The treaties giving the US control over a country's customs revenue (customs receiverships) were for quite a few Caribbean countries protectorate treaties in the sense that they formalized control of the US over their primary source of revenue (from which basically all other governmental decisions flow since without money the government can't really do anything). And unlike say maybe an IMF agreement, this was specific country-to-country and entailed far more control than merely oversight as the US would appoint an official within the country's government.Just wondering again if anyone has any input on this, in regards to the US occupation/protectorates/influence in the Caribbean in the early to mid 1900s. If not, I might just mostly stick with the conventions on the older map series for the most part
Cuba was occupied 1899-1902 and 1906-1909. It was a protectorate of the US from 1902/1903 (due to the Platt Amendent which allowed the US the exclusive right to intervene in Cuba to preserve Cuban independence and good government, the Platt Amendment had to be incorporated into the Cuban Constitution before the US would withdraw in 1902 and its provisions were included in the Cuban-American treaty of 1903) until 1934 when a new treaty replaced the 1903 one and removed most of the provisions of the Platt Amendment and Cuba removed the Platt Amendment provisions from its constitution. Eastern Cuba was also occupied (sort of) in 1917-1922 (the Sugar Intervention) when US troops were given bases in the east by the Cuban government in hopes of helping to stem unrest in the area that was affecting the sugar harvest. US troops patrolled the countryside and by 1918 were also patrolling the cities.
Haiti was sort of occupied in 1914 actually as Wilson sent the Marines in that year. They removed gold worth $500,000 from the Haitian National Bank in December and it was placed in National City Bank's New York vault for safe-keeping. But I think that was a short intervention and probably too short to show up on a 1914 map. The long-term occupation began in 1915 and ended August 1, 1934. During that time if I remember correctly Haiti's constitution was altered as well as a fiscal/customs receiver appointed by the US. While the occupation ended in 1934, the fiscal/customs receivership aspect didn't end until 1941, so Haiti was pretty much a US protectorate until 1941.
Dominican Republic was occupied 1916-1924 but was a protectorate from 1905. In 1903-1905 the DR and US attempted to negotiate a treaty giving the US control over customs (and during that time US troops occupied Santo Domingo and a few other places for little over a month in 1904 due to rebel activity in the Dominican civil war) but that failed in the US Senate and in 1905 the Dominican government invited the US to take over their customs without a treaty, which the US, under Roosevelt, did with an American colonel taking over the DR's customs agency. I think that same year, the agency (now under American management) raised a new customs frontier force to patrol the porous border with Haiti. This force consisted of Dominicans with American commanders. The protectorate relationship ended March 31, 1941 according to the Trujillo-Hull Convention.
Panama was a protectorate from 1903 until 1936 because similar to Cuba, there was a 1903 treaty (Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty) that gave the US the exclusive right to guarantee Panama's independence and to intervene in Panamanian domestic affairs. This treaty was replaced in 1936 (by the Hull-Alfaro Treaty) which did away with the right of intervention.
Nicaragua was occupied in 1912 and then occupied again in 1927-1933. It became a protectorate after a treaty was ratified between it and the US giving US control over Nicaraguan finances in 1912 until 1933 I think.
Honduras had seen US troops deployed in certain areas in 1907 (in response to civil unrest and a Nicaraguan invasion that took the capital of Honduras) and 1911, 1912, 1919, 1924 (twice) and 1925. From what I can tell it wasn't a full occupation of the country. US influence was very heavy from 1911-1919 under a provisional president chosen by the US as part of an agreement to bring an end to a civil conflict. So Honduras I would show as US influenced during that time with US occupations of Le Ceiba during the 1907, 1924 and 1925 episodes of US troop deployment.
1902 - Cuba protectorate
1903-1904 - Cuba and Panama protectorate
1905 - Cuba, Panama and DR protectorate
1906 - Cuba occupied; Panama and DR protectorate
1907 - Cuba occupied, La Ceiba in Honduras occupied; Panama and DR protectorate
1908-1909 - Cuba occupied; Panama and DR protectorate
1910-1911 - Cuba, Panama and DR protectorate
1911 - Cuba, Panama and DR protectorate; Honduras US influenced
1912 - Nicaragua occupied; Cuba, Panama and DR protectorate; Honduras US influenced
1913-1914 - Cuba, Panama, DR and Nicaragua protectorate; Honduras US influenced
1915 - Haiti occupied; Cuba, Panama, DR and Nicaragua protectorate; Honduras US influenced
1916 - Haiti and DR occupied; Cuba, Panama and Nicaragua protectorate; Honduras US influenced
1917-1919 - Haiti, DR and Cuba's Oriente province occupied; rest of Cuba, Panama and Nicaragua protectorate; Honduras US influenced
1920-1922 - Haiti, DR and Cuba's Oriente province occupied; rest of Cuba, Panama and Nicaragua protectorate
1923 - Haiti and DR occupied; Cuba, Panama and Nicaragua protectorate;
1924 - Haiti and La Ceiba occupied; Cuba, Panama, DR and Nicaragua protectorate;
1925 - Haiti and La Ceiba occupied; Cuba, Panama, DR and Nicaragua protectorate;
1926-1933 - Haiti occupied; Cuba, Panama, DR and Nicaragua protectorate;
1934-1936 - Haiti, Panama and DR protectorate;
1937-1941 -Haiti and DR protectorate
An example map (which also shows Colombia's non-recognition of Panama until 1922 and corrected the Cayman Islands (which were shown as Cuban) and Isle of Pines/Isla de Juventad (which were shown as Mexican oddly instead of Cuban); also corrected are showing occupied countries in the primary colour instead of the territory colour since Haiti and the Dom Rep were never territories of the US but were occupied by the US and occupation is shown in the primary colour; the territory colour is really for federal systems where territories exist within a federal system):