The Proletarian Presidents: The Graphical History of a Socialist America

Intro
THE PROLETARIAN PRESIDENTS: THE GRAPHICAL HISTORY OF A SOCIALIST AMERICA

Flag of the Cooperative Commonwealth of America.png



"We meet to die in freedoms cause
And raise our voices high.
We'll join our hands in union strong
To battle or to die.

Hold the fort
For we are coming,
Union men be strong.
Side by side keep pressing onward,
Victory will come.

Look my comrades
See the union banner waving high.
Reinforcements now appearing
Victory is nigh.

Hold the fort
For we are coming,
Union men be strong.
Side by side keep pressing onward,
Victory will come.

See our numbers still increasing
Hear the bugles blow.
By our union we shall triumph
Over every foe.

Hold the fort
For we are coming,
Union men be strong.
Side by side keep…"

-"Hold the Fort!", the national anthem of the Cooperative Commonwealth of America


Presidents of the Cooperative Commonwealth of America
  1. Daniel De Leon/Eugene V. Debs (People's Party) 1905-1913*
    • 1905 defeated: William McKinley/William Howard Taft (Republican Party); Nelson A. Miles/William Randolph Hearst (Democratic Party (Northern)); John Sharp Williams/Woodrow Wilson (Democratic Party (Southern)); John Woolley/Silas Comfort Swallow (Prohibition Party)
    • 1909 defeated: Leonard Wood/Albert Cummins (Republican Party); Richard P. Hobson/Eugene W. Chafin (Prohibition Party)
  2. Eugene V. Debs/Victor Berger (People's Party) 1913-1921
    • 1913 defeated: Albert Parsons/Arthur E. Reimer (Socialist Labor Party); Charles Francis Adams III/George Walbridge Perkins (Progressive Party)
    • 1917 defeated: William Dudley Haywood/Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (Socialist Labor Party); Elihu Root/Hiram Johnson (Progressive Party)
  3. Roger Nash Baldwin/Emma Goldman (Socialist Labor Party) 1921-1925
    • 1921 defeated: Eugene V. Debs/Victor Berger (People's Party); William Jennings Bryan/Hiram Johnson (Progressive Party)
  4. Floyd B. Olson/John Silas Reed (People's Party) 1925-1933
    • 1925 defeated: Roger Nash Baldwin/Emma Goldman (Socialist Labor Party); James W. Bryan/John M. Parker (Progressive Party)
    • 1929 defeated: Emma Goldman/Jo Labadie (Socialist Labor Party); Louis Will/Leonard Wood (Progressive Party)
  5. Lucy Parsons/Dorothy Day (Socialist Labor Party) 1933-1944**
    • 1933 defeated: Norman Thomas/Robert M. La Follette Jr. (People's Party)
    • 1937 defeated: John Silas Reed/Earl Browder (People's Party)
    • 1941 defeated: Smedley Butler/John Henry Stump (People's Party); Leon Trotsky/William Z. Foster (Democratic Centralist Party)
  6. Dorothy Day/vacant (1944-1945)/Charles S. Zimmerman (1945-1949) (Socialist Labor Party) 1945-1949
    • 1945 defeated: Upton Sinclair/Henry Wallace (People's Party); Leon Trotsky/Earl Browder (Democratic Centralist Party)
  7. Huey Long/Tommy Douglas (People's Party) 1949-1957
    • 1949 defeated: Dorothy Day/Charles S. Zimmerman (Socialist Labor Party); William Z. Foster/Jacob Shulman (Democratic Centralist Party)
    • 1953 defeated: Strom Thurmond/Jacob Stachel (Democratic Centralist Party); Ammon Hennacy/Darlington Hoopes (Socialist Labor Party)
  8. Tommy Douglas/Dwight D. Eisenhower (People's Party) 1957-1961
    • 1957 defeated: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn/Georgina Cozzini (Socialist Labor Party); Harry F. Byrd/Thomas Coleman Andrews (Democratic Centralist Party); Gerald L.K. Smith/Charles Coughlin (Christian Social Justice Party)
*Endorsed by Socialist Labor Party in both 1905 and 1909.
**Passed away in office.
 
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Hello everyone! Over the past week, I've been working on a new graphical TL, which explores a world where the US undergoes a De Leonist revolution in 1904, being replaced with the syndicalist Cooperative Commonwealth of America in the process. This TL will primarily be explored through Wikipedia infoboxes of each of the CCA's presidents, would should make this a relatively quick and simple TL to make (in other words, this isn't replacing my other two TLs, Man-Made Hell and Dreams of Liberty). We'll see how far I get with this side-project, but I like what I've made so far, so hopefully you enjoy "The Proletarian Presidents" as much as I enjoy creating it!
 
So, the Progressives basically represent those elements of the bourgeois who accepted the revolution, at least at first?
Kinda? The Progressive Party basically begins as a coalition of Republicans, northern Democrats (the southerners are more or less done for after segregationists are banned from holding public office), Prohibitionists, and even a handful of moderate Populists whose views vary from a fringe “restore the United States” to “keep the current condition but legalize private property” to moderate market socialists. They’re very much the catch-all for anyone to the right of the Populists and Socialist Laborites, although that’s not a very competitive sect of the population on a national scale. This means that bourgeois that both accept and oppose the revolution make up their ranks, although the former very quickly loses influence to more economically left-leaning groups. By 1921, the Progressives ideologically resemble a mix of William Jennings Bryan’s wing of the Democrats, the Bull Moose Party, and a small faction of market socialists and socially conservative socialists.
 
Nice to see this timeline get its own thread. A couple of questions:
1) Will there be a diagram of how the CCA government is organised?
2) Will there be wikiboxes for the rest of the world?
 
1) Will there be a diagram of how the CCA government is organised?
I've never done a government diagram, so probably not, but I'm definitely considering just writing out the entire CCA constitution. That'd make for a cool bit of world-building IMO while also serving as a good reference for me when making the TL.

2) Will there be wikiboxes for the rest of the world?
I don't have plans to do so ATM, but it's not completely out of the question.
 
Constitution of the Cooperative Commonwealth of America
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE COOPERATIVE COMMONWEALTH OF AMERICA (Ratified by the Congress of the Provisional Government on February 2nd, 1905)

PREAMBLE

We, the Proletariat of the Cooperative Commonwealth of America, considering ignorance, forgetfulness, or contempt of the rights of the Proletarian Class to be the primary causes of public misfortune, injustice, and the corruption of governments, have resolved to set forth to establish a new and revolutionary government of and for the toiling masses of America; and, in order to form a more perfect society, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, secure liberation to ourselves and our posterity, and accomplish the emancipation of the Proletariat from the tyranny of the capitalist state, do ordain and establish this Constitution of the Cooperative Commonwealth of America.


TITLE ONE
  1. All workplaces shall be owned and democratically managed by their workers in the form of worker councils.
    1. Worker councils whose labor force exceeds ten workers shall be governed by a committee elected by and consisting of the workers of the governed council.
      1. Committee membership must stand for election at least annually.
    2. The constitution of all worker councils shall be written by its workers and must be approved by a two-thirds majority of said workers to be put into effect.
  2. Worker councils shall be organized into national industrial federations, which are tasked with managing their particular industry on a national level.
    1. Each industrial federation shall possess a committee of delegates, which shall have the ability to write and pass bills whose contents shall be put into effect throughout the entire industrial federation.
      1. Committees shall be composed of delegates directly elected by the workers of their industrial federations every two years after the previous committee election and delegation seats shall be allocated to competing political parties proportional to the amount of votes said parties have received.
      2. The committee of all industrial federations shall have the power to instigate a snap election for the composition of their assembly with approval from a two-thirds majority of delegates at any point.
      3. Every bill which shall have passed the committee of an industrial federation shall, before it is put into effect, be presented to the chairman of the aforementioned industrial federation. If they approve they shall sign it, but if not they shall return it for reconsideration by the committee, which may override their chairman’s veto through approval from two-thirds of delegates.
    2. A simple majority of committee delegates shall appoint the chairman of their industrial federation.
      1. The chairman shall serve as the chief of executive of their industrial federation.
      2. The chairman has the power to appoint a cabinet, provided a simple majority of committee delegates consent, to serve within the executive branch of an industrial federation.
      3. The chairman may dismiss members of their cabinet at any given time.
      4. The responsibility of filling vacancies within the committee shall fall upon the chairman until the next committee election shall occur.
      5. A chairman may be removed by a simple majority of vote of no confidence by their committee.
    3. No person shall serve in the governing body of an industrial federation who has not attained at least twenty-five years of age, nor has worked within the industry they are governing for less than five years.
    4. The constitution of each industrial federation and any amendments to a federal constitution shall be written by their committee.
      1. The constitution of an industrial federation and any subsequent amendments must be approved by a two-thirds majority of their committee and a simple majority of its workers.
  3. The land of the Cooperative Commonwealth of America shall be organized into republics, which are entrusted with the power to manage their own internal affairs, including through the enforcement of laws within and governance of their respective territory.
    1. A person charged in any republic, who shall flee from the people’s justice, and be found in another republic, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the republic from which they fled, be delivered to the republic having jurisdiction of the crime.
    2. The Cooperative Commonwealth shall guarantee to every republic within its jurisdiction a socialist republican government, protect each of them from invasion, and protect them from domestic violence.
    3. Each republic of the Cooperative Commonwealth shall possess its own republican industrial federations consisting of the worker councils of said federation’s respective industry operating within its territorial jurisdiction.
      1. The structure of republican industrial federations shall be modeled after that of national industrial federations as outlined in Article II of the Constitution of the Cooperative Commonwealth of America.
      2. Republics are obligated to establish republican industrial federations for industries organized into national federations whose composition contains member worker councils within the territorial jurisdiction of a respective republic.
    4. Worker councils shall be organized into an All-Industrial Congress for each of their respective republics, which shall have the ability to write and pass bills whose contents shall be put into effect throughout all worker councils within the republic.
      1. An All-Industrial Congress shall be composed of congressmen directly elected by the workers of the republic every two years after the previous Congressional election and Congressional seats shall be allocated to competing political parties proportional to the amount of votes said parties have received.
      2. Seats within an All-Industrial Congress shall be allocated proportionally to and elected by the industries of its respective republic.
    5. Each republic shall possess a Regional Congress as its legislative branch.
      1. A Regional Congress shall be composed of congressmen directly elected by the people of the republic every two years after the previous Congressional election and Congressional seats shall be allocated to competing political parties proportional to the amount of votes said parties have received.
      2. Any bill passed by a republic’s Regional Congress with contents that pertain to the management of industry shall be presented to said republic’s All-Industrial Congress for approval before it is put into effect.
  4. All legislative powers herein shall be vested in the General Congress of the Cooperative Commonwealth, which shall consist of an All-Regional Congress and an All-Industrial Congress.
    1. The All-Regional Congress shall be composed of members chosen every two years by the people of the Cooperative Commonwealth, with seats within the All-Regional Congress being allocated proportionally to the population of each republic.
      1. No person shall be a member of the All-Regional Congress who has not attained twenty-five years of age, has not been four years a citizen of the Cooperative Commonwealth, and is not, when elected, an inhabitant of the republic which they will be elected from.
      2. The executive authority of the republic a vacancy within the All-Regional Congress occurs shall fill said vacancy until the next general election for the All-Regional Congress elects a successor.
      3. The All-Regional Congress shall elect and dismiss its chairman and other offices through a simple majority of approval of the assembly at any given time.
      4. The All-Regional Congress shall have the sole power of impeachment and to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation.
        1. When the President of the Cooperative Commonwealth is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside.
        2. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
        3. Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.
    2. The All-Industrial Congress shall be composed of members chosen every two years by the people of the Cooperative Commonwealth, with seats within the All-Industrial Congress being allocated proportionally to the labor force of each national industrial federation.
      1. No person shall be a member of the All-Industrial Congress who has not attained twenty-five years of age, has not been four years a citizen of the Cooperative Commonwealth, and is not, when elected, a worker of the industry which they will be elected to represent.
      2. The executive authority of the industrial federation a vacancy within the All-Industrial Congress occurs shall fill said vacancy until the next general election for the All-Industrial Congress elects a successor.
      3. The All-Industrial Congress shall elect and dismiss its chairman and other offices through a simple majority of approval of the assembly at any given time.
      4. The All-Industrial Congress shall have the sole power to pass bills regarding the management of industry, production, and distribution derived from the worker councils of the Cooperative Commonwealth.
        1. Any bills passed by the All-Regional Congress regarding these topics shall be presented to the All-Industrial Congress to either be approved or returned by a simple majority of its members.
    3. Every bill which shall have passed either house of the General Congress, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the Cooperative Commonwealth. If they approve they shall sign it, but if not they shall return it, with their objections to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall become a law regardless of the objections of the President.
    4. The General Congress shall assemble at least once every year, and such meetings shall occur on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law select another day.
    5. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.
    6. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, and the votes of the members of either house on any question shall be entered in the journal.
    7. Neither house, during the session of the General Congress, shall adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.
  5. The executive power shall be vested in the President of the Cooperative Commonwealth of America, who shall hold their office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, be elected directly by the citizenry of the Cooperative Commonwealth, with the Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates who receive the most votes winning their respective positions.
    1. No person except a citizen of the Cooperative Commonwealth for at least ten years who is at least thirty years of age shall be elevated to the office of either the presidency or vice presidency.
    2. In the case of the incapacitation of the President, the Vice President shall assume their office and carry out the remainder of the term their predecessor was elected to serve.
    3. Before they enter on the execution of their office, the President shall take the following affirmation: "I do solemnly affirm that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the Cooperative Commonwealth of America, will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Cooperative Commonwealth, and will guarantee the rights and freedoms of the Proletariat."
    4. The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of the Cooperative Commonwealth.
    5. The President shall have the power, by and with the advice and consent of the All-Regional Congress, to make treaties and appoint justices to the Supreme Court of the Cooperative Commonwealth, provided a simple majority of the All-Regional Congress present concurs; and they shall nominate, by and with the advice and consent of the General Congress, ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls.
    6. The President shall, from time to time, give to the General Congress information of the State of the Commonwealth, and recommend to their consideration such measures as they shall judge necessary and expedient, They may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of Disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, may adjourn them to such time as they shall think proper. They shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers, they shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.
    7. The President, Vice President and all civil officers of the Cooperative Commonwealth, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, counterrevolution, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
  6. The judicial power of the Cooperative Commonwealth, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the General Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices for no longer than ten consecutive years.
    1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the Cooperative Commonwealth, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;—to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;—to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;—to controversies to which the Cooperative Commonwealth shall be a party;—to controversies between two or more republics or national industrial federations;— between a republic and citizens of another republic, between citizens of different republics,—between citizens of the same republic claiming lands under grants of different republics, and between a republic, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.
    2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a republic or national industrial federation shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the General Congress shall make.
    3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the republic where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any republic, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Generall Congress may by law have directed.
    4. Treason against the Cooperative Commonwealth, shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort, or conducting a counterrevolution against it. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
    5. The General Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.
  7. The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be lifted, except when public safety may require it.
  8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the Cooperative Commonwealth, and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the General Congress, accept any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatsoever, from any monarch or foreign state.
  9. The federal government of the Cooperative Commonwealth shall own and manage all natural resources within its territory, and may lease said territory to republics, industrial federations, worker councils, or other local administrations to be managed.

TITLE TWO
  1. The General Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition their government for a redress of grievances.
  2. A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
  3. No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
  4. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
  5. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
  6. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
  7. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
  8. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  9. The people of the Cooperative Commonwealth shall reserve the right to implement or repeal any law or recall any of the civil officials elected to represent them through the process of a referendum approved by a simple majority of governed citizens.
  10. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the jurisdiction of the Cooperative Commonwealth.
  11. All persons born or naturalized in the Cooperative Commonwealth, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the Cooperative Commonwealth and of the republic wherein they reside. No republic shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the Cooperative Commonwealth; nor shall any republic deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
  12. No person who has engaged in treason, insurrection, rebellion or counterrevolution against the Cooperative Commonwealth shall be an official of its government.
  13. The right of citizens of the Cooperative Commonwealth shall not be denied or abridged by the Cooperative Commonwealth or by any internal administration on account of race, color, religion, income, class, sex, place of birth, or previous condition of servitude.
    1. Discrimination on the basis of these traits is hereby prohibited.
    2. The right to vote shall not be abridged for any citizen of the Cooperative Commonwealth who is of at least twenty-one years of age.
    3. The law shall be applied equally to all citizens of the Cooperative Commonwealth.
    4. The right of citizens of the Cooperative Commonwealth to vote in any primary or election shall not be denied or abridged by the Cooperative Commonwealth by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.
  14. The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
  15. The powers not delegated to the Cooperative Commonwealth by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to internal administrations, are reserved to the republics and industrial federations respectively, or to the people.

AMENDMENTS
  1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the Cooperative Commonwealth and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. (ratified November 14th, 1918)
  2. All elections to executive offices shall utilize a system of instant runoff voting whereby voters may rank their preferred candidates. The preferred candidate with the least ballots cast in their name shall have their ballots reallocated to the next candidate who is ranked and has yet to be eliminated. This process shall continue until one candidate secures a majority of votes. (ratified December 2nd, 1937)
  3. All worker councils and regional administrations of the Cooperative Commonwealth shall be guaranteed the right to freely associate with each other through the formation of voluntary confederations and mutual aid networks that democratically coordinate the production and distribution of goods and services. (ratified January 5th, 1938)
  4. Article Two of the Constitution shall hereby be amended to allocate seats representative of and elected by citizens of the Cooperative Commonwealth who are not employed by any worker council, proportional to their composition of the total national population. (ratified January 17th, 1938)
 
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Love the thoroughness but there are some institutional elements that I don't quite understand, with the presidential and parliamentary elements seeming especially odd (especially the direct election and proportional distribution along party lines of delegates to industrial federations). Is this the result of "20th Century Americanism"/"Bill of Rights Socialism" type thinking or is there some other in-universe explanation?
 
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Love the thoroughness but there are some institutional elements that I don't quite understand, with the presidential and parliamentary elements seeming especially odd (especially the direct election and proportional distribution along party lines of delegates to industrial federations). Is this the result of "20th Century Americanism"/"Bill of Rights Socialism" type thinking or is there some other in-universe explanation?
The allocation of seats to industrial federations along party lines is essentially the consequence of the pre-Revolution American socialist movement ITTL having a focus on electoralism, thus meaning that two socialist parties accustomed to and supportive of the existence of parties as a vehicle of political representation and change already exist upon the creation of the CCA, not to mention that socialists aren't the only ones who participated in the Provisional Government, hence why a lot of the structure of the United States is inherited by the Commonwealth's constitution.

Have the states been renamed republics, or have they been reorganised into republics?
Depends on what you mean by "reorganized". The majority of republics are basically just readmitted US states but with a new socialist government that adheres to the Commonwealth's constitution (this also means that each republic must write a new constitution to replace that of the state that preceded it, however, like with the Cooperative Commonwealth's constitution, many of these documents are basically their predecessor's government but with syndicalism built into the government apparatus), however, there are a few republics that are not just former US states with a red coat of paint. For example, a number of Native American reservations have been turned into republics of the Cooperative Commonwealth, and while I have yet to set this in stone, I'm also thinking that the Black Belt is reorganized into a new republic while a few sparsely populated states are merged into new republics.
 
Was there substantial emigration out of the United States following the establishment of the Cooperative Commonwealth, and what countries received the brunt of it?

Also, how did the establishment of the Commonwealth affect machine politics in most of America's major cities, such as New York and Chicago?
 
Was there substantial emigration out of the United States following the establishment of the Cooperative Commonwealth, and what countries received the brunt of it?
There wasn't substantial emigration outside of American business owners and other corporate executives, and this is mostly because the Second American Revolution was relatively short and bloodless (that's not to say that there wasn't any violence, however, there was no bloody "Second American Civil War" to displace people). These expats are generally able to afford travel beyond just Canada, so while many do wind up in Canada given its proximity to the CCA, others move to Great Britain and Germany. Once the Imperial Revolutionary War occurs, however, American emigrants primarily wind up in Germany, which is the wealthiest, most powerful, and most industrialized capitalist state by this point. Average Americans who emigrate from the CC, be it for ideological reasons or internal displacement due to minor insurrections by counterrevolutionaries during the De Leon administration, primarily wind up in Canada and Mexico depending on which one they live closer to.

Also, how did the establishment of the Commonwealth affect machine politics in most of America's major cities, such as New York and Chicago?
Pre-revolutionary socialist politics were strongest within urban centers, with New York City in particular being viewed as the de facto epicenter of American socialism. With regards to Tammany Hall in particular, the People's Party and associated labor movement swallow up a considerable portion of the Democratic base following the Railroad Revolution, and once Henry George is elected mayor in 1886, Tammany Hall declines into irrelevancy as the city's politics are taken over by the Populists and George successfully limits patronage. Chicago and many other major cities where socialist parties are popular (primarily in the north) undergo a very similar process where the traditional political establishment loose significant ground to socialist organizations and then proceed to have their ability to control local politics systemically limited by new regulations. What this means for the transition of cities to the Cooperative Commonwealth is that, by this point, the political landscape doesn't change all that much. The Democrats and Republicans are both irrelevant forces in many major American cities and their historical political machines have either been dismantled outright decades ago or lack the influence necessary to make in impact in either pre or post-revolutionary politics.
 
Is the Progressive Party dead at this point?
Yes it is. The Progressive Party gradually declined during the Olson administration due to the Populists absorbing the vast majority of their base and the implementation of capitalist economic policies becoming increasingly unlikely once America enters its third decade as a socialist republic. The party dissolves in the early 1930s, with many of its representatives in government joining the Populists, becoming independents, or associating with minor capitalist third parties that mostly get voted out of office sooner or later.

And how much appeal do the Democratic Centralists have?
For the time being, their appeal is rather niche. Their platform is basically Marxist-Leninism (advocacy for varying degrees of a centralized authoritarian vanguard), which primarily attracts more socially conservative voters, a handful of college educated voters who are attracted to the more technocratic elements of the DCP, older and wealthier voters who remain supportive of capitalism and view a centrally planned economy as the most realistic path to reducing worker self-management, a portion of rural voters, and a chunk of Eastern European immigrants (primarily from Russia) who were followers of the Bolsheviks back home. Basically, the DCP will gradually become the closest thing the CCA has to a "right wing" on both social and economic issues and will siphon away votes from the conservative wing of the People's Party as ranked choice voting makes a multiparty system increasingly practical.
 
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