A Boy’s death
The lucky marriage – Kasumigenx cut

A Boy’s death


Constance of Brittany


As a girl, Constance could not inherit the duchy at her father's death if she had a brother. A charter by Margaret, Constance's mother, seems to show that she and Conan had more than one child. However, two charters made by Constance and her son Arthur towards 1200 mention a brother of Constance, William "clericus". As a boy, William should logically have inherited the duchy after Conan.[citation needed] According to Everard, Henry II's forcing Constance's father into abdicating in 1166 was meant to prevent any son of the Duke from inheriting the duchy.

Constance and Geoffrey had two surviving daughters:

Eleanor of Brittany (c.1182/1184-1241)

Matilda, Duchess of Austria (c. 1185-1230) married to Frederick I of Austria

Arthur(1187-1189) - Geoffrey's posthumous son

Constance and Guy had two daughters:

Alix of Thouars (1200 – 1221); she married Robert of Dreux

Catherine of Thouars ;she married Andrew III, Baron of vitré, son of Andrew II, Baron of Vitré and Eustacie of Rays; her husband was noteworthy for rebuilding the Château de Vitré

Margaret of Thouars (1201 – 1216/1220); she was the first wife of Geoffrey, Viscount of Rohan.


Leopold V of Austria

The emperor probably agreed with King Philip, already in conflict with the English king, on Richard's capture. When Richard left the Holy Land in late October 1192, he found the French ports closed and sailed up the Adriatic Sea. He took the country road from Aquileia across Austria, to reach the Bavarian estates of his Welf brother-in-law Henry the Lion. Whilst travelling under disguise, he stopped at Vienna shortly before Christmas 1192, where he was recognized (supposedly because of his signet ring) and arrested in Erdberg (modern Landstraße district). Initially Duke Leopold had the king imprisoned in Dürnstein, and in March 1193 Richard was brought before Emperor Henry VI at Trifels Castle, accused of Conrad's murder. A ransom of 35,000 kilograms of silver was paid to release King Richard. Leopold demanded that Richard's niece, Eleanor, marry his son Frederick. Due to Leopold's death, this marriage never took place but instead her younger sister, Matilda would take her place. The marriage between Matilda and Frederick ensured a Strong regency starting on 1210, after his son’s death.


Frederick of Austria


Frederick of Austria and Matilda of Brittany had 5 children

Helena of Austria b. 1200

Leopold VI of Austria b. 1202

Henry of Austria b. 1204

Matilda of Austria b. 1206

Gertrude of Austria b. 1210

Matilda of Austria b. 1206

Berthrade of Austria b. 1210

Arthur of Brittany is dead on this timeline as an infant, John thought that his crown was secure but he is mistaken
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The Treaty of Le Goulet

The only known portrait of Eleanor of Brittany


Eleanor of Brittany as depicted on the series the Capetians

The Treaty of Le Goulet


Treaty Le Goulet

The Treaty of Le Goulet was signed by Kings John of England and Philip II of France in May 1200. It concerned bringing an end to the war over the Duchy of Normandy and finalising the new borders of what was left of the duchy. The treaty was a victory for Philip in asserting his legal claims to overlordship over John's French lands.

The terms of the treaty signed at Le Goulet, an island in the middle of the Seine river near Vernon in Normandy, included clarifications of the feudal relationships binding the monarchs. Johny recognised the new status of the lost Norman territories by acknowledging the Counts of Boulogne and Flanders as vassals of the kings of France, not those of England, and recognised Philip as the suzerain of the continental lands in the Angevin Empire. John also bound himself not to support any rebellions on the part of the counts of Boulogne and Flanders.

Philip had previously recognised John as suzerain of Anjou and the Duchy of Brittany, but with the treaty of le Goulet he extorted 20,000 marks sterling as "relief" in payment for recognition of John's sovereignty of Brittany.

The treaty also included territorial concessions by John to Philip. The Vexin (except for Les Andelys, where Château Gaillard, vital to the defence of the region, was located) and the Évrécin in Normandy, as well as Issoudun, Graçay, and the fief of André de Chauvigny in Berry were to be removed from Angevin suzerainty and put directly into that of France.

The Duchy of Aquitaine was not included in the treaty. It was still held by John as heir to his still-living mother, Eleanor. The treaty was sealed with a marriage alliance between the Angevin and Capetian dynasties. John's niece Eleanor of Brittany, daughter of his brother Geoffrey II of Brittany and Constance of Brittany, married Philip's eldest son, Louis VIII of France (to be eventually known as Louis the Lion). The marriage alliance only assured a strong regent for the minority of Philip III of France. Philip declared John deposed from his fiefs for failure to obey a summons in 1202 and war broke out again. Philip moved quickly to seize John's lands in Normandy, strengthening the French throne in the process.

Children of Eleanor of Brittany and Louis VIII

Constance 1203, Queen of Castile, married to Henry I of Castile

Philip 1204 married to Matilda of Boulogne.

William XI of Aquitaine 1206 married to Elizabeth of Swabia

Louis I of Provence 1214 married to Margaret I of Provence

Robert 1216, Count of Flanders married to Mary I of Flanders b. 1216, daughter of Joanna I of Flanders

Eleanor 1218*

Etienne 1220 d. 1222
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A Scandal in the court

Charlize Theron as Ingeborg of Denmark on the series the Capetians.

A Scandal in the court

On her arrival to the court of France from her mother, Constance of Brittany, Eleanor would see attention from her father in law, Philippe Auguste who was already excommunicated and his lands were in interdict so he would remain married to Ingeborg, due to the actions of Philippe, Louis, Prince of France would support his stepmother, Ingeborg of Denmark who was forced to return to the court on 1201.

On 1200 Ingeborg would hear that Philippe was still a philandering man who would want to hit on girls that would only obey him and this would be the first time that she would be able to make a revenge on Philippe on the account of her captivity by going to the pope and show a document to her husband that the divorce would not be granted.

On 1203, finally her wish was granted and she would give birth to a son with Philippe who she would name as Guathier or as she calls him as Vladimirus but that will be their only child and the two would not share a bed afterwards.
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Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine
Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine


Eleanor of Aquitaine


Eleanor of Aquitaine was again unwell in early 1201. When war broke out between John and Philip, Eleanor declared her support for John and set out from Fontevraud to her capital Poitiers. Eleanor then returned to Fontevraud where she took the veil as a nun.

Eleanor died in 1204 and was entombed in Fontevraud Abbey next to her husband Henry and her son Richard. Her tomb effigy shows her reading a Bible and is decorated with magnificent jewelry. By the time of her death she had outlived all of her children except for King John of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile.
Victories of Philippe Auguste
Victories of Philippe Auguste


Philippe Auguste

Conflict with King John, 1200–1206

In May 1200, Philip signed the Treaty of Le Goulet with Richard's successor John Lackland. The treaty was meant to bring peace to Normandy by settling the issue of its much-reduced boundaries. The terms of John's vassalage were not only for Normandy, but also for Anjou, Maine, and Touraine. John agreed to heavy terms, including the abandonment of all the English possessions in Berry and 20,000 marks of silver, whom he had hitherto supported, recognising instead John's suzerainty over the Duchy of Brittany. To seal the treaty, a marriage between Eleanor, John's niece, and Louis the Lion, Philip's son, was contracted.

This agreement did not bring warfare to an end in France, however, since John's mismanagement of Aquitaine led the province to erupt in rebellion later in 1200, a disturbance that Philip secretly encouraged. To disguise his ambitions, Philip invited John to a conference at Andely and then entertained him at Paris, and both times he committed to complying with the treaty.[21] In 1202, disaffected patrons petitioned the French king to summon John to answer their charges in his capacity as John's feudal lord in France. By the end of 1204, most of Normandy and the Angevin lands, including Aquitaine, had fallen into Philip's hands.

Philip summarily dispossessed the English of all lands. Pushed by his barons, John eventually launched an invasion of northern France in 1206. He disembarked with his army at La Rochelle during one of Philip's absences, but the campaign was a disaster.

Alliances against Philip, 1208–1213

In 1208, Philip of Swabia, the successful candidate to assume the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, was assassinated. As a result, the imperial crown was given to his rival Otto IV, the nephew of King John. Otto, prior to his accession, had promised to help John recover his lost possessions in France, but circumstances prevented him from making good on his promise. By 1212, both John and Otto were engaged in power struggles against Pope Innocent III: John over his refusal to accept the papal nomination for the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Otto over his attempt to strip Frederick II, King of the Germans (and later Holy Roman Emperor), of his Sicilian crown. Philip decided to take advantage of this situation, first in Germany, where he aided German noble rebellion in support of the young Frederick. John immediately threw England's weight behind Otto, and Philip now saw his chance to launch a successful invasion of England.

In order to secure the cooperation of all his vassals in his plans for the invasion, Philip denounced John as an enemy of the Church, thereby justifying his attack as motivated solely by religious scruples. He summoned an assembly of French barons at Soissons, which was well attended with the exception of Ferdinand, Count of Flanders. Ferdinand refused to attend, still angry over the loss of the towns of Aire and Saint-Omer that had been captured by Philip's son Louis the Lion. He would not participate in any campaign until restored to all ancient lands.

No sooner had the treaty between John and the pope been ratified in May 1213 than Verraccio announced to Philip that he would have to abandon his expedition against John, since to attack a faithful vassal of the Holy See would constitute a mortal sin. Philip argued in vain that his plans had been drawn up with the consent of Rome, that his expedition was in support of papal authority that he only undertook on the understanding that he would gain a plenary indulgence; he had spent a fortune preparing for the expedition. The papal legate remained unmoved, but Verraccio did suggest an alternative. The Count of Flanders had denied Philip's right to declare war on England while King John was still excommunicated, and that his disobedience needed to be punished. Philip eagerly accepted the advice, and quickly marched at the head of his troops into the territory of Flanders.

Battle of Bouvines

The French fleet, reportedly numbering some 1,700 ships, proceeded first to Gravelines and then to the port of Dam. Meanwhile, the army marched by Cassel, Ypres, and Bruges before laying siege to Ghent. Hardly had the siege begun when Philip learned that the English fleet had captured a number of his ships at Dam and that the rest were so closely blockaded in its harbor that it was impossible for them to escape. After having obtained 30,000 marks as a ransom for the hostages he had taken from the Flemish cities he had captured, Philip quickly retraced his steps to reach Dam. It took him two days, arriving in time to relieve the French garrison, but he discovered he could not rescue his fleet. He ordered it to be burned to prevent it from falling into enemy hands, then he ordered the town of Dam to be burned as well. Determined to make the Flemish pay for his retreat, he ordered that all towns be razed and burned in every district he passed through, and that the peasantry be either killed or sold as slaves.

The destruction of the French fleet had once again raised John's hopes, so he began preparing for an invasion of France and a reconquest of his lost provinces. The English barons were initially unenthusiastic about the expedition, which delayed his departure, so it was not until February 1214 that he disembarked at La Rochelle. John was to advance from the Loire, while his ally Otto IV made a simultaneous attack from Flanders, together with the Count of Flanders. Unfortunately, the three armies could not coordinate their efforts effectively. It was not until John had been disappointed in his hope for an easy victory after being driven from Roche-au-Moine and had retreated to his transports that the Imperial Army, with Otto at its head, assembled in the Low Countries.

On 27 July 1214, the opposing armies suddenly discovered that they were in close proximity to one another, on the banks of a little tributary of the River Lys, near the bridge at Bouvines. It being a Sunday, Philip did not expect the allied army to attack, as it was considered unholy to fight on the Sabbath. Philip's army numbered some 7,000, while the allied forces possessed around 9,000 troops. The armies clashed at what became known as the Battle of Bouvines. Philip was unhorsed by the Flemish pikemen in the heat of battle, and were it not for his mail armor he would have probably been killed.[28] When Otto was carried off the field by his wounded and terrified horse, and the Count of Flanders was severely wounded and taken prisoner, the Flemish and Imperial troops saw that the battle was lost, turned, and fled the field.[29] The French troops began pursuing them, but with night approaching, and with the prisoners they already had too numerous and, more importantly, too valuable to risk in a pursuit, Philip ordered a recall with the trumpets before his troops had moved little more than a mile from the battlefield.

Philip returned to Paris triumphant, marching his captive prisoners behind him in a long procession, as his grateful subjects came out to greet the victorious king. In the aftermath of the battle, Otto retreated to his castle of Harzburg and was soon overthrown as Holy Roman Emperor, to be replaced by Frederick II. Count Ferdinand remained imprisoned following his defeat, while King John's attempt to rebuild the Angevin Empire and regain lands in France ended in complete failure.

Philip's decisive victory was crucial in shaping Western European politics in both England and France. In England, the defeated John was so weakened that he was soon required to submit to the demands of his barons and sign Magna Carta, which limited the power of the crown and established the basis for common law. In France, the battle was instrumental in forming the strong central monarchy that would characterise its rule.

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Infertile Queen
Infertile Queen


Dagmar of Denmark

In 1209, Queen Dagmar gave birth to Valdemar the Young (c. 1209–1231). Queen Dagmar had a stillbirth on 1212 but was rendered infertile. Valdemar II elevated Valdemar the Young as co-king at Schleswig in 1218. However, Valdemar was accidentally shot with an arrow while hunting at Refsnæs in North Jutland during 1231.

After the death of Valdemar, his sister, Ingeborg, Queen of France would be able to convince her brother to recognize her son Guachier(Vladimirus) as his own heir and would take the name Valdemar III on his succession, Guachier is now married to Berengaria of Portugal at this point who is 5 years his senior.

note: Capetian Denmark