The Prince of Peace

The Prince of Peace
Or: Miguel da Paz Survives

The Iberian Pennisula in the Time of Ferdinand and Isabella

The Birth of a Prince
1490 to 1504; Portugal and Spain
Isabella of Asturias had led a life with little happiness, and much sorrow. In 1490 she had met and married the love of her life, the Prince of Portugal, Alfonso. Yet barely a year later the prince had went and died in a riding accident along the River Tagus. João II, the King of Portugal duly sent his daughter-in-law home. Having born his son no child, her position in Portugal was useless to him; her continued presence in Lisbon only a reminder that he had lost his only son. Isabella returned to her parents in Spain heartbroken and declared she would never marry again, announcing her intention to retire to a convent. The Catholic monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand were distressed at this, as she was their eldest daughter and the apple of their eye. While Isabella desired to coddle her daughter and grant her every desire, she had to be more pragmatic; at twenty-one, the girl was still young and capable of producing a child, making her eligible on the European marriage market. While consoling her daughter and promising to let her enter the convent of Santa Maria del Parral at the next convenient moment, the Queen of Spain plotted to find for her daughter a new husband. A husband who hopefully would not go and drown himself.

For six years Isabella played this game with her daughter. The moment came in 1495, when João II of Portugal died and his cousin and brother-in-law, Manuel, the Duke of Beja, succeeded him. The new Portuguese King immediately desired to marry Isabella, to strengthen ties of Portugal with the Kingdom of Spain. Following the expulsion of the Portuguese Jews, the Catholic monarchs had no qualms with such a match, and approved the marriage much to Isabella’s distress, who had seen her brother marry the Archduchess Margaret six months previously. On the way to Isabella’s wedding in Portugal, Juan, the heir to the thrones of Castile and Aragon died in Salamanca, of what was believed to be consumption. Immediately, Isabella, soon to be Queen of Portugal, became the Princess of Asturias, and new heiress to the domains of the Trastamara dynasty.

For Manuel, this was the greatest thing he could hope for, to see his dynasty rule over the entirety of Iberia. Yet for Isabella, this was hardly an ideal position, to be denied her wish to retire to a convent, forced to marry the uncle of her husband. Desiring to make good on his idea to see the thrones of Castile and Aragon pass to his family, it wasn’t any surprise that Isabella fell pregnant shortly after the marriage. After nine long months, on August 28, 1498, at Zaragoza in Spain, the Queen of Portugal and Princess of Asturias entered into labor. A difficult process, after several hours it was announced that she had given birth to a healthy baby boy. Named Miguel da Paz, he bore the dynastical name of Aviz-Trastamara, and was immediately created Prince of Portugal. Isabella was given time to recuperate[1], and several days later finally met with ladies of the court, showing off her new child and the future of light and hope for Iberia.

The Catholic monarchs personally congratulated Manuel on the birth of his son and heir. Yet with the pleasantries aside, there was also much to discuss, as on the little babies shoulders rested the fate of the whole of Iberia. Manuel needed to return to Lisbon in due time, to govern his kingdom. No doubt his queen would be expected to join him (with their child) in due time. The Catholic monarchs, however, desired to see Miguel da Paz remain in Spain; after all, he would come to someday rule these lands, and would benefit from being educated in a Spanish manner. The King of Portugal didn’t wish to offend the Catholic monarchs, as it might jeopardize relations between Portugal and Spain, and reluctantly agreed to leave his son as a ward of Isabella and Ferdinand, on the condition that important appointments concerning the boy’s future education were discussed with him. This was acceptable to the King and Queen of Spain and plans were laid to house the Prince of Peace at Granada. Manuel left for Portugal shortly after, leaving his wife in the hands of her parents.

The Princess of Asturias and Queen of Portugal recovered from the ordeal of childbirth some weeks later, and departed from her spacious lodgings at Zaragoza to return to her husband in Portugal. Although he was not Alfonso, she had become genuinely fond of her husband, who was a religious and well-meaning man. She would go on to bear her husband four more children in quick succession, Infante Henry (1499, who died shortly after birth), Infanta Isabella (1500), Infanta Beatrice (1502), and Infanta Maria (1503).

Miguel da Paz, heir to Portugal and eventual King of Spain, was in the care of his grandparents in Spain. After a year in Zaragoza, he finally transferred to Granada, to the palace of the Emirs of Granada, to be raised by a mix of Portuguese, Castilian, and Catalan nurses. The warm airs were good for the young boy, and although he became briefly ill in 1500[2], he recovered. This caused some concern for Manuel, who had no other son to succeed him and feared not only the extinction of his dynasty, but losing the potential to see Portugal and Spain united under his son. Thereafter, caution was taken to maintain the Prince of Peace, who was nevertheless a robust and healthy child.

The years began to pass, and slowly the young boy began to grow…

[1] Perhaps the biggest POD; Isabella doesn’t die giving birth to the Prince.
[2] He died in 1500, IOTL.


Whew! There we go, the first chapter of the Miguel da Paz timeline. Thanks to everyone who offered me ideas in my previous topic, this is certainly an interesting PoD and I've already had fun exploring it. I tried to find all the spelling/grammar mistakes, but if I missed any, I apologize.

As always, comments, critique, and discussion are welcome! I hope to be able to churn out a new section every once in awhile, depending on my mood. For reference, each section is named, has the years listed for which it occured, and the primary geographical areas it occurs it. Obviously, this first chapter deals with the earliest years of Miguel da Paz and concerns only Portugal and Spain.

Slowly, but surely, the timeline will expand outwards. I plan on going a mix of timelines, with years and basic events outlined, and posts such as these.
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Valdemar II

Its always good to see a united iberia not under the Hapsburgs. Keep up the good work!
Yes I agree and I think Spain is going to be a lot better of, without wasting their money on wars in HRE, of course they're likely to waste them in Italy or Mahgreb instead.
OTL Spain went broke fighting neverending wars everywhere, especially the Spanish Netherlands. Keeping that ulcer away, can only be a positive.
Yes I agree and I think Spain is going to be a lot better of, without wasting their money on wars in HRE, of course they're likely to waste them in Italy or Mahgreb instead.
Well, Spain trying to expand is North Africa is almost granted, but I they had no claims in Italy besides the already possessed territories of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia. Unless France try to conquer them, I see no reason why would they try to expand into Northern Italy.
First off, thanks to everyone for their comments. They go a long way and really mean a lot. :) They'll no doubt help me write further chapters.

The Aviz will definately be interested in North Africa, but Gonzaga is right that Italian interests will be limited to the Kingdom of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. As Milan was an Imperial fief, Spain became dragged into those wars against France because of their connections to the empire which will not exist here. Thus we may see Milan become French, Austrian, or perhaps the Sforza will survive. Charles VIII and Louis XII both pressed their claims to the Kingdom of Naples, but in the end Ferdinand won out. By time Miguel inheirts Aragon, Naples should be firmly in his hands.

A lot of money is going to go towards propping up Portugal's empire in the east, expanding the trade routes there and building them up. As they will also inherit the discoveries of Columbus, and as the Pope has essentially given the Aviz the whole of the Americas (The Treaty of Torsedillas will essentially be a moot point), there will also be interest in seeking out wealth there. It wil be interesting to see the Portuguese introduce their colonization schemes into the Americas, which while backed by the crown, were quite unweidly. During the decay of the Portuguese golden age (1550s or so), it wasn't uncommon for the crown to appoint a new governor in say Goa, or else-where, and the new governor would have to fight and dispose the old one to take up his position. As Portuguese colonization was focused on wealth and 'every man making his own fortune' (The Alfonsine ordinances), it should be interesting when the Portuguese make land fall in the Americas!
During the decay of the Portuguese golden age (1550s or so), it wasn't uncommon for the crown to appoint a new governor in say Goa, or else-where, and the new governor would have to fight and dispose the old one to take up his position. As Portuguese colonization was focused on wealth and 'every man making his own fortune' (The Alfonsine ordinances), it should be interesting when the Portuguese make land fall in the Americas!
Sure, but while it was true in Asia, such conflicts never happened in Portuguese South America. Here the colony was organized firstly in the system of hereditary captaincies, where a noble received a huge amount of land with the mission of colonize it and the territory should pass to his heirs. I think that wouldn't change at first.

Also, during the first years of colonization there would still be a division of the American colonies. IOTL, even after the personal union of Aragon and Castille, only Castillians were allowed to go to the colonies (I'm not sure when Aragonese received permission to do that). So, even if they are under the same king, Portuguese and Castillian Americas would have different governments (in Lisbon and Valladolid). Of course, later would be a process of centralization, but probably not for a while.

Also, I wonder where they would choose the capital of ATL Spain. I imagine that Manuel and the Portuguese would make pressure to have it in Lisbon, but other city could be chosen. Maybe Badajoz or Braganza?
I'm not sure where the capital will be. The Kingdoms will probably be governed from their various capitals with their various institutions, but I imagine the court will be at Lisbon, and overtime it will come to be the capital of the whole of Iberia, as various offices are moved and a degree of centralization involved. For one, Lisbon is a port city and makes not only a good home for the Portuguese Casa da Índia, but of the Spanish Casa de Contratación too, which was based in Seville. Overtime I see things to slowly come to Lisbon, it was already a well-established city and would be the crowning achievement of the Aviz, to govern not only the whole of Iberia, but their Italian, American, and Asian possessions from the Castle of São Jorge and later the Ribeira Palace.


I was gonna say...:p

Yet another reason to use Spanish titles...that way the word play would have been funnier too...

Always an interesting topic, though, even if I prefer Juan de Trastamara himself;)

Can we get chapter II soon?
This POD will affect all of Europe not just the Iberian possessions. Interested in seeing how this impacts the HRE.
Ha, well that definately is funny! I should've thought a little harder about naming the reality, Miguel was never known as the Prince of Peace, so I'm not sure why I chose it. I suppose because he was both Prince of Asturias and Prince of Portugal, and he was literally known as Miguel of the Peace. But alas, at least the TLs are about different topics! :p

I'm gonna try to work on chapter two tonight. The first couple chapters will be centered mostly in Iberia, simply because the survival of Miguel and Isabella can't affect Europe too drastically at first. After the things in Iberia are settled, though, I'll gladly take requests to check in on other nations.

Indeed, I like this PoD because it affects European history as we know it as a whole, not just a single part. The Habsburg empire was for the longest time a boogeyman using it's vast funds from the Americas to back the counter-reformation and attempts to quash Protestantism. Aviz Iberia won't be connected to the empire as the Habsburgs were...making it rather unlikely to see Spanish aid in putting down the reformation. The Schmalkadic League and the troubles of the empire are going to play out very differently.
The Great Inheritance and Looming Conflicts
1504 to 1512; Portugal, Spain, and Italy

In 1504 the greatest tragedy to strike Spain since perhaps the death of the Prince Juan in 1497 occurred, when Isabella, the Catholic Queen died at Medina del Campo, leaving the inheritance of Castile to her daughter, Isabella, the Queen of Portugal, who immediately became Isabella II. The Archbishop of Toledo, Cisneros, assembled a regency council according to the will established by the deceased Queen. There remained now only Ferdinand of the Catholic monarchs, and although he was allowed to continued to be styled as King of Castile, his powers were immediately limited with the death of his wife; the Castilian nobility distrusted their former sovereign and had no desire to let him exercise any power in Castile.

The news of the death of the Queen of Castile arrived in Lisbon a few weeks later. The Portuguese court was ordered into mourning for such a great queen, but on the inside, King Manuel could only be joyous that his wife had come into the first of her inheritance, and immediately ordered that they depart to address the Castilian Cortes at Salamanca. At that city, in what was known as the Great Address, Manuel spoke on behalf of his wife, citing her desire to rule benevolently as any Christian sovereign might desire, to equal or surpass the legacy of her own mother, and to continue the policies established during the former reign. In effect this meant that nothing would change aside from a change in monarchs; Isabella kept her mothers councilors and was not keen to rule, leaving the minor details to the various arteries of state. Isabella’s only significant action was to declare her husband her co-ruler, and that whatever he might endeavor to accomplish for Castile, was what she wanted accomplished. In effect, Isabella II resigned herself to rule only in her name, allowing her husband to exercise her prerogatives.

While in Castile, Manuel met with Ferdinand, the remaining Catholic monarch, and sovereign of Aragon. At Valladolid Ferdinand was impressed with the political aptitude that Manuel possessed, in addressing the Cortes and seeking no great change in councils that governed the kingdom. Manuel and Ferdinand possessed good relations with each other, getting along well and understanding the realities of the situation that had come to pass following death of Isabella I. The much younger King of Portugal understood that Ferdinand was his elder and acted accordingly in all meetings with him. It was perhaps this attitude that gained Manuel another victory, when in 1505 Ferdinand succeeded in getting the Cortes of Aragon to name Isabella and Manuel joint-heirs to his Kingdom[1]. By 1505 it had become clear that the whole of Iberia was within the grasp of the King of Portugal, it was just a question of when Aragon would formally pass into his hands.

The agreements that existed between the Portugal and Castile led to a great degree of stability; Manuel allowed Cisneros to remain in control of the government in Castile, although the King reserved control over major decisions concerning foreign affairs. Coins were minted bearing the faces of both the Castilian monarchs, although they were notoriously absent from the Kingdom aside from major trips to hold court at Valladolid when the climate at Lisbon became too unbearable. This created a situation of absentee monarchs in Castile, causing a degree of resentment from the Castilian nobility, who desired to see Isabella and Manuel reside in Castile, or to at least appoint someone of suitable rank to oversee Cisneros actions; this led Manuel to appoint, with Isabella’s approval, her only sister who remained unwed, Maria, as Viceroy of Castile.

These actions all laid the future of Miguel, who would eventually come to inherit not only Portugal, but also Spain, to create a unified Kingdom in Iberia. Manuel acted cautiously, seeking to maintain the inheritance of Castile, and later Aragon, so that his son could shape it, with a greater legitimacy to do so than he would ever be able too. Following the death of Isabella, the young heir was moved away from Granada to Lisbon, were Manuel did away the appointments of the Catholic monarchs, seeking to bring up Miguel as a proper Portuguese prince, and with an education befitting as such, with special interest in naval affairs and exploration. Miguel was rapidly becoming a typical Renaissance prince, being fluent in Portuguese and Castilian, and slowly learning Catalan through his maids and nurses. On Miguel’s tenth birthday, in 1508, Manuel sent away the maids and women who had raised the boy up until that time, and appointed a series of men to carry his education to a higher level; a household was established for Miguel at Lagos, which had last hosted a royal prince in the person of Henry the Navigator.

Things had been quiet for Portugal and Castile following the death of Isabella. A series of wars had occurred in Italy between 1494 and 1508, with the French Kings Charles VIII and Louis XII seeking to press their claims to the Angevin inheritance of Naples, and the Visconti claims to Milan. Charles VIII had succeeded in seizing Naples from Ferdinand II, only being forced to flee when the princes of Italy turned against French brutality, resulting in the formation of the League of Venice. Charles VIII died before he could regroup his forces, leaving the legacy of Italy to his cousin, Louis d’Orléans, who became Louis XII. The resulting wars continued to fester, bringing the Ferdinand of Aragon into the conflict as virtue of being King of Sicily. Louis XII seemed more successful in his endeavors than his cousin, managing to have Maximilian of Austria, the Holy Roman Emperor recognize his conquests in northern Italy, while negotiating a partition of Naples between France and Aragon.

The two Kings, Louis and Ferdinand, fell into squabbling over their spoils, and at Cerignola and Garigliano, the French were defeated by the Spanish. The resulting Treaty of Lyons in 1504 awarded Milan to France, while Ferdinand gained the whole of Naples. These victories for Spain were short-lived, as Isabella died shortly after, bringing the Portuguese King in control of Castile by-right of his wife. Cautious and not desiring to embroil the domains of his wife in her father’s flighty Italian ambitions, Manuel succeeded in the withdrawal of Castilian troops from Italy at the end of the conflict, leaving Ferdinand’s army in Naples much reduced and exposed.

The peace in Italy lasted only until 1508, when the Pope formed a League at Cambrai to reduce Venetian influence in northern Italy, a league that Louis, Maximilian, Ferdinand, and Alfonso, the Duke of Ferrara, happily signed onto. Manuel refused to commit any troops, Castilian or Portuguese to the campaign, leaving Ferdinand with a minuscule force in Italy with which to maneuver with. He turned to the Cortes of Aragon to raise funds for the conflict, and set out to raise Swiss mercenaries to bolster his forces. In a inspiring flame of patriotism, the Cortes agreed to grant an extravagant financial subsidy to the King, condemning the King of Portugal for refusing to ‘aid his father in his greatest time of need.’ This caused Manuel to recant, promising Ferdinand an annual subsidy of 10,000 ducats for as long as he fought in Italy against his enemies, while still refusing to commit troops to the campaign. This prevented a breech in relations between the two Kings, but radically altered the warmth that had previously existed. Only at the behest of his daughter did Manuel and Ferdinand reconcile at Toledo in 1512; the whole meeting was prompted by rumors that Ferdinand intended to marry Mary Tudor[2], sister of his erstwhile ally, Henry VIII, the King of England, to produce an heir to prevent Manuel and Isabella II from inheriting Aragon. At this meeting Ferdinand dispelled the rumors, dismissing them at hogwash, and reassured the couple that they would be the ones to inherit his patrimony.

The League against Venice was short-lived; by 1510 the Papacy had abandoned it’s alliance against Venice, joining forces with the Republic to curb French expansionism, and by 1511 the League had expanded further, Ferdinand and Maximilian, along with Henry VIII of England the Swiss Cantons to contain France in Italy. With such troubles brewing in Italy, but also abroad, it remained to be seen what actions Manuel would take in the conflict of Cambrai.

[1]In OTL, the Cortes of Aragon refused to name Philip and Joanna heirs to Aragon in 1505, in hopes Ferdinand might still produce a male heir. He hated Philip, and went so far as to marry Germaine de Foix in hopes of producing an heir to inherit Aragon. IOTL, Ferdinand gets along well with Manuel, and has no qualms with seeing him and Isabella inherit his realm.

[2] Ferdinand in OTL married Germaine de Foix in 1505, for the whole reason to keep Aragon out of the hands of Philip and Joanna. Relations remain warm between his heirs so this does not occur ITTL. Rumors often circulate in royal courts, and with relations briefly chilling between Manuel and Ferdinand, it would be natural that rumors might spout up of Ferdinand seeking another wife to produce an heir. As England and Aragon are allies through the league of Cambrai, and already have ties through Catherine of Aragon, an English match would make a great rumor.
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This is an excellent timeline. I have always wondered about a united Iberia but never knew enough of the history to attempt it. Keep up the good work!
Whilst in Spain, Manuel met with Ferdinand...
...The agreements that existed between the Portugal and Spain

ITTL would make no sense to say that Manuel went to Spain, since Portugal would also be part of Spain. In fact, IOTL the Portuguese considered themselves to be Spanish, and were pissed off when Charles I started to call himself king of Spain. Here would be better to say Castile.

this led Manuel to appoint, with Isabella’s approval, George, the Duke of Coimbra, as Viceroy of Castile
Why would them nominate a Portuguese, a foreigner, as Viceroy of Castile, risking to piss off the Castilian nobility? It would be better to have a proper Castilian noble (or even Cisneros himself).

BTW, where is Maria, the third daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, who married Manuel of Portugal after the death of his first wife? Is she married (and to whom)? If she isn't married than she would be the perfect "viceroy" to Castile.

Also, as Aragon followed Salic Law, Isabella could not be nominated as the heir of Ferdinand, as she was a woman. IOTL, after Ferdinand's death, it wasn't his daughter Juana who became queen, but the throne passed directly to his grandson Charles. ITTL the only one that could be made heir of Aragon would be Miguel himself.
Hm, you are right. I shall edit those entries to read as Castile. I was writing it kinda late last night some things fall under the radar I'm afraid. ;)

Cisneros is head of the government in Castile so he wouldn't be a good choice for Viceroy. The nobles are wanting a royal representative, to alleviate the fact the King doesn't reside in Castile. As there aren't any members of the Trastamara dynasty to appoint, an Aviz would have to do, and the Duke of Coimbra is a natural son of John II. Plus, it wasn't too unusual for foreigners to appointed to positions; the Duke of Calabria, Ferdinand, served as Viceroy of Valencia (although the crown of Aragon has it's Italian legacies and Calabria was one-time heir of Naples) and Charles V had his Flemings (although the Communeros changed that). Are there any suitable men of good standing that spring to mind to serve as Viceroy, and watch over Cisneros and the Councils of State?

I haven't pondered the thought of Maria, aside from the fact that she does end up married somewhere. Any ideas for a marriage match for her? It can probably be covered in a later chapter, or referenced at least. All that is established is that she's married somewhere before Isabella dies (1500-1501 is a likely time period)

As for Aragon, I'm not sure if Salic Law is that strong. It had at least one Queen Regnant, Petronila, in the 12th century. Joanna is listed on the monarch chart of Aragon. In 1502 the Aragonese Cortes at Zaragoza recognized Joanna as heiress, but the Archbishop of Zaragoza stated in his oath that it was invalid and the succession could only be changed by Cortes with the King. When Ferdinand died, Joanna became Queen and Charles became Governor-General. Nevertheless, he was proclaimed jointly with his mother shortly after that, and the Cortes of Aragon and Castile paid homage to them as joint monarchs. So long as a Cortes is called by the King, formal legislation could be passed to alter the law of succession.

I welcome criticism, it helps improve things and smooth out bumps along the road. So thank you for the comments. :)
I haven't pondered the thought of Maria, aside from the fact that she does end up married somewhere. Any ideas for a marriage match for her? It can probably be covered in a later chapter, or referenced at least. All that is established is that she's married somewhere before Isabella dies (1500-1501 is a likely time period)
Well, IOTL all their sisters were married to kings (except Juana, but she married the Emperor's son, which was even better). The only kings I could find that were available to marry in 1500-1501 were James IV of Scotland and Prince Christian (future Christian II) of Denmark.

However, if you want something fun, you can make her marry the prince Arthur of England (and later his brother Henry, if he still dies ITTL) instead of Catherine. After all, Maria was elder than Catherine, and would have being married earlier than his youngest sister. That's interesting, because Maria was much luckier than Catherine in having children. She gave birth to 10 children, and 8 of them reached adulthood. It would be a dream for Henry VIII.
That would be interesting.. Arthur still dies in this TL and Henry VIII still becomes King. Problem is they had already decided to marry Catherine to the Prince of Wales prior to the PoD. While I suppose it's a moot issue, one Spanish princess is not quite different from another in the eyes of a monarch; after all, it's about politics and the dowry, the actual girl matters quite little. I'd prefer if Henry VIII kept his match with Catherine as I've already come up with some ideas concerning England that will make it quite different..

The Catholic monarchs arranged marriages mostly to bolster their own standing and improve political arrangements: a daughter to Portugal to maintain the cordial relations and the peace; a daughter was sent to England as Henry VII desired to bolster his own standing, Juan married an Austrian Archduchess and Joanna married the Archduke of Burgundy. I can't really see any interest in a Danish or Scottish match... so she shall remain unmarried, and in that case become the Viceroy of Castile. So that shall be edited as such.
The Catholic monarchs arranged marriages mostly to bolster their own standing and improve political arrangements: a daughter to Portugal to maintain the cordial relations and the peace; a daughter was sent to England as Henry VII desired to bolster his own standing, Juan married an Austrian Archduchess and Joanna married the Archduke of Burgundy. I can't really see any interest in a Danish or Scottish match... so she shall remain unmarried, and in that case become the Viceroy of Castile. So that shall be edited as such.
The Catholic monarchs' marriages were creating a vast anti-French alliance, using their large family to bring the English and Hapsburg into an alliance. The clear aim of the marriages was to counter French ambitions, and protect and expand Spain's European interests. The marriage alliance between Spain and the Hapsburg is going to be of particular use in wars in Italy, since the Hapsburg and Spanish should be able to amicably split the peninsula with Hapsburg control via assertion of Imperial rights in Milan, and the connection of Naples/Sicily to the Aragonese throne.

Has Philip the Handsome died in 1506? And is Charles V going to end up the same kind of person, educated in the same manner with the same kind of personality, just minus the Spanish crowns?