The Long Twentieth Century : a Franz Ferdinand Lives TL

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: After 1900' started by MaskedPickle, Nov 26, 2018.

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  1. galileo-034 Extreme Centrist Conspirator

    Joined:
    Jul 14, 2010
    Location:
    Baiona , Ipar Euskal Herria (Bayonne, FR)
    Good old wikipedia map. Open the map of the infobox in a new tab, then click right on the svg image itself to open it in another new tab, then click right and select Inspect in the menu. You get the whole svg source file displayed in the infobox. From that, if you were able to modify the html code of a wiki infobox, you will be able to modify the svg code to your liking.
     
  2. Threadmarks: Chapter Fourteen : It's happening

    MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    The event that started the Great European War was the Notaras Incident on September, 27 1916.
    The Notaras, a cargo vessel (aptly named after the last naval commander of the Byzantine Empire) under Greek flag, arriving from Sebastopol and en route to Piraeus, in Greece, was captured by the Ottoman customs at Gallipoli. Prompted by strange behaviour from the crew, the customs officers descended in the hull of the Notaras and discovered a very large stash of Russian-made rifles, ammunition and even the pieces of a a Vezdekhod landship. The captain of the ship couldn’t justify for the presence of these weapons and the whole crew was promptly arrested, while the Ottoman government considered these weapons were destined for the Greek army in order to prepare for a large conflict for the control of Constantinople, in light of the ongoing conflict in the Balkans.
    Eleftherios Venizelos, the Greek Prime Minister, received support from Russia who looked for an opportunity to strike upon Ottoman Armenia, while King Constantine, on a private visit in Berlin with his brother-in-law, the Kaiser, received consent from Germany “as long as Russia didn’t join the conflict and threatened the Bagdadbahn”. Britain asked for a quick resolution in order not to disrupt international trade through the Dardanelles. After a week-long ultimatum, Greece declared war upon the Ottoman Empire on October, 14 1916…
    The Hellene Tiger : A History of Modern Greece, A. Christodoulou, Athens, 2011

    VENIZELOS : “THE MEGALI IDEA IS AT HAND”
    -The Times, October, 15 1916

    MegaliIdea.png
    The Megali Idea, the reunion of all Greek-speaking areas, seemed at hand under the reign of Constantine I, namesake to the last Byzantine Emperor.

    The new Ottoman Grand Vizier, Mehmed Talat Pascha, who had replaced Said Halim Pascha in the road to the Greek-Ottoman War, inherited an uneasy situation. The Young Turks, since they had come to power, were obssessed with the idea of a “Fifth Column” that would trigger enormous troubles behind the enemy lines; and the attack from Greece meant 1,8 million people, in Thrace, Ionia, Pontus and Cappadocia were ready to rise and to destroy the Empire from the inside. In order to exhalt the Turks, the Grand Vizier approached the Caliph for a formal declaration of Djihad against the Orthodox Greeks, in order to bolster the Ottoman Muslims, and the bombing of Constantinople on October, 16 gave the occasion to foster different pogroms against Ottoman Greeks, supported by the police and directed at the Greek communities scattered around Asia Minor.
    Yet, on October, 18, one such incident degenerated in Trabzon, as rioters invaded the Russian Consulate where fleeing Greek families had taken refuge. Helped by drunken Turkish soldiers, the fanatics stormed the Consulate. In the ensuing confusion, the Russian consulate was lynched and killed…
    -The Ailing Man of Europe : the Modern Ottoman Empire, G. Günes, Berlin, 2014

    "Oh, shit."
    -Reportedly said by Grand Vizier Mehmed Talat Pascha upon learning of the Trabzon Incident, October, 18 1916

    Saint Petersburg immediately condemned the lynching of the Russian Consul in Trabzon, yet Nicholas II was worried about blowing the war out of proportion. He was assured of an easy breakthrough in autonomous Armenia, as delegations from the nationalist organizations Dashnak, Armenakan and Huntchak promised the Czar that Ottoman Armenians would rise as if they were one ; the Ottoman Army was no match to the modernized armies of All the Russias; Constantinople, since the founding of the concept of the Moscowian “Third Rome”, had been a permanent target of Russian expansionism, along with the access to the “warm seas”; France were a committed ally.
    Nevertheless, it came upon October 1916. Nicholas knew the military modernization program wouldn’t yet be over, and so were the infrastructures and logistics destined to the troops ; an attack over Armenia would meant a direct threat to the Bagdadbahn, so endeared by the Germans, and thus having to fight a war on two fronts ; he had accepted last year a precarious and blurry process of democratization, a war would mean trouble behind the lines ; the Russian Empire was as diverse as the Ottomans, and many Muslim peoples scattered throughout southern Russia and Central Asia could rise up in revolt after an attack over their Caliph ; Britain, who had did everything it could to avoid a Russian takeover of Turkey, would be worried about a possible invasion of the Dardanelles’ Straits.
    Nevertheless, the Czar was pressured by his cabinet, who repeated the majority of pros against the cons, arguing that a quick war would be better to reinforce the position of the throne; the pressure for war was led by Count Alexei Bobrinsky, a devout monarchist, Minister of the Interior, who would become Prime Minister after the deposition of Peter Bark, who sounded too much German for the nationalists. Nicholas II bowed in favor of the war party, even if he decided to delegate the overall commandment of the Army to his cousin, the very popular Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich…
    -The Sleeping Bear : Russia in the Twentieth Century, M. Golkov, Petrograd, 2003

    “Russia has always been the Third Rome, the seat of Orthodox Christianity, but when the Second Rome is at risk and in hostile hands, it is the duty of all Christians to defend it…”
    -Nicholas II’s speech in front of the Duma, October, 21 1916

    As the Russian speech became more and more bellicose, so was the German government. Even if the German cabinet wasn’t officially condoning the warmongering barkings from the Kaiser, the opportunity of an European war wasn’t to be avoided : the chance to take down France and Russia once and for all was too tempting, to secure large colonial gains in Africa from the French and large swarthes of land in Central Europe from the Russians and secure, at least, the “Place under the Sun” that was promised to Germany by Wilhelm II. The Ottomans were a puny ally, but Austria-Hungary was kept in check as the new Emperor-King, Ferdinand II, was committed to his alliance, and even if Italy wasn’t as secure, Germany had a little chance to reach for Sweden… Plus, the new Chief of General Staff, Erich von Falkenhayn, although dim-witted, had relied on the opinions from his underlings (such as a young officer named Erich Ludendorff) and of the new Minister of War, retired General Paul von Hindenburg, and had successfully abandoned the Schlieffen Plan in favor of a “Russia First” strategy.
    But the times had changed, and since 1912, the pacifist and left-wing SPD had a majority in the Reichstag; even if the Junkers had kept the Social Democrats in check, they proved a noisy opposition ; when Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg appeared in front of the Reichstag on October, 23 in order to lecture the deputies on the need to protect the Bagdadbahn, he was unable to finish his speech. But the death blow came on October, 27, four days later, when the Social Democrats managed to gain enough votes to proclaim a motion of no confidence against Bethmann-Hollweg, forcing him to resign.
    The SPD, through the dual voices of its leaders Friedrich Ebert and Hugo Haase, called for an appointment of a Social Democrat Chancellor, the maintaining of peace, along with an enactment of the Erfurt Program, with universal suffrage, nationalization of major industries, representation of Alsace-Lorraine, enablement of a welfare state and a reduction of Prussia’s importance within the Empire. Of course, the Kaiser outright refused the SPD’s claims and he turned to the old leader of the Catholic Zentrum, Bavarian Minister-President Georg von Hertling, to form a war-ready coalition government. The Junkers were horrified at the idea of a Catholic Reichskanzler, a civilian moreover, but they hoped it would be a momentaneous setback, in order to secure parliamentarian support for the war and to counter the opposition that arose against Bethmann-Hollweg.
    When Graf von Hertling announced the formation of his government on November, 15, created by the coalition of the Zentrum, the FVP, the NLP and the KP, still Prussians were seen everywhere and its dedication to war was apparent…
    -Wilhelm II, P. Goodhead, London, 2019

    Capture d’écran 2019-04-26 à 16.15.29.png


    RUSSIA ASKS OTTOMANS TO ACCEPT GREEK CLAIMS AND TO GRANT ARMENIA INDEPENDANCE
    -The New York Times, November, 14 1916

    RUSSIA DECLARES WAR ON TURKEY
    -The Times, November, 17 1916

    “It appears to this government that Germany economic interests are as important to Germany as the homeland…”
    -Chancellor Georg von Hertling’s general policy declaration in front of the Reichstag, November, 18 1916

    Britain was bound to France since the Entente Cordiale in 1904, yet the French warmongering, that had been discontinued since 1913 and the establishment of a three-year-draft, worried London ; the dedication to war and the reconquest of Alsace-Lorraine was so happy in France that Jean Jaurès’ efforts to replicate the attempts of his fellow German Social Democrats and to threaten the governement with a general strike were completely silenced. Not only the Bonar Law cabinet had to deal with a conflict in Ireland on one hand, but if Britannia had feared German hegemony over the continent, now it looked like a modernized Russian steamroller was ready to take over Europe and the Dardanelles. And it was something His Majesty’s Government would never allow.
    The time was precious for Germany : newly appointed German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann secretly reached London on November, 22 and met privately with Prime Minister Bonar Law in the residence of Prince Louis of Battenberg, with an offer he couldn’t refuse. If the United Kingdom were to declare itself neutral in the conflict, Zimmermann said, not only would Germany cease immediately its support to the Irish Insurgency (that Irish Volunteers were armed with Mausers was a very open secret) but also guarantee the free passage of the Dardanelles’ Strait after the war, even under an international agreement should the Ottomans lose the war, and an increased British share in the Bagdadbahn and Middle Eastern oil; something a Greek or a Russian conquest wouldn’t guarantee. Bonar Law dismissed his nighttime secret visitor with a straight face yet, driven by his will to take down the Irish Rebellion, he had already made his mind…
    A Place Under The Sun : German Diplomacy under Wilhelm II, G. Laffitte, Paris, 1999

    GERMANY MOBILIZES
    -Paris-Soir, November, 24 1916

    GERMANY DECLARES WAR ON RUSSIA, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY TO FOLLOW
    -Berliner Morgenpost, November, 27 1916

    BONAR LAW : “BRITAIN WILL REMAIN NEUTRAL”
    -The Guardian, November, 30 1916

    FRANCE DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY
    -Le Petit Journal, December, 3 1916

    europe191403.png
    Europe on December 1916 : Blue indicates the Entente (France, Greece, Russia) ; Red the Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire), white the neutral states and the targets indicate the ongoing conflicts in Europe (Irish Civil War, Albanian War, Fourth Balkan War)

    “It begins.”
    -Reportedly said by Kaiser Wilhelm II on the outbreak of the Great War, December, 3 1916
     
    Last edited: May 9, 2019
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  3. eldandythedoubter Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Feb 28, 2015
    "It has."-Reportedly said by Minister of War Paul Von Hindenburg on the outbreak of the Great War, December, 3 1916.

    I'm sorry but I can't resist throwing an Evangelion reference out whenever its possible, because this is how I see the outbreak of war ittl.

     
  4. IncongruousGoat Armchair Rocket Scientist

    Joined:
    May 27, 2018
    Location:
    Seattle
    Some damn foolish thing in the Balkans indeed. I guess the area's too much of a powderkeg for nothing to happen, even if Franz Ferdinand lives.

    On the bright side, that name ("Great European War") suggests that there isn't going to be a nasty follow-on, or at least that Alt!WWII is going to be confined to the Pacific Front.
     
    Laxault2020 likes this.
  5. MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    Or a worse follow-on, maybe ?
     
  6. galileo-034 Extreme Centrist Conspirator

    Joined:
    Jul 14, 2010
    Location:
    Baiona , Ipar Euskal Herria (Bayonne, FR)
    Little question: how does Greeks take Andrinople aka Edirne if they don't have a border with Ottoman Trace?
    As the map looks, unless Bulgaria jumps in, the war between Greece and the Ottomans will be a naval one.
     
  7. galileo-034 Extreme Centrist Conspirator

    Joined:
    Jul 14, 2010
    Location:
    Baiona , Ipar Euskal Herria (Bayonne, FR)
    Another point. This time, since the Germans seem to have abandoned the idea of rolling over Belgium to flank French positions, that shortens considerably the Frontline on the western front. That makes French industrial and economical situation better.
    One could imagine it could spare forces against the Turks, but I didn't notice France declaring on either the Ottoman Empire or Austria-Hungary. What's up there?
     
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  8. Whiteshore Defender of Myrcella Baratheon

    Joined:
    Aug 19, 2016
    Location:
    Philippines
    Needless to say, it isn't at hand, as the Ottoman teasers show.
     
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  9. MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    Damn, this map must predate the Second Balkan War, as Greece received coastal Macedonia at the end of the conflict...
     
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  10. galileo-034 Extreme Centrist Conspirator

    Joined:
    Jul 14, 2010
    Location:
    Baiona , Ipar Euskal Herria (Bayonne, FR)
    Bulgaria retained its piece of Thrace after the second Balkan war, still otl. The Greeks only got western Thrace after OTL WW1, so the map is still accurate on this regard.
     
  11. Threadmarks: 1916

    MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    January, 1
    Income tax is introduced in France.

    January, 13
    President of Mexico Victoriano Huerta dies; he is succeeded by Pascual Orozco.

    January, 15

    Bergen, in Norway, is victim to a great fire, destroying 300 buildings in the City Centre.

    January, 17
    Manuel Estrada Cabrera is re-elected President of Guatemala.

    January, 18
    Oklahoma votes to ratify the Eighteenth Amendement to the United States Constitution, making its adoption official and allowing women’s suffrage throughout the United States.

    January, 26
    The Uprising Act is passed by the United Kingdom Parliament : “all activities tantamount or in favor of fomenting violent action against His Majesty’s Government and the territories of the Crown” are to be prosecuted with very harsh penal measures. In territories concerned with martial law, the habeas corpus is to be suspended.

    February

    An islamist revolt starts against Serbian and Italian occupation in Albania.

    February-March
    Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Shandong, Hunan, Shanxi, Jiangxi and Jiangsu declare their independance in opposition of Yuan Shikai’ self-proclaimed Empire, while the National Protection Army, led by General Cai E, routs the Imperial Armies.

    Throughout Mexico, major cities, such as Monterrey, Quérétaro, Guadalajara and Puebla revolt against the dictatorship of President Orozco and defect to the Convention.

    February, 3
    The Russian and Serbian governemnts announce the bethrothal of Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna, second daughter of the Czar, to Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia; the announcement is rushed due to pressures from the Serbian governement in light of the situation in Europe.

    February, 5

    The Cabaret Voltaire opens in Zurich, Switzerland.

    February, 11-18
    As the Summer Olympics are to be held in Berlin, the German Olympic Committee organizes a winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing in Garmisch and Partenkirchen, setting the trend for the organization of the Winter Olympic Games.

    February, 14

    Riots erupt against Irish residents in Liverpool.

    In French Indochina, supporters of jailed rebel, mystic and self-proclaimed Emperor Phan Xich Long revolt throughout Cochinchina. The revolt is put down by the French.

    February, 22
    Phan Xich Long is executed by French authorities.

    March-April
    The Anglo-Sudanese expedition reaches Darfur.

    March, 4
    The Land Tax Reform Act is adopted in the United Kingdom, changing land taxes and tariffs in the United Kingdom, according to the Conservative Platform of 1915.

    March, 6
    Former Mayor of Cleveland (OH) Newton D. Baker is appointed United States Secretary of War, succeeding Lindley Garrison.

    March, 15
    Antonio José de Almeida succeeds Afonso Costa as Prime Minister of Portugal.

    March, 16
    The United States Government announces it won’t recognize Pascual Orozco as the legitimate President of Mexico.

    March, 17
    Saint Patrick’s Rising - A Irish Republican Provisional Government, led by Eoin MacNeill, declares the independance of Ireland from the British Crown in a proclaimation in Dublin. The Irish Republican Army is established.

    March, 18
    The British Cabinet declares martial law in Ireland and send order to send 50,000 soldiers under the Ireland Peacekeeping Army, under command of General Douglas Haig.

    March, 22
    The Hongxian Emperor abdicates and becomes again President of China Yuan Shikai, in light of the victories of theNational Protection Army. Xu Shichang becomes Premier of the Republic of China.

    April, 5
    The Ireland Peacekeeping Army lands near Dublin.

    Capture d’écran 2019-04-08 à 15.03.43.png

    April, 23
    Duan Qirui becomes Premier of the Republic of China.


    April, 27
    Prime Minister of Australia Andrew Fisher resigns due to a motion of non-confidence iniatiated by Billy Hughes, who succeeds him as Labor Leader and Prime Minister.

    May, 1
    The Ireland Peacekeeping Army enters Dublin without a battle ; the Irish Republican Army and the Provisional Government have retreated in good order to Connaught.

    May, 5
    Two companies of Marines land at Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, beginning the American occupation.


    May, 7
    Dominican President Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra resigns in light of a rebellion by his former Secretary of War Desiderio Arias.

    Capture d’écran 2019-04-08 à 15.34.40.png

    May, 12
    British Prime Minister Bonar Law begins a week-long visit of Ireland and reitirates his will for a lasting martial law until “all terrorists are purged”.

    May, 15
    Santo Domingo is occupied by US Marines.

    May, 17

    General Felix Diaz lands in Yucatan and organizes a National Reorganizer Army ; after several defeats in Oaxaca and Chiapas, he becomes a mere warlord in war-torn Mexico but creates further turmoil for the Orozquista forces.

    May, 22
    El Fasher, capital of the Sultanate of Darfur, is taken by the Anglo-Sudanese Expedition.

    June, 1
    John Hessin Clarke is confirmed as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

    June, 6
    President of China Yuan Shikai dies.

    June, 7
    Li Yuanhong succeeds Yuan Shikai as President of China ; the reality of power is held by Premier Duan Qirui.


    June, 7-10
    Republican National Convention : Senator Elihu Root (New York) and Senator William Borah (Idaho) are nominated respectively for President and Vice-President in Chicago, Illinois.

    June, 9
    The Progressive faction of the Republican Party walks out of the Republican National Convention in protest.

    June, 11
    The Count of Ramonones succeeds Eduardo Dato as Prime Minister of Spain.

    June 14-16
    President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall are nominated by the Democratic Party for re-election at the Democratic National Convention in St. Louis, Missouri.

    June, 18
    Colonel General Helmuth von Moltke the Younger, Chief of the German General Staff, dies, aged 68. He is replaced by Minister of War Erich von Falkenhayn. General Paul von Hindenburg, retired, becomes Minister of War.

    June 26-28
    Progressive National Convention : Governor Hiram Johnson (California) and businessman John M. Parker (Louisiana) are nominated respectively for President and Vice President in Chicago, Illinois.

    June, 31
    Khenifra falls to the French colonial troops in Morocco, putting an end to the Zaian War.

    July, 1
    The Social Democratic Party of Finland wins a majority at the local Parliament.

    Capture d’écran 2019-04-08 à 14.35.35.png

    July 6-22
    The Games of the VI Olympiad are held in Berlin, Germany. Germany wins the most gold medals, while the United States win the most medals.

    July, 6

    Dominican rebel leader Desiderio Arias flees the Dominican Republic after several defeats against the US Army.

    July, 9
    An assassination attempt on Argentine President Victorino de la Plaza fails.

    July, 14
    The Damas Manifesto is read aloud at the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich ; it sparks the birth of the Negativist Movement, calling into question all bourgeois aesthetics and art values.

    July, 17

    In Mirdita, Albania, northern Christians proclaim their own separate Republic and ask for Serbian protection.

    July, 19
    The city of Oulu, in Finland, burns.

    July, 22
    Anarchists try and fail to assassinate James Rolph, the Mayor of San Francisco.

    August
    Deodato Manuel Ramos, head of the rebels in Parana State, is captured by the Brazilian Army, putting an end to the Contestado War.

    August, 3
    Crown Prince and Regent Alexander of Serbia marries Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia in Belgrad, Serbia.

    At the same time, Todor Aleksandrov, leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, proclaims the annexation of Vardar Macedonia in Radovis.

    August, 7
    Suffragette Mary Richardson tries to assassinate King George V in Edinburgh, mortally wounding Prince Albert.

    August, 8

    The Lord Chelmsford is appointed Governor-General of Canada.

    August, 9
    Prince Albert, second son of King George V, dies of his wounds in Edinburgh.

    August, 15

    Manuel Franco succeeds Eduardo Schaerer as President of Paraguay.

    August, 16
    The Uprising Act is extended to suffragettes.

    August, 29
    The United States Congress votes the Jones Act, acting as a Constitution for the Philippines and creating a fully elected Philippine legislature.

    September, 1

    Alfredo Baquerizo succeeds Leonidas Plaza as President of Ecuador.

    The Keating-Owen Act is voted by the United States Congress, prohibiting the sale of products of child labor.

    September, 4
    Afonso Costa suceeds Antonio José de Almeida as Prime Minister of Portugal.

    September, 5
    Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich Romanov marries his cousin, Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna, eldest daughter of Czar Nicholas II. Olga is second in line to the Russian throne.


    Intolerance, a movie by David Wark Griffith, premieres in the United States.

    September, 8
    The United States Tariff Commission is established.

    September, 11
    Rejecting Russian offers to mediate, Serbia declares war on Bulgaria over the Macedonian Uprising, triggering the Fourth Balkan War.

    Capture d’écran 2019-04-08 à 14.51.05.png


    September, 18-October, 12
    Serbian-Bulgarian War, Battle of Morava : Bulgaria defeats Serbia, and the battle sees the first military use of landships on the Bulgarian side.

    September, 21
    Elections in Canada : Incumbent Prime Minister Robert Borden increases his majority and returns as head of a Conservative governement.

    September, 23-October, 23
    Serbian-Bulgarian War, Battle of Ovche Pole : Bulgaria defeats Serbia.

    September, 27
    Notaras Incident : the Notaras, a cargo vessel voguing from Sebastopol to Piraeus under Greek flag, is stopped and detained by Ottoman customs at Gallipoli; the ship illegally contains large caches of illegally purchased Russian weapons, including pieces for a Russian landship. The whole crew is detained by Ottoman authorities under suspicion of weapon smuggling for the Greek Army.

    September, 28

    Notaras Incident : the Greek government asks for the release of the Notaras’ crew.

    September, 29
    Notaras Incident : The Ottoman Empire launches a criminal investigation upon the weapons found aboard the Notaras.

    September, 30
    Notaras Incident : Russia denies having purposedly offered undeclared weapons to Greece.

    October, 1
    Ramon Maximiliano Valdes suceeds Belisario Porras Barahona as President of Panama.

    October, 3
    Elections are held to the newly created Philippine Senate.

    October, 4
    Notaras Incident : Greek Prime Minister Eletherios Venizelos makes a speech in front of the Parliament, advocating retribution should the Notaras crew not be returned safely to Greece.

    October, 5
    Antonio José de Almeida succeeds Afonso Costa as Prime Minister of Portugal.

    October, 7
    Notaras Incident : Greece offers a week-long ultimatum to the Ottoman Empire to release the Notaras’ crew; else, the detention of Greek citizens would be considered as an act of war by the Greek government.

    October, 8-October, 18
    Notaras Incident : anti-Greek pogroms happen throughout the Ottoman Empire due to the Greek ultimatum.

    October, 9
    Field Marshal and Governor-General and Korea, Count Terauchi Masatake, becomes Prime Minister of Japan, succeeding Prince Okuma Shigenobu.

    October, 10
    Notaras Incident : the United Kingdom warns Germany, Russia, Greece and the Ottoman Empire that the opening of the Dardanelles’ Straits, even in case of war, is a major concern for the British government.

    The Rikken Doshikai, the Chuseikai and the Koyu Club merge and establish the Kensaikai, a new opposition party in Japan.

    October, 10-November, 4
    Serbian-Bulgarian War, Battle of Kosovo : Bulgaria defeats Serbia and Montenegro.

    October, 11
    Mehmed Talaat Pascha becomes Great Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, replacing Said Halim Pascha.

    Otto, King of Bavaria from 1886 to 1913, dies.

    October, 12
    At the end of a very bitter election, Hipolito Yrigoyen is elected President of Argentina, the first hailing from the Radical Civic Union.


    Russia mobilizes troops alongside the Russian-Ottoman border.

    October, 14
    Greece declares war upon the Ottoman Empire.


    October, 15
    The Ottoman Empire closes the Dardanelles’ Straits to all ships, of any nationality.

    October, 16
    Greek-Ottoman War : Constantinople, capital of the Ottoman Empire, is bombed.

    Due to the passage of universal suffrage, an anticipated election takes place in Belgium, seeing a Liberal breakthrough : Paul Hymans succeeds Charles de Broqueville as Prime Minister.

    October, 17
    Germany declares its neutrality on the Greek-Ottoman conflict.

    October, 18
    Trabzon Incident : during an anti-Greek pogrom in Trabzon, rioters flanked by Turkish soldiers storm the Russian Consulate where ethnic Greeks had taken refuge. The Russian consul is lynched and killed during the storming.

    October, 19

    Trabzon Incident : the Ottoman Empire proposes financial compensation and free crossing of the Dardanelles to Russia.

    October, 21
    Trabzon Incident : Czar of Russia Nicholas II delivers his infamous “Third Rome Speech” where he stresses the strategic and symbolic importance of Constantinople for Russia and the despicable attitude of the Sublime Porte.

    October, 23
    Trabzon Incident : during a speech to the Reichstag where he outlines the risk poised by a Russian-Ottoman War to the Bagdadbahn and German economic interests, German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg is heckled by SPD parliamentarians.

    October, 24
    Trabzon Incident : Bonar Law stresses in the House of Commons the risk of a major European war.

    October, 25
    Trabzon Incident : France officially assures Russia of its support.

    Birth control activist Margaret Sanger is arrested in Brooklyn, nine days after the opening of a family planning and birth control clinic, due to a law prohibiting distribution of contraceptives in the State of New York.

    October, 26
    Trabzon Incident : Germany warns against any steps taken by the Russian Army in Armenia and threats made to the Bagdadbahn works.

    October, 27
    The SPD imposes the vote of a motion of non-confidence against Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg who resigns, the day he was poised to ask for parliamentarian rallying for protection of the Bagdadbahn.

    October, 28

    SPD leaders Friedrich Ebert and Hugo Haase ask the Kaiser for the appointment of a Social Democrat Chancellor, the maintaining of peace and an enactment of the Erfurt Program.

    October, 29
    IPP MP John Redmond is arrested in front of Westminster Palace while he was calling the Cabinet to rescind martial law in Ireland.

    The Russian Ambassador in London assures Great Britain that, in the event of a Russian-Ottoman War, control of the Dardanelles would be offered to Greece should the Ottoman Empire be defeated.

    October, 30
    Greek-Ottoman War: Serbia and Bulgaria declare their neutrality.

    Feng Guozhang is elected Vice President of China.

    October, 31
    Greek-Ottoman War: A French military mission arrives in Athens.

    November, 2
    German Kaiser Wilhelm II refuses the SPD’s demands and asks Zentrum leader Georg von Hertling to form a new government.

    November, 6
    France partially mobilizes in Lorraine, at the French-German Border. The French government assures its Belgian counterpart it has nothing to fear from their troops.

    November, 7
    United States presidential election : President Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) is re-elected in landslide against Elihu Root (Republican) and Hiram Johnson (Progressive) ; Democrats hold both houses of Congress.

    November, 9

    Greek-Ottoman War: Nicholas II meets representatives from Armenian nationalist parties Dashnak, Armenakan and Huntchak.

    November, 10
    Greek-Ottoman War: US President Woodrow Wilson proposes to mediate on the Russian-Ottoman Conflict.

    November, 11
    Nicholas II announces his cousin, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, will assume overall comandment of the Russian Army.

    November, 12
    Germany evacuates personnel on the Bagdadbahn works.

    November, 13
    Russia partially mobilizes.

    Emiliano Zapata defeats and kills General Pablo Gonzalez in San Cristobal de Las Casas, in Mexico.

    November, 14
    Greek-Ottoman War: Russia gives a two-day ultimatum to the Ottoman Empire to cede to Greek territorial claims and to give full independance to Armenia and autonomy to Christian minorities within the Empire.

    November, 15
    Georg von Hertling becomes Chancellor of Germany, forming a Zentrum/FVP/KP/NLP government.


    Henryk Sienkiewicz, Nobel Prize in Literature 1905, dies in Vevey, Switzerland, aged 70.

    November, 17
    Russia declares war upon the Ottoman Empire.

    November, 18

    Chancellor von Hertling’s general policy declaration in front of the Reichstag stresses the economic and national interest Germany has on the Bagdadbahn and affirms any move against its outline would prove an act of war against Germany territory.

    November, 19
    Russian-Ottoman War: Russia invades Armenia.

    November, 20
    Serbian-Bulgarian War : the Bulgarian Army enters Skopje.

    November, 21
    Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria-Hungary dies ; he is succeeded by his nephew, Franz Ferdinand, who takes the titles of Emperor Ferdinand II of Austria and King Ferdinand VI of Hungary and immediately affirms his loyalty to the German-Austro-Hungarian alliance.

    November, 24

    Germany mobilizes.

    November, 25
    Germany offers France to cede to Germany military redoubts in Toul and Verdun during the duration of a Russian-German conflict, in exchange for no war.

    In a referendum, Uruguay adopts a collective presidency system, establishing a National Council of Administration of nine members that would replace the office of President of the Republic, based on the Swiss executive.

    November, 26
    Austria-Hungary mobilizes.

    November, 27
    Germany declares war upon Russia and Greece, trigerring the Great European War.


    November, 28
    Great European War: Austria-Hungary declares war upon Russia and Greece. Germany takes Kalisz, Czestochowa and Bedzin in Russian Poland.

    November, 29
    Great European War : Battle of Libau. Russia defeats Germany.

    Alexei Bobrinsky becomes Prime Minister of Russia, replacing Piotr Bark, viewed as to much of a germanophile.

    A military government under Captain Harry Shepard Knapp is installed in Santo Domingo.

    November, 30
    Great European War : the United Kingdom declares its neutrality.

    December, 1

    French missionnary and Berber expert Charles de Foucauld is murdered in his fortress in Tamanghasset by bandits.

    December, 2
    France mobilizes. An attempt by SFIO leader Jean Jaurès to wage a general strike fails due to massive enthusiasm for the war in the French populace.

    December, 3
    Great European War : France declares war upon Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. The date is generally considered as the official beginning of the Great European War.


    Russia invades East Prussia.

    December, 4
    Great European War : Austria-Hungary attacks Kielce and Lublin.

    Maximilian Hussarek von Heinlein replaces Karl von Stürgkh as Minister-President of Austria, who has been sacked by the new Emperor; similarly, Field Marshal Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf is removed from his position as Chief of the General Staff, replaced by the Emperor himself. Count Istvan Tisza, Minister-President of Hungary, insists he won’t resign to comply to his King.

    December, 6

    Great European War : France invades South Alsace.

    Russia fully mobilizes.

    December, 8
    Great European War : Mulhouse falls to French troops.

    Gaston Doumergue returns as French President of Council of a Grand Coalition government, the Union Sacrée (Holy Union) concerning parties from the whole spectrum, except the SFIO, as leader Jean Jaurès has declared his opposition to the war.

    December, 10
    The Nobel Prize for Physics is attributed to Max Planck (Germany) ; Chemistry goes to ira Remsen (USA) ; Emile Roux (France) wins in Medicine ; Per Hallström (Sweden) receives the Nobel Prize for Literature. The Peace Nobel Prize is not attributed due to the Great European War.


    Great European War : the Germany takes back Mulhouse.

    Serbian-Bulgarian War: The Bulgarian Army enters Nis.

    December, 11
    Great European War : Russia defeats Germany at Stalluponen.

    December, 14
    Great European War : Russia defeats Austria-Hungary at Gumbinnen.

    December, 14-December, 21
    Great European War : Battle of Morhange. Germany beats France.

    December, 15
    Great European War : Dogubeyazit and Köpruköy (Ottoman Empire) fall to Russian troops.

    December, 17
    A general election is held in New Zealand : William Massey (Reform) is re-elected as Prime Minister.

    December, 20
    Great European War : Battle of Krasnik. Russia defeats Austria-Hungary.

    December, 21
    Great European War : after the defeat at Morhange, French troops decide to retreat in good order behind the Meuse River.

    December, 21-December, 28
    Great European War : Battle of Allenstein, Russia narrowly defeats Germany.

    December, 21-January, 7

    Great European War : Battle of Lemberg. Russia defeats Austria-Hungary and occupies the city.

    December, 24-December, 25
    Great European War : Belligerants observe a Christmas truce.

    December, 28

    Great European War : Germany retreats in good order behind the Vistula River.

    December, 29
    The Stock-Raising Homestead Act is passed by the United States Congress for settlers seeking 640 acres of public land for ranching purposes.

    A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is published by James Joyce.

    December, 30
    Tax reform in France : income tax rates goes to 10 %.

    December, 31
    The Lucknow Pact is passed between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League : the “garam dal”, or the hot extremist faction, composed by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipinchandra Pal, against cooperation with the British, wins a majority in light of the events in Ireland. The moderates, led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, gets into his own way.
     
  12. corourke Member Donor

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2004
    Here's hoping for a Bulgarian-Serbian Yugoslavia at the end of this!
     
  13. X_X Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Nov 24, 2017
    Finally we reach the late 1910s! Fantastic work so far.

    What’s Lovecraft up do at this point?
     
  14. Threadmarks: Chapter Fifteen : The President-King

    MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    The turmoil that followed the establishment of the Portuguese Republic found its resolution on with the coup led by Major Sidonio Pais, on December, 8 1917. A staunch Republican, the former Ambassador to Germany inaugurated the “Republic Nova”, the New Republic, concentrating all the powers in the presidency (as evidenced by the 1922 Constitution, that abolished the office of Prime Minister), created a corporative Senate, established a single party, overcame the rifts with both monarchists and Catholics… The President-King, as he came to be known for his supporters all alike, survived dozens of assassination attempts, coup attempts (most notably from the monarchists in 1919) and strikes. Considered one of the best examples of the Fuhrerprinzip (leader principle) and as such as an early model of Integralist regimes in the Twentieth Century, he’s still revered in Portugal as a true patriot and a stabilizer of the chaos that followed the 1910 Revolution. Astute choices that proved fruitful for his long presidency until his demise in 1943, his particular relationship with United Kingdom and the upheavals that Portugal would experience in the early century…
    Integralism - A study of the roots, Zeev Sternhell, Berlin, 2006

    Capture d’écran 2019-05-15 à 16.07.38.png


    The 1919 monarchist uprising was almost a success but didn’t enjoyed enough support from Germany, that was embroiled at the time in the Great European War. Germany, always a supporter of monarchism, was much interested in a new era of troubles in Portugal, as it would become an opportunity to overtake Portuguese colonies in Angola and Mozambique and, as such, ending the isolation of Tanganyika and Southwest Africa on the continent.
    A Place Under The Sun : German Diplomacy under Wilhelm II, G. Laffitte, Paris, 1999

    The Braganza cause for Portugal came in 1932, when deposed King Manuel II finally died in exile in Fulwell, Middlesex. In the light of the Pact of Dover and the Pact of London, that had cured the rift between the absolutist Miguelist line and the constitutionalist Braganza-Saxe-Coburg-Gotha line. The son of Miguel of Portugal, Duarte Nuno, became the rightful claimant…
    -The Twentieth Century Renewal of Monarchy, M. Diagola, Madrid, 1997

    Capture d’écran 2019-05-15 à 15.46.21.png
     
  15. MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    Who knows ?

    The butterflies aren't enough to deprive Lovecraft of his hermit's behaviour, so he continues his writing sheltered in Providence. Due to his Anglophilia, he's quite harsh against the Irish.
     
    X_X likes this.
  16. DaSch New Member

    Joined:
    May 12, 2019
    Sooooo, Salazar stays in the farm?
     
    MaskedPickle likes this.
  17. Threadmarks: The European War - France, 1917

    MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    According to the Schlieffen Plan, the Western Front against France was supposed to be a priority, passing through Belgium to defeat France as soon as possible, before the Russians could fully mobilize. But the world of 1916 wasn’t the world of 1905, and Hindenburg and Falkenhayn were aware of that. Russia became the priority and invading Belgium would only infuriate the United Kingdom instead. Russia had become the priority: instead of the seven armies thought for the Western Front, only two (the 7th Armee, under Albrecht Duke of Wurttemberg; the 8th Armee, under Josias von Heeringen), both tasked with defending Alsace and Lorraine, were deployed against France.

    Meanwhile, in France, the Plan XVII was in full motion. The French General Staff, under Joseph Joffre, hoped for a general uprising from the Alsatian and Lorrain communities within the German Empire (due to German garrisons, these riots were quite limited and severely repressed): the French First Army was tasked with attacking towards Baccarat, Sarrebourg and Sarreguemines for a part, while the other would take Colmar then Strasbourg ; the Second Army had to take Château-Salins and Sarrebruck; the Third had Metz as a goal; while the Fourth and the Fifth would only undertake German counter-offensives if necessary.

    Capture d’écran 2019-05-21 à 17.02.09.png

    The December Offensive from France was quickly derailed. The German Eighth Army quickly destroyed all hopes for a downfall of Metz, while the First and Second Armies, in spite of a temporary successs in Mulhouse, were bogged down in Morhange (December, 14-December, 21 1916), “the Bloodiest Week of the French Army”: 45 000 French soldiers died in front of Morhange, prompting Joffre and the General Staff to stop all attempts at offensives, as the Alsatian revolt had failed to materialize and that the road to the Rhine would prove bloodier and bloodier ; on December, 21, a retreat was decided behind the Meuse River.

    But the Duke of Wurttemberg felt emboldened by the French retreat and asked General von Falkenhayn for an authorization to pursue the French Army on its own territory during the Winter. It was granted. While the Eighth Army would conquer the Briey iron and steel industries in Lorraine and stop at Lunéville (January, 16-January, 23) after defeating General Ruffey in a decesive victory and a fall of Nancy without much of a fight. The Seventh Army pursued at close the French armies throughout Lorraine and Champagne, until the French Army, under command of General Edouard de Castelnau, after unsuccesfully trying to stop the Germans at Verdun (January, 22-January, 24), Saint-Dizier (January, 26-January, 30), finally forced a German pyrrhic victory at Châlons-en-Champagne (February, 4-February, 15), where only frantic French resistance and failure to reinforce German positions allowed the French to hold Reims and to cut short the German road to Paris.

    Capture d’écran 2019-05-21 à 17.41.49.png

    The Germans prepared for a attrition power, fixing the Western Front along a Charleville-Mézières/Châlons-en-Champagne/Saint-Dizier/Neufchâteau/Epinal/Belfort line, building trenches in order to hold against the French Army until the Russians could be defeated; in fact, France had lost much of its industrial capacity with the fall of Briey, along with its agricultural capacity with Champagne occupied by German forces. The German General Staff considered for some time taking advantage of the state of disarray of the French army to push further to Paris, but the heavy losses at Châlons-en-Champagne and the state of emergency on the Eastern Front convinced them not to.

    The French tried a new offensive in September 1917 in Champagne, focusing on Aubérive, but the recent unveiling of the Ninth Army (under Hermann von Eichhorn) blocked all their perspectives. Aristide Briand, the French President of Council, did his best to preserve the Union Sacrée : Edouard de Castelnau was praised as “the Savior of Châlons” while the French press bloated on the quick takeovers of the German colonies in the Samoas, Cameroon and Togo, and describing the German bombing of Reims that practically levelled the cathedral. Nevertheless, the French had a dubious victory, when phosgene gas was used against German forces near Bar-le-Duc on August, 8 1917, marking the first use of chemical warfare on the Western Front...

    Capture d’écran 2019-05-21 à 17.10.07.png
    The Western Front on January, 1 1918

    TL;DR : France gets bogged down early against Germany in Champagne and the Vosges and turns to trench and chemical warfare. Belgium and Luxembourg aren't invaded.
     
  18. XLII Oh joy...

    Joined:
    Dec 26, 2010
    Location:
    Yer olden Jermany
    And thats the moment you realise that giving the nation with the biggest chemical-industrial complex on the continent is a bad idea...
     
    rommel12 likes this.
  19. X_X Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Nov 24, 2017
    France has fought well so far, but it Looks like without the United Kingdom and the United States joining the war that the Entente are going to lose.
     
  20. Questerr Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Aug 23, 2008
    Location:
    San Antonio
    I just finished reading through this timeline and I think it’s amazing.
     
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