The Two Golden Lions - a Thirty Years War timetree

Here is the start of a little timeline based on ideas from a discussion
started by Doug M. His (her?) original sugestions made me think of this, but it
departed somewhat from the actual topic of his thread. So since I had to open
another one anyway, why not try and concoct my first timeline? ;)

As the title indicates, I am also going to vary the regular concept of a timeline
a bit. You'll see in time if you follow this thread.

And now let's just go medias in res. It would be my pleasure if you like it.
Your comments are highly welcome!

I. Business Contacts.

Regensburg, July, 18th 1630.

"Ite missa est!" The deacon's voice was hardly audible.
The archbishop had just completed the blessing, and presently
a solemn procession was forming in front of the altar, now pouring down through the
aisle of the cathedral. Michael Leber stiffened his neck and sent some quick
glances around the crowd. Less than two weeks before, the cathedral was crammed.
The citizens of Regenspurg were eager for any glimpse on such famous and influencial
figures as now were staying in the city. Von Umstadt, the Elector of Mainz,
the Emperor's Chancellor of Germany, and thus host of this Electoral Congress
was pacing through the crowd, surrounded by the clergical part of his
comprehensive entourage, indicating blessings to all sides. Leber had already worked
in the administration of predecessor, who had died the year before. He lowered his head again
and made a sign of the cross, keeping his eyes firmly down, as did the men kneeling
beside him. Fortunately, the excitement about the lords on their visit to Regenspurg
had somewhat abated; upon the arrival of the Emperor, Leber had feared to be crushed
to death in the crowd. Funny, he thought, less than a generation ago
this city used to be familiar to such noble visitors, more than any other city.
No doubt they had celebrated Reichstage as very special events, but they were meant to recur;
now most of the people present had never seen the Emperor or any of the Electors
before, save their own duke, and they could hardly tell whether there would
be another chance.

Pushing and pushed, Leber left the cathedral, always attentively scanning the crowd.
He had an errand, but it was not official, and he hoped nobody would notice.
After some time of searching around the appointed spot, he saw a man fitting the
description very well. Walking up to him he asked: "You're Jakob Axtmacher, aren't you?" [1]
"That's right. And you ..." Leber still had problems with the local dialect.
No wonder, as he had never travelled so far from his home before. But Axtmacher
was patient, and they came along quite well. "Michael Leber, citizen of Mainz. Right."
Back home he was considered a gentleman, but that rank would hardly mean anything abroad [2].
"I think I can make you an interesting offer."

Axtmacher was a merchant. More precisely, he was a news trader.
He would inquire for tidings from all over Germany, which he received
on a regular basis from correspondants in other cities. But he would not decline
getting them directly and without delay. So many people in the city of course
offered some really good opportunities to him.
What Axtmacher could collect would be published approximately every other week.
He was working with a craftsman owning a printing press, which allowed to multiply
their leaflets up to several scores. They could not yet make up their mind to
release an overview of news every week, as many of his trade now did.
Paper supply seemed too unstable too them.

Leber followed Axtmacher to his house. After some hints in low voice
he seemed convinced that Leber was reliable, and that they should rather
talk sheltered from eavesdroppers in the streets. Leber could not suppress
a smile. He had informed whoever he had access to, and would remind them again and again.
But alas, there were too many people he simply could never talk to.
Via Leber, he could reach many people of all companies, on all levels.
Was that treason? Actually, Leber only learnt the appalling news through
accidental eavesdropping. But anyway, he did not betray his state, so who could forbid it?
He really feared a propagation of the war. He still had not overcome the shock
that a rebellion in the East, in Bohemia had swept into their honorable ancient lands
West of the Rhine in less than a year [3]. And it had not stopped ever since.


Regensburg, July, 21th 1630

"New tidings! Truthful new tidings!" Michael Leber enjoyed the ring of the puffer boys' screams.
He would not buy a copy. He wanted a maximum number of leaflets to circulate.
But he had had the chance to read it.
"... Norsemen on German shores! ... seeking blood and predation like as they spill over
the fields and gardens of Brandenburg ... even their king among them,
an experienced commander who has expelled the last German knights and merchants from Livonia
in a heavy massacre in the time of his father ... thrice as numerous as any army ever on these
shores ... So save us God!"
The hardest part of his job was to pursuade Axtmacher to print it right away,
without having a horrifying drawing made to match the news. This would have incurred
another day of delay at the very least.
Leber walked away from the market with fast and secure steps.
He would certainly not stop now.


[*] The two acting dramatis personae are fictional, but as realistic as was possible
to me. In particular, there is no earlier a PoD than 1630, only assumption on details
not handed down to us.
[1] I could hardly resist writing "Jakob Axtmacher, I suppose?", which would evoke
quite the wrong associations ...
[2] I have Leber be what was later called a "Patrician", which means that he and his kin
had a certain influence within their city, and were considered peers to landed gentry.
Outside the city, however, they would not be accepted as gentlemen.
And indeed, other German states were considered "abroad" at that time.
[3] Mainz bordered on Electoral Palatinate, the hereditary territories of the "Winter King"
Frederic V. expelled at the beginning of the war.
[4] Not completely truthful, but at least _really_ new.
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Looks good. Im curious to see what the 'timetree' concept is, and I dont know much (anything?) about the Thirty Years War so it will be interesting.
Hmmm, timetree....interesting, why am I getting a "Garden of Forking Paths" vibe here. :D I'll definitely try and follow this.
Thanks for your feedback so far!
I'm stalling with new releases because it's so hard to make it just plausible, at least for me myself ...

Seems like you're barking up the one right tree. But I would like to mention that this
is not going to be another pitchfork thread ...
I am stalling a bit ... I am really sorry, but it turned out that my main ideas were based
on assumptions incompatible with the actual events before the PoD.
(Btw, also nobody noticed in the discussion thread before.)
Of course, this rendered all my concepts useless.

So I faced the need to research quite a lot to rebuild this thread.
Next parts will follow soon!
II. Negotiations.

Regensburg, July 28th, 1630.

Logding of Duke-Elector of Maximillian of Bavaria.

"How long have they been talking?"
"Hours. You know, they're brothers."
"Sure. Chatting about their kin, I suppose."
"Well, they do have reason to worry about."
"The duke doesn't seem to worry a lot. But the archbishop looked like that."
"Of course. He's the one closest to the war in the Netherlands.
And it seems to come closer to him every day."
"Not likely to impress the duke much."
"Sure. Did you notice that monk?"
"What monk?"
"He came before the General yesterday. He comes and leaves at weird times,
but he seems to be acquainted to some minister."
"The I don't care."
"Neither do I."


Lodging of Emperor Ferdinand II, Archduke of Inner Austria.

"And you do think the note is reliable?"
"Your Majesty, Father Eusebius has served us for years.
We have nobody nearly as informed about the Munich court as him."
Ferdinand browsed the few lines again.
"What is that supposed to mean anyway? 'Decided not to elect'?
We haven't even tried. And he hasn't made any serious claim."
"Except that about the Generalissimo."
"Wallenstein? Don't take that serious."
- "Your Majesty, they might return to that point.", von Eggenberg
added after a respectful pause.
"They might. But for now, no reason to worry."
At a sign from the Emperor, von Eggenberg bowed and left.


Regensburg, August 2nd, 1630.

Meeting of military and political advisors of Emperor Ferdinand.
They had a hard job indeed, having to judge the opportunity of dismissing
Wallenstein, and probable consequences.
The Emperor, urged by Maximillian's stubborn appearance late last week, had ordered them to provide an expertise on this question.
By now, they had discussed for hours whether the Emperor was allowed to dismiss Wallenstein.
Even though this particular question was easy, and all present men agreed, they had rolled out the discussion for the
whole morning. Every single of them wanted to exhibit his legal and rhetorical abilities.

Finally, they had turned to the question whether the dismissal would cause problems in the Empire.
This was a tricky question, as no one in the room knew exactly how large, how decided, how ready the Swedish forces were.
Of course, this did not prevent them from discussing on and on.

The door opened with a sudden draft. All cousellors surged, as entered von Trautmannsdorff, minister of the Emperor,
with two attendants. The duke had himself informed about the state of the cousellors' work.
He nodded several times.
After a lengthy break he said: "Gentlemen, they are coming. There is no time to deal with the Stifts."
There was a silence. He left again not before long.
III. Excerpts from the Decision ("Recess") of the Electors' Congress,
Regensburg, October 20th 1630.

"We, Ferdinand the Second, by grace of God elected Roman Emperor,
semper Augustus, in Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, Dalmatia,
Croatia, and Slavonia, etc. King, Archduke of Austria
confess and proclaim generally:


§1 The integrity of the Empire being severely endangered by foreign
forces approaching to its borders in threatening manner, we order such
forces as we have at the disposal of Our imperial command, all infantery,
cannonry, heavy and light cavallery, and soldiers of all nations,
as present in our army and under our pay,
led and commanded by the noble Imperial Prince and beloved and faithful
Albrecht Duke of Friedland and Sagan, Duke of Mecklenburg,
to dedicate its strength to the defense of the territories of the Empire and of its
States against exterior invadors, against their collaborators, as may exist
outside or inside the Empire, or in Imperial States, or in territories of
Imperial States [...]

§2 We appeal to al Princes and all States of the Empire to collaborate with our
forces, as detailed above, to support their needs, to grant quarters as required,
and not to hinder their recruiting efforts [...]

§5 As the immediate confrontation with enemies of the Empire requires maintained
strength of Our armed forces, we appeal to all States of the Empire to fulfil
their duties of contribution to the imperial war spendings.

These duites may never be neglected and remain valid, unless for Electorates
which on explicit consent of Ourselves and the Council of Electors,
enarm and maintain armed forces suitable for battle against a well-equipped
and well-trained army, support them with arms and all necessary supply,
and take care for regular substitution, and mobilize them to the enemies of the Empire
combatted as well by the imperial forces,
or for States contributing to such forces of an Electorate.
Such forces shall be commanded by the Elector or any general he may select
at his own discretion; whereas for strategic decisions such commander shall seek the
agreement of the commander of the imperial troups.

We acknowlegde the desire of the noble and glorious man, Our beloved faithful Archmarshall,
Johann Georg, Duke of Saxony, to establish such forces; likewise, we acknowledge the
declaration of our dear Electors allied in the so-called Catholic League to send their
troups to the aid of imperial forces, subject to the regulations of this document.
we acknowledge that We Ourselves and all of the noble Electors have consented to these desires.

The exemption from contributions is restricted to the time at and to the extent to which
suitable forces are maintained in an appropriate state and put to use in accordance with
the regulations of this article.


§12 The resolution of cases of violation against the regulations of the Decision
of the Imperial Diet of AD 1555 in Augsburg, called Religious Peace, or of legal questions
regarding such, as exist on the present day, shall be postponed until the end of the next year
but one.
Then another congress of the Electors shall be held to resolve these questions, as well as
to decide about the coronation of the Roman King.


The document bears the signatures of the Emperor, the Electors Duke Maximillian of Bavaria,
the Archbishops of Cologne, Mainz, and Trier, and the representants of the Dukes of Saxony
and Brandenburg.
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Um, is anybody still reading?
There haven't been that many replies recently.
No problem if there's nobody left - I know I stalled a bit long.
I just would like to know whether it makes sense to go on ...
OK, even though nobody replies, there have been quite a couple of views.
Maybe there has just been to little "action" to comment.
So I'll go on with the next parts, looking forward to any questions, suggestions, and opinions in general by you
(even if it's about the clumsy wording of the text).

On an unrelated note, I had to change the last sentence of the last part (# III) for plausibility reasons.
It defines the "effective" PoD, on which almost everything what follows is based.
Maybe it's worthwhile to question it at this stage.


IV. The scene is set.

Paris, Louvre, November 7th 1630.

About noon, King Louis gathers his counsellors. A tense mood hovers around the cabinet table.
Nobody needs to detail the agenda, it is clear that the question is how to assess the news from Germany.
"He has failed totally on his task. I still find that hard to believe", Bourbon-Cond'e said referring
to Father Joseph's mission to Regensburg and his attempted influencing of the Bavarian ruler.
"True, it is a pity that they indeed scheduled a date for electing the Roman King.
We should use the time as remains to prepare a favorable outcome." d'Albert replied.
"In two years, the Emperor will have lost a lot of his power, if his army is largely replaced
Liguist and Saxon units."
"But until then, they will prove powerful, even more so if they concentrate on the Swedes.
At least if the Protestant states do not rebel too much and are content with being left alone."
"They won't." Richelieu had risen even before Bourbon-Cond'e had finished.
"The Swedes will stir them up, if only they are successful enough." A shift and a twitch on
Richelieu's face indicated another surge of his pain. "We have to come to terms with the Swedes
soon. And we have to increase both our offer and our postulations."
A slow pensive nod of the King's head made it clear that he would comply with the advise
of his prime minister, as usual.


Excerpt from a letter by Tilly, Liguist supreme commander, to Duke-Elector Maximillian of Bavaria,
Stade, November 20th 1630.

"I very much regret that the success in the rebellious clerical feuds is now endangered, as the victorious
army of His Grace is banned to idleness in many issues to be suffered from Bremen, Madgeburg, Halberstadt,
Verden, and others. As I have understood in from the audiences with His Grace, maintaining their achievements
is still desired, and it will be my pleasure to comply with the orders of His Grace to defend all
entities restituted so far against renewed unrest, and keep a watchful eye on any other disturbing
developments not sanctified by the council of the noble Electors."


Excerpt from the Treaty of Baerwalde, February 14th 1631

There shall be a union between the [...] kings of Sweden and France for the defence of their respective or common allies,
for the security of the Baltic and the Oceanic Seas,
the freedom of trade and the restitution of the oppressed states of the Roman Empire,
and in order to destroy the fortresses and strongholds established in the ports [...] and on the shores of either sea,
and transform them back into their state before this German War.


To this end the King of Sweden shall lead 40,000 infantry and 6,500 cavalry into Germany and maintain them
there on his own expense.
The king of France shall pay 60,000 imperial thalers annually.


If God pleases to bestow success on the king of Sweden, he shall deal with religious concerns in occupied and abandoned territories
according to the laws and provisions of the Empire.
In places where the practice of the Roman Catholic religion prevails it shall be remain untouched.


This treaty shall remain valid, if not renewed by both kings, until the end of the year 1633 of our Savior."
Passing Magdeburg


February 6th 1631, near Magdeburg.

"Keep to the path! Don't let anyone step out!" Wallenstein renewed his commands over and over.
His words multiplied through the moving army.
At last, he had been able to abandon his Southern German base: The war in Italy had virtually
ended, his help would not be needed anymore - of course, he still could not withdraw the troups
he had sent from there. Anyway, he could move northward from his old headquarters Memmingen and
concentrate on the Northern theater, as he had successfully done two years ago. How long that seemed by now!
He bit his lip. The Emperor would pay even less in the future. The numbers rolled in his mind.
He would have to write to him, but even more carefully chose the loot to live on for the next years.
At least, they had not decided to reduce the headcount of the army at once, but what sense does that
make if the other Electors do not contribute any more?
His thoughts grew easier when he remembered his recruiters. He had sent them almost everywhere,
in Austria, in Bohemia, in Switzerland - and of course he did not miss the opportunity to grab
the best young men in Bavaria lest Maximillian and Tilly get them - now that he had the official
right to do so. And of course he was recruiting in Brandenburg so that the recruitees would not
flow into Saxony to the new Electoral army. They would await him on his campaign against the Swedes.

Presently the city of Magdeburg came into sight. How this city revealed the Emperor's recent errors!
When the citizens replaced their prince-archbishop by a Protestant "administrator" more than 60 years
ago, this ran contrary to the religious regulations of the Peace of Augsburg. In this war, the Emperor
as well as the Ligue had decided to clean up with such cases.
Not that Wallenstein was eager to have Magdeburg Catholic again, or to install the Emperor's son
Leopold Wilhelm as archbishop. But the position of Magdeburg was a strategic key to Northern Germany,
and the city and the territory used to be too wealthy before the war to be left out on such a campaign.

The army was now marching past the city. Wallenstein had selected the most well-behaved part of it
for this exercise. He had given orders even to spare the villages around Madgeburg.
From the walls of the city, with its gates closed, they were observed in watchful silence.
The army marched by, for hours.

Years ago, Wallenstein had conquered Magdeburg and, despite all his other adventures, defended it with
ease. But in the last two years, the Emperor had drawn on him too much. Sending him to the Netherlands
(finally, after long seeming neutrality) and to Italy (where Ferdinand should never have engaged at all)
as well as to Brandenburg (lest the Swedish-Polish conflict should flash over) - always to fix the situation.
Under these conditions, Wallenstein had simply ran out of troups to maintain garrisons in all the
"restituted", i.e. re-clergified places. Now, when Gustav Adolph had arrived with his Swedes,
the elected Administrator of Magdeburg had come back with a significant garrison to await him.

And now the Elector had given in to spare such rebellious cities, if not restituted, for the time being!
True, they had to concentrate on the invaders in the East, but this provision was just another failure
of the Emperor's policy.
But as nothing can be done about that at the moment, Wallenstein had decided to demonstrate the world
something. When he was still ruling the city, he had tried to be very moderate, especially in religious
concerns. But all his attempts of gaining the people's confidence were in vain.
Perhaps they could be assured like that, at least to return to their fields and workshops.
That would at least guarantee for the soldiers' food on the way back.

The troup vanished in the distance, apparently to cross the Elbe near Wittenberge.
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I could see the attachment for some time; presently, it has vanished.
So I try again ...

(What a pity that you can't delete the whole posting here ...)


this is very interesting stuff, keep writing it.

but, my expertise begins with the french revolution, so I wonder, are these new developments better for sweden or the holy roman empire?
Thanks for your comment, WWAFT.

The effective PoD being Wallenstein's dismissal skipped, this timeline starts with
a militarily improved situation for the Empire / Austria.

However, based on what I have designed so far, Sweden may be even better-off in the end than in OTL
in spite of fewer military victories ...
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V. The wheel is turning.

Electoral castle in Cölln (near Berlin), Brandenburg, February 10th, 1631.

"Good Lord! Our mighty elector seems to live in some alternate world or something."
Count Gustaf Horn dashed into the room, noisily slamming the door.
His companions, who had waited in the mildly luxurious room, stared at him in amazement.
"He still doen't get it: It's not up to make descisions any more, as simple as that."
"Shouldn't we talk in a lower voice? Someone's going to hear us", his adjutant at length dared to say. But this only stirred Horn's excitement:
"Nobody understands Swedish here, for sure. The noble elector doesn't even understand in German,
for that matter!", he cried out.
Walking up to the window, his hands, folded on his back, he gradually calmed down.
"At least he consented to let us use Küstrin."
Brandenburg's denial cost Gustav Adolf precious time to pursue the disorganized imperial forces,
which now had time to retreat to Frankfurt and Landsberg.
"This is ridiculous! Should we wage war against our religious fellows, only to get through
to our common enemy? Oh, if that discord finally had an end!"
It cost elector Georg Wilhelm quite an effort to take such an obviously hostile position
against the emperor, who had just given in to the pressure of the Protestant states.
He certainly would not give up his independence as an imperial prince either,
only to become dominated the Swedish rule in his own margravate.
"And you know, he has picked Küstrin as a refuge for his son."
The ten-year old Friedrich Wilhelm, Brandenburg's crown prince, should be sheltered from the
"Sure, I only wonder: What would he inherit if we weren't here?
A land enclosed by shavelings, by grace of Vienna," Horn replied.
A long pause ensued. Finally he added:
"The evening crowns the day. He'll come to his senses soon enough."

(another 3 portions of part V. to come)
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On the bank of the Elbe, between Hamburg and Wittenberge, February 12th, 1631.

Swiftly the horsemen were riding across the winterly plain.
A biting wind was soughing around their heads.
Tilly tried to remember when he had been idling for so long as now.
He was longing for work, for battle.
Not that he had need to demonstrate his skill in his age and fame.
But war was his trade, and he had a desire to be a useful servant.

Was he still part of the war? Somehow, the electors had defined all
his enemies away on their congress last fall.
He was not allowed to attack Protestant states which had illegally
arisen from cleric possessions, for the time being. And otherwise,
the conflict with the Danish king was finished, and the upheaval in
Bohemia and Palatine had long been dealt with.
The "only" remaining enemy were the Swedes.
But although they were numerous and dangerous, they still lingered
in the Northeast corner of the Empire. Tilly would certainly not
seek battle with them soon: Neither he nor his Bavarian master
were much interested in defending the Protestant electorates
Brandenburg and Saxony, which were maneuvering politically and could care for themselves,
or greedy Wallenstein's loot in Mecklenburg.
Tilly respected Wallenstein as a deserving commander, but his political ambitions
inspired incomprehension and utter disgust on him.
After all, he was just a little Bohemian gentleman who should not
mess with German imperial princes ...

Of course, Tilly had left considerable forces in occupied cities
to fend against upheavals and further interventions.
Actually, they were actively waiting for a provocation, for another
Magdeburg revolt! For that would not qualify as an existing religious conflict,
but establish a new casus belli and allow for direct countermeasures.
At least, that was Maximillian of Bavaria's (and Tilly's) understanding of the
Regensburg descision.

Having an idle army all around was quite a worry to Tilly.
It was quite unpredictable what they would do in their boredom.
But first of all, he wondered how to feed them?
For this issue, Tilly could rely on the help of his friend Wartenberg,
prince-bishop of Osnabrück. They owed each other quite a lot.
With him, he was experimenting with food transports from the northernmost
Liguist territories, as Osnabrück, Münster, or Cologne.
But by now, the system did not work out well: For the transports, you
need an escort, which is big enough to deter marauding bandits,
but small enough that their own greed cannot do significant harm to the supply.
It was a vicious circle ...

The army that remained him after all necessary substractions
he was leading eastward. He would take his time to organize
his defense position, and await the Swedes at the Western borders
of Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, or Saxony. It was only too probable
that they would make it. Rumor had it that the elector of Brandenburg, margrave
Georg Wilhelm, was already an ally of Sweden and a general under Gustav Aldolf's command!
So he had to consider Brandenburg as Swedish territory already,
and it was highly necessary to hold them from expanding further West.

Tilly looked back. The wind could not cover the tracks of his small vanguard.
He smiled. While the Swedes may have fought all winter, his men would be able to
start working at a more pleasant time.
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Dresden, electoral palace, February 12th, 1631.

"Your highness, a mounted messenger asks for an hour of your attention."
Von Tronka found his master day-dreaming, his eyes on the roofs of Dresden.
"Send to tell him that I'm hunting. And, that he's lucky, as I'll be back
probably in a week.- He comes from Berlin again, doesn't he?" Johann Georg asked.
"No, not this time", his chancellor smiled faintly.
"He came from Vienna."
Johann Georg immediately sat up. "In that case, I hope he was served some glasses of
our good Kötschenbroda wine, for his waiting time?"
"To be sure", von Tronka confirmed.
"You should gather the council once you have listened to him.
And I'd think your highness had better not make any definite confirmations
before the consultation."
Johann Georg frowned. After a pause he asked, to no one in particular: "What's what he wants?"
The chancellor paused politely. Then he answered:
"I suppose it pleased his majesty to ask for the help your highness has distantly announced." -
The prince fumbled for his tankard, and at length found it - empty.
Now with a hint of scorn, he started ranting: "So - what's a-bugging him? Where are they now?"
Tronka knew exactly how to talk to the elector, in all his moods. "The Swedish army is pursuing
the remnands of the imperial troups in Pomerania, which have fled to Frankfurt and Landsberg.
It won't take long until Brandenburg lets them pass to catch up with them."
"Brandenburg!" he cried out. "You can't trust that Calvinic crank. I bet he's already in alliance
with the Swedes." Although nobody else had noticed, the last sentence was a question for Tronka.
"Yes, that's highly probable", his chancellor analyzed.
Johann Georg stood up. "We don't go there, do we", he said. "We shouldn't be the first enemy
Gustav Adolph makes after the emperor".
"You may as well point out that you will hold the Swedes in Lusatia.
And you might offer to look after the borders of Silesia, if the long-term status of Lusatia
is re-considered."
For a moment, the duke considered his words, then smiled extensively, opened his arms in a
thankful gesture, and said in a very loud voice: "My dear Tronka! What would I do without you in this war."
The chancelor bowed, but the elector had already turned around.
Looking back, he added: "And we should leave something open, in case the convent gives us some opportunity."

1) Pehaps needless to say, but all Frankfurts up to now in this thread are Frankfurt (Oder) (not Frankfurt (Main)).
2) I could not find out anything about the names and personalities of the "secret council" of Johann Georg of Saxony.
Therefore, his chancellor's name is fictive (though not by me ;))
3) The mentioned "convent" is the Convent of Leipzig, an attempt of the Protestant imperial states to
find a common political program. This is a topic of in the next portion.
4) Lusatia: Lusatia, or more precisely, the Margravates Lower and Upper Lusatia, were under Saxon control.
In the first stage of the war, the Elector of Saxony had granted military support to the emperor, who had to reimburse him.
For lack of cash, he pawned these two regions to Saxony in 1623.
There is, of course, little hope that the Emperor would be able to pay any time soon.
Hence Johann Georg strives to replace this temporary construction by a permanent and inheritable investiture.

(For some inauspicious reasons, this is not yet reflected by the above map. :()

As to the previous texts:
5) The friendship between Tilly and Prince-Bishop Wartenberg is my invention.
However, they were likely to cooperate well if necessary.

6) More notes needed?
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