The Long Twentieth Century : a Franz Ferdinand Lives TL

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: After 1900' started by MaskedPickle, Nov 26, 2018.

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  1. MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    MID-YEAR EXAMINATION
    2018-2019 SESSION
    DARTMOUTH COLLEGE


    MODERN HISTORY

    Q&A

    SUBJECT - EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY


    Duration : 4 hours


    1) THE FIRST GREAT EUROPEAN WAR

    1. What was the Megali Idea ?

    2. List the reasons behind the neutrality of different European countries during GEWI.

    3. “All quiet on the Western Front” : why did Winston Churchill chose this title for his essay on the GEWI ?

    4. “Germany won the war but lost the peace.” Discuss.
    2) THE NEW AGE OF REVOLUTIONS

    1. “The Second French Revolution had its roots in the First.” Discuss.

    2. Who were the Bolsheviks ?

    3. Can a link be drawn between the 1920-1926 Wave of Revolutions and the Trench Flu ?

    4. List the different factions in European Syndicalism and their struggles for power.
    3) DOWNFALL OF EMPIRES

    1. “The coming to power of the Young Turks threw the Ottoman Empire in its death throes”. Discuss.

    2. Summarize the main components of the Constitution of the Danubian Federation (see file attached)

    3. Summarize the events of the Irish War.

    4. How did the former French and Belgian colonial empires fared after GEWI ?
    4) REST OF WORLD

    1. “Germany had Central Europe, Japan had China and the United States had Mexico.” Discuss.

    2. Was the Brazilian Civil War inevitable ?

    3. Who was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ?

    4. What was the immediate aftermath of the Liberia Exodus ?
    5) ESSAY

    Pick one of these subjects and write a short essay (2 pages at least) about one of them :

    1. Syndicalism vs. Integralism in the world from 1920 to 1944

    2. Economic crisis, their causes and consequences in the post-GEWI period

    3. The influence of Lysergic Acid on underground culture until the GEWII

    4. “The Wunderwaffe”: William II’s post-war military program and its defects
     
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  2. MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    Hello, MaskedPickle here, the author of A Giant Sucking Sound, Turtledove Award for Modern History in both 2012-2013, getting back to my master project from these last years, with a "What If Archduke Franz Ferdinand wasn't assassinated in Sarajevo". The First World War ended a bit more than a century ago, its repercussions were terrible over the world. Kaiserreich, to which I collaborated, will be a source of inspiration, with twists nevertheless.

    The period covered for the first part will be until the 1940s. Feedback will be appreciated !
     
  3. Triune Kingdom Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Apr 6, 2018
    Austro-Hungarian Monarchy not only survives, but reforms into Danubian Monarchy? Subscribed.
     
  4. andry2806 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Oct 6, 2016
    I was waiting for this since the end of the poll.
    P. S: I want my clone armies now.
     
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  5. Nivek Resident Videogame Expert

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    Location:
    Santa Marta,Magdalena,West Venezuela
    That is the pushing...FF Didn't wanted more federalization, he wanted centralization and curtail all local powers so he could reinforced the national(aka royal) power and thus allow Austria to surpass the bicephaly goes with magyar meddling
     
  6. Son of Sphinks Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jul 24, 2010
    Certainly an interesting range of topics discussed during that exam. I'll be interested to see how you choose to cover them.
     
  7. Threadmarks: Chapter One - A new Emperor-King

    MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    « Je dis « Le sais-tu ? »
    Tu dis « Je n’en sais rien »
    Je dis « sors-moi d’ici ! » »


    Sors-moi d’ici, Jaurès, 2004


    “Emperor-King Francis Joseph of Austria-Hungary finally died on November, 21 1916, at the age of eighty-six, in the Schönbrunn Palace. His death was a result of developing pneumonia of the right lung several days after catching a cold while walking in Schönbrunn Park with Louis III of Bavaria. Even if he had drawn particular intention to military preparedness and the numerous crisis in the Balkans, his reign was relatively uneventful after 1908. (...) At least, his demise led to the coming to the throne of his nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who took the regnal names of Ferdinand II of Austria and Ferdinand VI of Hungary…”

    -The Tragedy of Francis Joseph of Austria, M. Bartholomaüs, Vienna 1987

    [​IMG]
    Emperor Ferdinand II of Austria and King Ferdinand VI of Hungary, c. 1914

    “The Archduke of Austria-Este came in 1916 to a throne from which he had been sidelined, due to his morganatic marriage and his stormy relations to Franz Joseph. In 1916, when Ferdinand II & VI came to power, Austria-Hungary was between a rock and a hard place. Internally, its army was ruled by bellicose generals obsessed by preemptive attacks, its army well behind those of its German ally. The balance of power were torn apart between the Hungarians, who refused to relinquish their status, and the Austrians, who had to keep in check Italiens, Slovenes, Croats, Serbians, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainiens and Romanians. It was surrounded by various irredentist states such as Serbia and Romania, who wished nothing more than to dismember the old Habsburg monarchy.

    Not a believer in parliamentarianism, a firm believer in the destiny of the Habsburgs to rule, but also aware that the Dual Monarchy would not survive any longer under its current form, Ferdinand II & VI was above all a fierce opponent of the Hungarians and their Minister-President, Istvan Tisza. “The Hungarians are all rabble, regardless of whether they are minister or duke, cardinal or burgher, peasant, hussar, domestic servant, or revolutionary” he wrote in 1904 ; they had to share their status with the other peoples of Austria-Hungary, in order to avoid its downfall ; if they refused, they were all traitors and they had to be kept in check.

    First concentrating his efforts on Cisleithania (Austria), Ferdinand focused on affirming his power, as replacing Count Tisza would have failed. He sacked Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, Chief of the General Staff and the main hawk of the Austrian Army, and replaced the old Karl von Stürgkh by Maximilian Hussarek von Heinlein as Minister-President of Austria, who was more aligned to his views…”

    -The Danubian Confederation : An Essay, C. Italiano, Rome 1978

    “The concept of Danubian Confederation was as old as the Austrian Empire itself, as its numerous ethnicities and, later, its division solely between Germans and Hungarians, left the other peoples of the Habsburg Monarchy upset. The idea of federalization had been proposed by Hungarians Miklos Wesselenyi and Lajos Kossuth, until Romanian Aurel Popovici laid his plans for the “United States of Greater Austria” in 1906 with a federal state split along ethnic lines. Even if Popovici had interviews with the new Emperor-King prior to his demise in 1917, Ferdinand II & VI was not quite confident in a constitutional union, believing in the divine right of the Austria Emperor, and his policy was to break the Hungarian hold…”

    -History of the Habsburgs, R. Verner, Vienna 2013

    “PRESSBURG PROCLAMATION : Proclamation by Emperor-King of Austria-Hungary Ferdinand II & VI on May, 27 1917, at the Pressburger Schloss in Pressburg (Pozsony) that laid the plans for a Danubian Confederation (See : Danubian Confederation) to replace Austria-Hungary. An initiative of the Emperor-King, it provided for the creation of a Crown of Bohemia, that would provide autonomy for the Czech lands (minus the Sudetenland), on the same level than the Crowns of Austria and Hungary, and options open for granting autonomy to Croatia, Galicia and other peoples. The proclamation met with immediate backlash of the Hungarian government who saw it as a transgression of the statu quo and an undermining of their authority. A conference to determine the constitution of the new federal state was to take place in Prague in 1918, but the outbreak of the First Great European War (See : First Great European War) forced Ferdinand II & VI to postpone it. (See: Prague Conference)”

    -Encyclopedia of the Twentieth Century, Kerner 2002


    “The reign of Ferdinand II & VI of Austria-Hungary, which had some many repercussions on the modern world, almost never happened : he who was then the Archduke of Austria-Este and his wife, Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, were targeted on June, 28 1914 in Sarajevo by an assassination attempt by the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist group. During his state visit, the Archducal motorcade was targeted by a bomb thrown by Bosnian Serb terrorist Nedljko Cabrinovic. The bomb bounced off the folded back convertible cover of the Archduke’s car into the street and wounded 16 to 20 people. The Archduke managed to go back to Vienna unscathed after the attack. Nevertheless, after a failed assassination attempt on Austro-Hungarian Governor of Bosnia Oskar Potiorek, his would be assassin, Gavrilo Princip, confessed during the trial that he had been part of the commando who tried to murder the Archduke, but gave up after the bomb failure to eat a sandwich in a café, which happened to be next to the road taken by the Archduke when he decided to visit the wounded at Sarajevo’s hospital. One could wonder what would have happened had Gavrilo Princip not eaten his sandwich…”

    -Sic Semper Tyrannis : A Short History of Assassinations, G. Lellouche, Montreal 2017


    ***
    MELANIA OF SERBIA SUES FOR DIVORCE

    Melania of Serbia, spouse to Crown Prince Peter Karadjordjevic, has announced today in a press release that she would sue for divorce from her husband, citing “irreconciable differences”.

    Various tabloids had been tracking the signs of estrangement between the two royals for the last five months. She had been spotted in Budapest at fashion events, without attendance of her husband and her son, Boris, aged 12. Rumours of the Crown Prince’s infidelity emerged.
    Melania of Serbia, since her marriage to Crown Prince Peter in 2004, had always been the target of harsh criticism in Serbia and abroad. Born Melania Knauss in Germany, an ethnic Slovene, she was better known as a model and an actress in movies “You Only Live Twice” and “The Lion In Winter”. Since her engagement to Crown Prince Peter in 2002, she drew considerable controversy in Serbia, due to many reasons : her Slovene heritage, in the quite ethnocentric kingdom ; her appearing nude during her past work ; her lack of noble heritage, proving a mismatch for royal standards. The refusal of the Crown Prince to leave her resulted in the King threatening to abdicate and a mass resignation of the cabinet. Becoming the Crown Princess of Serbia upon her marriage, the gave birth to a son, Boris, in 2006, her only child.

    Crown Prince Peter Karadjordjevic, 43, is first in line to succeed the aging King Alexander III on the throne of Serbia. A high tech enthusiast, he came under high criticism in his country for repeatedly referencing the urge for his father, now 73, to abdicate, and for his marriage to his ethnic Slovene wife. The Royal Household Agency could be not reached for further comment.

    -Transocean Press Dispatch, October, 24 2018

    Capture d’écran 2018-11-27 à 13.03.44.png


    TL;DR : Archduke Franz Ferdinand isn't murdered in Sarajevo in 1914, succeeds Francis Joseph and presses for a Federal model in order to diminish Hungarian power and to help the Empire survive, but the broke-out of alt-WWI impedes him.
     
  8. Triune Kingdom Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Apr 6, 2018
    Wait a moment. Slovenia is a part of Germany?

    What has happened to the Monarchy?
     
  9. Nivek Resident Videogame Expert

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    Santa Marta,Magdalena,West Venezuela
    So much for nothing
     
  10. MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    Many things can happen during a century... Wait and see. Who tells you the situation will be different from 1970 in alt-2018 ?
     
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  11. The Oncoming Storm Well-Known Member

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    Dec 30, 2010
    Location:
    Fighting the system from within
    Consider me subscribed!
     
  12. Some Bloke Well-Known Member

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    Jun 13, 2008
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    A small village in Arkhamshire.
    Mrs Drumpff a princess? That's new.
    Following this
     
  13. Threadmarks: Chapter Two - The Albanian Tragedy

    MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    « The General lighted his pipe, then began to moan about this forsaken battlefield. The same old lesson of geopolitics he had been dwelling for months.
    -Albania was then an anomaly in the turmoil of the Balkan Wars, peaceful in 1913 yet ripe for trouble. The Balkanic powers had decided to strip the Ottomans for their last chunk of Europe, fighting each other for its share. The Great Powers, in spite of the fact that they didn’t understood anything to anything south of the Danube, wanted to impose some control on the situation. So they put on the so-called Albanian throne a German prince, Wilhelm von Wied. He arrived in his so-called princedom to see that there were other princes, eager to revolt for their own independance and power. Adding to that the Greeks who wanted to annex Northern Epirus, the Serbians who were after northern Albania, and the Italians who believed they were the new Venetians. It all made up for a good war. »

    -After the Earthquake, Ismail Kadare (Nobel Prize of Literature 1993)


    Wilhelm von Wied, when he was officially proposed the title of Prince of Albania on February, 21 1914, was accepting an uneasy job. This petty German noble, now to be known as Skanderbeg II (after the country’s national hero), accepted to rule a country that was widely seen in Europe as backward, poor and lawless, that had only become independant on November 1912, in the aftermath of the First Balkan War, and recognized by the Great Powers in May 1913. Divided between Catholics, Muslims and Orthodox, between democrats, clans, and those who refused foreign rule, the country was on the brink of anarchy when the new Prince arrived in Albania in March, 7.

    In spite of the help of the International Gendarmerie, led by Dutch officers, a massive islamist revolt broke out in Central Albania against his chief minister, Essat Pasha Toptani, and foreign domination. Essat Pasha, an opportunistic man who had already been able to surrender the fortress of Shkodër, in northern Albania, to the Serbs in order to cultivate their approval, quickly rode on the wave of discontent and attempted a coup, that ultimately failed and resulted in him taking arms with the rebels. Surrounded by rebels, Skanderbeg II left Albania on September 1914.
    Albania was in shambles and in total anarchy, without a central government, when Greek troops entered Northern Epirus on October 1914. The region, which had a sizeable Greek minority, had declared its own autonomous republic in February 1914, and the promises from the central authority to acknowledge their autonomy failed, leaving Greece to take their chance. For Serbia and Montenegro, who had their own eyes set on the splitting of Albania, it was the final straw, and they declared war on Greece on November, 2 1914, triggering the Third Balkan War.

    -Balkans for Dummies, New York, 2013


    The Third Balkan War, also known as the Albanian War, was a conflict centered in Albania between Greece on one side, an alliance of Serbia and Montenegro on the other, and later Italy that lasted from November, 2 1914 to April, 23 1915.
    It was triggered by the Greek invasion of Northern Epirus in October 1914, to which Serbia and Montenegro reacted by an invasion of northern Albania. The war quickly turned to a war of attrition between the three belligerants, due to the mountainous and harsh landscapes of Albania, pitting them against Albanian rebels and the unrecognized government of Essat Pasha Toptani (who had declared himself Prince of Albania after Skanderbeg II went into exile), and small skirmishes in Macedonia between Serbia and Greece. Winter forced both sides to a truce in Macedonia.

    With spring getting back, Italy, which supported Essat Pasha and held its own colonial views over Albania, threatened to intervene and occupied Valora on March, 4 1915. Failing to make any moves against the Greeks, and with Serbians approaching the Albanian capital of Durazzo, Italy threatened to call to arms its allies Austria-Hungary and Germany, who were on cold terms with Serbia. Unprepared for a war on this scale, Serbia agreed to peace talks that resulted into the Treaty of Corfu on April, 23 1915.

    Under the terms of the treaty, Valona remained under Italian occupation ; Essat Pasha Toptani was recognized as Prime Minister and Regent of Albania, even if Skanderbeg II remained in exile ; Northern Epirus was annexed by Greece ; northern Albania was split between Montenegro and Serbia.

    -Omnipedia article for “Third Balkan War (1914-1915)

    ThirdBalkanWar.png



    Essat Pasha Toptani was the true winner of the Albanian War, but in his thirst for power, he inherited a powder keg. Most Albanians resented his collaboration with Serbia and Montenegro, and he did nothing to convince them otherwise, as he quickly moved away from Italy to bolster relations with Serbia and Montenegro, even proposing them an alliance (Serbia refused). Having to fight the democrats, the Italians, the Christians, the Muslims with his autocratic rule, his rule never went further than Central Albania.

    An islamist revolt in 1916, asking for Serbian-Moncenegrin withdrawal and the return of the Ottomans, occupied all his available troops, while Christian declared their own republic in northern Albania, where they were quickly recognized and helped by the Serbs. But the nail in the coffin was on April, 12 1917 : Essat Pasha Toptani, while manoeuvring against Islamists in Gramsh, was shot and killed by an ambushed sharpshooter. To this day, no one knew if it was an Albanian rebel or an Italian agent. Albania was again in anarchy.

    But the climax was reached two weeks later, on May, 2, when Muslim crowds in Valona, agitated by nationalist preachers and led by resentment against the Italian occupation, attacked the Regia Marina’s headquarters and foreign residents in the city. The Valona Vespers, as they came to be known, lasted for one week, and left 1,200 Italian sailors and civilians dead, their families massacred, with children and women sold into slavery by Albanian clans. In the context of the First Great European War, the matter was explosive ; but for a small country like Albania, it was an Italian affair.

    -The Tragedy of Albania, C. Coaster, London 1955

    Capture d’écran 2018-10-25 à 15.28.11.png


    The Valona Vespers, as they came to be known, and the state of anarchy that resulted from the death of Essat Pasha Toptani, decided Italy to do something : taking advantage of the outbreak of the First Great European War, Italian troops landed in Valona on June 1917 and quickly occupied the Albanian shore, under direct supervision of the Navy. The Serbs, who had tried to propose their protection to the revolting Christians in Mirdita, were forced to back down to avoid being dragged into the war. Italian troops repressed Arif Hiqmenti’s peasent revolt.

    Gaining a momentum after the peace treaty with Greece, that confirmed their control on Northern Epirus, Italy furthered their hold, imposing the Treaty of Messina, ratified on October, 31 1919, according to which Skanderbeg II was restablished as Prince of Albania, under the premiership of Sami Bey Vrioni, pawn of Rome in Durazzo. Albania became a de facto Italian protectorate, having its neighbour as its only economic partner, granting unlimited access to Italian troops and citizens and giving full control of peacekeeping and foreign affairs. Serbia, Montenegro and Greece, all trying to avoid the turmoil of the war, had to keep in check.
    The assassination of Prince Skanderbeg II on April, 12 1920, by revolutionary Beqir Valtieri, in the streets of Durazzo, convinced Italy to further their grasp, occupying the capital and launching pacification campaigns in the Albanian countryside. Princess Consort Sophie, regent to the child-Prince Skanderbeg III (a month short of his 7th birthday when he acceded), was the agent of Italian influence in government. The assassination of Vrioni in 1923 led to the premiership of Ahmet Zogu, who died two years later, in 1925, in a car accident ; rumours had it that Zogu was planning a massive uprising against Italy.

    The uprising arrived two years later, on June 1927. Led by Christian leader Fan Noli and democrat activist Avni Rustemi, the June Revolt took place in Tirana, Gjirokaster and Durazzo, and tried to expel the Italians, like the Valona Vespers ten years ago. This led to a massive Italian response, as they wouldn’t dare to lose influence in Balkans now re-ignited by war. The reprisals killed 20,000 Albanian citizens : the leaders left for exile in Kosovo or Greece and Italy imposed a Governor-General, Grand Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, Duke of the Sea, that was an evidence of total control over Albania.
    The Princedom of Albania ceased to exist when, shortly after the outbreak of the Croatian-Serbian War, on November, 23 1934, Italian troops invaded Prince Skanderbeg III’s palace, forced him at gunpoint to abdicate and abandon his title of Prince of Albania, acknowledge the surrender of his whole country to the King of Italy, and left Durazzo by plane for a golden exile in Rome. Albania had ceased to exist, with a stroke of a pen.

    -Balkans for Dummies, New York, 2013

    ItaliansinAlbania.png

    The extension of Italy into Albania, from the Valona Vespers to the Annexation, 1917-1934

    ***

    FORMER PRINCE OF ALBANIA DIES

    Skanderbeg III of Albania, also known as Karl Viktor von Wied-Neuwied and Carlo Vittorio di Albania, died yesterday, December, 8 1973, in Palazzetto Scanberg, in Rome, Italy, aged 60. He is survived by his wife, Maria Adelaide.

    One of the lesser known royals of Europe, Skanderbeg III was less than one-year-old when his father, Wilhelm von Wied, accepted the Princedom of Albania in 1914, then a newly independent country that no monarch wanted to rule. He succeeded his father at only 6, when the latter was assassinated in 1920 and his country was on the verge of annexation by Italy. A figurehead prince, under the regency of his mother, Princess Consort Sophie von Waldenburg, he came of age when his country was already a protectorate of Italy, and had to relinquish his crown in 1934, when Albania was formally added to the Kingdom of Italy. He was only 21.

    Skanderbeg III’s life was quite uneventful, living in a dilapidated palace allocated by the Italian Government, located on a Piazza that bore his regnal name. His wedding in 1937 to Infanta Maria Adelaide, then sister to the royal claimant of Portugal, remained childless, he wasn’t given a seat at the Italian Senate and lived in obscurity. He wasn’t even allowed to go back to Albania.

    -The New York Times, December, 9 1973
    Capture d’écran 2018-10-25 à 15.53.10.png

    TL; DR : Albania becomes the theatre of a third Balkan War between Serbia and Greece, resulting in annexations on both sides, before Italy decides to move on and completely annexes the country by 1934.
     
  14. Whiteshore Defender of Myrcella Baratheon

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    Aug 19, 2016
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    Philippines
    Will his words be backed by nuclear weapons ITTL?
     
  15. corourke Member Donor

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2004
    Really cool update, I love these in-depth looks into tiny side theaters.

    With the map, I can't see the difference between 1920 and 1921. Is it just my inability to tell colors apart?
     
  16. AvatarOfKhaine Eldar God of War

    Joined:
    May 22, 2017
    Location:
    Craftworld Herefordshire
    Is that a Code Geass reference with "G. Lellouche" and his history of assassins, or am I just looking for references where none exist?

    Regardless, this is really good and I'll be following this and wishing you the best with further writing.
     
  17. MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    In fact I Made a mistake while captioning the map. 1921 corresponds to the area in Epirus.

    Not at all, it’s just because I saw this name in my Facebook feed :)
     
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  18. Threadmarks: Chapter Three : Irish Home Rule

    MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    “Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right !”
    Randolph Churchill, 1886

    “Prime Minister Asquith depended on the Irish vote, controlled by John Redmond ; since the 1910 election, in which the Liberals emerged as a minority party, the Prime Minister promised Redmond that Irish Home Rule would be the highest priority. On the other side, the Conservatives, due to the support of the Ulster Unionists, were die-hard opposed to Home Rule. A Third Home Rule Bill drafted in 1911 opposed any special status for Protestant Ulster within majoiryt-Catholic Ireland, even if Asquith personally thought otherwise. In spite of that, the bill as introduced in April 1912 contained no such provision. Neither partition nor a special status for Ulster was likely to satisfy either side. The self-government offered by the bill was very limited, but Irish Nationalists, expecting Home Rule to come by gradual parliamentary steps, favoured it. The Conservatives and Irish Unionists opposed it.
    Since Parliament Act (1911), the Unionists could no longer block Home Rule in the House of Lords, but only delay Royal Assent by two years. Asquith decided to postpone any concessions to the Unionists until the bill's third passage through the Commons, when he believed the Unionists would be desperate for a compromise. Edward Carson threatened a revolt if Home Rule was enacted. The new Conservative leader, Bonar Law, campaigned in Parliament and in northern Ireland, warning Ulstermen against "Rome Rule", that is, domination by the island's Catholic majority. Many who opposed Home Rule felt that the Liberals had violated the Constitution—by pushing through major constitutional change without a clear electoral mandate, with the House of Lords, formerly the "watchdog of the constitution", not reformed as had been promised in the preamble of the 1911 Act—and thus justified actions that in other circumstances might be treason. Bonar Law was pushing hard--certainly blustering and threatening, and perhaps bluffing--but in the end his strategy proved both coherent and effective.
    As the Commons debated the Home Rule bill in late 1912 and early 1913, unionists in the north of Ireland mobilised, with talk of Carson declaring a Provisional Government and Ulster Volunteer Forces (UVF) built around the Orange Lodges, but in the cabinet, only Churchill viewed this with alarm. These forces, insisting on their loyalty to the British Crown but increasingly well-armed with smuggled German weapons, prepared to do battle with the British Army, but Unionist leaders were confident that the army would not aid in forcing Home Rule on Ulster.
    As the Home Rule bill awaited its third passage through the Commons, the Curragh incident occurred in April 1914. Some sixty army officers, led by Brigadier-General Hubert Gough, announced that they would rather be dismissed from the service than obey. With unrest spreading to army officers in England, the Cabinet acted to placate the officers with a statement written by Asquith reiterating the duty of officers to obey lawful orders but claiming that the incident had been a misunderstanding. War minister John Seely then added an unauthorised assurance, countersigned by General John French (the head of the army), that the government had no intention of using force against Ulster. Asquith repudiated the addition, and required Seely and French to resign. Asquith took control of the War Office himself.
    On 12 May, Asquith announced that he would secure Home Rule's third passage through the Commons (accomplished on 25 May), but that there would be an amending bill with it, making special provision for Ulster. However the Lords made changes to the amending bill unacceptable to Asquith, and with no way to invoke the Parliament Act on the amending bill, Asquith agreed to meet other leaders at an all-party conference on 21 July at Buckingham Palace, chaired by the King.”
    -The Irish Question, F. Weinling, London, 2017

    220px-Herbert_Henry_Asquith.jpg 220px-Andrew_Bonar_Law_02.jpg 220px-John_Redmond_1917.JPG 220px-Sir_Edward_Carson,_bw_photo_portrait_seated.jpg
    Dramatis personae : from left to right, the Prime Minister (Liberal), H. H. Asquith ; the Leader of the Opposition (Conservative), Andrew Bonar Law ; the Irish nationalist leader, John Redmond ; the Ulster Unionist leader, Edward Carson.
    The original Government of Ireland Bill provided for a bicameral Irish Parliament in Dublin, composed of a 40-member Senate and a 164-member House of Commons, with powers to deal with most national affairs (matters such as defence, international trade or foreign affairs would be left to the Crown and the London Parliament), while 42 MPs would continue to sit in Westminster and the Dublin Castle administration would be abolished. Such a situation was a deep concern for the Northern Irish : the House of Lords then passed an amendment excluding the whole of Ulster from Irish Home Rule until 1920. It was unacceptable for the government who wanted deeply to avoid a civil war and divided the Emerald Island, as such a solution would be unacceptable for the Southern Irish. It was to avoid renewed debate that King George V called the Buckingham Palace Conference with MPs from each of the British Liberal (Asquith, David Lloyd George) and Conservative Parties (Bonar Law) and from the Irish Nationalist (John Redmond, John Dillon) and Unionist factions (Edward Carson, James Craig, Lord Lansdowne).
    Held from July,21 to August, 5, the conference resulted in the temporrary exclusion of the nine Ulster counties of Antrim, Down, Armagh, Tyrone, Londonderry, Cavan, Donegal, Moneghan and Fermanagh, their status in relation to the Dublin Parliament to be discussed in 1920. The Conference didn’t help to put an end to the Home Rule Bill, being still incomplete, and both the Nationalists and Unionists being bitter about it, the former not gaining the control of the whole Ireland and the latter having not resolved the issue of their place within the United Kingdom.
    On September, 18, the King gave His Assent to the Bill, making it law, even if both sides had not be satisfied, at the urge of Asquith...
    -The Irish Civil War, F. Chesterfield, London, 2016

    “LIBERTY AT LAST”
    -Daily Irish Independant, September, 19 1914

    “Oh do I wish a big jolly war would distract us from all this nonsense.”
    -Attributed to King George V regarding Irish Home Rule

    base_map.png

    Ireland after the Government of Ireland Law of 1914 : the light green area is directly concerned by Home Rule (effective on January, 1 1916), while the status of Ulster counties (darker green) has to be discussed further in 1920.

    The readiness of the Unionists to fight, in the most military sense, against Catholic rule was a secret to no one : the Ulster Volunteers, founded in 1913 by Edward Carson, had more than 100,000 militamen ready to fight in their ranks and were heavily armed by rifles, bayonets and ammunitions purchased from Germany. For the Irish nationalists, led by John Redmond, a proper show of force was needed now that Home Rule came into force. The Irish Volunteers, formed in reaction to the Ulster ones, numbered nearly 200,000 men, armed with British guns, some provided by elements of the government.
    The two forces would clash repeatedly clash during the riots that rocked Ireland during the months of November and December 1914…
    -The Irish Civil War, F. Chesterfield, London, 2016

    “I have decided to refuse to sit, with my fellow MPs, in the current Parliament. I hope that a new debate, far from the riches of Buckhingham Palace, will be held to determine how Mr. Asquith’s government will truly determine the status of the fine people of Ulster.
    -But you would siege if a Conservative government, under Mr. Bonar Law’s authority perhaps, was to be elected ?
    -I’m considering all options.”
    -UUP leader Edward Carson, interview with the Times, October, 24 1914

    “From Our election to the Holy See to succeed His Holiness Pope Pius X, Our concerns went to the Irish people, now gaining freedom for their Reformist dominators after centuries of massacres, vexations and oppression, now teetering on the verge of conflict…”
    -Extract from Cura Ardente (With Burning Concern), encyclical by Pope Nicholas VI

    UUP MP ARTHUR O’NEILL MURDERED IN LONDON
    -The Times, November, 6 1914

    “Don’t mess with the Crown !”
    -Repeated slogans during the December, 1 anti-Irish riots in Great Britain

    When Irish Volunteers stormed British Army barracks in Londonderry on Christmas 1914, in order to seize guns, the assault left 13 dead on the Britih side and 27 on the Irish one. The incident showed how the Nationalists were now prepared to wage war and displayed military tactics, and as a setback to Asquith and his ally Redmond, who didn't manage to keep his most radical allies in line…
    -The Irish Civil War, F. Chesterfield, London, 2016

    Asquith knew that Ireland was on the verge of civil war and both sides on the island were dissatisfied with the results ; his cabinet ally, John Redmond, was now unable to control the radical factions of the Irish Volunteers, and all negotiations had been broken with the Unionists who were now refusing to seat in Westminster.
    Convinced that a new election, in the current context of a good economy and a powerful empire, alongside the overall achievement of Home Rule, would result in an increased majority for the Liberals, Asquith convinced the King to dissolve Parliament and call for new elections, scheduled for March, 14 1915. The King accepted.
    Bonar Law, who was facing his first general election, proved a good campaigner, roaming the countryside by promising a repeal of the Government of Ireland Bill, in order to undertake new negotiations that would not leave “Britain’s best allies, the Unionists” under “Papist domination”. Whenever the Tory leader went campaigning, riots were arising against or for the Irish community, and he was followed by Ulster Volunteers.
    Taking advantage from the fact that the Government of Ireland Law had been taken into effect and that elections hadn’t taken place for the Dublin Parliament, both IPP and UUP threw their forces into the battle, and even punches and guns when the occasion came at bay.
    Asquith’s gamble proved to be fruitless when on March, 14, it appeared that the Conservative-Unionist alliance had reached a mere majority of 7 seats…”
    -Asquith, M. Mendoza, London, 1974

    Capture d’écran 2018-12-04 à 17.53.32.png

    TL; DR : Ireland manages to gain home rule but the Unionists don’t accept the failed compromise for Ulster. Both sides fight, until Asquith decides to call an early election that is won by the Conservatives.
     
    Last edited: Dec 4, 2018
  19. Laxault2020 Like making new friends

    Joined:
    Sep 24, 2017
    Location:
    Margaritaville
    Excited to see this. Loved your previous work, but the possibilities are so endless with this POD I can't wait to see your creativity! :)

    A cool figure if you want to include in the Danubian Federation is Archduke Wilhelm, or "Vasily the Embroidered" a minor Hapsburg who supported Ukrainian Independence OTL and fought aginst the Bolsheviks, ITL would probably support Galician Autonomy and culture.

    Regardless, can't wait :cool:
     
    MaskedPickle and jerseyguy like this.
  20. MaskedPickle Well-Known Member

    I can already tell you that Archduke Wilhelm will have his part in this TL.

    Feedback is very important to me : if you have ideas of figures, cultural, political or miscellaneous that could play a part in this TL, or even cultural inspirations I could draw upon (I'm thinking of a way to inspire myself from Crimson Skies here), please tell me ! I could respond to you quickly or even feed it to a "Where are they now?" update.
     
    Ogrebear and Laxault2020 like this.
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