The Mare Nostrum doctrine: an alternate Italian Empire

Capitulum I: The Italian Peninsula in 1836

Exiles dreamed of unification. Three ideals of unification appeared. Vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under leadership of the Pope in his 1842 book Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians.[13] Pope Pius IX at first appeared interested but he turned reactionary and led the battle against liberalism and nationalism.

Many leading Carbonari revolutionaries wanted a republic,[18] two of the most prominent being Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi. Mazzini's activity in revolutionary movements caused him to be imprisoned soon after he joined. While in prison, he concluded that Italy could − and therefore should − be unified, and he formulated a program for establishing a free, independent, and republican nation with Rome as its capital. Following his release in 1831, he went to Marseille in France, where he organized a new political society called La Giovine Italia (Young Italy), whose motto was "Dio e Popolo" (God and People), which sought the unification of Italy.[19]

Garibaldi, a native of Nice (then part of Piedmont), participated in an uprising in Piedmont in 1834 and was sentenced to death. He escaped to South America, though, spending fourteen years in exile, taking part in several wars, and learning the art of guerrilla warfare before his return to Italy in 1848.

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You forgot some Wikipedia references.
Capitulum II: The Moroccan Wars, the First Moroccan War

The nation destined to unify the Italian peninsula and gain dominance over the Mediterranean and the Red Seas was the Kingdom of Sardinia, or Sardinia-Piedmont. After obtaining their independence from France in the Congress of Vienna, they took control (controll) of the Republic of Genoa. However, the young kingdom had bigger aims in Lombardy (Lombardia), which was controlled by the Austrian Empire. Out of pure interests in the region, the Italian state aimed to rally the Italians against their Habsbourg competitors (Hapsbourg competetors). It first step was (It's first step was with) an official alliance with the Duchy of Lucca on January 25, 1836 (on January 25 1836). Carlo Ludovico, Duke of Parma, visited the capital of the Kingdom of Sardina for the occasion, and hoped to establish deep relations with the Sardinian king, Carlo Alberto of Savoy. Supported by the Sardinians, Lucca abolished feudalism, and developed various of its cities and ports. So far, both Lucca and Sardinia were focused on the "homefront", which was the Italian Peninsula (Italian peninsula).

However, a serie of incidents would expand the two monarchies outside of the peninsula, and would cause the Kingdom of Sardina to develop the so called "Mare Nostrum Doctrine".

The Alaouite dynasty Morocco had become a nation poorly supported by the international community because of the action of piracy against western nations. The Kingdom of Sardinia was hurt as well. On March 09 1836, in particular, a Sardinian ship was attacked by Berber pirates, and the crew and passengers were believed to had been sold into slavery. Attacks by Moroccan pirates increased in the aftermath of March 20, 1836 (March 20 1836) gold rush in the Argentiera della Nurra, near Sassari, in Sardinia. On July 10, 1836 (On July 10 1836) the Kingdom of Sardina, after receiving confirmations of foreign powers neutrality in the matter, demanded Morocco to make (makre) preventive moves to stop piracy in the Mediterranean. However, despite sultan Abd al-Rahman (Abd-al Rahman) best intentions to prevent war with the European countries, he told the Sardinians that his hands were tied on the matter.

Believing this to be some sort of insult, the Kingdom of Sardinia, followed by the Duchy of Lucca on July 21, 1836 (on July 21 1836), declared war on Morocco on July 17. On September 05, 1836 (On September 05 1836) the first Sardinian and Lucchese soldiers landed near the city of Ajdir, taking it by storm. After an initial beachhead was gained, the Sardinian-Lucchese forces focused on expanding in the area to expand the beachhead. They met relatively stiff resistance from the native Waryagher tribe, but managed to hold their position until the rest of the Sardinian and Lucchese armies arrived to expand into the interior of Morocco. The initial army was under overall command of Eusebio Bava. By December 14, 1836 (By December 14 1836), the Sardinian and Lucchese forces controlled a territory that went as deep as Midar in the south, further east to Al Aaroui and as west as Targuist. However the control (controll) of the Western territories was still limited to the coast, while the interior was still in Moroccan hands.

On 29 July, further clashes to control (for controll) of Aknoul occurred between the combined Sardinian and Lucchese forces against the Moroccan ones.

After some other minor raids against the Moroccans along the Atlantic coast, Abd al-Rahman (Abd-al Rahman) sued for peace against the Sardinians and Lucchese governments. The Sardinian-Moroccan War (war), or as it would later be known, the First Sardinian-Moroccan War, was over.

Many believed that the treaty was too harsh for (on) the Moroccans, and that the Sardinians and Lucchese were essentially trying to turn the African nation into a colony, however both Italian nations assured the major powers that their intentions were to prevent further events of piracy and raids. Spain, having ended the Carlist War and with the rise of Infante Carlos María Isidro of Spain as King (king) of Spain believed the Sardinians and Lucchese rivals regarding the colonization of Morocco.

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Capitulum II: The Moroccan Wars, the First Moroccan War

Many believed that the treaty was too harsh on the Moroccans, and that the Sardinians and Lucchese were essentially trying to turn the African nation into a colony, however both Italian nations assured the major powers that their intentions were to prevent further events of piracy and raids. Spain, having ended the Carlist War and with the rise of Infante Carlos María Isidro of Spain as king of Spain believed the Sardinians and Lucchese rivals regarding the colonization of Morocco.

WTF! 😮
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Capitulum III: The Moroccan Wars, the Second Moroccan War

Now that the Kingdom (kingdom) of Sardinia and the Duchy of Lucca had the dominance of the Mediterranean as their common aim, they intended to spread (spred) their influence in the sea even further. On February 02, 1838 (On February 02 1838) the Kingdom (kingdom) of Sardinia claimed that Abdelkader soldiers had passed through Morocco and begun attacking Sardinian and Lucchese concessions.

The two monarchs would meet on Maye 11, 1843 (on May 11 1843) and an alliance between the two states was born. The Duchy of Lucca too become aligned with the French, while the Papal States had become Sardinian allies on April 16, 1839 (on April 16 1839). The French soon saw the House of Savoy (house of Savoy) as a contigency plan against the Austrian Habsbourg (Hapsbourg), with a stench anti-Austrian royal house slowly but steadily spreading into the Italian peninsula as either an ally or a puppet. Both French and Papal agencies and industries were welcomed in the Sardinian and Lucchese concessions in the Rif region of Morocco. And they were badly needed.

The Moroccans heavily supported rebels in the Tangier regions, and it was not until Marc 13, 1841 (March 13 1841) that the region was pacified. However, on November 20, 1841 (on November 20 1841), a major Berber raid, supported by Morocco, hit the concession in Tangiers and was barely repulsed. Despite having the right to settle in the Rif and Aš-šarq regions, the very few who did were constantly harassed by the natives, with the Moroccans doing very little to stop them. On January 07, 1843 (On January 07 1843) Sardinia decided that it was time to act. After another major skimmerish between Moroccan and Sardinian forces and the establishment of the alliance with France, Sardinia declared war against Morocco on May 11, 1843 (on May 11 1843). The Papal States joined too in the war with Pope Gregory XVI calling the war a ''crusade'', not necessarily against Muslim but against the uncivilized nation of Morocco and to protect the Christian communities against the Moroccans. Serbia, who had become a close partner (patner) of Sardinia on October 05, 1837 (on October 05 1837) also sent volunteers in the region as a mean to gain military experience and as a possibility of gaining recognition from the Italian states and France.

On June 04, 1843 (On June 04 1843), Sardinian forces assaulted Wazzan but were met with fierce resistance by Moroccan soldiers. Their advances were initially slow but eventually they overwhelmed Tawfiq al-Qubiai's men, taking the town of Wazzan before swiftly capturing Jorf El Melha. On 07 June, Moroccan forces began shelling the Sardinian positions in an attempt to recapture them, though no casualties were reported.

On June 16, Carlist Spain declared war against Sardinia and its allies in defense (defence) of Morocco, hoping for French neutrality. Instead, the French intervened against the Spanish government and quickly begun operations.

While that happened, Sardinian troops under Bava took Fez on August 12, 1843 (on August 12 1843), advancing then north to encircle several Moroccan elements who threatened La Martora's army. On September 08, La Martora's army was already at the outskirt of Casablanca. While that occurred, the French army advanced in the Rif region, defeating several Moroccan armies and then marched on the Spanish concession on Ceuta. As a matter of fact, the French army even landed on the Spanish Gibraltar peninsula and conquered the city of Jerez, while the rest of the army focused on the Pyrenees (Pyrenee front).

Morocco, on the other hand, was not so lucky. It become a protectorate, with France gaining everything south of the Atlas mountains, while Sardinia gained everything else. Lucca concession increased in size and reached the Oued Ghis river in the south.

View attachment 605406
The Moroccan protectorate, September 11, 1844 (11 September 1844)

The British did not particularly (particurally) enjoy this new turn of events, with Sardinia slowly gaining major influences in North Africa. Some historians claimed that this was the beginning of the rivalry (rivality) between Britain and Italy for dominance over the Mediterranean sea.

As for all various Sardinian allies, all gained major advantages. France for example could now launch further incursions into Algeria and the Sahara desert, while the Papal State begun sending missionaries in Morocco. Louis Philippe I esteem for the Sardinians grew even further, and the French went as far (as fas) as to say that they would had supported their effort in the Italian unifications. However, Carlo Alberto of Savoy dreamed even bigger. He saw the Mediterranean as a future Italian lake, and realized that the French were the best way to get it. So he made an audacious proposal to Louis Philippe I. "You help me rule the Mare Nostrum [Mediterranean sea], and you shall rule it as well'', Sardinia was shaping to become one of France best allies not only for further influence in the Italian peninsula, but also for further influence in the Mediterranean sea. And considering the rivalry (rivality) between both the French and the British, it didn't seem like a bad deal.

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Mind if I ask you... is it a big thing?

Well, it's very possible that his government will be very archaic (as the his brother's government). Therefore, it is probable that Spain will have political instability and a stronger liberal revolution.

By the way:

1- How the Carlists won? (I don't care if you don't know).

2- Why his rivalry with Sardinia?
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This region I circled
Capitulum IV: The Greek Wars (The First Greek War, Part 1)

While the Sardinians continued their efforts against the Moroccans, in the Eastern Mediterranean problems continued to arise with the young Kingdom of Greece (kingdom of Greece). Back on April 30, 1839 (on April 30 1839) the Ottomans and the Sardinians signed a treaty of non aggression, as the Ottomans had little to no intention to start any sort of conflict with the "little tiger of the Mediterranean" (as Sardinia was nicknamed at the time). While the Ottomans had no fear of the Sardinians themselves, they feared that the French might intervene in case incidents with the Sardinian navy ever occurred.

The Sardinians at first demanded the Ottomans reparations, threatening to cancel the Non-Aggression Pact of 1839, but soon realized that the Ottomans did not practice piracy on the same scale as the Moroccans. As relations with the Ottomans resumed, the Sardinians accused the Greeks of the attack and demanded reparations. The British, who had strong interests in the Mediterranean and were wary of Sardinian expansion and alliance with France, promised to defend Greece, which decided to refuse the Sardinian demands.

British Punch magazine portrayed (potrayed) the Sardinian declaration of war against Greece (greece) as an analogue of an Eritrean fable, in which a leopard cub (the Sardinian ship) is killed by a herd of elephants (the Ottoman empire), but when the cub father (the Kingdom of Sardinia [kingdom of Sardinia]) demanded to know who the killer was, and when he was told that it was the elephants, he instead called the goats (Greece) guilty of the murder. In reality, Sardinia was more than willingly to bring the war with the Ottomans, something that the French themselves were interested in and were keen in entering the conflict with Sardinia. None the less, on September 10, 1844 (on September 10 1844), after Morocco was fully conquered by France and Sardinia, the Italian kingdom and its allies declared war against Greece, accusing them of supporting dangerous cells that could threaten the stability of the Mediterranean.

While the war was technically declared on September 10, 1844 (on September 10 1844), the Sardinian population remained unaware of the situation until November 22, 1844 (November 22 1844), when Britain entered the war against Sardinia and her allies. Sardinia guaranteed France that the sole purpose of the French in the conflict was to contain the British navy as best as possible, in order for the Sardinians to land on Greece. While France would do most of the naval work, Sardinia main mission was to conquer Greece as fast as possible. However, before this plan could be placed in action, the British managed to launch a daring raid on Savona and Nice, resulting in the occupation of the two cities. After that, Britain proceeded to consolidate her position near the coast, and advanced inland. However, the British army greatly (greately) underestimated the Sardinian one.

The French force first landed at Monaco. The French and Sardinian forces then collaborated to attack the city of Nice on January 14, 1845 (on 14 January 1845). The Franco-Sardinians were confronted by a stiff resistance, culminating with a major battle on 23 January, but the British garrison (garrinson) surrendered on January 26 (on 26 January).

Despite their victories, Carlo Alberto was afraid that, unless the Sardinian army finally landed on Greece, there would be a revolution at home. There had been too many wars by now, and the local population was growing unhappy. In order to have at least the government on his side, he accepted the creation of the Senato Subalpino, the Sardinian parliament. On February 16, 1845 (On February 16 1845) Carlo Alberto renounced his absolute powers and decided to partially limit his powers, with Sardinia becoming a semi-constitutional monarchy. On February 19, 1845 (On February 19 1845) the first elections occurred in Sardinia.

The news of the proclamation of the Sardinian parliament were not the only good news for the kingdom of Sardinia. On February 27, 1845 (On 27 February 1845) the Sardinian forces attacked the last British forces in Savona. During February 31 and March 01 in the initial Sardinian attack, nearly 1,500 British prisoners were taken after fierce fighting. The British managed to (The Britishmanaged) to evacuate (evaquate) the majority of their forces none the less.

With no one to oppose the fleet, the Sardinians finally landed in Greece on April 10, 1845 (on April 10 1845) near Kyparissia. The Sardinians advanced inland, taking Mouriatada without much of a fight. As this occurred, the British landed in Sardinia, taking Cagliari easily. While the British slowly but steadily moved inland in Sardinia, the Sardinians themselves took Calamata in Greece. The Sardinian army, under Gantano Sofilari, advanced north, taking Patrasso.

I hope you guys like this new update! Be sure to like(if you like it), comment(please comment so I can learn what your opinion is) and.....follow I guess.