To answer your questions:

Who would take over? Well, after Tilly is dead, probably Gallas (as in OTL) and, after he is compromised by a lousy performance, Ottavio Piccolomini who ended up being the last Hapsburg generalissimo of the 30YW. Actually, even Gallas was seemingly capable but his army suffered from a lack of a discipline (inherited from Wallenstein) . Or, based upon the rank, Pappenheim who already was a field-marshal, quite popular and personally favored by the emperor (he got the Golden Fleece, which Wallenstein never did).

W coming to GA service is not a fast winning scenario you are afraid of. 🤪Of course, Wallenstein is a very respected figure (during the siege of Prague the Swedes took care not to damage his palace) and immediate benefits are seemingly obvious. But he is also a primadonna and handling of the primadonnas is a tricky business for which GA (unlike Ike) was ill-suited being himself a great general. So having such a subordinate commanding his own army and having his own political ambitions could easily turn into a very explosive affair. Not to mention that their warfare styles had been substantially different, which is a ground for potential problems on its own and that GA is never going to trust W completely (unlike a truly subordinate figure like Bernard of Weimar).

Now, if we assume that W is given the Mecklenburg duchies and promised Bohemia, there are two options:
1st, “to promise is not to same as to marry” and GA may be either incapable or unwilling to deliver. Result: Wallenstein is pissed off and tries to reapproach the Hapsburgs. If situation is lousy enough, he can be taken back with a variety of the follow ups.
2nd, Bohemia is getting a new king and King Albrecht is not interested in a further destruction of his country and tries to arrange for peace. Result: GA is pissed off while Ferdinand is unwilling to accept the loss and Wallenstein is trying to get guarantees from all possible corners that his rule lasts after the peace is concluded. The most obvious ally is France.

Then there could be scenario in which W joins GA but then comes a higher bidder, Richelieu, who sees that GA keeps taking the French money but pursues his own goals. The French national army is not quite there so Richelieu is buying Wallenstein with his army (pretty much as he bought the troops of Bernard of Weimar but with a greater success). Of course, W is going to lose his HRE possessions but France has means to compensate him for the losses both in France and within the HRE (during the peace negotiations).

Of course, it is necessary to keep in mind that we are talking about both branches of the House of Hapsburg and that the Austrian branch heavily relied both on financial and military help of the Spanish branch (hence the “infantry cardinal” 🤪) and that for both the Spanish branch and for France the main theater had been the Netherlands with the operations on the Rhine being mostly a way to protect the route from Italy to the Netherlands (for Spain) or to close that route (for France). “Super-efficient” Swedes still would have their main interests elsewhere (actually, it does not look like anybody, including his own Chancellor, could tell for sure what exactly GA was trying to achieve in Germany) meaning that the war would keep going on. And, with the Napoleon not being anywhere around, even “super-efficiency” hardly would result in a decisive victory because the armies were too small and the rulers usually did not give a s—t about their subjects being looted and killed (by their own troops as often as by the enemy). And many of the HRE princes earned quite soon that GA is not really an attractive alternative to the Hapsburgs (as long as the Hapsburgs are not too domineering) so neither side is going to run out of armies too soon. So we are still looking for a war of exhaustion.
Would Gallas and Pappenheim succeed in leading the imperials to victory (or at least avoid losing more than OTL)?
"Primadona"? I don't know what that means, can you enlighten me?
How do you see the relations between G2A and Wallenstein if the latter joined it? What were the differences in military strategy between them? Could this lead to a Swedish "defeat" because of dissension in the camp?
If Wallenstein was frustrated with the role he was given, how would the Habsburgs treat him if he returned? By giving him what, by the way?
If Wallenstein succeeds in becoming King of Bohemia, are his chances of remaining so weak or very weak?
If Wallenstein is supported by Richelieu, how will Richelieu continue his funding to Sweden? Moreover, if France wins, what does Wallenstein receive in France and in the HRE for his services?
 
Would Gallas and Pappenheim succeed in leading the imperials to victory (or at least avoid losing more than OTL)?
"Primadona"? I don't know what that means, can you enlighten me?
How do you see the relations between G2A and Wallenstein if the latter joined it? What were the differences in military strategy between them? Could this lead to a Swedish "defeat" because of dissension in the camp?
If Wallenstein was frustrated with the role he was given, how would the Habsburgs treat him if he returned? By giving him what, by the way?
If Wallenstein succeeds in becoming King of Bohemia, are his chances of remaining so weak or very weak?
If Wallenstein is supported by Richelieu, how will Richelieu continue his funding to Sweden? Moreover, if France wins, what does Wallenstein receive in France and in the HRE for his services?
Gallas was seemingly a competent commander but on the later stage of his career his reputation was damaged by the slow and unsuccessful operations. Presumably, part of the problem was the fact that he was commanded the former Wallenstein army, which was a difficult task for one who was not Wallenstein.

Pappenheim was a very energetic and popular cavalry commander who, after Tilly’s defeat was operating effectively in GA’s rear.

How successful each of them could be is anybody’s guess but this was a war of exhaustion and, anyway, you are planning to have a seriously “improved” Conde so why not add a little bit to any other general’s capacities?

“Primadonna” in this context means a very temperamental person with an inflated view of their own talent or importance. During WWII this definition was often applied to Monty and Patton, hence Ike’s ability as c-in-c to deal successfully with them (and their demands). As I said, it is not clear if GA had similar diplomatic skills or even would care because he was a great military figure on his own right (while Ike jumped to generalissimo position without having any relevant practical experience and was for a while outranked by Monty) not to mention that his status of a royalty would definitely place him above Wallenstein.

In his military practices Wallenstein seems to be much more cautious than GA both on a general and individual level. At least in his encounters with the Swedes he preferred to be on defensive and it does not look like he was personally leading cavalry charges as GA was doing both in the PLC and in HRE.

Not sure if he would be trusted by the Swedes but in OTL he was not trusted (beyond the urgent need) by the Hapsburgs, which did not prevent him from getting his second appointment. BTW, AFAIK, he was quite reluctant to accept it and it took a considerable pressure and even threats from the emperor to prevail so it seems that distrust was mutual in all combinations.

The issues of a final victory/defeat in that war were not in a direct relation to a specific battle: there was plenty of an available human “material” to raise a new army or to compensate for the losses especially when some kind of a financing was available or when a leader had enough of a reputation to expect some looting potential, which did not even require the military victories: the armies with their followers had been eating their way through the undefended countryside and the battles and sieges could be quite rare for a specific army. Look at the Swedes at Mecklenburg: they had been looting defenseless territory and killing the local peaceful population ending up with eliminating something close to 3/4th of it.

Most of the rest is up to your imagination because your guess will be just as good as mine.

French option may assume either reward within France: the ducal title, estates, money, and perhaps even position of Connetable (vacant from 1626). Or some territory in the HRE could be given to him as a part of a final peace: France would be interested in having a reasonably reliable ally there. As I said, it is entirely up to you. 🤪
 
the number of views on my chronology is increasing, as well as my "likes", yet few come to give me their criticism by message.
If you read my message, please comment, I need positive and negative criticism to be able to progress.
Besides I don't bite. ;)
 
#3 Europe 1632-1643
The Twenty-Five Years' War Part II: Europe 1632-1643

"When I entered Germany I didn't think I'd lose my hand and instead gain a mountain of corpses. »
Gustav II Adolph of Sweden about the Twenty-five Years' War.

1) Holy Roman Empire

The Battle of Breitenfeld was a resounding shock in Europe. The imperials undefeated since 1618 had just suffered their first real setback in this war. It would open the gates of southern Germany to the Swedish armies, bringing with it their flood of devastation. On November 15, Prague would fall to Gustav II Adolf. In this impending bankruptcy, Ferdinand II tried to regain his strength as well as his remaining competent soldiers. Wallenstein was the main one. However, with his dismissal the previous year by the Emperor himself and the arrival of the Swedes in Bohemia, Wallenstein offered his services to the Lion of Sweden. In exchange for his "defection" to Sweden, Wallenstein would receive the dukedoms of Mecklenburg and the Bohemian crown. While Wallenstein was to take charge of the Bohemian front, Gustav Adolphe launched an offensive on the Rhine front and laid siege to Mainz, which fell on December 22, 1631.
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Albrecht von Wallenstein.

Although destabilized by Breitenfeld and Wallenstein's change of camp, the imperial generals managed to avoid total collapse. Pappenheim recaptures Magdeburg from the Swedes in January 1632 and Tilly is victorious in March 1632 at the battle of Bamberg. Despite their desire to regain control, the imperials were unable to inflict a violent defeat on the Swedes and their Protestant allies. At the beginning of April the Swedes fought against Tilly on the Danube and tried to take the city of Ingolstadt. Tilly has positioned itself at Rain Am Lech where it waits in its fortifications for the army of Gustav Adolf. Seeing that the Catholics were too well entrenched, he decided to go around them while shelling them with his artillery. Gustave Adolphe went further south to set up the bridgeheads to take the imperials from behind. Very quickly the Swedes settled on the other side of the river, and Tilly, who had been warned, set out to meet them and reject them. Fighting will remain undecided for a long time and despite intensive bombardment by his artillery, Gustave Adolphe refuses to risk his cavalry and withdraws his troops from the bridgeheads and abandons the battlefield in order [1]. Unfortunately, this victory was not enough to defeat Gustave Adolphe.
Tilly's victory at Rain Am Lech also enabled Pappenheim to contain Wallenstein's armies in Bohemia. For the imperials the French danger seems more and more imminent, the French allies of the Swedes settle in front of Koblenz on the Rhine in April and then in May occupy Trier. The end of August is marked by the capture and conservation of the city of Maastricht by the Spanish [2]. The Swedes, although master of a large part of Germany, were unable to exploit their situation. Having Wallenstein on the Bohemian front in Prague with his mercenary army allowed the Swedes to focus on the rest of the Empire. In September the Battle of Alte Veste Gustav Adolf defeated Pappenheim's cavalry that had come to protect the city of Nuremberg [3], Nuremberg was taken over by the Swedes in the days following the battle.
Offensives by Wallenstein's army enabled him to enter northern Austria and reach the outskirts of Vienna. However, November 1632 saw Sweden suffer a terrible defeat in Franconia. Two days before the battle, Tilly, who was south of Nuremberg, directed his troops towards Ingolstadt. He was surprised to see that Gustav Adolph's army was on the move at this time of the year when fighting was difficult because of the cold and harsh weather. The King of Sweden plans to take his enemies by surprise by marching to Tilly's last known position and trap him in his quarters with his luggage. Tilly is informed of the arrival of the Swedes on November 5. Seeing the danger coming, he warns Pappenheim to return as soon as possible to help him.
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Swede trying to cross the Elbe at Rain Am Lech.

Not far from Kipfenberg Tilly positions his army and shelters his army in many trenches. The next day the morning fog slowed the advance of the Swedes. The beginning of the battle was favourable to the Protestant armies with the Swedish King pushing the left wing of the Imperial army. But the surprise arrival of Pappenheim's cuirassiers, which he himself led, saved Tilly and pushed back the Swedish right wing. Around 1 p.m. Gustave Adolphe launched his cavalry to try to push back the Pappenheim cavalry. Legend has it that the two men fought each other during the chaos of the battle. The lion of the north was however wounded while leading the charge and his dull attack he folded his right wing. The rest of the fighting between the two sides was bloody and victory was still undecided for a long time to come. The Swedish center will try to crush its imperial counterpart but the latter experienced and with powerful artillery will massacre with his fire the Swedish veterans who will then be swept away by a wave of imperial cavalry.
At the end of the day the losses were appalling for both sides, but victory went to Tilly who managed to push back the Swedes and steal some of their artillery. Gustave Adolphe's army is decimated and loses more than 5000 men. Gustave Adolphe abandoned Nuremberg and retreated to northern Germany with the slightly less decimated Saxon troops trying somehow to secure the retreat. The Battle of Kipfenberg [4] washed away Tilly's defeat at Breitenfeld, but he could not see victory because he died of his wounds during the battle. Gustav Adolph can no longer take part in the front lines of the battle as he is crippled in his left forearm after his cavalry charge against Pappenheim. This victory allowed the imperials to refocus on Bohemia held by Wallenstein, who threatened to encircle and had to join the Swedish army in their retreat. November 29, 1632 saw the death of Frederick V of the Palatinate, the King of a Winter.
The year 1633 saw the Swedes confine themselves to the north of Germany and take the last towns that resisted them, such as Paderborn and Osnabrück. The clashes in Hesse between the Swedes and the imperials were accompanied by the war between Hesse-Kassel, an ally of Sweden, and Hesse-Darmstadt, an ally of the Empire. The dispute between the two states concerned the inheritance of Hesse-Marburg, a dead branch without an heir at the beginning of the century. The Hessian War soon became intertwined with the war between the imperials and the Swedes. Hesse-Kassel was soon defeated by Hesse-Darmstadt at the beginning of 1634. William V, the ruler of Hesse-Kassel, fled to Friesland with his family. In that year Wallenstein's army defeated the imperials in Silesia and the Swedes resumed their offensive towards Bavaria, where fighting and destruction raged between the two sides. The arrival of Spanish reinforcements heading with the imperials towards Saxony are stopped only in extremis by Wallenstein in Stollberg, not far from Leipzig . For Paris, the time has soon come to intervene.

2) France

France in the 17th century was going through difficult times. Henri IV on his death in 1610 left France with a very young heir, Louis XIII. The latter would experience a most difficult reign, having to avoid a number of conspiracies of the greats of the kingdom and even his close family, be it his own mother Marie de Medici or his brother Gaston d'Orléans.However, in 1617 a most capable individual came into play for the King, Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu. The Cardinal de Richelieu would pursue a policy for France in three points: the political destruction of the Protestants, the downfall of the Habsburgs in Europe and the subjugation of the rebellious nobility. Although carried out at the same time, the first of Richelieu's policies to succeed was the destruction of the Protestant state within the state. Between 1621 and 1629 France will experience many Huguenot revolts, particularly in the south of the country due to the destruction of fortresses not useful for the defence of the Kingdom. The capital of the Huguenots, La Rochelle, was besieged by the armies of Louis XIII from September 1627.
This anti-protestant policy will lead England to go to war against France. The Franco-English war from 1627 to 1629 will be a bitter defeat for the English. An English expedition of 80 ships led by Georges Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham landed on the Ile de Ré in June 1627, which Richelieu had taken back from the Huguenots. The troops tried as best they could to take the fortress of Saint-Martin but were unable to cut off the city's supplies from the mainland. After three months of siege the too weakened army of the Duke of Buckingham had to lift the siege and return to England. James I of England, although weakened by this setback, sends reinforcements back to La Rochelle still besieged by the armies of Louis XIII. The first fleet led by William Fielding discovered in April 1628 the powerful dike built by Cardinal de Richelieu to cut off the supply to the city. Fielding did not risk it and returned to Portsmouth. In August of the same year it was the Duke of Buckingham who, with a fleet of 60 ships (half military, half merchant) attempted to break the French forces at La Rochelle. After several bombardments on the French dikes and trying in vain to force it, Buckingham had to withdraw his fleet and on 28 October 1628 La Rochelle, which lost 4/5 of its population, surrendered.
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Richelieu on the dikes of the siege of La Rochelle.

The North American front was no better for the British. David Kirke and his brothers had launched an expedition in the St. Lawrence to capture Quebec City and conquer New France. While the expedition began well with the capture of Tadoussac, Kirke's capture of a French supply ship ended badly for Kirke, who was caught in a stray bullet fired from the French ship [5]. Without the leader of the expedition, this last quickly ran out of steam in the face of Québec City, which continued to be supplied. In September 1629 the Kirke brothers left Québec and the St. Lawrence.The treaty of Saint Germain en Laye between France and England was not too hard for the latter. The question of the dowry of Henriette Marie de France, wife of Charles I, was resolved. The most important effect was England's disengagement from the affairs of the continent to the great displeasure of the Protestants fighting against the Habsburgs.
1586468204389.png

Georges Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham.

The second policy that Richelieu will carry out as best he can until his death is the war with the Habsburgs to end the encirclement of the Kingdom of France. The Twenty-five Years' War was the perfect opportunity for Louis XIII and the Cardinal to destroy the Habsburg Empire. As early as 1625 France encouraged and financed the intervention of King Christian V of Denmark in the war in the Empire. Although Denmark was very quickly defeated, it outbid France by financing the army of King Gustav II Adolph of Sweden. The latter proved much more capable than the Danes in defeating the imperials led by Tilly at Breitenfeld in 1631. It was during this same period that France first went directly to war against the Habsburgs in the War of Succession in Mantua. The Duchy of Mantua and Montferrat had entered into a crisis of succession since the death of Vincent II. The imperial and French candidates (Frederick II and Charles I respectively) were vying for the title and the great powers of the continent had very quickly seen the advantage of placing their protégé on the throne. The Habsburgs to close northern Italy to the French and guarantee the route of the Spaniards in the Empire to the Netherlands and the French to chip away at the Habsburg encirclement.
The war began in March 1628 with the capture of Montferrat by the Spaniards supported by their Savoyard allies. Richelieu and Louis XIII crossed the Alps and returned to Italy with the army of the siege of La Rochelle by forcing the Pas de Suse. This entry into Italy pushed Savoy out of the conflict and allowed France to continue its advance into the Po valley. The French arrival pushes the Spaniards to leave the fortress of Casal. The war resumed with the invasion of the duchy of Mantua and its capital by Ferdinand II. The city was taken on July 18, 1630, but the entry of Sweden into the Holy Roman Empire pushed its Emperor to leave for the north. The War of Succession of Mantua ended with the intervention of the Pope's legate, Julius Mazarin, who intervened just as the Spaniards were preparing to attack Casal. Through his mediation France obtained the town of Pignerol and Charles I was recognized by Ferdinand II Duke of Mantua.
This victory in this war allowed the France of Louis XIII to push back the Habsburg encroachment in Italy but also to bring Mazarin back with him to France where he would join the Richelieu circle. This war also revealed to France the need for a powerful and professional army. This was sorely lacking at that time.
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Jules Mazarin in Cardinal's habit.

3) The last years of the war

The Swedish defeat at Kipfenberg had many repercussions on the continuation of the war. Gustav Adolph, who had become crippled and had lost some of his warmongering, tried to get out of the war by negotiating a peace to his advantage with the imperials. Only Richelieu's money kept him on the battlefield and the fact that Ferdinand II was stubborn helped the negotiations to fail. Another danger is Wallenstein himself. The latter can only appreciate that efforts are not concentrated on Bohemia, which should be his. Moreover, the dukedoms of Mecklenburg that Wallenstein is trying so hard to administer are being blithely ravaged by Swedish troops. Finally, the lack of cooperation between him and the King of Sweden causes many problems in their camp and prevents a good resumption of the war against the imperials. Some rumors speak in addition of Wallenstein trying to negotiate with the imperial camp to return to the side of Vienna. Another concern in the Swedish camp are the numerous lootings that the Swedish armies and more generally Protestant armies make the northern German states suffer with a Saxony that at the end of February 1635 signed a ceasefire with the Empire. For Richelieu, the time had come to enter into war with the Holy Roman Empire.
The Casus Belli was found the following month when the Spaniards took back Trier under French "protection". The war for the French in the Empire remains difficult, however, because of the open fronts with the Spanish empire in the Netherlands or the Pyrenees. In July 1635 the French-Dutch siege of Leuven was broken by Ottavio Piccolomini. In Dömitz Matthias Gallas is defeated by the combined forces of Wallenstein and the Saxons. Bernard of Saxony Weimar after his ouster in the Swedish camp offers his sword to France, who uses it to conquer Alsace, which he plunders not without violence. The Spaniards entered France by taking the town of Corbie in August 1636, which will be taken back with difficulty. Another important setback for the Franco-Swedish at the beginning of 1637 was the death of Ferdinand II, which left his son Ferdinand III more "open" to negotiation. The latter promulgated the Peace of Prague [6] which allowed any state at war with the Emperor to benefit from an imperial grace and to change sides. This Peace also suspended the edict of restitution, which calmed the religious inclinations between Catholics and Protestants. The widespread plundering of the Swedes did not help, which convinced many Protestant states to change sides and turn against Gustav II Adolf. Having almost only his own army and that of Wallenstein, Gustav Adolf opened negotiations in Cologne and Hamburg with the imperials, much to the chagrin of Richelieu, who had been occupied by the Spaniards. The question of the lands occupied by the Swedes is the great point of contention between the two camps : the imperials and the princes stolen from their title could not tolerate the Swedish occupation and the latter could not accept to leave without any gain in the empire. The proposal of Gustave Adolphe to give Mecklenburg back to the empire infuriated Wallenstein, who left in the footsteps of Saxony-Weimar to offer his services in France with his army. This proposal is not enough for the imperials who demand the departure of the Swedes from Pomerania. Moreover, Denmark seems to fall more and more into the orbit of the imperials fearing that Gustav Adolph might turn the Baltic into a Swedish lake.
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The hanging tree, symbol of the massacres committed throughout the Holy Empire by the many armies on the move. None of the camps spared the civilian population during the numerous lootings.

The period between 1638 and 1643 saw the imperials trying to regain a foothold in the Baltic and trying to resist French incursions into the Rhineland, with the Swedes in response launching incursions into the heart of Germany to push the Empire to renegotiate its offers. In France the King's armies trampled on or even retreated against the Spanish. It was not until the capture of Arras and Perpignan in 1640 and 1642 by the French that France tried to regain control.
This interminable war that nobody managed to win was about to tip over into the South of the Spanish Netherlands.

[1] OTL The elite Swedish cavalry took part in the fighting and Tilly, mortally wounded in battle, handed over the reins of the army to Maximilian of Bavaria. Maximilian finally decided to withdraw to Ingolstadt where Tilly died of his wounds. Without this defeat the occupation of Munich in May is also a butterfly.
[2] OTL the Dutch took the city from the Spaniards.
[3] OTL this battle was fought between Gustav Adolf and Wallenstein, the latter having won over the former. In short, not the same battle anymore because of the butterflies.
[4] The battle of Kipfenberg is a little analogous of the battle of Lützen OTL, where Tilly and Gustav Adolphe partly changes roles.
[5] OTL Kirke took the ship without any problems and was able to continue his conquest of Québec. Here he had no luck.
[6] OTL promulgated in 1635 by Ferdinand II. ITTL was more stubborn.

****
Very big update covering the second part of the Twenty-Five Year War. It hasn't been easy for me because the differences are starting to be really noticeable without the butterflies having finished beating. Moreover I thought I would finally tackle Rocroi (TL title in addition) but given the size of the chapter I prefer to put the battle in the next one with the conclusion of the war. If you have any comments to make or take me back on possible mistakes I'm all yours.
 
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The dream of the Duke of Enghien
The young Duke of Enghien has had trouble sleeping since the death of his King Louis XIII. He spends his nights dreaming the same thought without knowing if it is a dream or rather a nightmare. It often unfolds in the same way: He finds himself in the middle of nowhere, then he recognizes a fortified town in the distance surrounded by Spanish troops, Rocroi. Then everything gets out of control! As he leads a cavalry charge to lead his troops mystical creatures in the sky arrive to help him. He can hardly describe them, they look like bats with their wings or their heads. But they seem to be wearing white clothes and a helmet with a probably glass opening, connected with the rest of their clothing by "flexible hoses" also of the same colour. These bats coming from the stars then make him fly into the sky and take him to the north of Rocroi. Enghien in the legs of one of these creatures can thus see his armies follow him on the ground and annihilate the last Spanish troops and take control of the whole region. However, his armies do not stop and continue their expansion to conquer Europe and then the world. The magic bats then drop him by the sea with a sunset in the distance. Then the bats start to turn around him singing before finally leaving again in the sky. After their departure, Enghien quickly wakes up from his bed.
He has been dreaming this dream for three nights almost identically, sometimes the bats walk instead of flying, sometimes they talk with him, but always they take him to the north of Rocroi. Although he didn't understand what this kind of bat from space could mean, he found more and more interest in why not launch a lightning offensive on all the Spanish Netherlands and succeed in chasing the Spaniards out of the north of France. Was this at least possible?
17 May 1643, Enghien is finally in Rocroi, will his dream come true?

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I imagined this on my sleepless nights, a kind of "teasing" for the sequel. Don't take what I wrote too seriously, it's just a crazy idea from someone who's a little tired.
 
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#4 Europe 1643
The Twenty-Five Years' War Part III: 1643

1) The battle of Rocroi

Louis XIII died on May 14, 1643, having hoped to hear a French victory that could save his country. Although France managed to keep the Catalan front to its advantage, the front with the Spanish Netherlands did not enjoy the same success. Already in 1636 the Spanish advanced as far as Pontoise without pushing towards Paris. This time for the Spaniards the goal is clear, without Louis XIII and his minister Richelieu, France will fall. In 1642 the Spaniards already start their occupation of the north of France with their army of Flanders which puts the siege in front of the stronghold of Rocroi the last lock before Paris.
France only had to oppose to the powerful Spanish tercios the weak army of Picardy. The Duke of Enghien will take command from 17 April under the request of Louis XIII, one of the last decisions that the dying king took before his death. This army was confined to Amiens, Doullens and Abbeville. To lend a hand to Enghien, the armies of Champagne and Burgundy had to support him in his operations, not forgetting his ally the United Provinces heading towards Maastricht as well as Wallenstein's mercenary army stationed in Cologne.
Despite his twenty-one years, Enghien received excellent military training from Jean de Gassion and was inspired by the use of light cavalry that Gustav II Adolphe developed and that Enghien began experimenting with at a younger age at the siege of Arras.
On 17 May Enghien sent Gassion with part of his cavalry to Rocroi before he himself joined him at Rumigny. That same day Enghien receives the news of Louis XIII's death which he decides to hide from his soldiers. The next day Enghien goes to a league from the Spanish camp surrounding Rocroi. Francisco de Melo seeing the arrival of the French disposes his army parallel to Enghien's by putting his tercios in formation and keeping a detachment to block any exit of the besieged of Rocroi. Melo has five Spanish tercios, three Italian tercios, five Walloon regiments, five German regiments and two Flemish regiments. France has slightly fewer troops but can line up twelve French regiments, two Swiss regiments and one Scottish regiment. Enghien also learns that the Spaniards are expecting reinforcements of 1,000 cavalrymen and 3,000 infantrymen led by Jean de Beck. If he wants to beat the Spaniards and push them back he must beat Melo now. Enghien took command of the right wing with Gassion, on the left wing was the Maréchal de l'Hospital and La Ferté leading his cavalry, in the center was the Comte d'Espénan with the bulk of the French forces. In reserve is the Maréchal-de-camp Sirot.
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Rocroi before the battle begins.

On May 18 [1] Enghien engaged in the fight what Melo was expecting and wished, knowing himself to be superior in number. Enghien's right and Gassion's right attack the Spanish left. At first the Albuquerque musketeers he had hidden were decimated by the French cavalry. In a second phase the French cavalry repulses their Spanish counterpart while knocking down the last Spanish musketeers of the left wing. Enghien and Gassion decided to separate, the first one going towards the Spanish centre and the second one continuing to pursue the Spanish left wing, which was unbridled.
The French left wing is however in trouble. The Maréchal de l'Hospital has charged the Spanish at a gallop and too far, which has exhausted his cavalry, who find themselves dislocated in front of Melo and his Alsatians. The latter with his disciplined and trained troops repulses the French who are struggling despite La Ferté trying to assemble the French cavalry while trying to withdraw in order [2]. Enghien from the center seeing his left fall down does not come to save her. He sees that Melo, while chasing Ferté, moves further and further away from his center. Enghien thus decides to continue charging the Italian and German squares vulnerable to a flank attack in the absence of their musketeers. At the same time Gassion pushed back and finished dispersing the Spanish cavalry facing him. Moreover La Ferté succeeded in gathering part of his cavalry and resumed his attacks against Melo.
Enghien attacks and forces the Spanish left to flee the battlefield. The Spanish right is harassed by the remnants of the cavalry that La Ferté has managed to regroup. The Spanish right only owes its salvation to the intervention of the reserve. The Spanish Center, a symbol of the dreaded Spanish power and reputed invincible because of its formation in Tercio, suffers two attacks from the French cavalry, which it repels with its artillery. But at the end of the second attack, the Spanish commander, Paul Bernard de la Fontaine died of his wounds [3] causing the collapse of the Spanish center picked up by Gassion's cavalry, that of La Ferté and the reserve of Marshal de Camp Sirot.
After the battle the victory is resounding for France which had not known such a resounding triumph for almost a century. The Spaniards had more than eight thousand dead and wounded and seven thousand prisoners against two thousand dead and wounded for the French [4]. This battle also showed the end of the era when the heavy infantryman reigned supreme on the battlefield. He was replaced by the light and mobile cavalry, much more maneuverable. The Spanish infantry gave way to the French cavalry for this century.
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The last Tercio of Rocroi.

The French victory led to the liberation of Rocroi by the French. However, the Duke of Enghien will very quickly transform his mission to protect the north of France into a lightning offensive in the Spanish Netherlands. In the following months the army of Picardy led by Enghien defeated Beck's army at the battle of Lens in July. He continued fighting in the rest of the Netherlands, which found itself without armed forces to protect itself. Charleroi, Namur, Brussels and Ghent fall to the armies of Picardy accompanied by the armies of Burgundy and Champagne. Wallenstein, on hearing the news of Enghien's victory at Rocroi, set himself on the move, aiming at Limburg and then Luxembourg completely isolated. Luxembourg fell in September 1643. Wallenstein then went north to support the United Provinces in their siege of Maastricht. In October, Condé arrives in Antwerp.
In the Holy Roman Empire the news of the conquest of the Spanish Netherlands by France was a real thunderbolt. It prompted Gustav II Adolf of Sweden to launch an offensive along the Bohemia towards the Upper Palatinate. Bernard of Saxony Weimar also resumed his assaults in Lorraine, which he continues to plunder. For the imperials the disaster seems imminent with the Spanish cut off. Moreover, the arrival of this young French soldier in the Holy Empire once his campaign in the Spanish Netherlands is over does not bode well for the Habsburgs. For Ferdinand III the time has come to find a Peace with the Franco-Swedish.
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The Duke of Enghien during his campaign in the Spanish Netherlands.

2) The Treaties of Westphalia

France's lightning victory in the Spanish Netherlands was the element that precipitated the end of the twenty-five year war. No power on the continent could afford to continue the war. Moreover, the fear of an over-conquering France has frozen the entire continent, enemies as well as allies of Paris. The many ravages of war on the civilian population also pushed the belligerents to find a solution to the conflict.
1586718421361.png

The European delegations during the negotiations in Munster.

Sweden in its negotiations obtained concessions from the Emperor. Gustav II Adolf obtained Eastern and Western Pomerania as well as the city of Bremen and the town of Wildeshausen as well as control over the customs tariffs of the Weser. The King of Sweden also obtained the city of Wismar in Mecklenburg for five years. In exchange, Sweden had to give up its claim on the rest of Mecklenburg and give back the city of Wismar after the five years. The dukedoms of Mecklenburg will not be in the hands of its former dukes either.
The compromise candidate found but appreciated by nobody will be Wallenstein who had claims on the duchy and administered it during a long part of the war. Wallenstein also obtained the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, which the French do not want to see recovered by the Habsburgs, but the latter do not want it to return to France either. Wallenstein had to give up his ambitions for the Bohemian crown promised to him by Gustav II Adolf, despite the fact that no one in 1643 could obtain the Bohemian crown except Ferdinand III himself.
The Kingdom of Denmark, despite its setbacks at the beginning of the conflict against the imperials, was able to keep some of its conquests within the circle of Lower Saxony. The Duchy of Bremen with the exception of the city itself and the Principality of Verden are now domains of King Christian IV, allowing him to become an influential prince of the Empire but also a major Protestant player.
The electorate of Saxony obtained from the Habsburgs the long-promised Upper and Lower Lusatia. The electorate of Brandenburg, having been unable to obtain Western Pomerania, obtained the Duchy of Kleve, the County of Marck and the bishoprics of Minden, Halberstadt and Magdeburg. Bavaria obtains the former lands of Frederick V as a whole as well as his title of elector. The Upper and Lower Palatinate are now under the rule of Maximilian of Bavaria.
Frederick V of the Palatinate having died in 1632, it was his children who, with the support of the Protestant princes, reluctantly obtained compensation for the loss of the Palatinate from Emperor Ferdinand III by obtaining the bishopric of Munster. But in exchange for the bishopric of Munster becoming the Duchy of Munster and some compensation to the former prince bishop, the sons of Frederick V had to renounce their voice in the imperial diet, which remained attached to the Palatinate.
In Hesse, Hesse-Darmstadt, an ally of Ferdinand III, is fully recognized as heir to Hesse-Marburg and retains all of Hesse-Kassel. Amalie Elisabeth, the wife of the former Landgravist of Hesse-Kassel, refuses the acquisition and is still in exile in Friesland with her young son Wilhelm VI. But having lost the support of Sweden and France with the end of the war, her opposition does not change this.
In the Habsburg domains Ferdinand III is recognized as King of Bohemia by the whole Empire and is free of his religious policy on his lands. However, he had to recognize the territorial superiority of the member states of the Empire which were free of their foreign policy. The power of the princes is reinforced on that of the Emperor without the latter losing his solid precedence. The Peace of Augsburg was also re-established in the Holy Roman Empire and extended to the Calvinists.
The Holy Empire must also recognize the independence of northern Italy, the Swiss Confederation and the United Provinces de jure and which were already more or less de facto independent. However, the Empire keeps in its bosom the three Graubünden Leagues, which became the Duchy of Graubünden and led by Georg Jenatsch, an ally of Austria. The Empire also recognized the acquisition by France of the three bishoprics of Toul, Metz and Verdun as well as the former Spanish Netherlands, with the exception of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, which was returned to Wallenstein.
Apart from the Holy Empire, the Treaty of the Pyrenees is established between France, the United Provinces and Spain. In exchange for the recognition of the independence of the United Provinces and the acquisition by Paris of the former Spanish Netherlands, France withdrew its support for the Catalan and Portuguese revolts and returned Barcelona Perpignan and Roussillon to Madrid. Having no means of recovering the Netherlands and having to deal with the problems at home, the Spain of Felipe IV accepted the state of affairs and abandoned its claims to the whole of the Netherlands.

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Europe after the Treaties of Westphalia.

The Treaties of Westphalia more generally also led to a secularisation of relations between the states and stabilised the religious map of the Empire. The only opponent was the Pope in Rome, who lost some of his influence in European affairs, as well as religious extremists on all sides.
Thus ends the bloodiest conflict in the history of Europe for its contemporaries. The Treaties of Westphalia have tried to satisfy all parties as best they can by establishing a balanced and just Peace for all. They also mark the beginning of a new era for the continent, this war has brought an end to a hegemony, that of the Habsburgs, but will leave a new one to emerge for the years to come.

[1] OTL the battle was on the 19th because on the 18th May when Enghien wanted to launch the assault on one of his lieutenants, La Ferté launched the left wing too early and had to retreat to avoid its destruction. It is not known whether La Ferté was mistaken or wanted to be noticed by Enghien, who was jealous of Gassion's influence on the young Duke.
[2] OTL La Ferté was wounded and captured by Melo.
[3] OTL Fontaine will resist three assaults with his Tercio.
[4] OTL The figures were 7,000 dead and 7,000 Spanish prisoners and 4,000 dead and wounded for the French.

****
Last chapter on the Twenty-five Years' War. I hope that this first part of my chronology still pleases. If you have any questions or ideas to share with me, please do not hesitate to contact me.
Edit: Once again a big thank you to @alexmilman and @Basileus_Komnenos who helped me enormously during a period of history that I didn't know a few months ago.
And I'm repeating myself, but I'd like to have some criticism from you, it would help me to progress. Thank you. ;)
Edit: I modified part of the chapter on the conclusion of the war. I added a correction as well as some details that I wanted to address later but that I needed to start addressing before. I corrected the Duchy of Bremen Verden by returning it to Denmark, added the limitation of Swedish control over Wismar, added the secularization of the Duchy of Munster and the creation of the Duchy of Graubünden . For the occasion I even made a new map.
 
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With a shorter and more successful war (huge territorial gain!) and without the Fronde it will change so many thing for France in the next three decades ( a very diferent Louis XIV and probably a long period of peace or at least a lot less of war without the fight in the Spanish netherland (although i 'm sure he will find a another reason to go in war afterall there are still a lot of spanish and Habsburgs territory around!)).
Great chapter/story.
 
With a shorter and more successful war (huge territorial gain!) and without the Fronde it will change so many thing for France in the next three decades ( a very diferent Louis XIV and probably a long period of peace or at least a lot less of war without the fight in the Spanish netherland (although i 'm sure he will find a another reason to go in war afterall there are still a lot of spanish and Habsburgs territory around!)).
Great chapter/story.
One comment! Thank you for giving your opinion on my work. Do you have any criticism on the form of my updates?
France was very successful in ending the war and compared to the OTL it can clearly be said to have won the war. On the other hand nobody else is happy about the acquisition by Paris of the Spanish Netherlands. The Habsburgs see it as the expansion of their great rival on their former lands, Holland wonders if driving out the Spanish far enough away to leave a great power on their southern border is really a good idea and finally England has the feeling of having a gun pointed at London. This situation is likely to weigh on the alliances of France, which is proving very dangerous (and rightly so).
The Fronde as we have known OTL is butterfly but some of its actors remain in play. The question of the Regency of Louis XIV is likely to emerge with, on the one hand, the supporters of Anne of Austria and those wanting to respect the will of Louis XIII on the other. The arrival of Enghien covered with laurels (and less stupid than OTL) will make many sparks. The greats of the kingdom and the princes may still rise up to oppose the centralization of France and its nascent absolutism.
The Peace of Westphalia seems to make the great powers the great winners over the OTL. France has the Spanish Netherlands, Sweden is more established in northern Germany, Austria has much more powerful allies with Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt. The losers in relation to OTL are Brandenburg, the Palatinate, Hesse-Kassel...
Wars may soon resume on the continent, not everyone is as satisfied with the Treaties of Westphalia as they would have liked and it is only the general breathlessness that has stopped them.
Butterflies will also start to spread slowly but surely to the rest of the world.
 
Are we still going to see the Fronde happen? It was an important event that shaped Louis XIV attitude toward nobility and eventually contributed to the modernization of France.
 
Are we still going to see the Fronde happen? It was an important event that shaped Louis XIV attitude toward nobility and eventually contributed to the modernization of France.
As I was beginning to say the Fronde as we know it OTL risks being a butterfly. But there is a good chance that there will be a period of instability in France similar to the Fronde that occurs later. Without the war with Spain the population will suffer less from the taxes financing the conflict. But the princes are still likely to oppose the centralization of power by the Kings of France.
 
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With Spain no longer having to worry about the Netherlands they´ll be able to concentrate far earlier of the portuguese. It´s very likely that they would be able to win the war or at least extract major concessions from the Braganzas as the earlier inactivity was fundamental for the portuguese resistance
 
With Spain no longer having to worry about the Netherlands they´ll be able to concentrate far earlier of the portuguese. It´s very likely that they would be able to win the war or at least extract major concessions from the Braganzas as the earlier inactivity was fundamental for the portuguese resistance
You're absolutely right. Without French support and with the Spaniards coming home much earlier Portugal risks having a lot of difficulties and possibly compromising their independence.
What kind of concessions do you think the Spaniards might ask the Portuguese for? I have some ideas on that but I haven't fully thought about it.
 
As I was beginning to say the Sling as we know it OTL risks being a butterfly. But there is a good chance that there will be a period of instability in France similar to the Fronde that occurs later. Without the war with Spain the population will suffer less from the taxes financing the conflict. But the princes are still likely to oppose the centralization of power by the Kings of France.
Just food for thought, I've always liked the idea that by creating an armed conflict one might make reality further from what they wanted. So in the example of the Fronde France may not have centralized as much as it did, and maybe even some aspects would have even been less centralized.
 
Just food for thought, I've always liked the idea that by creating an armed conflict one might make reality further from what they wanted. So in the example of the Fronde France may not have centralized as much as it did, and maybe even some aspects would have even been less centralized.
The Kings of France have been seeking to centralize the country since the first Capetians and each King has always tried to recover what the Greats of the Kingdom took from the Carolingian Empire at the beginning of feudalism. To put it simply, it was "in the genes of the French monarchy" to put an end to feudalism and what was left of it to create a state that would depend only on the King.
I think that the 17th century is too late to see the French monarchy enter a federalist or decentralized logic. On the other hand, it could centralize more slowly and not totally lead to a unitary state. On the other hand the Princes are "too big" to be left in place.
 
You're absolutely right. Without French support and with the Spaniards coming home much earlier Portugal risks having a lot of difficulties and possibly compromising their independence.
What kind of concessions do you think the Spaniards might ask the Portuguese for? I have some ideas on that but I haven't fully thought about it.
Not sure, the most likely would be reaffirmation of the Treaty of Tordesilhas in respect to the borders of Brazil with the rest of Spanish America, at least that´s the one that comes right to mind, maybe even Macao due to the trade with China and the Phillipines.
However, since it took several major Portuguese victories with heavy support from France in the critical early phase and later England in the latter one, and further spanish commitments in the Southern Netherlands to recognize portuguese independence i´m not seeing the Spanish, now focused solely in Iberia to accept anything less that a full reconquest of Portugal, and frankly that´s the most likely outcome. Holding it however, will be difficult in the long term unless there is a profound reformation of the spanish monarchy.
 
Not sure, the most likely would be reaffirmation of the Treaty of Tordesilhas in respect to the borders of Brazil with the rest of Spanish America, at least that´s the one that comes right to mind, maybe even Macao due to the trade with China and the Phillipines.
However, since it took several major Portuguese victories with heavy support from France in the critical early phase and later England in the latter one, and further spanish commitments in the Southern Netherlands to recognize portuguese independence i´m not seeing the Spanish, now focused solely in Iberia to accept anything less that a full reconquest of Portugal, and frankly that´s the most likely outcome. Holding it however, will be difficult in the long term unless there is a profound reformation of the spanish monarchy.
n the case of a reconquest of Portugal by the Spaniards, how does the Portuguese colonial empire evolve? Will the Spaniards continue to abandon it? Other European powers will nibble it like Holland in Brazil and Angola? The Braganzas fled 160 years earlier in their colony (we can imagine it for Charles I of England in North America, why not the same thing in South America with João IV)?
I still have no idea about the butterflies in England but could we see the English replacing France and supporting Portugal in its independence?
 
The Twenty-Five Years' War Part III: 1643

1) The battle of Rocroi

Louis XIII died on May 14, 1643, having hoped to hear a French victory that could save his country. Although France managed to keep the Catalan front to its advantage, the front with the Spanish Netherlands did not enjoy the same success. Already in 1636 the Spanish advanced as far as Pontoise without pushing towards Paris. This time for the Spaniards the goal is clear, without Louis XIII and his minister Richelieu, France will fall. In 1642 the Spaniards already start their occupation of the north of France with their army of Flanders which puts the siege in front of the stronghold of Rocroi the last lock before Paris.
France only had to oppose to the powerful Spanish tercios the weak army of Picardy. The Duke of Enghien will take command from 17 April under the request of Louis XIII, one of the last decisions that the dying king took before his death. This army was confined to Amiens, Doullens and Abbeville. To lend a hand to Enghien, the armies of Champagne and Burgundy had to support him in his operations, not forgetting his ally the United Provinces heading towards Maastricht as well as Wallenstein's mercenary army stationed in Cologne.
Despite his twenty-one years, Enghien received excellent military training from Jean de Gassion and was inspired by the use of light cavalry that Gustav II Adolphe developed and that Enghien began experimenting with at a younger age at the siege of Arras.
On 17 May Enghien sent Gassion with part of his cavalry to Rocroi before he himself joined him at Rumigny. That same day Enghien receives the news of Louis XIII's death which he decides to hide from his soldiers. The next day Enghien goes to a league from the Spanish camp surrounding Rocroi. Francisco de Melo seeing the arrival of the French disposes his army parallel to Enghien's by putting his tercios in formation and keeping a detachment to block any exit of the besieged of Rocroi. Melo has five Spanish tercios, three Italian tercios, five Walloon regiments, five German regiments and two Flemish regiments. France has slightly fewer troops but can line up twelve French regiments, two Swiss regiments and one Scottish regiment. Enghien also learns that the Spaniards are expecting reinforcements of 1,000 cavalrymen and 3,000 infantrymen led by Jean de Beck. If he wants to beat the Spaniards and push them back he must beat Melo now. Enghien took command of the right wing with Gassion, on the left wing was the Maréchal de l'Hospital and La Ferté leading his cavalry, in the center was the Comte d'Espénan with the bulk of the French forces. In reserve is the Maréchal-de-camp Sirot.
View attachment 538437
Rocroi before the battle begins.

On May 18 [1] Enghien engaged in the fight what Melo was expecting and wished, knowing himself to be superior in number. Enghien's right and Gassion's right attack the Spanish left. At first the Albuquerque musketeers he had hidden were decimated by the French cavalry. In a second phase the French cavalry repulses their Spanish counterpart while knocking down the last Spanish musketeers of the left wing. Enghien and Gassion decided to separate, the first one going towards the Spanish centre and the second one continuing to pursue the Spanish left wing, which was unbridled.
The French left wing is however in trouble. The Maréchal de l'Hospital has charged the Spanish at a gallop and too far, which has exhausted his cavalry, who find themselves dislocated in front of Melo and his Alsatians. The latter with his disciplined and trained troops repulses the French who are struggling despite La Ferté trying to assemble the French cavalry while trying to withdraw in order [2]. Enghien from the center seeing his left fall down does not come to save her. He sees that Melo, while chasing Ferté, moves further and further away from his center. Enghien thus decides to continue charging the Italian and German squares vulnerable to a flank attack in the absence of their musketeers. At the same time Gassion pushed back and finished dispersing the Spanish cavalry facing him. Moreover La Ferté succeeded in gathering part of his cavalry and resumed his attacks against Melo.
Enghien attacks and forces the Spanish left to flee the battlefield. The Spanish right is harassed by the remnants of the cavalry that La Ferté has managed to regroup. The Spanish right only owes its salvation to the intervention of the reserve. The Spanish Center, a symbol of the dreaded Spanish power and reputed invincible because of its formation in Tercio, suffers two attacks from the French cavalry, which it repels with its artillery. But at the end of the second attack, the Spanish commander, Paul Bernard de la Fontaine died of his wounds [3] causing the collapse of the Spanish center picked up by Gassion's cavalry, that of La Ferté and the reserve of Marshal de Camp Sirot.
After the battle the victory is resounding for France which had not known such a resounding triumph for almost a century. The Spaniards had more than eight thousand dead and wounded and seven thousand prisoners against two thousand dead and wounded for the French [4]. This battle also showed the end of the era when the heavy infantryman reigned supreme on the battlefield. He was replaced by the light and mobile cavalry, much more maneuverable. The Spanish infantry gave way to the French cavalry for this century.
View attachment 538439
The last Tercio of Rocroi.

The French victory led to the liberation of Rocroi by the French. However, the Duke of Enghien will very quickly transform his mission to protect the north of France into a lightning offensive in the Spanish Netherlands. In the following months the army of Picardy led by Enghien defeated Beck's army at the battle of Lens in July. He continued fighting in the rest of the Netherlands, which found itself without armed forces to protect itself. Charleroi, Namur, Brussels and Ghent fall to the armies of Picardy accompanied by the armies of Burgundy and Champagne. Wallenstein, on hearing the news of Enghien's victory at Rocroi, set himself on the move, aiming at Limburg and then Luxembourg completely isolated. Luxembourg fell in September 1643. Wallenstein then went north to support the United Provinces in their siege of Maastricht. In October, Condé arrives in Antwerp.
In the Holy Roman Empire the news of the conquest of the Spanish Netherlands by France was a real thunderbolt. It prompted Gustav II Adolf of Sweden to launch an offensive along the Bohemia towards the Upper Palatinate. Bernard of Saxony Weimar also resumed his assaults in Lorraine, which he continues to plunder. For the imperials the disaster seems imminent with the Spanish cut off. Moreover, the arrival of this young French soldier in the Holy Empire once his campaign in the Spanish Netherlands is over does not bode well for the Habsburgs. For Ferdinand III the time has come to find a Peace with the Franco-Swedish.
View attachment 538441
The Duke of Enghien during his campaign in the Spanish Netherlands.

2) The Treaties of Westphalia

France's lightning victory in the Spanish Netherlands was the element that precipitated the end of the twenty-five year war. No power on the continent could afford to continue the war. Moreover, the fear of an over-conquering France has frozen the entire continent, enemies as well as allies of Paris. The many ravages of war on the civilian population also pushed the belligerents to find a solution to the conflict.
View attachment 538442
The European delegations during the negotiations in Munster.

Sweden in its negotiations obtained concessions from the Emperor. Gustav II Adolf won Eastern and Western Pomerania as well as the Duchy of Bremen, the Principality of Verden and the city of Wismar in Mecklenburg. In return, Sweden had to give up its claim to the rest of Mecklenburg. Nor will Mecklenburg end up in the hands of the former Dukes of Mecklenburg.
The compromise candidate found but not liked by anyone will be Wallenstein, who had claims on the duchy and administered it for a long part of the war. Wallenstein has also obtained the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, which the French do not want to see taken over by the Habsburgs, but the latter do not want it back to France either. Wallenstein had to give up his ambitions for the Bohemian crown promised to him by Gustav II Adolf, despite the fact that no one in 1643 could obtain the Bohemian crown except Ferdinand III himself.
The electorate of Saxony obtained the long-promised Upper and Lower Lusatia from the Habsburgs. The electorate of Brandenburg, which could not obtain West Pomerania, obtained the Duchy of Kleve, the County of Marck and the bishoprics of Minden, Halberstadt and Magdeburg. Bavaria obtains the former lands of Frederick V as a whole as well as his title of elector. The Upper and Lower Palatinate are now under the rule of Maximilian of Bavaria.
In Hesse, Hesse-Darmstadt, allied to Ferdinand III, is fully recognized as the heir to Hesse-Marburg and retains all of Hesse-Kassel. Amalie Elisabeth, wife of the former Landgraviat of Hesse-Kassel, refuses the acquisition and is still in exile in Friesland with her young son William VI. But having lost the support of Sweden and France with the end of the war, her opposition does not change this.
In the Habsburg domains Ferdinand III is recognised as King of Bohemia by the whole Empire and is free of his religious policy on his lands. However, he had to recognise the territorial superiority of the member states of the Empire, which were free to pursue their own foreign policy. The power of the princes was thus strengthened over that of the Emperor without the latter losing his solid precedence. The Peace of Augsburg was also restored in the Holy Roman Empire and extended to the Calvinists.
The Holy Roman Empire also had to recognise the independence of Northern Italy, the Swiss Confederation and the United Provinces, which were already more or less de jure and de facto independent. The Empire also recognized the acquisition by France of the three bishoprics of Toul, Metz and Verdun as well as the former Spanish Netherlands with the exception of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, which was returned to Wallenstein.
Apart from the Holy Empire, the Treaty of the Pyrenees is put in place between France, the United Provinces and Spain. In exchange for the recognition of the independence of the United Provinces and the acquisition by Paris of the former Spanish Netherlands, France withdrew its support for the Catalan and Portuguese revolts and returned Barcelona Perpignan and Roussillon to Madrid. Having no means of recovering the Netherlands and having to deal with the problems at home, the Spain of Philip IV accepted the state of affairs and abandoned its claims to the whole of the Netherlands.
View attachment 538444
Europe after the Treaties of Westphalia.

The Treaties of Westphalia more generally also led to a secularisation of relations between the states and stabilised the religious map of the Empire. The only opponent was the Pope in Rome, who lost some of his influence in European affairs, as well as religious extremists on all sides.
Thus ends the bloodiest conflict in the history of Europe for its contemporaries. The Treaties of Westphalia have tried to satisfy all parties as best they can by establishing a balanced and just Peace for all. They also mark the beginning of a new era for the continent, this war has brought an end to a hegemony, that of the Habsburgs, but will leave a new one to emerge for the years to come.

[1] OTL the battle was on the 19th because on the 18th May when Enghien wanted to launch the assault on one of his lieutenants, La Ferté launched the left wing too early and had to retreat to avoid its destruction. It is not known whether La Ferté was mistaken or wanted to be noticed by Enghien, who was jealous of Gassion's influence on the young Duke.
[2] OTL La Ferté was wounded and captured by Melo.
[3] OTL Fontaine will resist three assaults with his Tercio.
[4] OTL The figures were 7,000 dead and 7,000 Spanish prisoners and 4,000 dead and wounded for the French.

****
Last chapter on the Twenty-five Years' War. I hope that this first part of my chronology still pleases. If you have any questions or ideas to share with me, please do not hesitate to contact me.
Edit: Once again a big thank you to @alexmilman and @Basileus_Komnenos who helped me enormously during a period of history that I didn't know a few months ago.
And I'm repeating myself, but I'd like to have some criticism from you, it would help me to progress. Thank you. ;)
Truly interesting while being reasonably close to the OTL. I wonder why in this scenario Wallenstein would want Mecklenburg: after the Swedish occupation “there is nothing left in Mecklenburg except air and sand, everything is destroyed to the ground” (Banner’s letter to Oxenstierna). The only valuable port is lost to Sweden and population decreased from pre-war 300,000 down to 50,000. Plus, it is widely separated from Luxembourg. Of course, Wallenstein could do approximately the same thing as the OTL dukes did after the war: invite settlers from the neighboring territories, build houses at the ducal expense, provide help with cultivation of the fields and cancel the taxes for few years. Probably, providing he had necessary resources, he could implement this program on a greater scale. In OTL it was possible to repopulate only a quarter of the lost peasant households but perhaps Wallenstein could convince at least some of his former soldiers o settle on the land: after the war is over, they are out of work so this is better than nothing. The main problem would be ability to defend the territory against invasions: in OTL in 1658 the territory was invaded by the imperial troops, armies of Poland and Brandenburg but by that time Wallenstein (born in 1583) would be probably dead.
 
Truly interesting while being reasonably close to the OTL. I wonder why in this scenario Wallenstein would want Mecklenburg: after the Swedish occupation “there is nothing left in Mecklenburg except air and sand, everything is destroyed to the ground” (Banner’s letter to Oxenstierna). The only valuable port is lost to Sweden and population decreased from pre-war 300,000 down to 50,000. Plus, it is widely separated from Luxembourg. Of course, Wallenstein could do approximately the same thing as the OTL dukes did after the war: invite settlers from the neighboring territories, build houses at the ducal expense, provide help with cultivation of the fields and cancel the taxes for few years. Probably, providing he had necessary resources, he could implement this program on a greater scale. In OTL it was possible to repopulate only a quarter of the lost peasant households but perhaps Wallenstein could convince at least some of his former soldiers o settle on the land: after the war is over, they are out of work so this is better than nothing. The main problem would be ability to defend the territory against invasions: in OTL in 1658 the territory was invaded by the imperial troops, armies of Poland and Brandenburg but by that time Wallenstein (born in 1583) would be probably dead.
Wallentein ITTL wants to keep Mecklenburg because "he was promised" and even if Luxembourg is much richer than the ravaged Mecklenburg he wants to keep it to be fully recognized as a Grand Prince with multiple lands. The absence of another candidate other than Wallenstein has pushed Sweden and the imperials to leave him in place (anyway there is nothing left there as you say). Finally if Luxembourg and Mecklenburg are far away for him it will be the occasion to bring them closer. :rolleyes:
As you point out Wallenstein will try to repopulate the lands he owns and given the OTL management he made of Mecklenburg during the war on the Habsburg side, as well as the possession of Luxembourg will allow him to succeed quite well.
I hadn't thought of paying the soldiers with plots of land, that's a pretty good idea.
One problem that will be difficult for Wallenstein to overcome is the defence of his lands. The distance between the two duchies is enormous and is a huge one. Wallenstein is going to have to make allies and avoid coming up against too much. Another problem is the fact that he has no OTL offspring and that if he has no ITTL heir his lands will not stay long under the "House of Wallenstein".
During which war was Mecklenburg invaded in 1658?
 
Wallentein ITTL wants to keep Mecklenburg because "he was promised" and even if Luxembourg is much richer than the ravaged Mecklenburg he wants to keep it to be fully recognized as a Grand Prince with multiple lands. The absence of another candidate other than Wallenstein has pushed Sweden and the imperials to leave him in place (anyway there is nothing left there as you say). Finally if Luxembourg and Mecklenburg are far away for him it will be the occasion to bring them closer. :rolleyes:
As you point out Wallenstein will try to repopulate the lands he owns and given the OTL management he made of Mecklenburg during the war on the Habsburg side, as well as the possession of Luxembourg will allow him to succeed quite well.
I hadn't thought of paying the soldiers with plots of land, that's a pretty good idea.
One problem that will be difficult for Wallenstein to overcome is the defence of his lands. The distance between the two duchies is enormous and is a huge one. Wallenstein is going to have to make allies and avoid coming up against too much. Another problem is the fact that he has no OTL offspring and that if he has no ITTL heir his lands will not stay long under the "House of Wallenstein".
During which war was Mecklenburg invaded in 1658?
Actually, he had a surviving daughter, Maria Elisabeth von Waldstein zu Friedland. Married in OTL to Rudolf von Kunitz (plenty of heirs had been produced 😂). Spelling is a little bit different from generally accepted for Albrecht (who also was Waldstein or, in Czech, Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna). Then there was (seemingly still is) another branch of the Waldstein family.

The Dukes of Mecklenburg still had been around (both branches) and in OTL got their territories back. So what happens to them in your TL? Not that anybody needs them too much on either side because they managed to switch sides in both directions and proved to be pretty useless in both cases. So, are they simply ignored or something is given to them as a consolation prize?


What I did not quite get is how Wallenstein could try to bring his territories “closer”. Putting aside a potentially interesting project of digging a tunnel across most of Germany (🤪), I assume that you are talking about the administrative aspect. Or perhaps there could be some 3xchange of the territories at some point: happened more than once in the HRE.

War of 1655-60 was a Swedish-Polish war also known as “Deluge”. Pretty much all neighbors participated in this conflict and one going in parallel (Russian-Polish war of 1645-67).
 
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Actually, he had a surviving daughter, Maria Elisabeth von Waldstein zu Friedland. Married in OTL to Rudolf von Kunitz (plenty of heirs had been produced 😂). Spelling is a little bit different from generally accepted for Albrecht (who also was Waldstein or, in Czech, Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna). Then there was (seemingly still is) another branch of the Waldstein family.

I didn't know he had such rich offspring. Did he have any boys? I can't find any information about that. Could a woman inherit Wallenstein's lands in the Empire or was that impossible?

The Dukes of Mecklenburg still had been around (both branches) and in OTL got their territories back. So what happens to them in your TL? Not that anybody needs them too much on either side because they managed to switch sides in both directions and proved to be pretty useless in both cases. So, are they simply ignored or something is given to them as a consolation prize?
I could see the delegations in Westphalia giving them the finger and letting them go home empty-handed. But do you have any ideas about "consolation prizes" or "compensation"? Given the look on Mecklenburg's face, the second prize might be better than the base price! x'D

What I did not quite get is how Wallenstein could try to bring his territories “closer”. Putting aside a potentially interesting project of digging a tunnel across most of Germany (🤪), I assume that you are talking about the administrative aspect. Or perhaps there could be some 3xchange of the territories at some point: happened more than once in the HRE.
I imagined Wallenstein waging war on minor princes or buying back their land to "bring" his two dukedoms closer together or to make exchanges. I didn't imagine Wallenstein surviving the war by imagining my chronology, but he might play a certain role in the post-war Holy Empire.

War of 1655-60 was a Swedish-Polish war also known as “Deluge”. Pretty much all neighbors participated in this conflict and one going in parallel (Russian-Polish war of 1645-67).
I knew about the Flood, but I didn't know that Northern Germany was part of it. Speaking of the Flood, could it be avoided or is Poland more or less fucked up?
 
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