[Media] Three Years After The Grand Kekistani Hijacking | Face to Face - Al-Jazeera

Three Years After The Grand Kekistani Hijacking | Face to Face - Al-Jazeera



In this episode of Face to Face, Melonie Wu receives an exclusive interview with former far-right internet personality and Grand Kekistani victim - Alex Krakowski. Shedding light on the incident, he reveals the stunts that provoked ISIS and the torturous turmoils he and his friends faced during their captivity in Libya.

<--- Start Transcript --->


<Picturesque sceneries of a suburban neighbourhood in Queens, eventually cutting to a grim Victorian manor enamoured with colourful garden plots and lingering foliage.>

Melonie Wu: On July 14th, 2021, a bunch of far-right youths known as Groypers gathered in Franklin Street, Queens, to celebrate the 4th anniversary of the Great Triggering. Usually an outspoken and crowded event, they instead met with a tiny fraction compared to the infamous gathering in Buffalo, New York. Despite their disappointment, not all seem to be in vain as one of its organizers invited them to stay in his manor. Little do they know, however, that what follows next will set in the spotlight. Well, at least that's what they initially thought. [00:41]

<Melonie Wu is sitting on a curb, with her expressive fashion-line contrasting the grey and drabby sky. Behind her is the same Victorian abode, with a couple of boring pedestrians passing by.>

Melonie Wu: Before moving out from the states, this house used to belong to Alex Krakowski. From what his neighbours have told me, he was a rather timid personality despite his high living. People call him impartial, unconsciously apathetic to the people around him, but some claim he was rather friendly and even charitable despite his reclusive demeanour. However, this would change when he decides to open his own YouTube channel, paving him to become one of YouTube's most infamous personalities: AlexTheGreat. [01:15]

<Montages of videos from AlexTheGreat: Usually consisting of skillfully crafted motion graphics stylized in Greek motifs, discreet unedited rants, excessive use of Wojak and Pepe memes, and livestream footages of Fallout New Vegas.>

Melonie Wu: Notorious for his bombastic persona and far-right rhetoric, AlexTheGreat became YouTube's fastest-growing channel in recent history. His "ironic" rants and well-edited videos usually escape YouTube's ire and polarize the community: PewDiePie praised his sense of humour while John Green and Natalie Wynn condemn YouTube's inability to discourage his far-right ventings. But despite the controversies, his 2,500,000 subscriber base and high viewer retention made him a rather worrying personality in the internet scene. [01:52]

<Returning to a live screening of Melonie Wu, still monologing her introduction in a calm and collected tone.>

Melonie Wu: But despite the fame and fortune showering him, his success did not satisfy his ego. It wasn't until July 5th, 2023, when he and the friends he made during the anniversary took a flight to Sicily. From there, Alex Krakowski sailed off to what he considered to be his greatest act of "trolling" yet. The one that will, unfortunately, put him on the headlines - The Grand Kekistani Voyage. [02:29]

<A livestream footage of the Grand Kekistani departing from the ports of Catania, Sicily. Another clip shows Alex Krakowski posing with his phony crusader costume schemed in Green, Black, and White, hailing a crudely written banner ensigned "Deus Vult".>

Melonie Wu: Garnering over 200,000 viewers in the first 2 hours, the Grand Kekistani Voyage went live in their sailing across the Mediterranean Sea. During the debut, they harassed a large vessel manned by the SOS Méditerranée and their refugee passengers: the Groypers blasted inaudible screeching through their microphones and shooting flares directly to their ships. They also rammed three Libyan fishermen a couple of hours later, leading to a verbal confrontation between them and the locals. [03:03]

<Alex Krakowski at the bridge announcing another voyage in 2024, promising to organize a larger fleet. He thanked his supporters for enabling the event and waved his supposed goodbyes.>

Melonie Wu: And despite the overwhelming outcry against their stunts, the event was an astounding success. Their viewer count doubled after moving to BitChute-Live and amassed a donation of over $1,650,000. And to celebrate their success, Alex Krakowski announced another Grand Kekistani Voyage taking place in 2024, planning for a much grander attempt to harass fleeing refugees. [03:31]

<Screams for help blasted the livestreams. Alex Krakowski retreat from the camera to investigate the worrying situation.>

Melonie Wu: However, their livestream did not end with the farewells from his friends nor the cheers of celebration. [03:37]

<Two armed men in pitch-black garbs enter the scene, eventually noticing the camera with sheer curiosity. They turned of the session a few minutes later.>

Melonie Wu: Instead, they were greeted by a dangerous and rather angry guest. [03:42]

<Alex Krakowski and Melonie Wu meeting face-to-face at the front door of his apartment, eventually shaking hands while he greeted her to come inside.>

Melonie Wu: After the incident, he returned to mundane life but left the state of New York to avoid the ire of his neighbours. But after pulling some strings from behind the scenes, we manage to set an interview with the man himself. [03:56]

<The interview finally takes place in his living room, with all his apartment windows shut. Alex Krakowski's face is blurred, and his voice modulated into a deep tone.>

Melonie Wu: By his request, we agreed to conceal his voice and face. [04:01]


Melonie Wu: Before I read out my list here because there's a lot, I want to ask you something: Why the crusader costume? [04:10]

Alex Krakowski
: I thought wearing it might be fun back then, especially when you're doing it in front of them. The whole thing started during the 2nd Great Triggering in Buffalo, where we held our rally back in 2019. There were a lot of people styling themselves in these cool getups at the Lafayette square: There's one guy who wore like this Spartan-looking armour; he's pretty jacked, there's an entire group dressed in green minutemen uniforms, and also the guy who cosplayed as Patrick Bateman from American Psycho; he definitely looks the part. Anyway, I thought it would be cool to bring it back again. And also the fact that I might rile up some people, there's that. [04:59]

Melonie Wu
: Where did you buy the costume from, exactly? [05:03]

Alex Krakowski
: I actually commissioned it from one of my fans. For the most part, she's great at getting the details right. I haven't heard much from her since then, however. [05:15]

Melonie Wu
: Thank you for the answer, Alex. [05:19]

Alex Krakowski
: You're welcome. [05:20]

Melonie Wu
: Anyway, Alex, When you came up with the voyage, what was your first thought on the whole event? Did you have this meticulously planned, or did it just pop out from your head like a lightbulb? [05:33]

Alex Krakowski
: The latter, probably. I came up with the whole thing back in Queens when I let them stay in my home for a couple of days. All of my friends were sleeping while I was watching Pirates of the Caribbean up in my room. On Stranger Tides freaking sucks, but I always love the part where they show the Spanish Conquistadors; I thought they looked neat. Since then, the idea just popped, you know? [06:02]

Melonie Wu
: Other than Pirates of the Caribbean, is there anything else that inspired you? [06:08]

Alex Krakowski
: Lauren Southern. She did the whole thing first, but I thought to myself that I could do better. Jean Raspail's book about migrants inspired me as well: His writing was really compelling, and I thought the premise was really scary back then. [06:27]

Melonie Wu
: And you've put a lot of effort into the whole organizing and financing, I assume? [06:32]

Alex Krakowski
: Pretty much, I financed the entire event to a dime. The planning and PR are mostly on me, but I left the logistic and technical side of things to my friends: LolBert and Schmop. I couldn't have done it without them, to be honest. [06:48]

Melonie Wu
: And all of the crew are your YouTube friends? [06:51]

Alex Krakowski
: No, obviously. None of us knows jack about navigation, so it's nice that we can hire an experienced crew. Plus, we paid a hired gun just in case things goes downhill. [07:02]

Melonie Wu
: Why would you hire a mercenary? [07:04]

Alex Krakowski
: For protection. [07:06]

Melonie Wu
: Isn't that excessive considering the people you're targeting? [07:11]

Alex Krakowski
: Some of my friends were scared. They seemed reluctant after the flight, even when I told them that we're not going far from the coast. They won't budge, so I wasted my extra cash on a dude with an impressive gun. Plus, we make sure that none of them jumps into our ships. [07:27]

Melonie Wu
: And how did that work out in the end? [07:29]

Alex Krakowski
: Not well. [07:31]

<Interview cuts to footages of a derelict family yacht - the Picchiotti, aimlessly sailing across the Aegean Sea. Another scene shows massive protests through Italy condemning the government.>

Melonie Wu: To understand their situation, we have to grasp the origin and severity of the crisis. The first case related to the corsairs emerged in 2021 when a family yacht - the Pichiotti, disappeared 2 hours after it departed from Naples. Once thought to be a tragic freak accident by the Italian Ministry of Interior, its reappearance at the Aegean Sea sparked outrage in Italy after the revelation of its actual demise. [07:54]

<Montages related to the Neo-Barbary Crisis: CCTV and handheld footages showcase the corsairs committing kidnappings and hijackings.>

Melonie Wu: Since then, many follow suit as a series of similar cases occurred throughout the Mediterranean. Some such as the hijacking of F.S Treville and the MSC Walker were complex enough to provoke the EU into expanding its mission within Operation Ocean Shield. The fate of the passengers varies: while cases of kidnappings and killings were notorious, most are left unscathed while the corsairs depart with their loot. Most cases of the crisis are related to economic strife, evidenced by the many reports of illegal fishing and the state of its local fisheries. As for how they become victims themselves, this is what Krakowski has to say. [08:32]

<Melonie Wu, sitting casually on a short stool with her notes, asked Krakowski a simple yet provocative question.>

Alex Krakowski: How should I know?! The only thing I remember is that they came out of nowhere. [08:36]

Melonie Wu
: So your friends just scream out their lungs for no reason? At least some of them know how it went down. [08:42]

Alex Krakowski
: They barely talked to me ever since then. Besides, they've been under constant watch since we went back home. The only person they let go of is Schmop, our tech guy. [08:51]

Melonie Wu
: Can you call him? [08:53]

Alex Krakowski
: Why?! [08:54]

Melonie Wu
: Just for a few minutes. It won't be that long. [08:58]

<Alex Krakowski calls his friend, Schmop, later passing the phone to Melonie Wu when he answered.>

Schmop: Hello? [08:59]

Melonie Wu
: Hi, Schmop. I'm from Al-Jazeera and-- [09:02]

: Why are you calling me? [09:04]

Melonie Wu
: I'm interviewing your friend here about the incident, so I was wondering whether you have the time to answer some questions? [09:11]

: Sure. [09:12]

Melonie Wu
: How did you get kidnapped by Daesh in the first place? [09:15]

: Who? [09:16]

Melonie Wu
: Sorry, I mean ISIS. [09:18]

: I think it's after we barged against the last migrants. Like a couple of minutes after that, we're planning to fly back home. But something at the horizon caught our eye while Alex was livestreaming on the bridge. [09:24]

Melonie Wu
: Continue. [09:25]

: We noticed a ship speeding towards the north, but we thought it wasn't worth the trouble, so we let them slide. But things get tense when they're actually heading towards us. [09:34]

Melonie Wu
: What happened next? [09:37]

: At first, we thought they were refugees begging to let them hop inside our boat. I took out my flare gun telling them to back off, but they won't budge. But when LolBert screamed from the back, I knew something was really off with these people. [09:51]

Melonie Wu
: Then they came from behind, I assume? [09:54]

: Pretty much. They climbed out with their rifles wet. The people in the boat took their guns out as well after the scream and told us to stand down. [10:03]

Melonie Wu
: So what happened to the hired gun? [10:06]

: He almost killed us when he was pointing his gun at them. If it wasn't for Alex, MSNBC would've gushed about how our boat is soaked in crimson red. He and the boat crew went scot-free while they were hauled to Libya. [10:19]

Melonie Wu
: One more-- [10:21]

<The conversation came to an abrupt halt when Schmop decided to turn off his phone. Cutting back to Melonie Wu passing the last question to Alex Krakowski.>

Melonie Wu: When you sailed off from Sicily, did you realize that you're heading towards Libya? [10:25]

Alex Krakowski
: No. I'm pretty sure we've been sticking around the EEZs since we sailed off. I don't remember the crew screwing up their navigation. [10:33]

Melonie Wu
: But it doesn't make sense how they've kidnapped you that fast. There's this website called MarineTracker.com, and since the yacht you've rented is registered, it says you were 120 miles away from Sirte; deep within the gulf, mind you. [10:47]

Alex Krakowski
: So you're basing this on a shoddy website? [10:50]

Melonie Wu
: Assuming that you didn't intend to sail there, don't you think it's dangerous to stick around the seas for 8 hours? [10:56]

Alex Krakowski
: Maybe. I don't know. All I can say is that there's nothing wrong with the navigation; we followed it to a tee. Plus, that means I'll be endangering my friends, I can never do that. [11:08]

Melonie Wu
: So that's why you sailed off in the first place? [11:11]

Alex Krakowski
: … [11:13]

<Cutting to another segment of the interview, Melonie Wu asked Alex Krakowski about his jihadist captors.>

Melonie Wu: Do you remember the people who kidnapped you? [11:16]

Alex Krakowski
: I only know that there's 8 of them: Most of them are Arabs, but I remember ginger and a black guy being there; I think the former is a Chechen while the latter's Somali, few of them are Chinese-looking; probably Uyghurs but I don't know. [11:28]

Melonie Wu
: That's rather explicit of you. [11:30]

Alex Krakowski
: I thought the details might help. Besides, they speak English, albeit broken, which makes them scarier because that means they probably watched our livestream. Regardless, they're pretty much generic grunts, but one of them strikes me the most. [11:45]

Melonie Wu
: And who's that? [11:47]

Alex Krakowski
: The guy's short, but really stocky compared to his lackeys. I can't tell his race since he pretty much covered every part of his skin. The thing is, he's the only one who speaks fluent English. [11:58]

Melonie Wu
: Are you saying he's from the U.S.? [12:01]

Alex Krakowski
: I'm saying he's probably from the Midwest. The man has the most generic tone in human history, and their accent is already such a disastrous bore. [12:11]

Melonie Wu
: Do you get to know more about him? [12:14]

Alex Krakowski
: No. His goons sailed us off to Libya after our brief moment; put a sack on our heads to cover their tracks. He keeps barking orders at them, so I assume he's in charge of the whole thing. [12:25]

Melonie Wu
: When they hauled you over to Libya, did you ever get a glimpse of what life's like under their rule? [12:30]

Alex Krakowski
: I have a sack on my head during the whole trip, how can I hear anything? [12:34]

Melonie Wu
: Do you at least know where they locked-- [12:37]

Alex Krakowski
: In the middle of the desert, if that's what you're wondering. Right after they took it off, all I could see was endless miles of sand. Not even the scenic-looking ones, just a flat desert. [12:51]

Melonie Wu
: What happened next? [12:53]

Alex Krakowski: They told us to sit down for a group shot: We're rowed at the front while they stand behind us posing with their guns. They told me to hold their banner in front of the camera since I'm their "guest of honour". At that point, I know it's not going to end well for me. [13:10]

Melonie Wu: How so? [13:12]

Alex Krakowski
: They make sure I don't take my crusader outfit off, especially the helmet. When you're wearing layers of fabric and steel, and you're staying too long in the desert, you basically turn into a living cooking pot. [13:26]

Melonie Wu
: What happened if you did? [13:28]

Alex Krakowski
: They buried my head into the sand if I did, told me to count to 10,000. [13:33]

Melonie Wu
: And what happened to your friends? [13:35]

Alex Krakowski
: They didn't face anything. In fact, they're pretty much well-fed and rested by the time they let us off. It's weird to find them talking about trauma, to be honest. [13:47]

Melonie Wu
: Why? [13:58]

Alex Krakowski
: Because I was the one who bears the entire brunt, not them. I did everything to keep them safe while they threw me off to the wolves. [14:09]

Melonie Wu
: How so? [14:11]

<Alex Krakowski pulls up his sleeves and stretches his arm as he presents it to her: Markings of burn spots and dark traumas scattered throughout his elbow and wrist.>

Alex Krakowski: There's more in the back if you're wondering. [14:14]

Melonie Wu
: What did they-- [14:15]

Alex Krakowski
: A cattle prod. [14:16]

<Recordings of Alex Krakowski and his friends being stranded in the middle of the ocean, later rescued and escorted by Italian coast guards to Sicily.>

Melonie Wu: Despite announcing to rescue the Groypers, the Palermo U.S Consulate was caught by surprise when they received news from Italian authorities. On July 17th, ISIS left Alex Krakowski and his friends stranded in the open seas. Interestingly, they made no attempts to ransom them, merely laying the coordinates to the local coast guards via voicemail. [14:37]

<Compilation of sketches depicting Alex Krakowski's trial, which takes place in Manhattan, New York.>

Melonie Wu: After returning to the U.S and recovering from his traumas, Alex Krakowski was put on trial at the local supreme court. Guilty of felony and first-degree endangerment, he was sentenced to 2 years of incarceration. [14:50]

<Slideshows of social media posts appears, showcasing the initial reactions to the kidnappings and aftermath.>

Melonie Wu: Since the incident, the internet has been polarized on whether Alex Krakowski and the Groypers are in the right or wrong. People like MalContent and Natalie Wynn condemn him for endangering his friends, while others like Jon Jafari and WickedPixie defend his actions and accuse the former of victim-blaming. [15:07]

<Clips of YouTubers livestreaming their session to fundraise the ransom, eventually cutting off to a clip of far-right groups protesting in front of the Libyan embassy in Washington D.C.>

Melonie Wu: Regardless, it attracted high-profile YouTubers such as PewDiePie to organize fundraising events to pay off the supposed ransom, which he later donated to charity after they were released. Others take to the streets as they protest in front of the Libyan embassy, raising signs adorned with internet and far-right memes in solidarity with the Grand Kekistani. [15:28]

<An inaudible footage of an ISIS spokesperson explain their rationale over kidnapping the Grand Kekistani crew.>

Melonie Wu: However, the people in Sirte view the incident differently. With the spokesperson from ISIS explaining the rationale over the kidnappings. [15:35]

<Inaudible footage becomes fluent as the video skips to his explanations over the incident.>

ISIS Spokesperson: The Americans, or Groypers as some of these people call them, harassed hard-working people trying to support their families. We didn't arrest them unprovoked but merely answering the calls made by one of the citizens. The video they recorded themselves shows they trespassing through our seas uninvited and proceeded to ram three ships, injuring two of our people. Thus, we punished them according to our jurisdiction. [15:58]

<Cutting back to the interview. Alex Krakowksi looks irritated while Melonie Wu scratches her head for questions.>

Melonie Wu: How do you feel about ISIS's statement on the Grand Kekistani Voyage? [16:01]

Alex Krakowski
: I didn't hurt anyone. [16:03]

Melonie Wu
: I mean, you did ram those ships during the livestream. [16:06]

Alex Krakowski
: So you're trusting what the terrorists say, but not me? Is that what you're saying? [16:11]

Melonie Wu
: Well-- [16:12]

Alex Krakowski
: You know, I know how this is going to end. Can we just jump to your last question, please? [16:17]

Melonie Wu
: Okay, here's the last one. Alex, you mentioned Jean Raspail as your main inspiration for the Grand Kekistani Voyage. I'm familiar with the plot of his book, so I don't need to extrapolate it for you. However, consider the message at hand, I have one thing to ask: What are you trying to achieve, actually? [16:36]

Alex Krakowski
: Does it matter? [16:38]

Melonie Wu
: I mean, you've put so much effort into organizing it. Besides, you did state in trying to organize another event before you the kidnapping.[16:47]

Alex Krakowski
: It was a long time ago. If you really want an answer, let's just say I used to believe in some dumb crap back then. [16:47]

Melonie Wu
: Do you still believe it now? [16:56]

Alex Krakowski
: No. Thinking about it leaves me with bad memories, so I just avoid politics entirely. It doesn't mean I changed into a freaking rosie, though. I just that the whole charade is not worth the trouble anymore. [17:11]

Melonie Wu
: Do you ever think back about the voyage? [17:13]

Alex Krakowski
: It has its moments, to be honest. It's probably the height of my life if it wasn't for the incident. But now, I rather think less of it. [17:27]

Melonie Wu
: Will you do it again? [17:30]

Alex Krakowski
: Considering what I've lost, no. [17:33]

Melonie Wu
: Well, I think that's it. Thank you for having us here, Alex. [17:38]

Alex Krakowski
: Yeah, sure. [17:40]

<Alex Krakowski and Melonie Wu shake hands as she and her crew begin to leave his apartment. Outside, he's peering at them from his door before slowly closing it shut.>

Melonie Wu: It's hard to comprehend the experience he faced during his captivity, especially when he still bears the literal scars reminding him as such. Like many victims of the Neo-Barbary Crisis, Alex Krakowski was traumatized by the events that ensued. To this day, he still struggles to open himself due to the psychological consequences of the kidnapping. Despite being apologetic over his past, he seems to distance himself from his old politics and avoid it entirely. Now working as a marketing consultant, Alex returned to his life as a timid but disgruntled everyman far away from New York. [18:21]

<Slideshows of Groypers who joined the Grand Kekistani were shown, accompanied by simple motion graphics.>

Melonie Wu: However, he's not the only one to suffer the consequences of the incident. In fear of facing potential retribution, all of the participants of the Grand Kekistani Voyage are under the strict protection of the authorities; many are still confined in undisclosed safe houses. [18:41]

<Cutting back to picturesque sceneries of Alex Krakowski's old neighbourhood in Franklin Street, Queens.>

Melonie Wu: So that concludes our interview with Alex Krakowski. We didn't get much in terms of the details, but interviewing him was a relative eye-opener. We tried to contact the rest of his friends, but it was futile considering their situation. To this day, the corsairs still haunt European coasts, despite the efforts made by the EU. It will be a matter of time when the madness ends, but the scar will bear for decades to come. [19:01]

<Credits slide begins to roll as she's nearing the end of her monologue>

Melonie Wu: I think that's all we have for the time being. So what do you think: Is he an unfortunate victim of a crisis we have yet to resolve or is he another fascist nut who opportunistically caused his own downfall. Let me know in the comments below, and give a thumbs up if you want the series to continue. Until then, this is Melonie Wu from Al-Jazeera signing off. [20:13]

<Melonie Wu walks off from the scene as it fades to pitch black, ending the video.>

<--- End Transcript --->
I need a recap of this TL. Been a while since I last read. So the Libyan Civil War continues unlike in OTL which just ended last year?
Yes, it's basically an far cry compared to OTL. Khalifa Haftar took over Tripoli ITTL, but his short-lived regime collapses and hilarity ensues afterwards.
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Thanks, my dude! I was afraid that the long transcript might scare some people, but I'm glad that you enjoyed the piece!

You know it is good writing when you find yourself think "Yikes the jihadists actually seemed like the more sympathetic in all this"

Of course, I'd say Daesh letting them go afterwards would be implausible, a guy dressed like a Crusader would be their dream filmed decapitation. But it was necessary for the story so it's totally understandable
Of course, I'd say Daesh letting them go afterwards would be implausible, a guy dressed like a Crusader would be their dream filmed decapitation. But it was necessary for the story so it's totally understandable
I mean, releasing him to the seas is their way of saying that they've "reformed" to the major powers. The ISIS in Libya is a far cry compared to what they used to be in the Middle East, mostly because of a drastic change of leadership since Al-Baghdadi's passing. To them, psychologically traumatizing the Groypers for intruding on their seas is good enough of a punishment, so there's no need for theatrical execution.

[EDIT] Y'know, I might expand on ISIS one day. They're pretty barren in terms of context.
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[Media] Three Years After The Grand Kekistani Hijacking | Face to Face - Al-Jazeera A Follow-Up
Three Years After The Grand Kekistani Hijacking | Face to Face - Al-Jazeera
A Follow-Up

Sup, guys. I’m just dropping by to write the behind-the-scenes stuff again, mostly concerning the context behind the thumbnails. To be honest, I tried to write them down a day after the mockup, but I didn’t because I was too lazy back then; too occupied with Kaiserreich, unfortunately. But hey, better late than never, right?

Without further adieu, here’s the behind-the-scenes stuff.



1.1 Imagine wasting weeks designing these things?

I have a lot of fun designing the thumbnails compared to the first page, mostly because I put a lot of effort into them, at least relatively speaking. It wasn’t like the former, where I just slapped some google image results and called it a day. There is a lot of editing and even designing involved, I especially want it to be as convincing as possible. Hell, there are moments where I thought these details were pointless since some might not even notice them, but I eventually pushed on and finished the entire catalogue.

Also, as I said before, I’ll be explaining the premise of the thumbnails and the worldbuilding pieces behind them. Not all of them have some deep lore that’s 200 pages long, but I do put some thought into the subjects that truly matter to me.

Revealed: JonTron’s Grandpa Organized Operation Ajax


2.1 I can't find any interesting assets for this one, so here's the thumbnail.

This one is simply a joke, so not much lore behind it. It was a long time ago, back when I was reading about the 1953 Iranian Coup. I scrolled down to the infobox and noticed one of the commanders is named Shaban Jafari. When I dive deeper, I learned that he migrated to California after the Iranian Revolution, especially since Khomeini was purging anyone related to the Shah and his regime.

And then it hit me: JonTron was from California, and coincidentally he has the same surname - Jon Jafari, so that means his grandpa has to be the same guy, right? So after having this “amazing” shower thought, I thought it would be funny to put it on the page.

As for the design, I was leaning towards something typical with these commentator channels: Y’know, the oversaturated and insidious shot of someone they’re going to rant about. I’m surprised these people rave over millions of views despite recording the most formulaic pieces possible. Anyway, I did try to recreate those kinds of thumbnails, but I didn’t fit with the name well, so I changed it into something a bit noir.

Skaro - Announcement Trailer


2.2 Same thing, tbh.

I know some of you don’t care about Doctor Who. Hell, I imagine few of you even heard of the show. So if you’re not interested in this piece, I don’t mind since I'm going to drop a few unrecognizable names. However, I’m going to explore the premise because I love this concept for a spin-off so much. It’s been on my mind since I watched some of the older episodes, so I thought why not?

So in this timeline, Russell T. Davies, the showrunner of the series revival, didn’t leave the show until 2012, where he spent 4 more seasons with the 11th Doctor. Even then, he stayed as the executive producer for the entire franchise, pitching concepts and spin-offs that fleshes out the worldbuilding. And instead of Steven Moffat, Nicholas Briggs became the head writer of the series. The show becomes more consistent since then, but the episodic stuff becomes less apparent with each series.

As for the spin-off, it’s directed by another person but with creative supervision from Davies and Briggs. The premise focuses on Davros and the worldbuilding behind Skaro, where they showcase the life within the domes and its mutated wilderness. As for the style, I imagine something a bit alien and apocalyptic, with a huge hint of Salvador Dali’s.

The Indonesian-Sino Axis: The Two Chads of Asia


2.3 My second favourite of the entire catalogue, complete with my own original Yes Chad.

The United States committed a lot of blunders in this timeline; some of them are admittedly comical. I never shy away from writing scenarios where they become the butt of all jokes, but that's mostly because their decline is pretty much a central theme to the storyline. And one of them is how they pushed Indonesia towards China’s fold.

Basically, Jakarta slowly pivots towards Beijing, but it wasn’t until Prabowo presidency where the ties became stronger. I don't want to share much since I’m still figuring out the details, but let’s just say they officially joined the Shanghai Pact 5 years after being an observer member, breaking the call of neutrality that they practised since its inception. Concerning how they ended up being an instrumental partner to China, let’s just say that Washington managed to push them into the breaking point.

Indonesia is their golden boy since they’re placed right between many important sea lanes. They have invested a lot into their local economy, especially its defence and transportation sector. They’re also helping over Prabowo continuation of many infrastructure projects established by Joko Widodo, including the Sunda Bridge and the extension of its newly-built bullet train railway towards Medan.

As for the thumbnail, I tried to draw a Yes Chad version of Prabowo, but I didn’t have the skill to make it good. So I just made the Indonesian version from an empty template; using Paint to make the magic happen. I’m rather proud of the results since I thought it’s going to look awful, but it turned out fine in the end.

Bobo the Dodo: Cloning And The Ethics Behind De-Extinction


2.4 The picture was taken from Germany if you guys are wondering.

Yes, they managed to de-extinct a dodo in this timeline, and they’re potentially considering it with a woolly mammoth in 2035. The people back in South Africa cloned it by using extensive stem techniques to revive a dead cell and fringe methods to grow a living embryo without a surrogate. After the project became a success, they moved her to Mauritius in 2026.

Bobo is one of many ideas I came up with to explore the science and technology behind this timeline. I don’t have the pretence of trying to make it realistic, so most of the stuff I imagined could be either outlandish or scientifically implausible. However, that doesn’t make it less interesting to delve into since there are concepts I want to explore further, especially after I’m done with Libya and continue one to other projects.

Anyway, the topic was supposed to be about Bishamonten, the Japanese mech that I mentioned months ago. I was so excited to showcase them, but I can’t find any images that could represent the thumbnail. So, unfortunately, I have to change the premise to something more conceivable.

The Washington-Paris Split: When Macron Defied The U.S.


2.5 Simple and bold, just how I like it.

Another blunder showcasing America’s decline, this time it’s something to do with their deteriorating ties with France. One of the many consequences of the Spratly Incident is shattering their reputation as a reliable ally, especially over the eastern side, where even Australia is reviewing their security ties in case they withdraw from Asia. This is also becoming a problem in Europe, especially when it comes to France.

Concerning the man himself, Macron policies and rhetoric are relatively extreme compared to his centrist demeanour IOTL. Instead of advocating a Pan-European perspective, he thinks France has an exceptional role and destiny to lead the continent, and this leads to many troubles with countries like Germany and Italy. What makes him more distinct here is his relations with Erdogan because instead of clashing with each other, you could say they’re pretty cordial in terms of their policies against the United States.

Not much to tell about this one, tbh. The thumbnail is relatively simple, although I’m glad that the stencil looks surprisingly good. I planned a more complex design, but I realize that making it simple makes it more effective and pronounced.

Raoul and the King of Spain Explained | CakeBear


2.6 The original cover v. the redesign for the thumbnail.

Nothing substantial with this one, actually. It’s basically an easter egg for one of my friends in discord - CakeBear. He asked me whether I could add his idea to the page, and I answered, “Sure, why not?”.

As for the design, he gave me a cover for his thumbnail. I thought it looks crusty and out of place, so I designed something out of scratch but tried to stay true with schemes and all. I vectorized the bull iconography and used a font similar to his reference and also added my spin to it. Well, that’s pretty much it, to be honest.

My Time in Furhaven


2.7 The left image is the original sketch. I wasted my valuable time on this one, ngl.

For those who haven’t read my Time Magazine mockup yet, Furhaven is a little micronation run by local furries. Founded by two geezers who kickstarted a crowdfunding event, it was meant to be a Molossia-esque project but spiralled into an actual community of 50 people, with its own bunkhouses and community hall. Other than being an eccentric tourist trap, it cultivated into a relatively thriving IT hub since most of them have a background in computer science.

I choose Jaiden to showcase them because of this trend I keep noticing. I mentioned her before back in my first few author’s logs, where I rambled about how people place her into weird situations every time they make the mockups; there’s even a thumbnail where she ends up in Nazi Germany out of all places. So instead of having her going to places like North Korea or whatever, I have her taking a trip to somewhere eccentric but innocent, to keep consistent with her character.

Weirdly enough, I put more effort into this piece than the rest of the catalogue, mostly because it’s the first one I made. For the cartoon persona, I have to draw it from scratch since I have to understand her style: I’m not much of a good artist, but I know my ways to imitate her style, at least enough to look convincing from the distance. I tried to be more ambitious with it, make the pose more dynamic and the background more lively by adding a bunch of furrier behind her, but don’t have the skills nor the time to do it.


Well, that’s pretty much it. I would’ve written more, especially concerning the transcript, but I don’t have much to say other than I made some dialogue changes here and there. Anyway, I link the mockup template down below in case anyone wants to try it - [download link]. I imagine that since going to upload it in discord, might as well share it here too right? Also, here's a bit of a teaser for what is next to come.


3.1 It's pretty much done, btw.
Okay as someone with Libyan ancestry I am impressed with the detail but I have some critique that I hope isnt insulting.

1. In Libya Misrata is effectively an independent power. As a city alone it can theoretically rival the power on the LNA. The Misrata brigades have strong internal solidarity as a result of kicking out Gaddafi in 2011, expelling Jaftar forces from much of western Libya during Fajr Libya in 2014, defeating Daesh in Sirte in 2016, and contributing along with Zawiya much of the forces to defeat Haftar in 2019. Realistically Misrata would never let Daesh who is hated in the city, or Tahloob such as the “Green Army” even near it. In such a scenario it would more likely form a “third way” loyal to the ideas of the February 17th revolution. (note that yes much of Libya is disillusioned with the revolution but Misrata actually saw its fortunes improve as an economic hub after it.)

2. Daesh is actually more prominent today in Fezzan than the Sirte area. Sirte today is technically controlled by Haftar loyal militias with a strong Gaddafist influence; who on a theoretical fragmentation of Haftars coalition after his death shown in TL would try to create a faction in the image of the Jamahariya.

3. The timeline shows too many independent factions in Fezzan. While Fezzani militias indeed are locally based most should at least be nominally loyal to coastal factions as that is needed for Fezzan economically.

4. In Barqa Haftars sons as well as Madkhali linked factions like Tariq Bin Ziyad should still have more prominence due to UAE Saudi funding and Egyptian support.

5. Given Haftar ethnically cleansing opponents from pro Shura council families, i cant see it get reestablished nor would it ally with Daesh, who after 2014 pretty much shunned the idea of alliances and did takfir on any faction not under its control.

6. Even assuming Daesh can control any coast in Libya again it would quickly lead to an international invention in the form of air support to local factions that are against it.

7. While the premises of the timeline is a Haftar victory which is possible, realistically that would have happen with no Turkish intervention, but it would still require compromise and local autonomy to Misrata. Haftar attacked in 2019 not so much to “clean out” militias like he claimed, but to get western Libyan militias to flip as those in Fezzan did in 2018. i hope this isnt insulting my intent is to put local dynamics more into perspective
Okay as someone with Libyan ancestry I am impressed with the detail but I have some critique that I hope isnt insulting.

Ok, that's a rather lengthy list. I hope my answers could give you some perspective on the creative choice I've made.

1. In Libya Misrata is effectively an independent power...

When I wrote down the description for the Islamic State of Libya (here's the post for context), I was rather implicit that Misrata is an autonomous city-state: Besides giving out a fair sum of tribute and military support, they're pretty much free to rule as they please and without intervention. And since the Green Army posed an existential threat to their city, they're forced to pledge allegiance to guarantee their independence, especially when assume they don't have the political and military will without sacrificing much of their livelihood.

Actually, I did compliment the idea of turning them into an independent city-state. I remember reading one source concerning the local tribal politics (The Tribal Structure in Libya), and there's a brief paragraph explaining misconceptions behind Misrata, so I did consider writing them as an economically powerful faction. But to me, it doesn't explain how they could survive as an independent state when they're sandwiched between two major powers: one side seems committed to razing the city into the ground while the other side merely wants to secure their western flank.

That's my rationale at least. I might scheme them as an autonomous satellite of Daesh, but never an independent power since that requires me to recton it.

2. Daesh is actually more prominent today in Fezzan than the Sirte area...

I didn't realize that they shifted their activities over Fezzan, to be honest. Most of the research I have concerning their history was during their time in Sirte, and that's mostly from Wikipedia and some token PDFs about ISIS.

And it's merely a creative choice to place them in there instead of anywhere else. I thought the idea that they return to a region where they are despised is an interesting prospect to explore, especially when they have to make some compromises to legitimize themselves as a governing body.

3. The timeline shows too many independent factions in Fezzan. While Fezzani militias indeed are locally based most should at least be nominally loyal to coastal factions as that is needed for Fezzan economically.

I deliberately ignore them until I could make something out of it, my dude.

So far, I'm mostly interested in Hun, but that's mostly because they're pretty subservient to the Free State of Sabha. As for the latter, they look to the south because of an embargo imposed by the United States. They have a huge market concerning human trafficking and they established a market over Sub-Saharan Africa, but that's a topic for another day.

4. In Barqa Haftars sons as well as Madkhali linked factions like Tariq Bin Ziyad should still have more prominence due to UAE Saudi funding and Egyptian support.

I'll take this into consideration since I don't have much input on this.

5. Given Haftar ethnically cleansing opponents from pro Shura council families, i cant see it get reestablished nor would it ally with Daesh, who after 2014 pretty much shunned the idea of alliances and did takfir on any faction not under its control.

Same thing as above.

6. Even assuming Daesh can control any coast in Libya again it would quickly lead to an international invention in the form of air support to local factions that are against it.

The U.S and NATO already consider a boots-on-the-ground military campaign, the real question is when they're going to initiate it. I think I elaborate it in my TIME Magazine mockup on the last page, so you should check that out.

It's hard for them to justify sending their planes to Libya because none of the factions there is aligned with them in the first place. The only institution they support is the Presidential Council, and they're living in exile within the confines of Washington D.C. The only thing they can do is imposing sanctions against those they consider as either terrorist groups or illegitimate pretenders, meaning they're embargoing the entire country.

7. While the premises of the timeline is a Haftar victory which is possible, realistically that would have happen with no Turkish intervention...

You'll be surprised that Turkey supports the LNA in this timeline. I don't want to reveal much since I'm preparing to post a subject concerning the matter soon, but Erdogan silently pivoted towards Haftar since the mid-2010s. This shift of support correlates with his relations with Macron, which is rather cordial compared to OTL.

So instead of demolishing Panstirs and defending Tripoli from swarming technicals, they send their drones squadrons and Syrian proxies to support the LNA.

I hope this isnt insulting my intent is to put local dynamics more into perspective.

None taken, my dude!

In fact, you're the first person to give me feedback from a local perspective, so I appreciate the critique. I have fair shares of comments from Libyans, but I don't get much from them other than a few compliments about how "realistic" the timeline is... even though there's a faction that enslaves thousands of Subsaharan migrants, and builds a sophisticated market out of it.
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[Map] Khalifa Haftar's Operation Unity
Khalifa Haftar's Operation Unity


Title: Brief Timeline of Khalifa Haftar's Operation Unity

Author: Dimitri Vasily - Northern Front

Date: 3rd August 2026


On January 2nd, 2020, Prime Minister Fayez Serraj refused to abdicate after facing a motion of no confidence. In an already fragile state that threatens the capital, the General National Accord responded by broadcasting an ultimatum to the Presidential Council and its allies: Remove the Prime Minister from his office or face military intervention in the next 24 hours. Pro-GNA operatives organized a pre-emptive attempt to arrest him but failed due to his early departure to Tunisia.

The revelation of this conspiracy has spiralled Tripoli into mass protests, but many suddenly fled from the capital when it devolved into a series of bloody skirmishes. Pro-GNA and Pro-PC factions funnel into the streets as they begin to clash with each other, with stories of gunfights lasting for 72 hours. The crisis didn’t reach headlines until January 5th, when a journalist published photos of the devastated Martyr’s Square, with the refuse of dead soldiers and scorched trucks scattered throughout the scene.

The crisis coincided with Haftar’s trip to Ankara on January 4th, where he met both Erdogan and Macron to discuss the matters concerning Libya. While brief, the talks resulted in both leaders pledging their support for the Libyan National Army and recognizing Tobruk’s House of Representatives as the legitimate government. With the military and diplomatic support provided by two major powers, the marshal took advantage by hastily expanding his army’s capabilities.

As Western Libya begins to lose support from neighbouring countries, the LNA launched a massive military build-up on February 21st. Preceding Zaim’s reunification of Western Libya, Khalifa Haftar waged one of the largest military offensives in Libyan history. His takeover of the region will culminate into a short-lived but eccentric regime, eventually falling into chaos again after his death.

Strength of the LNA

In comparison to the General National Accord, the Libyan National Army has transformed from a ragtag coalition of loose soldiers and mercenaries to a professional force; capable of waging complex tactics and maneuvers at Khalifa Haftar’s behest.

Their numbers have exceeded from 80,000 to 110,000 men, in conjunction with his plans to take over the west. With this in mind, the LNA announced the formation of two divisions in hopes to serve as a shock element, simply named the 1st and 2nd Division. And despite the rhetoric against foreign influence, many foreign volunteers funnelled into the frontline to serve as auxiliaries, with the majority originating from Syria, Sudan, and Turkey.

With major countries providing the army with heavy guns and vehicles, most of their military are mechanized and capable of transporting troops from one city at another. Most of its heavy arsenal are requisitioned to the experienced divisions to reinforce their capabilities against the enemy defence. The brigades also acquired a token amount of tanks, while technicals and rugged IFVs took up the majority of its mechanized core.

The LNA’s greatest asset, however, lies over their experienced officers. Hardened by their encounters with Daesh forces in Sirte and pro-GNA tribal militias across Fezzan, their previous campaign produces commanders such as Khalid Ibn Khammas and Mahmoud Mustafa. Their history of ingenuity and decisiveness convinced Khalifa Haftar to assign them to Operation Unity, serving as commanders of the two new divisions.

Benefactors of Khalifa Haftar

The political fallout caused by Fayez Serraj pushed many countries to pivot towards Tobruk’s House of Representatives. Despite threats from the United States, the Libyan National Army receives generous support ranging from logistical supplies to foreign volunteers.

Being the earliest supporters of the LNA, Russia provided Haftar with heavy armour and mercenaries. Libya is one of the first countries to receive token numbers of T-14 Armatas: Albeit driven by Russian volunteers, 10 of these tanks were fielded to the frontlines to provide reports of their performance, with official accounts lauding its protection system and maneuverability. After testimonies of religious desecration by the Wagner Group reached headlines, they were quietly replaced with the Kadyrovites - Chechnya’s paramilitary forces and Ramzan Kadyrov’s personal army: Far more disciplined and religiously sensitive compared to their disorganized former.

Initially reluctant to support the LNA with military aides, Turkey eventually provided them with logistical assets and auxiliaries. They were notorious for volunteering the 3rd “Hawk” and 11th “Dragon” Squadrons, one of the first formalized formations of Turkish UAVs: their contributions are essential over operations across the Western Libyan theatre, disrupting enemy reinforcements and committing search-and-destroy missions against vital infrastructures. Turkey also provides foreign volunteers, but less reputable compared to their Chechen equivalents.

Despite the condemnations from countries such as Germany and the United States, France provided the LNA with intelligence and diplomatic support. Macron legitimized Khalifa Haftar and the House of Representatives in front of the 2020 World Economic Forum, with Erdogan and Putin supporting his statement. However, while denying any accusations of providing military support, local testimonies suggest sightings of French operators: one witness - a Burkinese fluent in French, describes a bunch of white tourists speaking in the same language, despite the evacuation of all French citizens in the country.

Timeline of Operation Unity

1st Wave (Feb. 25th - March 9th)

Operation Unity was launched on February 25th, starting its first wave towards both Bu Kammash and Tawergha. While facing no resistance in Al-Assa, the 1st Division faced its first encounter in the Battle of Zuwarah: the exchanges were brief, lasting for only 5 hours until the garrisons retreated to Sabratah. Mustafa’s 16th Infantry Brigade was greeted by tribal netizens of Wishtata on March 3rd, which abhorred GNA rule since the fall of Gaddafi. Khammas 2nd division secured the abandoned town of Tawegha by the end of March 9th, establishing a staging ground for their future offensive against Misrata.

In these first days of the operation, Turkish UAVs were instrumental in securing many towns and villages. Assisting Hussain's Division, the 3rd Squadron prevented GNA forces from relieving Zuwarah with reinforcements, allowing Hussain to easily capture Zuwarah. 11th Squadron also played a vital role in Khammas’ offensive towards Tawergha by preventing the approaching Misrata Brigade from taking over the town.

2nd Wave (March 11th - April 6th)

On March 11th, the LNA initiated a second wave to pressure the defending forces. Hussain’s 1st Division and a small detachment of Khalid’s 7th Infantry Brigade joined forces to capture Sabratah and Az-Zawiyah: Resistance was fierce as they suffered over 631 casualties, but they managed to secure a vital hub leading to Tripoli. The rest of Khalid’s Brigade went off to capture Al-Aziziyah and Jildah, facing little exchange from the garrisons as they withdrew deeper into the capital. The 12th Infantry Brigade was left to take over Musayyah as the 16th Brigade did with Tarhunah on March 20th.

In a career-defining endeavour, Khammas bid his mark on March 23rd: When he took over the defiant city of Misrata in 6 days. Despite facing the well-armed and stubborn Misrata Brigade, his division managed to push them out from the city. Fearing the prospect of heavier resistance as their attempt to regroup in Tripoli, the commander organizes a skirmishing party to harass the retreating convoy. Accompanied by 3 T-14s and 50 Chechens, they were able to decimate a decent chunk, forcing them to reside in Zlitan as they were unable to recover. They were eventually dismantled after the capitulation of the city on April 3rd, with 5,000 men surrendering to the LNA.

Despite securing more vital cities and infrastructures, both sides agreed to a temporary ceasefire due to exhaustion. While the GNA wasted no time regrouping their militias, so did the LNA as they began to reorganize their theatre.

3rd Wave (April 21st - April 28th)

Two days after the ceasefire expired, the LNA immediately initiated their 3rd wave on April 21st. While the 7th Infantry Brigade assaulted from the south, securing neighbouring towns in their wake, the 1st Division marched towards Janzur as he bids his triumph on overwhelming firepower. The 12th Infantry Brigade captured Q.B Ghashir on April 23rd, while the battle for Al-Qasabat lasted until April 25th.

Khattam’s 2nd Division rushed their way towards Tajura; in an attempt to reach Tripoli first. Unlike his peers, who use UAV squadrons for token search-and-destroy missions, the commander took advantage by disrupting enemy reinforcement and providing intelligence concerning local environments. His initiative to form his own recon element provided Mustafa’s forces with an overview of the defences in Qarabulli, which helped him capture the town on April 26th. In turn, he accompanied Khattam’s division in his attempt to rush towards the capital.

The Capitulation of the GNA (April 29th - May 3rd)

On April 29th, all of the defending militias were cornered into the confines of Tripoli. Boasting for a last stand against Haftar’s army, the GNA conscripted many citizens into fortifying the capital: Building barricades and trenches and even garrisoning the frontline.

But despite the rhetoric of a bloody clash, the LNA were ordered to surround its rear rather than launching another assault. Following the advice of his subordinates, Khalifa Haftar delivered an ultimatum: He demanded the garrisons to surrender and apprehend the GNA within the next 72 hours, and in return, the soldiers and their low-ranking officers will be given amnesty; free from any liability of their history with them.

Eventually, the militias submitted to the ultimatum on May 3rd. They expatriated many GNA officials into their custody, some surrendered themselves in hopes of gaining favours under Haftar’s regime. However, few managed to escape by boat from the encroaching army, fleeing to Sicily as they’re the only few to recognize their legitimacy.

After the Unification

After the capitulation of Tripoli, Khalifa Haftar organized a trial against former officials and local dissidents on May 12th. Many condemned the scene as but a mere kangaroo court: Loose allegations pressed against those they considered to be criminals offenders, despite having little to no evidence to back their cases. Some were unfairly sentenced to life imprisonment, confined to the notorious Abu Salim prison.

Despite the backlash from Germany and the United States, Haftar was able to coerce the parliament into titling him as “Great Protector of the Republic”: He was bestowed with the power to propose edicts and intervene and influence decisions made by the Prime Minister and the executive staff. He used this power to expand the LNA’s political influence by reserving top positions to his military adjutants, including the Ministry of Defense and Foreign Affairs.

This newly-found power enabled him to propose the 4-Year Plan: Economic ventures envisioned by both Haftar and his retinues. Many industries were privatized to attract foreign capital, including the Libyan Iron and Steel Company, which enabled the expansion of its steel mill in Misrata and the construction of newer plants in Al-Jawf and Sabha. He also made many ventures in building Libya’s very own defence industry: He attracted many gunsmiths from the Khyber Pass with generous contracts, incentivized local industries with subsidies, and constructed one of Africa’s largest arms factory and munition depot - the Haftar Great Arsenal.

Despite his further ambitions to establish ties with neighbouring countries, his regime lasted for eight months. On December 12th, Khalifa Haftar passed away in his office, diagnosed with a sudden heart attack after years of struggling with old age. His demise left a vacuum of power within the established political structure, splintering the army into severe factionalism. Two days later, the capital plunges into chaotic strife: Being dubbed as the Scourge of Tripoli, 10,000 died under the onslaught between various cliques.

Eventually, Libya shatters into warring factions, paving the lands to radical jihadists and unironic western libertarians. What follows after the scourge torments the lives of its people, plunging the country once again to another civil war.
Very interesting premise and updates, I just have a few questions
  • What caused the radical change in the LNA's nature?
    • The LNA is hardly the professional army it purports to be, rather a coalition of militia units and tribal/regional-based armed groups coalescing around Haftar's leadership. While it claims on social media that it comprises of up to 85,000 troops, this appears to be a major exaggeration. It is estimated that the LNA comprises of up to 25,000 soldiers, a majority of which are auxiliaries (Madkhali militias, foreign Mercenaries, Tribal/Regional militias etc etc) . In consideration of such, what results in such an inflation in numbers? How does the LNA transform into a professional force?
  • How does the LNA sustain itself financially?
    • Prior to Operation Flood of Dignity, the LNA and Cyrenaica was suffering from an economic crisis. Despite controlling Libya's oil crescent, the LNA hardly profits due to the fact that only the National Oil Corporation (based in Tripoli) can sell Libyan oil, with the receivable revenue collected only through the Tripoli-based CBL. Previously, the LNA has had to rely on an influx of billions of counterfeit dinars and highly lucrative real estate transactions in Cyrenaica. With such a larger force, a payment crisis is inevitable. How does the LNA sustain itself?
  • Why does Sarraj refuse to abdicate ?
    • This may be a little nit-picky here, however Sarraj's refusal to abdicate appears quite uncharacteristic. Hardly an authoritarian strongman, Sarraj announced his intention to resign amidst the protests in September 2020.