Extract from Erik Hood, History of English Diplomacy, (Stamford: Stamford University Press, 1967). __________________________________________________________________________________ The Investiture Controversy English involvement in the conflict began in March 1074 with Pope Gregory VII refusing ordination of the bishop-elect of Worcester, Ælfstan. Why is a question that has not been, and probably won’t be, satisfactorily answered. Having conferred the pallium upon Wulfstan, Gregory then denied Ælfstan his ring and staff, yet neither was married or had purchased his office although both had been appointed by Edgar. Perhaps Gregory was trying to send a message, both to Edgar and the Roman Emperor, Heinrich IV. Whatever the reasoning, Ælfstan’s denial was met with something like disbelief. Disbelief eventually turned to anger as shown by the hostile reception given to the papal legates at the September 1074 Clifton Hoo synod. Gregory’s response was swift – removal of the married Leofwine I from his see of Lichfield and excommunication at the November 1074 papal synod. In the meantime Edgar had dispatched, his now senior ambassador, Edmund Haroldson to Cologne. What discussions Edmund had with Heinrich or his advisors are, unfortunately, a matter of speculation however it is known that Edmund fought with Imperial troops at the First Battle of Langensalza in June 1075. Edmund was back in England by September 1075 where it is believed he strongly urged Edgar to support Heinrich in his conflict with the pope. In the end Edgar decided against wholehearted support – Edmund and Bishop Ælfgar II of Norwich both attended Heinrich’s synod at Worms (January 1076) but neither signed Heinrich’s or the bishop’s letters calling for Gregory’s abdication. Such caution probably saved Edgar from Gregory’s counter move at the Lenten synod (February 1076) where Henry was excommunicated and deposed. It was at that point that Edgar decided upon a policy of isolation. A policy strictly adhered to until Christmas 1078 when it was shattered by the arrival of Bishop Leofwine I who had travelled to Rome and received Dunholm from the hands of Gregory. Accompanying Leofwine were two monks, Dominic and, papal legate from 1074, Teuzo. Dominic spent most of his time cloistered with Archbishop’s Wulfstan or Lanfranc or any other monk available. Leofwine and Teuzo on the other hand were aggressively promoting the papal agenda to any who would listen, not only at the Christmas (1078) and Candlemas (February 1079) witenagemots, but also on the streets of London. How much their threats to excommunicate the many married priests of London or their calls for the reintroduction of ‘Romescot’ won them support cannot be gauged except to note they were not stoned or chased out of the city. That is until Teuzo learnt that Edgar was still associating with the excommunicate former bishop of Lichfield. His threat to excommunicate the king was met with banishment from England and Leofwine being told to get back to his see and stay there. Edgar immediately dispatched Edmund and Ælfgar back to Cologne. Relations within the Empire and between the Empire and the Papacy had deteriorated further since ‘the walk to Canossa’ (January 1077). Once again Edmund fought with Imperial troops, this time against the anti-king Rudolf of Swabia at the Battle of Flarcheim (January 1080). Of more import, following Gregory’s spiteful second excommunication of Heinrich (March 1080) both Edmund and Ælfgar signed the decree deposing Gregory at the synod of Brixen (June 1080) and signalled their support for Guibert  Edmund Earle (ed.), Two Great Chronicles Parallel, (Grantbridge: Grantbridge University Press, 1876), p. 157.  ibid. The actual decree is no longer extant.  An ‘Edmund dux’ is noted in Lambert of Hersfeld, Annals, (Munich: Schriften der MGH,1955).  Respectively No’s 61,62 and 63 in Wilfrid Braddock (ed.), Documents of the Struggle Between Emperor and Pope, 1073-1250 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959).  Reconstruction of events in this paragraph based on letters between Wulfstan (Canterbury), Lanfranc (York), Eadward I (London) and Ælfsige III (Winchester). See Alfred Braddock (ed.), Epistolae Ecclesia Anglicana, Vol. 2, (Grantbridge: Grantbridge University Press, 1964).  Lambert of Hersfeld, op. cit.