TL-191: After the End

Regarding education, does the US teach about things like what happened to the Armenians or is that something that is just awkwardly ignored due to having been allies with the Ottomans at the time? Also given that you have Austria-Hungary being fairly stable, did they do something like deport the Serbs or expel them since it seems unlikely Serbia would ever be quiet?

In 2021, the Armenian Genocide is a subject taught in the US public education system. Unfortunately, the US government did not officially acknowledge and begin commemorating the Armenian Genocide until TTL’s 1980s, under the Reynolds administration.

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The Austro-Hungarian measures during the empire’s long military occupation of Serbia were severe against the local resistance movement, especially during the interwar period. However, the Austro-Hungarians did not resort to large-scale expulsions.
 
In 2021, the Armenian Genocide is a subject taught in the US public education system. Unfortunately, the US government did not officially acknowledge and begin commemorating the Armenian Genocide until TTL’s 1980s, under the Reynolds administration.

-
The Austro-Hungarian measures during the empire’s long military occupation of Serbia were severe against the local resistance movement, especially during the interwar period. However, the Austro-Hungarians did not resort to large-scale expulsions.
So basically similar to what the Germans were doing in Belgium and the US occupation in Canada and the South where the more quiet and compliant you were the less likely you were to be punished.
 
Based on the various posts here, science fiction still becomes a popular literary and film genre. Based on that, what are the lives of influential sci-fi writers like in Tl-191 below?
--Isaac Asimov (Would still be a refugee as a young child.)
--Ray Bradbury
--Edgar Rice Burroughs (John Carter of Mars won't be a Confederate veteran, that's for sure ITTL.)
--William S. Burroughs
--Arthur C. Clarke (Though British, he was highly influential in the genre, a futurist, a researcher, and was a lifelong proponent of space travel.)
--Roald Dahl (more children's fantasy but did some sci-fi)
--Hugo Gernsback
--Robert Heinlein
--Robert E. Howard (Creator of Conan the Barbarian and one of the main writers for Weird Tales. Though Southern and more horror, fantasy, and pulp fiction, he was one who also influential to the genre like Lovecraft.)
--Aldous Huxley
--L. Ron Hubbard (Does Scientology still become a thing ITTL?)
--H. P. Lovecraft (more horror but very influential to sci-fi)
--C.S. Lewis (Also wrote fantasy, most famously, along with Christian apologetics/theology. What would a TL-191 version of Narnia look like ?)
--Philip Francis Nowlan (Creator of Buck Rodgers)
--George Orwell (More political actually but very influential to spec-fic with 1984 and Animal Farm. He'd probably end up in Australia or somewhere else due to his dem-soc/anti-imperialist views. Might end up fighting in Spain for the left/moderate-leaning Monarchists [ TTL's Republicans] during their Civil War just as IOTL.)
--L. Sprague de Camp
--Theodore Sturgeon
--Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Prominent journalist as well. Life will be markedly different with the Whites winning the 1st Russian Civil War. He was one who inspired the invention of the laser.)
--H. G. Wells (passing reference is made to "The Time Machine" in one of the "Settling Accounts" books)
--John Wyndham
--Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. (Wonder how fighinting in GW2 would shape his TTL work?)
(All authors born in or before 1922)
Is sci-fi something popular that would transcend boundaries regardless of nationality throughout the 20th Cenutry?
 
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Say, is Morgan Reynolds still alive as of TTL's 2021? How is he regarded in the decades after his presidency?

Yes, he is alive, and approaching 90 years of age. Reynolds is generally remembered fondly by the US public in 2021, given that during his administration in the 1980s, the national economy enjoyed a sustained period of growth, driven partially by the first widespread application of computing technology. The Reynolds administration is also fondly remembered by most of the US public for presiding over a particularly vibrant period for US culture.

Reynolds is especially well-regarded by Canadian-Americans. Reynolds was the first post-SGW presidential candidate that most Canadian-Americans were enthusiastic to support, and, in 2021, is still credited by many Canadian-American politicians for inspiring a career in public service.
 
If I may inquire....
If Reynolds is approaching 90, that means he was born in the early Thirties. We first hear of him as a correspondent in China during the Fourth Pacific War and author of The End of the Beginning, but can you give us a little more biographical info? I'd be curious to know more....
 
If I may inquire....
If Reynolds is approaching 90, that means he was born in the early Thirties. We first hear of him as a correspondent in China during the Fourth Pacific War and author of The End of the Beginning, but can you give us a little more biographical info? I'd be curious to know more....
From a couple weeks ago with a bit of an overview. David could go into more speficifics as well if you want him to.
Morgan Reynolds was born in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1931. His family, while opposed to the US military occupation, were also opposed to violent insurrection, believing that it would never lead to independence. The Reynolds family would ultimately accept US citizenship when the military occupation came to an end in British Columbia, but were not exactly happy when Morgan Reynolds volunteered for US military service in 1959. Although Reynolds managed to complete basic training, his skill at foreign languages would eventually come to the attention of the OSS. It was through the OSS that Reynolds would eventually become an instrumental part of the ultimately successful liaison program between the OSS and the National Reconstruction Army in China immediately before and during the Fourth Pacific War.
 
I'd like to go into more details:
  1. The Ottoman Empire is supposed to dissolve in the 2010s, what the (rough or detailed) timeline from the initial ignition (it's not the Arab Spring, I know, but still) to the final state of the new international borders?
  2. Are Germany and Austria-Hungary still called empires in daily parlance even if they're still monarchies? Japan still has an emperor, but managed the transition from "Dai-Nihon Teikoku" to the mere "Nihon-koku" which says a lot about the country's political evolution.
  3. Is it even plausible that Austria-Hungary still exists in any form? Is it even called like that? What about an amiable divorce along the lines of OTL Czechoslovakia?

This is a repost from an earlier answer that wrote about the Ottoman Dissolution, with some slight changes made to the original answer:

The Ottoman Dissolution began in 2010-2011, with the overthrow of the regime of Sultan Abdul Hamid III by the far-right Golden Wolves militia, led by Rifat Macar, who established a “regency” in Constantinople, with the ultimate goal of making himself Sultan. Macar’s overthrowing of the Ottoman government, as well as his stated goal of destroying or driving out all non-Sunnis from the empire, was the catalyst for what became the First Coalition War: the armed intervention, under the auspices of the International Security Council, by the forces of Austria-Hungary, Brazil, Germany, and the United States, along with continents from the respective member states of the CDS, EC, and the (US/Brazil-led) Council of the Western Hemisphere. The stated goal of this intervention was to defeat the Golden Wolves and to bring an end to the multi-sided civil war in the collapsing Ottoman Empire. However, the participants in this intervention would come to learn that while defeating the Golden Wolves was one thing, winning the peace was another matter entirely. Especially as other major powers, including Bharat, Egypt, Persia, and Russia, intervened in the Middle East in their own campaigns over the next two decades.

The Ottoman Dissolution in the 2010s also coincided with the Pakistani Dissolution which began in 2014, with the collapse of the Galal Khan militarist dictatorship, and which triggered both a major Bharati intervention and wars of independence by separatist movements in Baluchistan and Sindh, both of which were supported by the Bharatis. However, the Bharati support for Baloch independence, coupled with Bharati support for Kurdish independence, led to the rapid deterioration of diplomatic relations with Persia, which opposed both Baloch and Kurdish independence.

The Ottoman Dissolution and the Pakistani Dissolution, and the resulting interventions by outside powers and subsequent regional conflicts, were the key events of what would later be referred to by historians as the Long Crisis, which began with the Ottoman Dissolution in the early 2010s but would not end until the early 2030s. Armed conflicts that occurred during this time period as far apart as the Sahel and Central Asia, related, in various degrees, to the collapse of the Ottoman caliphate and the emergence of local extremist groups, would also be considered by historians to be part of the Long Crisis.

A major regional war that occurred during the Long Crisis was the 2012-2013 intervention by the US and CDS in Sudan, in response to reports of genocidal violence being perpetrated by the Sudanese government both in the southern regions of the country and in Darfur.

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By 2031, with the final end of the fighting in the Middle East, there are numerous successor states in what had once been the Ottoman Empire, almost all of which were part of the respective spheres of influence of several major powers or regional blocs.

Regional successor states by the early 2031 include the Republic of Kurdistan, centered in Kirkuk and allied with both Bharat and Russia, the Kingdom of Turkey, ruled by an EC-backed dynasty unrelated to the former Ottoman ruling family, and with Constantinople still under an Austro-Hungarian/German military occupation, the Commonwealth of Zion, a Jewish state centered in Jerusalem and controlling, more or less, the territory of OTL Israel and allied with the EC (though not yet a member state). Armenia was reestablished with Russian and Persian support in the late 2010s, as well as the large international Armenian diaspora.

The fate of Constantinople, in 2031, remains a center of regional tensions. The Germans and Austro-Hungarians fear that withdrawing EC forces from Constantinople and the surrounding occupation zone could lead to a regional war between Greece, Bulgaria, and the new Kingdom of Turkey for its control. The Turkish government is demanding the city’s return as a precondition for possible talks on joining the EC.

There are also numerous small states in the Middle East whose borders reflect where the fighting stopped at different points during the Ottoman Dissolution. In the western reaches of the former Ottoman Empire, there are multiple independent entities centered around major cities and towns in the territories of OTL Jordan, Syria, and southwestern Turkey, supported by the EC. These entities, many of which are refugee states, are protected by EC peacekeepers, and will ultimately join the EC in the long term. There are also independent Christian, Sunni, and Shiite states on the territory of OTL Lebanon (allied with the EC; there are two separate Shiite states in this region). There is an Alawite state centered in Latakia and Tartus allied with the EC, and a Druze state centered in an area roughly analogous to OTL As-Suwayda Governorate in Syria.

Further to the east, there is the Emirate of Ramadi, an independent Sunni state centered around the city of Ramadi and including areas of OTL eastern Syria (including the city of Deir ez-Zor), western Iraq, what would have been northern Saudi Arabia IOTL. It is unaligned with any of the major powers, and is focused on preserving its independence above all else.

There is a small independent state in the Nineveh Plains, centered around the city of Bakhdida, with large numbers of Christians, Yazidis, and Shabaks. It is a Kurdish protectorate.

In Mesopotamia, the Persians have a substantial sphere of influence that includes the Republic of Basra and city states centered on the cities of BaghdadSamarra.

The Arabian Peninsula, by the end of the Ottoman Dissolution, is broadly divided into Egyptian, Bharati, and Persian spheres of influence, with Egypt dominating the west, especially the Hijaz, the Persians dominating the west, and allied with an independent Kingdom of Oman, and the Bharatis dominating a smaller area in the south. However, the Bharatis directly control the city of Aden, as well as the former site of the Ottoman space program in Al Mukalla, both in OTL Yemen.

The Republic of Basra, the Kingdom of Oman, and the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (which controls a large territorial hinterland) are Persian allies in 2031. For Oman and Abu Dhabi, this is less out of a genuine allegiance to Persia and more due to fear of potential Bharati expansionism. The other emirates which would have comprised the United Arab Emirates IOTL are Persian protectorates.

Mecca and Medina are both protected by an international peacekeeping force drawn from various Muslim nations.
 
I'd like to go into more details:
  1. The Ottoman Empire is supposed to dissolve in the 2010s, what the (rough or detailed) timeline from the initial ignition (it's not the Arab Spring, I know, but still) to the final state of the new international borders?
  2. Are Germany and Austria-Hungary still called empires in daily parlance even if they're still monarchies? Japan still has an emperor, but managed the transition from "Dai-Nihon Teikoku" to the mere "Nihon-koku" which says a lot about the country's political evolution.
  3. Is it even plausible that Austria-Hungary still exists in any form? Is it even called like that? What about an amiable divorce along the lines of OTL Czechoslovakia?

2. The terms “Austro-Hungarian Empire” and “German Empire,” as used in this thread, are admittedly more formal. There is more informal terminology used in TTL by the citizens of these empires to describe their respective countries.

3. My assumption regarding the Austro-Hungarian Empire was that if the empire could survive the strain of two Great Wars and the interwar Business Collapse, there stood a decent chance that the empire, allied with the German Empire, could preserve its independence and territorial integrity. Needless to say that by 2021, the Austro-Hungarian Empire is a different place politically from where it was over a century before. Admittedly, the very term “Austro-Hungarian Empire” is somewhat misleading; by 2021, power in the empire is more evenly distributed across different regions. A “velvet divorce” would likely not have occurred if the Austro-Hungarian Empire has suffered a dissolution in TTL, given the militarized culture that continued in Austria-Hungary (as elsewhere) following the end of the SGW, and the high likelihood of a German military intervention.
 
Based on the various posts here, science fiction still becomes a popular literary and film genre. Based on that, what are the lives of influential sci-fi writers like in Tl-191 below?
--Isaac Asimov (Would still be a refugee as a young child.)
--Ray Bradbury
--Edgar Rice Burroughs (John Carter of Mars won't be a Confederate veteran, that's for sure ITTL.)
--William S. Burroughs
--Arthur C. Clarke (Though British, he was highly influential in the genre, a futurist, a researcher, and was a lifelong proponent of space travel.)
--Roald Dahl (more children's fantasy but did some sci-fi)
--Hugo Gernsback
--Robert Heinlein
--Robert E. Howard (Creator of Conan the Barbarian and one of the main writers for Weird Tales. Though Southern and more horror, fantasy, and pulp fiction, he was one who also influential to the genre like Lovecraft.)
--Aldous Huxley
--L. Ron Hubbard (Does Scientology still become a thing ITTL?)
--H. P. Lovecraft (more horror but very influential to sci-fi)
--C.S. Lewis (Also wrote fantasy, most famously, along with Christian apologetics/theology. What would a TL-191 version of Narnia look like ?)
--Philip Francis Nowlan (Creator of Buck Rodgers)
--George Orwell (More political actually but very influential to spec-fic with 1984 and Animal Farm. He'd probably end up in Australia or somewhere else due to his dem-soc/anti-imperialist views. Might end up fighting in Spain for the left/moderate-leaning Monarchists [ TTL's Republicans] during their Civil War just as IOTL.)
--L. Sprague de Camp
--Theodore Sturgeon
--Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Prominent journalist as well. Life will be markedly different with the Whites winning the 1st Russian Civil War. He was one who inspired the invention of the laser.)
--H. G. Wells (passing reference is made to "The Time Machine" in one of the "Settling Accounts" books)
--John Wyndham
--Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. (Wonder how fighinting in GW2 would shape his TTL work?)
(All authors born in or before 1922)
Is sci-fi something popular that would transcend boundaries regardless of nationality throughout the 20th Cenutry?
I am going to break up my reply into several parts.

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Eric Arthur Blair, as IOTL, developed a political philosophy that was somewhat contrarian and idiosyncratic, and broadly sympathetic to the socialist left. As in our world, his experiences serving in the British colonial administration (in India in TTL, instead of Burma) were key to his political development.

The rise of the Conservative-Silver Shirt Coalition led to a turn for the worse. Blair was among those arrested during the regime’s first broad crackdown against the political left, over his writings supportive of socialist ideals, the trade union movement, and for his writings arguing in favor of reconciliation with the United States. While Blair was eventually released, it came at the cost of accepting a one way ticket to Australia; what little wealth he had to his name was confiscated by the government.

Blair struggled to find steady employment in an Australia that while still a democracy was still allied with the United Kingdom, and thus wary of any former political prisoners. Blair worked in a variety of jobs across Australia during the interwar period, while continuing to write whenever he could. These writings later formed the basis for his first successful post-SGW novel/memoir: Up Jumped the Swagman.

Blair, struggling to survive, never fought in TTL’s Spanish Civil War. He kept his head down during the SGW, while working in an arms factory. The end of that war, and the fall of Australia’s wartime, pro-British government allowed Blair to finally see his writings published, through the office of the recently established Melbourne-based Left Book Press. Up Jumped the Swagman proved to be a surprise bestseller in Australia after its 1946 publication. The royalties allowed Blair to focus on writing full-time.

Blair wrote several other novels during his career, most of which were satirical of the large British expatriate community in Australia, with one popular theme in several of these books being the mockery of efforts by expatriates (especially middle class expatriates) to rebuild “normal” lives in Australia transplanted unchanged from the United Kingdom. Other than Up Jumped the Swagman, Blair’s most well known novel, as of 2021, is DoublePlus GoodFuture, published in 1956 as a very brutal satire of utopian science fiction. The setting of DoublePlus GoodFuture is a futuristic, meritocratic utopia that is in fact incompetently run, economically stagnant, and ruled by a viciously cruel and stupid Council of Supreme Wisdom.

(The setting of DoublePlus GoodFuture has elements that someone from OTL would recognize from Yevgeny Zamyatin’s We, Michael Dunlop Young’s The Rise of the Meritocracy, and of course, Nineteen Eighty-Four, given the presence in this novel’s setting of a restrictive “NewSpeak” language. There are also elements of this novel that wouldn’t be out of place in Terry Gilliam’s movie Brazil, in its portrayal of a futuristic society as incompetently run to the point of ludicrousness).

Blair died in 1967, on the eve of the Fourth Pacific War. His novels, like those of other major expatriate British writers in Australia and New Zealand (such as Tolkien and Hitchcock) would not be published in the US until the 1980s.

It’s worth mentioning that In the “Filling in the Gaps” thread, an interpretation was offered of TTL’s Eric Arthur Blair going into far-right politics during the interwar period, eventually becoming a speechwriter and propagandist under the Churchill-Mosley regime, before eventually being handed over the Germans following the end of the SGW, who sentence him to life in prison. However, I decided to go in a different direction.

-
Herbert George Wells, as in OTL, was one of the giants of literary science fiction. However, his writings in general were far more pessimistic, especially his turn-of-the-century works which imagined the possibilities of new military technology. Wells still came to support socialist ideals, but never came to embrace utopian beliefs in a world state.

Wells was among the first public intellectuals arrested under the Churchill-Mosley regime. He was, unfortunately, treated harshly in prison, which badly affected his health. He was eventually released, with his wealth and property having been confiscated. He was also forced to leave the country for Australia. In Australia, Wells, like other left-leaning British writers, found his ability to get anything published circumscribed. Wells continued to write, and was provided a home and resources by a circle of Australian fans of his older works. Wells’s Australian novels and short stories would be published following his death in 1945 and the lifting by the authorities of any remaining restrictions on critical or left-wing political works. Cultural historians, in analyzing Wells’s Australian science fiction, have noted its pessimism and bitterness. As one Australian historian noted in the introduction to a 1999 collection of Wells’s Australian works, “He [Wells] shows clearly in these stories, in every setting and no matter the presented conflict, one overriding theme: This is a world that cannot be saved and does not want to be saved.”


-
John Wyndham was known in TTL as John Harris. He never became a writer, and instead found a career in advertising. During the SGW, he served in the Ministry of Information, where he worked on producing wartime propaganda. He was killed in the German superbombing of London in 1944.

-
CS Lewis made plans to join the British army during the FGW. However, that conflict ended in 1917, before he could complete the enlistment process. As in our world, he eventually started an academic career, where he developed a friendship with JRR Tolkien. Tolkien left Oxford and the United Kingdom after the rise of the Churchill-Mosley regime; as a practicing Catholic of German descent and specialist in the Germanic languages, Tolkien has immediately found himself under suspicion by the regime, and chose to leave for New Zealand. CS Lewis, who was not particularly well-disposed towards the regime himself, decided to follow his friend into exile.

In spite of Tolkien’s best efforts, Lewis never reengaged with Christian religious practices, although this did not ultimately affect their friendship. As Lewis never came to embrace Christian religious beliefs, he never wrote anything analogous in TTL to the Narnia series or The Screwtape Letters.

Lewis was horrified upon receiving news of the German superbombings of London, Brighton, and Norwich, as well as learning of the Destruction in the former CSA.

The best known work by CS Lewis in TTL is his Mercenary saga, written in 1946-1952 as a trilogy of novels, and followed up in subsequent years, until his death in 1963, in a number of short stories. The setting of the Mercenary saga is a world of anthropomorphic animals: the main character and titular mercenary is Scorpius, a fox inspired heavily by the older character of Reynard (although Lewis’s character is not portrayed nearly as evil as Reynard). The main trilogy of novels, The Mercenary and the King, The Mercenary and the Hunt, and The Mercenary and the War, is an allegory for both Britain and France under their respective interwar and wartime dictatorial regimes.

The Mercenary trilogy was published in Australia and New Zealand in 1954-1957, to immediate popular and critical acclaim. They would later become the first novels by a British author to find an enthusiastic US audience, upon their publication there in the 1960s.

-
Arthur C. Clarke’s analogue in TTL was Charles Clarke. During the SGW, he served in the Royal Air Force as a technical specialist. After the end of the war, he was recruited by an Australian representative to serve in the Australian military in a similar capacity. He retired from military service in 1960, and went on to earn advanced degrees in mathematics and paleontology. Clarke never became a writer of fiction, but did enjoy a successful career in paleontology. In TTL, he became known for excavating at a number of fossil sites throughout Australia.

-
Roald Dahl does not exist in TTL.

-
An early point of divergence for TTL’s analogue to Aldous Huxley was his not contracting an eye disease. In TTL, the avoidance of problems with his vision led to him volunteering successfully for the British army. He served in the Western Front, and returned home after the end of war. Huxley decided to pursue his old dream of becoming a doctor. By the time of the Churchill-Mosley regime coming to power, Huxley was practicing medicine full-time.

Huxley lost his position as a medical practitioner soon after the new regime came into power, due to an unofficial blacklist used by the authorities to target anyone with suspect political beliefs, but who were not considered enough of a threat to arrest. Huxley, whose experiences during the FGW has cemented a pacifist worldview, found himself forced into exile. Fortunately, as it turned out, medical doctors were among those being enthusiastically recruited for immigration by Australian poachers in London. Huxley and his family eventually settled in Sydney, where they became popular members of the local British expatriate community. However, he never became a writer.
 
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So how would you say education in the US is in your story? It's a sad fact that the US education system has many issues and an ignorance of some past mistakes that should be taught. Does the US in this timeline teach them and is the education system better due to the militarstic mindset the US still holds.
 
I am going to break up my reply into several parts.

-
Eric Arthur Blair, as IOTL, developed a political philosophy that was somewhat contrarian and idiosyncratic, and broadly sympathetic to the socialist left. As in our world, his experiences serving in the British colonial administration (in India in TTL, instead of Burma) were key to his political development.

The rise of the Conservative-Silver Shirt Coalition led to a turn for the worse. Blair was among those arrested during the regime’s first broad crackdown against the political left, over his writings supportive of socialist ideals, the trade union movement, and for his writings arguing in favor of reconciliation with the United States. While Blair was eventually released, it came at the cost of accepting a one way ticket to Australia; what little wealth he had to his name was confiscated by the government.

Blair struggled to find steady employment in an Australia that while still a democracy was still allied with the United Kingdom, and thus wary of any former political prisoners. Blair worked in a variety of jobs across Australia during the interwar period, while continuing to write whenever he could. These writings later formed the basis for his first successful post-SGW novel/memoir: Up Jumped the Swagman.

Blair, struggling to survive, never fought in TTL’s Spanish Civil War. He kept his head down during the SGW, while working in an arms factory. The end of that war, and the fall of Australia’s wartime, pro-British government allowed Blair to finally see his writings published, through the office of the recently established Melbourne-based Left Book Press. Up Jumped the Swagman proved to be a surprise bestseller in Australia after its 1946 publication. The royalties allowed Blair to focus on writing full-time.

Blair wrote several other novels during his career, most of which were satirical of the large British expatriate community in Australia, with one popular theme in several of these books being the mockery of efforts by expatriates (especially middle class expatriates) to rebuild “normal” lives in Australia transplanted unchanged from the United Kingdom. Other than Up Jumped the Swagman, Blair’s most well known novel, as of 2021, is DoublePlus GoodFuture, published in 1956 as a very brutal satire of utopian science fiction. The setting of DoublePlus GoodFuture is a futuristic, meritocratic utopia that is in fact incompetently run, economically stagnant, and ruled by a viciously cruel and stupid Council of Supreme Wisdom.

(The setting of DoublePlus GoodFuture has elements that someone from OTL would recognize from Yevgeny Zamyatin’s We, Michael Dunlop Young’s The Rise of the Meritocracy, and of course, Nineteen Eighty-Four, given the presence in this novel’s setting of a restrictive “NewSpeak” language. There are also elements of this novel that wouldn’t be out of place in Terry Gilliam’s movie Brazil, in its portrayal of a futuristic society as incompetently run to the point of ludicrousness).

Blair died in 1967, on the eve of the Fourth Pacific War. His novels, like those of other major expatriate British writers in Australia and New Zealand (such as Tolkien and Hitchcock) would not be published in the US until the 1980s.

It’s worth mentioning that In the “Filling in the Gaps” thread, an interpretation was offered of TTL’s Eric Arthur Blair going into far-right politics during the interwar period, eventually becoming a speechwriter and propagandist under the Churchill-Mosley regime, before eventually being handed over the Germans following the end of the SGW, who sentence him to life in prison. However, I decided to go in a different direction.

-
Herbert George Wells, as in OTL, was one of the giants of literary science fiction. However, his writings in general were far more pessimistic, especially his turn-of-the-century works which imagined the possibilities of new military technology. Wells still came to support socialist ideals, but never came to embrace utopian beliefs in a world state.

Wells was among the first public intellectuals arrested under the Churchill-Mosley regime. He was, unfortunately, treated harshly in prison, which badly affected his health. He was eventually released, with his wealth and property having been confiscated. He was also forced to leave the country for Australia. In Australia, Wells, like other left-leaning British writers, found his ability to get anything published circumscribed. Wells continued to write, and was provided a home and resources by a circle of Australian fans of his older works. Wells’s Australian novels and short stories would be published following his death in 1945 and the lifting by the authorities of any remaining restrictions on critical or left-wing political works. Cultural historians, in analyzing Wells’s Australian science fiction, have noted its pessimism and bitterness. As one Australian historian noted in the introduction to a 1999 collection of Wells’s Australian works, “He [Wells] shows clearly in these stories, in every setting and no matter the presented conflict, one overriding theme: This is a world that cannot be saved and does not want to be saved.”


-
John Wyndham was known in TTL as John Harris. He never became a writer, and instead found a career in advertising. During the SGW, he served in the Ministry of Information, where he worked on producing wartime propaganda. He was killed in the German superbombing of London in 1944.

-
CS Lewis made plans to join the British army during the FGW. However, that conflict ended in 1917, before he could complete the enlistment process. As in our world, he eventually started an academic career, where he developed a friendship with JRR Tolkien. Tolkien left Oxford and the United Kingdom after the rise of the Churchill-Mosley regime; as a practicing Catholic of German descent and specialist in the Germanic languages, Tolkien has immediately found himself under suspicion by the regime, and chose to leave for New Zealand. CS Lewis, who was not particularly well-disposed towards the regime himself, decided to follow his friend into exile.

In spite of Tolkien’s best efforts, Lewis never reengaged with Christian religious practices, although this did not ultimately affect their friendship. As Lewis never came to embrace Christian religious beliefs, he never wrote anything analogous in TTL to the Narnia series or The Screwtape Letters.

Lewis was horrified upon receiving news of the German superbombings of London, Brighton, and Norwich, as well as learning of the Destruction in the former CSA.

The best known work by CS Lewis in TTL is his Mercenary saga, written in 1946-1952 as a trilogy of novels, and followed up in subsequent years, until his death in 1963, in a number of short stories. The setting of the Mercenary saga is a world of anthropomorphic animals: the main character and titular mercenary is Scorpius, a fox inspired heavily by the older character of Reynard (although Lewis’s character is not portrayed nearly as evil as Reynard). The main trilogy of novels, The Mercenary and the King, The Mercenary and the Hunt, and The Mercenary and the War, is an allegory for both Britain and France under their respective interwar and wartime dictatorial regimes.

The Mercenary trilogy was published in Australia and New Zealand in 1954-1957, to immediate popular and critical acclaim. They would later become the first novels by a British author to find an enthusiastic US audience, upon their publication there in the 1960s.

-
Arthur C. Clarke’s analogue in TTL was Charles Clarke. During the SGW, he served in the Royal Air Force as a technical specialist. After the end of the war, he was recruited by an Australian representative to serve in the Australian military in a similar capacity. He retired from military service in 1960, and went on to earn advanced degrees in mathematics and paleontology. Clarke never became a writer of fiction, but did enjoy a successful career in paleontology. In TTL, he became known for excavating at a number of fossil sites throughout Australia.

-
Roald Dahl does not exist in TTL.

-
An early point of divergence for TTL’s analogue to Aldous Huxley was his not contracting an eye disease. In TTL, the avoidance of problems with his vision led to him volunteering successfully for the British army. He served in the Western Front, and returned home after the end of war. Huxley decided to pursue his old dream of becoming a doctor. By the time of the Churchill-Mosley regime coming to power, Huxley was practicing medicine full-time.

Huxley lost his position as a medical practitioner soon after the new regime came into power, due to an unofficial blacklist used by the authorities to target anyone with suspect political beliefs, but who were not considered enough of a threat to arrest. Huxley, whose experiences during the FGW has cemented a pacifist worldview, found himself forced into exile. Fortunately, as it turned out, medical doctors were among those being enthusiastically recruited for immigration by Australian poachers in London. Huxley and his family eventually settled in Sydney, where they became popular members of the local British expatriate community. However, he never became a writer.
Thank you. Can't wait for the next round.
 
This is a repost from an earlier answer that wrote about the Ottoman Dissolution, with some slight changes made to the original answer:

The Ottoman Dissolution began in 2010-2011, with the overthrow of the regime of Sultan Abdul Hamid III by the far-right Golden Wolves militia, led by Rifat Macar, who established a “regency” in Constantinople, with the ultimate goal of making himself Sultan. Macar’s overthrowing of the Ottoman government, as well as his stated goal of destroying or driving out all non-Sunnis from the empire, was the catalyst for what became the First Coalition War: the armed intervention, under the auspices of the International Security Council, by the forces of Austria-Hungary, Brazil, Germany, and the United States, along with continents from the respective member states of the CDS, EC, and the (US/Brazil-led) Council of the Western Hemisphere. The stated goal of this intervention was to defeat the Golden Wolves and to bring an end to the multi-sided civil war in the collapsing Ottoman Empire. However, the participants in this intervention would come to learn that while defeating the Golden Wolves was one thing, winning the peace was another matter entirely. Especially as other major powers, including Bharat, Egypt, Persia, and Russia, intervened in the Middle East in their own campaigns over the next two decades.

The Ottoman Dissolution in the 2010s also coincided with the Pakistani Dissolution which began in 2014, with the collapse of the Galal Khan militarist dictatorship, and which triggered both a major Bharati intervention and wars of independence by separatist movements in Baluchistan and Sindh, both of which were supported by the Bharatis. However, the Bharati support for Baloch independence, coupled with Bharati support for Kurdish independence, led to the rapid deterioration of diplomatic relations with Persia, which opposed both Baloch and Kurdish independence.

The Ottoman Dissolution and the Pakistani Dissolution, and the resulting interventions by outside powers and subsequent regional conflicts, were the key events of what would later be referred to by historians as the Long Crisis, which began with the Ottoman Dissolution in the early 2010s but would not end until the early 2030s. Armed conflicts that occurred during this time period as far apart as the Sahel and Central Asia, related, in various degrees, to the collapse of the Ottoman caliphate and the emergence of local extremist groups, would also be considered by historians to be part of the Long Crisis.

A major regional war that occurred during the Long Crisis was the 2012-2013 intervention by the US and CDS in Sudan, in response to reports of genocidal violence being perpetrated by the Sudanese government both in the southern regions of the country and in Darfur.

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By 2031, with the final end of the fighting in the Middle East, there are numerous successor states in what had once been the Ottoman Empire, almost all of which were part of the respective spheres of influence of several major powers or regional blocs.

Regional successor states by the early 2031 include the Republic of Kurdistan, centered in Kirkuk and allied with both Bharat and Russia, the Kingdom of Turkey, ruled by an EC-backed dynasty unrelated to the former Ottoman ruling family, and with Constantinople still under an Austro-Hungarian/German military occupation, the Commonwealth of Zion, a Jewish state centered in Jerusalem and controlling, more or less, the territory of OTL Israel and allied with the EC (though not yet a member state). Armenia was reestablished with Russian and Persian support in the late 2010s, as well as the large international Armenian diaspora.

The fate of Constantinople, in 2031, remains a center of regional tensions. The Germans and Austro-Hungarians fear that withdrawing EC forces from Constantinople and the surrounding occupation zone could lead to a regional war between Greece, Bulgaria, and the new Kingdom of Turkey for its control. The Turkish government is demanding the city’s return as a precondition for possible talks on joining the EC.

There are also numerous small states in the Middle East whose borders reflect where the fighting stopped at different points during the Ottoman Dissolution. In the western reaches of the former Ottoman Empire, there are multiple independent entities centered around major cities and towns in the territories of OTL Jordan, Syria, and southwestern Turkey, supported by the EC. These entities, many of which are refugee states, are protected by EC peacekeepers, and will ultimately join the EC in the long term. There are also independent Christian, Sunni, and Shiite states on the territory of OTL Lebanon (allied with the EC; there are two separate Shiite states in this region). There is an Alawite state centered in Latakia and Tartus allied with the EC, and a Druze state centered in an area roughly analogous to OTL As-Suwayda Governorate in Syria.

Further to the east, there is the Emirate of Ramadi, an independent Sunni state centered around the city of Ramadi and including areas of OTL eastern Syria (including the city of Deir ez-Zor), western Iraq, what would have been northern Saudi Arabia IOTL. It is unaligned with any of the major powers, and is focused on preserving its independence above all else.

There is a small independent state in the Nineveh Plains, centered around the city of Bakhdida, with large numbers of Christians, Yazidis, and Shabaks. It is a Kurdish protectorate.

In Mesopotamia, the Persians have a substantial sphere of influence that includes the Republic of Basra and city states centered on the cities of BaghdadSamarra.

The Arabian Peninsula, by the end of the Ottoman Dissolution, is broadly divided into Egyptian, Bharati, and Persian spheres of influence, with Egypt dominating the west, especially the Hijaz, the Persians dominating the west, and allied with an independent Kingdom of Oman, and the Bharatis dominating a smaller area in the south. However, the Bharatis directly control the city of Aden, as well as the former site of the Ottoman space program in Al Mukalla, both in OTL Yemen.

The Republic of Basra, the Kingdom of Oman, and the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (which controls a large territorial hinterland) are Persian allies in 2031. For Oman and Abu Dhabi, this is less out of a genuine allegiance to Persia and more due to fear of potential Bharati expansionism. The other emirates which would have comprised the United Arab Emirates IOTL are Persian protectorates.

Mecca and Medina are both protected by an international peacekeeping force drawn from various Muslim nations.
How do the Turks themselves view all this? Why is there still an monarchy in place in Turkey? Wouldn't ordinary Turks themselves have enough of the Sultan as well and become a western-leaning republic? How are smaller minorities like Abkhaz, Circassians, Laz, Ossetians, Tatars, Zazas, etc doing and their views? On Circassians, does the Russian Republic formally apologize and try to reconcile for genocide/ethnic cleansing committed against them in the 19th Century as well as towards other Caucasian minorities? Do expulsions/deportations of Chechens/Ingush happen in GW2, but this time by Tsarists forces?
 
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More on the Caucasus, why is Georgia part of the Ottoman Empire? IOTL, they became a German-backed republic in 1918 in the wake of the Russian Revolution. But with the CP winning earlier, that's bound to change. So what changed? As for the smaller republics that emerged in the Caucuses as well? Perhaps they probably won't be as receptive to a left-leaning social democratic republic, especially the Ottomans. How are the Orthodox Georgians treated before becoming a Russian-backed republic in the 80s?
 
From what I've noticed, there's a trend of left-wing British exiles moving to Oceania during the rise of the Silver Shirts and government. Does the U.S. during the 30s try to encourage said exiles to come take refuge or is it just not popular due to long standing animosity? What are other popular emigration spots for British refugees? For French exiles, Quebec will definitely be one such place.
 
What became of the following people:
Stanley Matthews
Bobby Moore
Bobby Jones
Henry Cotton
Alf Ramsey
Arthur Peppercorn
Oliver Bulleid
William Stanier
Robin Riddles
Ivo Peters
 
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Does Harry Turtledove exist in TL-191 and publish "Northern Victory" instead?

How popular are War of Secession alternate histories, and what is one example of them in this timeline?

How is the "Occupied Canada" period taught in American schools, and what is the general population's opinion on it overall? (I have the same question about the Occupation of the Confederacy)

Is the Arctic becoming a more strategic place such as in OTL?

How are diplomatic relations like between Texas and the United States?

Are there any separatist movements in the USA (major or minor)?
 
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So how would you say education in the US is in your story? It's a sad fact that the US education system has many issues and an ignorance of some past mistakes that should be taught. Does the US in this timeline teach them and is the education system better due to the militarstic mindset the US still holds.

In 2021, the US public education system still places a heavy focus from an early age on STEM-related subjects, while German is still heavily favored in terms of foreign languages offered.

The teaching of particular topics in US history, such as the treatment of the Native Americans, the treatment of African-Americans (such as slavery, legal discrimination, and the failure to offer sanctuary to refugees from Featherston’s CSA, remain sources of controversy within the US public education system, even in 2021.
 
How do the Turks themselves view all this? Why is there still an monarchy in place in Turkey? Wouldn't ordinary Turks themselves have enough of the Sultan as well and become a western-leaning republic? How are smaller minorities like Abkhaz, Circassians, Laz, Ossetians, Tatars, Zazas, etc doing and their views? On Circassians, does the Russian Republic formally apologize and try to reconcile for genocide/ethnic cleansing committed against them in the 19th Century as well as towards other Caucasian minorities? Do expulsions/deportations of Chechens/Ingush happen in GW2, but this time by Tsarists forces?

The dynasty that comes to power in the Kingdom of Turkey during the Ottoman Dissolution was founded by an Ottoman general, Hakan Durmaz, who was also a staunch enemy of the Golden Wolves. General Durmaz received military and financial support from the Austro-Hungarians and Germans, which enabled him to ultimately defeat Rifat Macar and the Golden Wolves. However, General Durmaz was not a supporter of transforming Turkey into a republic. After ruling for a time as a de-facto military dictator, he crowned himself as king, which was recognized by both the Austro-Hungarians and Germans. In 2031, he still rules from a temporary capital in Konya, while demanding the return of Constantinople and the surrounding areas to full Turkish control.

The new Turkish government in 2031, in spite of existing tensions with European Community member-states Bulgaria and Greece, intends if possible to ally with the EC, with the hope that the country can use EC military support to reclaim territories lost during the Dissolution, as well as to act as a counterweight to possible Russian or Persian aggression.

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The Tsarist regime did not carry out mass deportations of the Chechen or Ingush populations as occurred in our world under Stalin. Chechnya gained independence after the end of the SGW, and was an Ottoman protectorate, until the Ottomans were defeated in the Russo-Kazakh War in the 1980s, when the country was transformed into a Russian protectorate, and eventually forced to join the Russian-led Council of Astrakhan. A large number of Chechens fled to the Ottoman Empire.

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The respective conditions of smaller groups in the Caucasus varies, depending on the country. Unfortunately, this is not a region free from disputes over territory, religion, or the teaching of languages.

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The Russian Republic, in 2021, has not issued a formal apology to the Circassian community over what occurred in the 19th Century.
 
More on the Caucasus, why is Georgia part of the Ottoman Empire? IOTL, they became a German-backed republic in 1918 in the wake of the Russian Revolution. But with the CP winning earlier, that's bound to change. So what changed? As for the smaller republics that emerged in the Caucuses as well? Perhaps they probably won't be as receptive to a left-leaning social democratic republic, especially the Ottomans. How are the Orthodox Georgians treated before becoming a Russian-backed republic in the 80s?

As in the case of which country controlled Suriname, the post SGW-status of Georgia was not something that I had considered.

The situation of the Georgian population under the Ottomans was never free of tension in TTL, given what happened to the Armenians. The New Georgians movement which emerged in the 1970s at first demanded political autonomy; when this movement was suppressed by the authorities, it did not take long for the Russians to begin offering covert support.
 
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