Massey
--Lester B. Pearson
--William Lyon Mackenzie King (PM during WWII)
--Georges Varnier (First Francophone Governor General.)
--J.S. Woodsworth (Co-founder of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, the forerunner to the NDP IOTL. Major religious and labor movement leader.)

Was going to add Quebec leaders but realized there's already the TTL Premier list made by Lord Caedus. On that note, does Quebec have a unicameral or bicameral legislature?

Wilfred Laurier had a political career, as IOTL, with the pre-First Great War Liberal Party in Canada. Unlike in our world, Laurier never became prime minister of Canada. This inadvertently contributed a wider political gulf between English and French-speaking Canadians in comparison to our world. Laurier served in Parliament for the rest of his career, from Quebec, and remained a staunch Canadian patriot, and loyalist to the British Empire, to the bitter end.

Laurier was in Ottawa at the outbreak of the FGW in 1914, and remained there during the duration of the conflict. Laurier was shattered by both the US-supported independence of the Republic of Quebec and Canada’s final military defeat in 1917. He was particularly appalled that the first leader of the new Québécois state was his old political foe, Henri Bourassa. Laurier died in Ottawa in 1918, a broken man.

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William Lyon McKenzie King, in comparison to other pre-FGW Canadian thinkers, was far more openly skeptical about Canada’s prospects in a hypothetical war against the the United States than many of his contemporary peers. King wasn’t afraid to argue that Canada, even with the support of the rest of the British Empire and allied to the up-to-then victorious CSA, would be hard pressed in a long, dawn out conflict. King, who specialized on economic issues and had traveled not infrequently to the US over the years, also knew all too well how outmatched Canada was in comparison to the USA. Nonetheless, at the outbreak of war in 1914, King threw himself into the Canadian war effort. King, who was too old to enlist himself, played a key role in managing Canada’s increasingly beleaguered wartime economy. With the fall of Canada in 1917, King fled with his family, with a number of Canadian exiles, to the United Kingdom.

King, once settled in London, devoted his efforts to organizing an angry and desperate Canadian expatriate community into a coherent movement. King founded the Restoration Party in 1921, the largest of the UK-based Canadian revanchist parties founded by the expatriates themselves during the interwar years. The Restoration Party held rallies, produced propaganda, and attempted to influence the trajectory of what became the First Canadian Uprising.

With the ascent of the Conservative-Silver Shirt Coalition in the early 1930s, King’s fortunes changed again. King, at the personal invitation of Winston Churchill himself, was appointed as the head of the United Empire Bureau, a British government agency directed towards recovering lost imperial territories in the Western Hemisphere. The United Empire Bureau brought all revanchist Canadian factions in the United Kingdom into one group.

King was staunchly loyal to the Coalition government, and continued anti-US propaganda efforts from his new platform. King, however, never gained true support from either Churchill or Mosley. Both British leaders viewed King as a mere placeholder, useful until it perhaps came time to pick an actual leader for a newly freed Canada. King, oblivious to this lack of true support, threw himself into efforts to mobilize the Canadian-British community in support of the British war effort, and in providing wartime broadcasts in support of the Second Canadian Uprising.

King, along with his family, were outside of London at the time of the 1944 German superbomb attack. However, many of King’s fellow members of the United Empire Bureau were in London at the time of the attack. London, after all, had been the center of interwar Canadian-British expatriate life. King was personally shattered by this catastrophic personal loss, and by the final military defeat both of Great Britain and the Canadian rebels. He died in Oxford in 1946, a broken man.

King’s surviving family joined the massive postwar British emigrant wave to Oceania. By 2021, King’s family still lives across Australia and New Zealand.

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The analogue to our world’s Georges-Philias Varnier, of the same name, was born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. Varnier, at the outbreak of the FGW in 1914, was already serving as an officer in the Canadian Army. He was killed in combat against US forces in Quebec in 1915.
 
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Wilfred Laurier had a political career, as IOTL, with the pre-First Great War Liberal Party in Canada. Unlike in our world, Laurier never became prime minister of Canada. This inadvertently contributed a wider political gulf between English and French-speaking Canadians in comparison to our world. Laurier served in Parliament for the rest of his career, from Quebec, and remained a staunch Canadian patriot, and loyalist to the British Empire, to the bitter end.

Laurier was in Ottawa at the outbreak of the FGW in 1914, and remained there did the duration of the conflict. Laurier was shattered by both the US-supported independence of the Republic of Quebec and Canada’s final military defeat in 1917. He was particularly appalled that the first leader of the new Québécois state was his old political foe, Henri Bourassa. Laurier died in Ottawa in 1918, a broken man.

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William Lyon McKenzie King, in comparison to other pre-FGW Canadian thinkers, was far more openly skeptical about Canada’s prospects in a hypothetical war against the the United States than many of his contemporary peers. King wasn’t afraid to argue that Canada, even with the support of the rest of the British Empire and allied to the up-to-then victorious CSA, would be hard pressed in a long, dawn out conflict. King, who specialized on economic issues and had traveled not infrequently to the US over the years, also knew all too well how outmatched Canada was in comparison to the USA. Nonetheless, at the outbreak of war in 1914, King threw himself into the Canadian war effort. King, who was too old to enlist himself, played a key role in managing Canada’s increasingly beleaguered wartime economy. With the fall of Canada in 1917, King fled with his family, with a number of Canadian exiles, to the United Kingdom.

King, once settled in London, devoted his efforts to organizing an angry and desperate Canadian expatriate community into a coherent movement. King founded the Restoration Party in 1921, the largest of the UK-based Canadian revanchist parties founded by the expatriates themselves during the interwar years. The Restoration Party held rallies, produced propaganda, and attempted to influence the trajectory of what became the First Canadian Uprising.

With the ascent of the Conservative-Silver Shirt Coalition in the early 1930s, King’s fortunes changed again. King, at the personal invitation of Winston Churchill himself, was appointed as the head of the United Empire Bureau, a British government agency directed towards recovering lost imperial territories in the Western Hemisphere. The United Empire Bureau brought all revanchist Canadian factions in the United Kingdom into one group.

King was staunchly loyal to the Coalition government, and continued anti-US propaganda efforts from his new platform. King, however, never gained true support from either Churchill or Mosley. Both British leaders viewed King as a mere placeholder, useful until it perhaps came time to pick an actual leader for a newly freed Canada. King, oblivious to this lack of true support, threw himself into efforts to mobilize the Canadian-British community in support of the British war effort, and in providing wartime broadcasts in support of the Second Canadian Uprising.

King, along with his family, were outside of London at the time of the 1944 German superbomb attack. However, many of King’s fellow members of the United Empire Bureau were in London at the time of the attack. London, after all, had been the center of interwar Canadian-British expatriate life. King was personally shattered by this catastrophic personal loss, and by the final military defeat both of Great Britain and the Canadian rebels. He died in Oxford in 1946, a broken man.

King’s surviving family joined the massive postwar British emigrant wave to Oceania. By 2021, King’s family still lives across Australia and New Zealand.

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The analogue to our world’s Georges-Philias Varnier, of the same name, was born on a slightly different date in comparison to our world. Varnier, at the outbreak of the FGW in 1914, was already serving as an officer in the Canadian Army. He was killed in combat against US forces in Quebec in 1915.
Thanks. A bigger question now is why didn't Wilfrid Laurier become PM? Change of nomination? Thinking how strong the butterflies here will need be to affect that. My speculation is that since he's more pro-British as a result of TTL's relations, there isn't a push for free trade or rapprochement, and thus he never gains the post.
 
Thanks. A bigger question now is why didn't Wilfrid Laurier become PM? Change of nomination? Thinking how strong the butterflies here will need be to affect that. My speculation is that since he's more pro-British as a result of TTL's relations, there isn't a push for free trade or rapprochement, and thus he never gains the post.

One reason why Laurier did not become prime minister in TTL was due to differences in the timing of this world’s version of the Manitoba Schools Question crisis in comparison to our world.
 
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