Who should become the first president of new england?


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Will we see the ideology of the DUAY explained soon?

And judging by his picture it looks like Jackson's regime will last at least until 1851.
 
any predictions on america?

Okay!:

I think America will succeed in taking advantage of the Italian Wars, conquering West Florida and at least getting a draw in the next America-Louisiana; but the lack of the common citizens benefiting even from victory and continued dictatorships will wear on people.

We see what might be called a Second American Revolution against the Destitute Era consisting of a Federal Revolt, a Slave revolt, and protests/riots for democracy. The killing blow to the regime though comes with Lee leading a coup that establishes a national salvation government. Lee proposes constitutional convention and releases numerous prisoners, even inviting back a number of exiles to appease democracy advocates. The Federal revolt is crushed through both offers of amnesty and support for it flagging with the Calhoun order falling. The slave revolt is sadly crushed brutally.

The 2nd CC ends the American Union for now readopting the United States name, but even as it guarantees numerous rights and restores power to congress a strong executive beyond the old constitution is created as an elected Emperor. The republic is deemed a tragic failure by many in the military, with the lore now being Washington should have donned a crown. Lee easily becomes Emperor, his reign is esteemed in his time and generations after for restoring the rights and dignity of the citizens and saving America from near destruction in its darkest hour along with thaws with neighbors. With the end of the strong proagrarian policies the economy hits a growth spurt.

More critically, the 2nd united States retains many militaristic institutions and cultural aspects. Even with the slavers power greatly reduced and Louisiana style laws implemented slavery and racism remain alive and well under Lee. The thaw with other nations does not translate into fully abandoning expansionism. And while Lee respects the new constitution the system is well set up for future emperors to gain more power. The start of the industrialization under Lee is the usual mixed bag of growth and wealth gap setting up for future conflict. Finally, the destruction of Native American nations within the USA also continues.
 
Last edited:
Okay!:

I think America will succeed in taking advantage of the Italian Wars, conquering West Florida and at least getting a draw in the next America-Louisiana; but the lack of the common citizens benefiting even from victory and continued dictatorships will wear on people.

We see what might be called a Second American Revolution against the Destitute Era consisting of a Federal Revolt, a Slave revolt, and protests/riots for democracy. The killing blow to the regime though comes with Lee leading a coup that establishes a national salvation government. Lee proposes constitutional convention and releases numerous prisoners, even inviting back a number of exiles to appease democracy advocates. The Federal revolt is crushed through both offers of amnesty and support for it flagging with the Calhoun order falling. The slave revolt is sadly crushed brutally.

The 2nd CC ends the American Union for now readopting the United States name, but even as it guarantees numerous rights and restores power to congress a strong executive beyond the old constitution is created as an elected Emperor. The republic is deemed a tragic failure by many in the military, with the lore now being Washington should have donned a crown. Lee easily becomes Emperor, his reign is esteemed in his time and generations after for restoring the rights and dignity of the citizens and saving America from near destruction in its darkest hour along with thaws with neighbors. With the end of the strong proagrarian policies the economy hits a growth spurt.

More critically, the 2nd united States retains many militaristic institutions and cultural aspects. Even with the slavers power greatly reduced and Louisiana style laws implemented slavery and racism remain alive and well under Lee. The thaw with other nations does not translate into fully abandoning expansionism. And while Lee respects the new constitution the system is well set up for future emperors to gain more power. The start of the industrialization under Lee is the usual mixed bag of growth and wealth gap setting up for future conflict. Finally, the destruction of Native American nations within the USA also continues.
I agree with this prediction, except with the only caveat being that they choose not to re-adopt the United States name. I can definitely see that history will view Washington largely the same except making the fatal mistake of choosing to be President and not as King, given all that went wrong with a republican government. I also agree with Lee effectively proclaiming himself King/Emperor, given that it's unlikely that they'll bring in a foreigner to become king, ala Mexico and Uruguay.
 
I also agree with Lee effectively proclaiming himself King/Emperor, given that it's unlikely that they'll bring in a foreigner to become king, ala Mexico and Uruguay.
Indeed, I can't see the Americans bending to put a foreigner in high office at this time. Likewise I could see them compromising with their founding values by having the monarch elected each time; that way they can still claim the superiority over the British monarchy they revolted against.

And I think it will be a public secret that no politician will admit that they are hoping to emulate the success of Mexico ITTL.
 
Chapter 34: Peninsular War……Redux?
Chapter 34: Peninsular War……Redux?

***

“Antonio de Saavedra was of course in early 1833 now in a prime position to conduct what he called a resurgence of Spanish politics and influence in the European arena. Fernando VII’s modernization schemes, for better to worse had been successful, and the colonies for the time being were overall loyal to the state and monarchy. King Alfonso XII was an infant and since de Saavedra was Alfonso XII’s regent, Alfonso XII could do little anyways. As Regent and Prime Minister of Spain, de Saavedra held enormous power in the Spanish Cortes and was now ready to make his move in early 1833. Of course, the question came, how? Where? In what manner?

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A Portrait of Prime Minister Antonio De Saavedra during his old age in the 1850s. He would be hailed as the Father of Modern Spain.

Fortunately for him, an old vassal of Spain was erupting into anarchy as well, giving him a casus belli to intervene.

Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies was actually very well known for his relative domestic tyranny and his very undemocratic methods of holding onto power. And for better or worse, there was a permanent divide between the Neapolitan parts of his kingdom and the Sicilian part of his kingdom. For example, the Neapolitan part of his kingdom was a hotbed for Italian nationalism whilst the Sicilian part of his kingdom barely had any interest in regards to the mainland. His most steadfast supporters against Italian unification came from Sicily, and in this regards, he was supported in Sicily a lot. Neapolitan regions, however were a hotbed of Italian nationalism, with North Italians trying to use the Neapolitan border to smuggle Italian nationalistic posts into the Papal States. Of course, the Papal States ran a successful anti-smuggling racket, and these smuggling attempts ended generally in failure, however the effort did count.

In that day and age, it is hard to create an estimate of what portion of the population leaned to what direction, however rough estimated put that around a third of the population in the Neapolitan region back then supported Italian nationalism, whilst another third supported Neapolitan nationalism, and the last third was an amalgamation of both sides. And Ferdinand II whilst he had every intention of staying out of the Great Italian War, was not going to ignore the rebellions within his own country.

On February 12th, 1833 protestors in Napoli demanded democratic reforms and a plebiscites in regards to the Italian unification goals. This of course was not going to happen. However Ferdinand II escalated matters when he ordered his police to disperse the crowd and protestors. Instead it was the military that got involved and the crowd was fired upon. The February 12 Massacre led to the deaths of around 80 people and the deaths led to a massive spark. In particular, the deaths of the Five Great Martyrs, Rocco Verducci, Michele Bello, Pietro Mazzoni, Gaetano Ruffo and Domineco Salvadori, all teenagers in the protests led to massive anti-governmental feeling in the Neapolitan state.

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The revolution in Naples.

On February 15th, protestors stormed the city of Napoli itself and the city was kept under heavy siege by this time, violent protestors. This protest then swung in tone to become a Pro-Italian protest and siege as Neapolitan Italian Nationalist, Carlo Poerio declared Naples for the Italian Dream. Through underground tunnels and loyalist forces, the royal family managed to escape the city and flee to Sicily itself, however the mainland of the Two Sicilies eventually fell into utter anarchy. Carlo Poerio declared himself the President of the Provisional Government of Naples, and declared the State of Naples, with the end goal being the unification of the Italian Peninsula. They were open to the idea of the Sardinian monarchy taking over as well.

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Provisional President Carlo Poerio of Naples.

Suddenly, the Great Italian War’s scope and size expanded to include around 100,000 Neapolitan troops, many of them veterans and well-trained as well as well organized. Ferdinand II had always been more popular in Sicily than Naples, and as such the troops in the mainland felt no real loyalty to him, barring a few. This precipitated a European crisis as by this point, all of the great powers were watching the power of ultra-nationalism in all of its glory in Italy. Though there was a war going on, only Sardinia and the Papal States had any stability. The Tuscan State and the Neapolitan States were in anarchy and the rest of the region was going through massive upheaval, and atrocities became the order of the day. Many Venetians and Dalmatian Italians who had been eager to join the revolutionary fervor now looked at the events in disgust and stayed loyal to the Austrian government, especially as Prince Felix’s reforms gave more cultural autonomy.

Finally, now residing in Palermo, Sicily, King Ferdinand II spoke with Louis XIX of France and asked for his aid in his endeavor to regain the kingdom. Louis XIX was more worried about Sardinia and the Italian nationalists within Corsica itself and gave empty promises to Ferdinand II which he recognized immediately. As such, Ferdinand II then turned to Spain, ruled by the Bourbons. He wrote a letter to Antonio De Saavedra pleading for aid.

This was the opening that De Saavedra needed, and wanted. On March 28th of 1833 Spanish warships appeared on the horizon of Naples. And as the Italian Nationalists tried to scramble a response, the Spanish vessels opened fire on the coastal defenses of the city. Led by General Tomas Zumalacarregui, around 8,000 Spaniard troops invaded the city of Naples itself in the dying days of March, 1833 to recapture the city in the name of the Sicilian Bourbons. The city was put under siege for two months as the city’s government held out however the Spanish firepower was too much to bear for the Neapolitan city and Napoli fell on June 27th. Carlo Poerio, the President of Naples, fled to Salerno where he managed to form an emergency cabinet and take power again, this time formally allying with the Sardinians.

1610548123784.png

General Tomas Zumalacarregui in the outskirts of Naples during the Siege of Naples.

This came as surprise to many. In France, many policy makers had believed that the Spaniards may intervene in favor of Sardinia, however that was not the case. De Saavedra had certainly thought about it no doubt, however the Papal States entering the War led to the wrench in the plans of De Saavedra as he could not be seen by Spain’s conservatives and clericals as moving against the Pope and so instead he improvised on the fly. And this he did beautifully.

Tomas Zumalacarregui was a brilliant strategist and general, and knew how to fight a war. Having fought under Wellington and Beresford in the Peninsular War, he was a peculiar general, different than others, being the few who could see and fight in war, on conditions favorable to only themselves. He would write Spanish history for much of the 19th Century of Spanish History. He wanted to pursue Poerio into Salerno almost immediately after the Siege of Napoli ended, however the need to resupply and create the city of Napoli into his supply haven stopped him from moving against Poerio, for the moment.” Heights of Glory: The Spanish Resurgence, Osprey Publishing, 2018.

“In Sardinia, Charles Albert of Sardinia was initially despondent on having to fight both the Austrians and the French, however when he received an offer of alliance from Naples, he bounced back. He managed to defeat a small Austrian incursion into Sardinians and Piedmontese territory in the Battle of Vigevano, however von Radetzky was still gathering his forces, and was still distracted by Milan, and Charles Albert knew that it was a matter of time until Milan fell and then von Radetzy would turn his full attention to Charles Albert and Sardinia.

Charles Albert knew that this was now his moment to act. He decided to attack against the French first, intending to use the favorable terrain in the French border to advantage.

He crossed the Var River and then conducted a diversionary attack on the southern French coast starting from May 25th, whilst he made his base of operations in Nice. The French who were still massing at the border were a little bit disorganized and were pushed back. Charles Albert managed to defeat a small French army there, and advanced to Antibes. The French reinforcements in the Alpine region streamed down south and attacked the Sardinian army there, however Charles Albert’s main lynchpin attack came in the north, when his generals attacked in the Alps and captured almost all of the vital passes in the region, severely disrupting French plans in the region. And while Charles Albert himself had been pushed back to Nice, he had achieved his objective of keeping the French at their back foot. However disaster struck him when he found out that the Siege of Milan ended after a 8 month siege on the 3rd of July.

And worse for the man he was shot in the stomach during a skirmish with French forces near Nice, forcing him to stay in bed for many months. He was unable to command his armies in person due to his injury. Von Radetzky now free to invade Piedmont, did as such when his Austrian army of 80,000 invaded Piedmont and defeated the Sardinian general Eusebio Bava at the Battle of Mortara and invaded the heart of Piedmont itself, intent on turning the tide of war against the Sardinians. The French Navy also began blockading the island of Sardinia and began planning a naval invasion of Sardinia from Corsica.

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Eusebio Bava.

The invasion of Piedmont also coincided with the Invasion of Tuscany on part of the Papal States who defeated the Tuscans at the Battle of Punta Ala and invaded inside the Tuscan coast. The Papal Marines also landed in the island of Elba and restored the island to Grand Duke Leopold II of Tuscany. The Papal States were also now getting their country together in regards of their interior, and Italian nationalists were suppressed, and military victories in the war was used by the Papal government as propaganda to encourage Papal nationalism. The Papal Legion was also formed in Rome, composed of Catholic volunteers for the Papal States from all over Catholic Europe, as they aided the Papal Guard in their campaign.

It is also interesting to note, that Papal scholars edited, and compiled the Latium Book of Language during this time and published it to the public. This compilation was a compilation of Latium dialects that was then standardized. Standardized language that was now declared the national language of the Papal States. The Latium Language is quite interesting. It is like most Indic languages found in the Indian subcontinents. Other peoples in Italy can understand Latium (with hardness, but still they can), however the languages diverge as well, with Latium including a lot of new/old Latin words and Latin grammar.

The French also started their invasion of Sardinia as around 5000 French Marines landed in Porto Torres on the end of July. However this sent warning bells all throughout the European continent. France conquering the island of Sardinia and annexing it would give France domination of the western Mediterranean Sea. The Prussians, Austrians and most especially the British protested this move. Lord Grey sent a missive to King Louis XIX and Prime Minister Lafayette asking the French to pledge to return Sardinia after the war. Louis XIX and Lafayette agreed to do so and this small flareup of tensions went onto the wayside pretty soon.

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French PM Victor De Broglie.

Meanwhile in France, Lafayette stated that he would retire from politics and would not contest the 1833 French Legislative Elections. His party, the Doctrinaires then chose one Victor de Broglie as his successor. The Doctrinaires would win a second majority in the French Chamber of Deputies and Victor de Broglie would succeed Lafayette as Prime Minister of France in October, 1833.” The Italian Spark: The Great Peninsular War in Italy, Roma Publishing.

“The Protectorate of Mishigama in the 1830s was caught up at the crossroads. In 1830 John Smoke Johnson won a second term as the High Chief of Mishigama and with his economic changes, Mishigama was now fully embracing the Industrial revolution, at least for the most part, he still remained a very pro-nature kind of person, and as such industrial schemes were scaled down to prevent their adverse effects on the environment.

However he also knew by this point that he needed to make sure that the Mishigaman nation could properly transition into the future. He fought tooth and nail in the polarizing issue of Tenstkawa vs O’Karinakawa case. This was a peculiar case in the Mishigaman Supreme Court. This issue was regarding the case of modernism and tradition in which the government wished to find a middle path between the two.

1610548264334.png

Tribal Chief John Smoke Johnson in 1872 one year before his death.

Finally in 1832, John Smoke Johnson received the Tribal Council’s majority to declare the edict of Shikaawa in which he laid out the following points:-

  • The abolition of clan ‘lands’ to create more cohesively in the country. Instead clan lands became a part of all clans.
  • Clan quotas were introduced so that each part of the country had clans from all parts of the country represented on an equal basis.
  • The Economic Quotas were also introduced in which the government went through a pro-environment policy to create ‘industrial sectors’. Industrial sectors would be the industrial backbone of Mishigama, and around 5% of the land of the country was designated to these sectors. Around 30% was then designated to settlement and the rest were designated to nature and the environment.
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Modern day Shikaawa

This edict was the gamechanger as it was. The Mishigaman government was also able to bring in investment from Britain, New England and Louisiana, as well as Mexico and France to accelerate its economic fortunes. The Russian government also opened relations with the small country soon enough.

The Kingdom of Mishigama (it’s official name) was slowly entering the future.” John Smoke Johnson: The William Pitt of Mishigama, Shikaawa Publishing.

“In Mexico, scandal had erupted. Prince Napoleon when he had arrived in the court of Mexico was unassuming and did not speak to many outside of his uncle and his cousins in the royal family, and the Mexican Military, in which he was given the command of the Army of Chiapas, consisting of some 9,000 men. He was a gifted commander, reminiscent of his father, and defeated the remnants of Central American rebels using tactical finesse that earned him recognition throughout the Mexican Empire. So much so that Empress Zenaide I of Mexico granted him the title, Duke of El Salvador, where he made his official residence.

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Napoleon II, Prince Imperial of France, Austria and Mexico, Duke of El Salvador.

However, a special woman managed to worm her way into Napoleon II’s heart. Juana De Leon was the daughter of the Count of La Concordia. The problem was that the Count of La Concordia was one of the few nobles in New Spain, and consequently the Empire of Mexico, that was a native noble. A Mayan man and noble. His wife was Mayan as well, and as such Juana De Leon was also a Mayan by ethnicity. More importantly in the standing of the white nobility, she also knew how to speak Mayan fluently and was quite interested in her Mayan heritage, writing many books in it. She and Napoleon II had met in official balls during the fighting in Chiapas.

The account written by Charlotte Bonaparte, Princess of the Empire, and sister of Empress Zenaide I of Mexico, goes in detail the relationship between Napoleon II and Juana.

……The two met each other for the first time in the ball in Palenque. He was interested in the peculiar way in which she carried herself and wore clothes, a good many of them had native Mayan ornaments and designs which intrigued Napoleon II. She was intrigued by the famous eaglet as well. They talked tentatively with one another. And it was as if old friends had been reunited after years. They talked and talked and were so caught up in the talk that they forgot the time. And by the time I blinked, they managed to fall in love with one another. It is a peculiar love this one…….

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A portrait of Juana De Leon.

His decision to propose to her in early 1832 led to a scandal when the white elite protested to the marriage. However former Emperor Joseph I of Mexico intervened as King Father of Mexico and allowed the marriage to happen, telling his nephew to go on with the marriage. In December 7th, the marriage took place, and in August 28th, 1833, Juana Bonaparte nee De Leon gave birth to a small child. Napoleon II would name this child Charles, in respect to his grandfather, Carlo Bonaparte.” The House of Bonaparte: From France to Mexico; A History. Veracruz Publishing.

[Note – Juana De Leon is a real Mayan native Spanish/Mexican noble. One of the few I could find from otl, so I put it out here. She is mentioned in Iturbide’s diary and writings as one of the most vivacious young native noblewomen.]

***
 
Thoughts?
I like the update, but ngl, I'm dissapointed that the "Roi de Rome" didn't stick around to reclaim his title. With the power vaccum forming in piedmont and in Naples, Napoleon II could have had a shot to claim the crown of Italy

As for the Standardization of language for the Papal states, what's the "Latium Language?" This sounds like an anachronism as there were various dialects in the region such as the actual Roman one spoken within Roma/Latium proper, Umbrian (central Italy), and Romagnan near Ravenna. Romagnan takes root from the Romans who lost control the exarchate of Ravenna in the mid 8th Century.

What of Genoa in ttl? The Genoese were not fans of the Savoyards, and with the looming collapse of the Kingdom, there would probably be some sort of major revolt going on.
 
like the update, but ngl, I'm dissapointed that the "Roi de Rome" didn't stick around to reclaim his title. With the power vaccum forming in piedmont and in Naples, Napoleon II could have had a shot to claim the crown of Italy
Not really. France Austria and Spain are moving to stop a united Italy so it's really shady if they would allow it.
As for the Standardization of language for the Papal states, what's the "Latium Language?" This sounds like an anachronism as there were various dialects in the region such as the actual Roman one spoken within Roma/Latium proper, Umbrian (central Italy), and Romagnan near Ravenna. Romagnan takes root from the Romans who lost control the exarchate of Ravenna in the mid 8th Century
That is for the next chapter. Latium itself is going to be very interesting.
What of Genoa in ttl? The Genoese were not fans of the Savoyards, and with the looming collapse of the Kingdom, there would probably be some sort of major revolt going on.
No spoilers!
 
Not really. France Austria and Spain are moving to stop a united Italy so it's really shady if they would allow it.
I was mostly speaking in jest about Napoleon II.

That is for the next chapter. Latium itself is going to be very interesting.
Still I'm glad to see a tl where the Papacy maintains relevance as a secular power. This will radically alter things such as the history of Catholicism. Honestly the main issue with the Papal States is that they peaked during the Renaissance. During the industrial era, its adminstration was quite bad, and attempts towards modernization/industrialization were quite poor. It was so bad in otl that Metternich sort of washed his hands of the Papal states. Its was mostly thanks to Spain's intervention that it was restored at the Congress of Vienna.
 
I was mostly speaking in jest about Napoleon II.


Still I'm glad to see a tl where the Papacy maintains relevance as a secular power. This will radically alter things such as the history of Catholicism. Honestly the main issue with the Papal States is that they peaked during the Renaissance. During the industrial era, its adminstration was quite bad, and attempts towards modernization/industrialization were quite poor. It was so bad in otl that Metternich sort of washed his hands of the Papal states. Its was mostly thanks to Spain's intervention that it was restored at the Congress of Vienna.
Well I wouldn't say secular. I would say Catholicism will remain first among equals but yeah more liberal than otl.
 
Well the Neapolitan revolt certainly helps the Nationalists. But with Spain aiding the Bourbons in the South and the Austrians and French advancing in the North it still seems like the war will not last too much longer. Especially since the Papal States seem to have gained the upperhand against their domestic rebels making a link up between the nationalist strongholds increasingly unlikely.

France has entered a new era with Charles X dead and the Marquis retiring. It remains to be seen if the new leaders will be able to keep up the internal balancing act and the steady advancement on the world stage.

Mishigama is advancing carefully but definitely. With any luck as time goes on they will be less and less dependent on the British Empire and be able to chart their own course. Looks like they have an early start to environmental regulation; if they keep it up that could have an interesting impact on the eventual environmental movement.

Time will tell if the romance of Napoleon II will have a lasting impact on the culture in Mexico.

For Canada I expect the next chapter will deal with the Post Rebellion Era and the start of local nationalism.
 
Well the Neapolitan revolt certainly helps the Nationalists. But with Spain aiding the Bourbons in the South and the Austrians and French advancing in the North it still seems like the war will not last too much longer. Especially since the Papal States seem to have gained the upperhand against their domestic rebels making a link up between the nationalist strongholds increasingly unlikely.
indeed, the papal military is advancing.
France has entered a new era with Charles X dead and the Marquis retiring. It remains to be seen if the new leaders will be able to keep up the internal balancing act and the steady advancement on the world stage.
Victor de Broglie is......an interesting man
Mishigama is advancing carefully but definitely. With any luck as time goes on they will be less and less dependent on the British Empire and be able to chart their own course. Looks like they have an early start to environmental regulation; if they keep it up that could have an interesting impact on the eventual environmental movement.
It will indeed. Mishigama will probably be the first eco-friendly and healthcare nation in the world ittl.
Time will tell if the romance of Napoleon II will have a lasting impact on the culture in Mexico.
it definitely will!
For Canada I expect the next chapter will deal with the Post Rebellion Era and the start of local nationalism.
yep.
 
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