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That is not even including around 2 million civilians, living from Archangelsk to Aktau, who were either killed or enslaved by German forces, with a rare few ever returning.

This was brutal. Hopefully the sixties will bring an more capable American president, someone that doesn't half asses his way and properly fights the fascist plague.

Meaning an proper alliance against the grey devil. I also hope we will see a friendly relation between USA and Red Vietnam. Is not like Vietnam and China like each others. And with an China in a better position than otl, vietnam can serve as a bulwark against chinese influence.
This was brutal. Hopefully the sixties will bring an more capable American president, someone that doesn't half asses his way and properly fights the fascist plague.

Meaning an proper alliance against the grey devil. I also hope we will see a friendly relation between USA and Red Vietnam. Is not like Vietnam and China like each others. And with an China in a better position than otl, vietnam can serve as a bulwark against chinese influence.
Let's hope there is someone a bit more idealistic and interventionist in the White House. Anyone in particular?
Let's hope there is someone a bit more idealistic and interventionist in the White House. Anyone in particular?
I am not well-versed in American politics so I can't point someone exactly ,but as long as the new president fights the grey tide and properly unites the world against it, than is al good.
I am not well-versed in American politics so I can't point someone exactly ,but as long as the new president fights the grey tide and properly unites the world against it, than is al good.
Is Huey's policy necessarily a bad one? While he does seem unreliable and lacks a proper NATO-like compromise, he was still determined to stop Nazism during the Ural War and Communism in Korea. He did have several faults early on but currently he is opposing Germania fiercely.
Is Huey's policy necessarily a bad one? While he does seem unreliable and lacks a proper NATO-like compromise, he was still determined to stop Nazism during the Ural War and Communism in Korea. He did have several faults early on but currently he is opposing Germania fiercely.

Didn't he take a fiercer stand against Germania because he was pressured by the warmonger members of his government? If he would have continued with his crap I am certain he would have left Russia to die.

I am not a believer in interventionism but when you have Nazi Germany you cannot close your eyes and hope the problem goes away. The world needs a proper alliance against the Linz Pakt.
Even if the USA get more consistent and proactive in containing and fighting Nazism, an anti-Nazi coalition would still be hard to build.

The USA under Long have proved terribly unreliable, which means that Britain, or for that matter Free France and Russia, will take time to trust the USA again. Time, and real committment from the USA that they can't just easily back out instantly whenever it pleases them (for example, a NATO-like joint command structure, a free trade zone, maybe a customs union...).
Meanwhile, Brazil, while being anti-Nazi, isn't US-friendly either.

On the other hand, if the USA suddenly decide to create an anti-Nazi united team, the Nazis themselves will probably help their efforts. Not only everyone remembers Hess threatening the whole world with complete anihilation, right after the Reich invaded Russia... but I fully expect the Nazis to create more international crises over bullshit (probably an average of at least one crisis every five years). Maybe not right now with Goebbels currently focusing on internal matters, but in a decade or two, they'll be back at it.

In addition to creating an alliance / international organization to unite the Free World against the Reich, the (post-Long) USA should probably try to turn enemy countries into neutrals / frenemies.

I'm chiefly thinking of China (it's certainly possible for the USA to nudge China into focusing its anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist agenda against the Reich and its French and Spanish vassals, and stop its saber rattling with the Free World, while offering the resumption of trade with advantageous conditions for China), and Italy (if/when Italy eventually leaves the Linz Pakt, then it will likely be neutral and a trade bridge between both blocs, instead of joining the US-led team, both to avoid German retaliation and because Italy is still fascist).
Is Huey's policy necessarily a bad one? While he does seem unreliable and lacks a proper NATO-like compromise, he was still determined to stop Nazism during the Ural War and Communism in Korea. He did have several faults early on but currently he is opposing Germania fiercely.
The major problem is that he's indeed extremely unreliable, and so no other country can actually trust the USA as an ally while he's the president.
Didn't he take a fiercer stand against Germania because he was pressured by the warmonger members of his government? If he would have continued with his crap I am certain he would have left Russia to die.

I am not a believer in interventionism but when you have Nazi Germany you cannot close your eyes and hope the problem goes away. The world needs a proper alliance against the Linz Pakt.
He did that for sake of votes after seeing how McCarthy anti-germanism was able to rally a coalition that almost took him down in 1952. Roosevelt and the Northern Democrats mainly defected due to his isolationism when he had Wheeler as Secretary of State.

The major problem is that he's indeed extremely unreliable, and so no other country can actually trust the USA as an ally while he's the president.
He is... flexible, and being an unreliable ally was arguably one of the main factors in the British paranoia that led to King Edward's takeover. But he has consistently been supportive of Russia (even if sometimes the Russian Conservatives feared this would led to an Americanization of their society) and without his decisive support from day one, the Germans would have crossed the Urals. While there is trouble between him and Britain, the Russians are the first ones to join such a coalition if he made it, with Israel right behind.


The United States might have been the first major colony to gain independence from Britain, Ireland might have hit the closest to London, but none match the scale of India's independence, a subcontinent with around 400 million people by the time of it's Independence in 1949 after a long struggle which included from an enormous campaign of civic disobedience to radical groups which threatened the unity of the movement headed by the Indian National Congress (INC), with the capable leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, the spiritual backing of Mohandas "Mahatma" Gandhi, as well as several other figures such as Vallabhbhai "Sardar" Patel, Purushottam Das Tandon and Rajendra Prasad. It was a road far from certain, the methods were a matter of contention that even led to a split of a militant group led by Subhas Chandra Bose which openly collaborated with the Japanese forces during the brutal war in Asia where two million Indians fought under Atlee's promise of a post-war settlement. As the war ended, this dream would come, although not without it's initial problems, especially in regards to the internal divisions of a nation extending from the Indus Valley to the Bay of Bengal, going as far south as Travancore and later the island of Ceylon. The Congress' leadership would have to face many challenges, but if beaten they could see the rise of the world's largest democracy in an environment where such word was spoken less and less.

Ironically, as in many things with history, it was minor matters that led to the development of greater ones, in this case it was King Edward's visit to India during a Royal Tour in 1937. The recently crowned King arrived at Bombay and was received as the Emperor of India by it's Governor-General Victor Hope, also known as the Marquis of Linlithgow, spending two weeks visiting the cities of the Subcontinent, which recently received a large degree of autonomy, especially on regional elections, through the "Government of India Act" in 1935. Unfortunately for the Viceroy, his wife caught the attention of the young King, and the eventual fallout between King Edward, who was still a long way from rehabilitating from his womanizing behavior, and his viceroy, would later lead to the resignation of the latter in shame. Linlithgow declared to have health problems, perhaps the true health which was damaged was his moral one, but the Parliament accepted his resignation and the Joint Committee would approve a new figure, Sir Kingsley Wood, the postmaster General in Baldwin's government. Baldwin once more was privately concerned about the King's tendencies but his warnings fell on deaf years, especially with MP Churchill being a leading voice amongst the Conservatives in supporting Edward in his early rule. Churchill was not very well seen, but later he would be seen as a visionary and a Martyr, a man who constantly went against appeasement and called for stronger action against Hitler, his warnings would be only heard after the fall of Czechoslovakia, and at the very least Churchill did not live to see the horror spread over the Continent as he would die when the HMS Nelson was torpedoed by the U-56 in 1939, leading to him impacting his head harshly on a metal wall and dying days later.

In a more morbid news, the war began in September of 1939 and Viceroy Wood would convene with the leaders of the Indian National Congress, jointly issuing a declaration of War against the hideous ideology of Nazism. But not all leaders of the movement agreed to it, in special was one Subhas Chandra Bose, one of the leading members of the INC who defected from the movement, opposing any sort of cooperation with the British Empire. In 1942, when the Japanese struck Pearl Harbor and within weeks captured all of Southeast Asia and Indonesia, seizing Burma and reaching the gates of India by 1943, it was not hard for many to see Japan as a new rising power, and like in Indonesia, Bose wished for the local nationalists to support the Japanese anti-imperialist war, perhaps unaware that the Japanese atrocities were far more brutal than even the years of domination by the British Empire. Tens of Thousands of Indians joined Bose's volunteer force, perhaps watching the worldwide momentum shifting against Britain, such as the collapse of Russia and the Treaty of Lisbon in 1943 which cemented the Third Reich as the new power of Europe. Over two million Indians took the other direction, and by 1942 after Gandhi's calls, condemning the approaching wave of Nazism that had reached Tabriz and threatened to cross into Central Asia by then. More and more volunteers joined the call to arms by the INC, while the new British government under Atlee promised to negotiate a term of Independence after the war if the Japanese could be stopped.

In Bengal, this cooperation came at a crucial moment, for between 1942 and 1943, what started off due to the failings from Monsoon season, quickly developed into an enormous famine in Eastern India, which was not reduced at all due the growing need for supplies at the front near Imphal. The growing famine in Bengal drew the attention of many, especially within India where millions of subsistence farmers in the region where suffering of chronic starvation and in some cases even antropofagia was seen amongst the people. Viceroy Wood requisitioned support from London, but Halifax at the time faced a growing crisis due to the Axis renewed push into North Africa and the fall of Gibraltar threatening to close down the entire Mediterranean. Only after the Treaty of Lisbon and Atlee's rise did relief come from London to mitigate the famine although many believed the crisis would not have started if not for the British, there were heavy critiques over the fall of Burma and Britain's blocking of Rice imports, as well as the militarized distribution system which diverted food to soldiers and other "high priority professionals" to the detriment of the majority. A few say British intervention prevented the deaths of millions, others say those millions would not have been at risk if not for the British policies in the first place, but what it did show is that Atlee was a man far more amicable to the Indian struggle than Halifax and the Conservatives were.

Later that year, Kingsley Wood resigned over health concerns and died in September, for the remainder of the war, John Anderson, former Governor of Bengal and Viscount of Waverley, would serve as Governor-General of India. Anderson was the former Lord of the Privy Council under Chamberlain and despite the Treaty of Lisbon, Atlee was still concerned in keeping the support of the Conservatives in the War, as such he appointed a moderate as Viceroy. Of course there was the fact Viscount Waverley was almost assassinated three times the last time he stepped his foot in India, but thankfully to him, things were calmer in the Subcontinent for now, because beating the Japanese was a far greater priority than rioting, although many members of the Congress wanted action against the British, the leadership had made a truce, and with Gandhi supporting the collaboration there was little those leaders could do to sway the people to their side.


The Indian contribution during the war was the primary responsible for driving the IJA from Southeast Asia from Bengal to Singapore, under the command of Lord Mountbatten, the majority of the Commonwealth forces in the Burma front were compromised by Indian volunteers using the sheer size and population of the Subcontinent against the outnumbered and overstretched IJA. Between 1944 and 1945 a decisive breakthrough was made after the IJA's offensive against Imphal failed, soon the Japanese and their collaborators were driven into Thailand where the local government turned against the supported of the Co-Prosperity Sphere, starting a civil war in the country which still had engagements in the far North even after the fall of the Japanese Empire in January of 1947. Lord Mountbatten himself would have a lasting impression of the Indian troops which would influence his actions in the post-war transition between 1947 and 1949 when tensions began to ramp up as the soldiers returned home and expected the promises from London to be fulfilled.
But it was not that simple, because while Japan surrendered on the 25th, although holdouts lasted for longer in places such as Korea, Hitler renewed his aggression on the 30th of January by turning the Reich's focus on a future war with the west, restarting the armaments industry after a 4-year ceasefire and launching aggressive actions, especially when the Levantine War started in that same year and the British commonwealth intervened with the United Nations to stop the first Syrian attempt to seize the Levant. Tensions were increasing in the West and there were many, even in the Labour Party, who believed that giving Independence to India would cripple the British war effort, making them lose one of their foremost advantages against the Germans when needed most, the British Isles and the other Commonwealth nations combined could not make up for the loss in terms of manpower that the Raj's independence would ensure. There was no garantee that the Indians would side with Britain, especially as the INC would not be sympathetic towards keeping a colonial Empire that many in Britain believed necessary to face the constant threat of the Linz Pakt. The invasions of Sweden and Switzerland in the year before only showed that the Germans still did not lose their military edge, and Hitler greatly increased the priority of building a fleet to match the Royal Navy, and with the Linz Pakt adding in the fleets of Italy and France, as well as possibly the Iberian States, with Russia devastated by civil war and unable to keep a second front open, the resistance in Parliament against Atlee put the idea of an Independent India at risk, or at least it put at risk the idea of a peaceful solution to it.

Waverley, in February of 1947, was caught in this scenario and contacted London and the INC, offering to the Congress the Dominion Status of India in return of a withdrawal until the end of the year. He spoke in the name of Atlee, who was attempting to negotiate an agreement for Indian Independence with Parliament. The INC felt betrayed by that offer, as previously they had been reassured of Atlee and Wood that full Independence would come after the war. The result is that the trust that the Indian leaders had in London was only decreased by the fact Atlee made a promise he was now unable to keep, in fact Clement would spend the next two years struggling to pass the Indian Independence Act and there were still revisions added to it. As Provincial elections were to be held, a concession was given to the INC to allow for Universal Suffrage, as Atlee wished to prepare the terrain for an allied and democratic Indian nation in the future, only to alienate the Muslim groups, which were already increasingly hostile to Britain due to it's support of Israel and the German Pro-Muslim rhetoric of the time. The Muslim League, a small movement of Muslim intelectuals led by Mohammed Ali Jinnah, used that to attempt to gather support for an Independent Islamic Nation separate from the Raj as many muslims feared they would be crushed by the Hindu Majority. Furthermore, the Princely States under the Rajahs were seeing the coming winds of Independence and attempted in vain to delay or weaken the creation of a United Indian State that would threaten their own control over states such as Hyderabad.

The Elections gave a crushing victory for the INC which took control of the vast majority of the State governments of India with few exceptions, this also coincided by Lord Waverley being recalled and the last Viceroy of India being appointed: Louis Mountbatten, the Earl of Burma and perhaps the most prestigious military officer in the British Armed Forces after leading the victory in Southeast Asia, a man also well respected by Indians for leading them in the war and who was sympathetic towards Independence. He was also a man with King Edward's trust, so many times when facing conservative leaders, Mountbatten had an easier time handling them than his predecessors. Louis enjoyed a good relationship with many INC leaders, especially Nehru, and many say that Nehru had an affair with his wife and that led to Lord Mountbatten being influenced to support him. This would be the second time within a decade that the lives of hundreds of millions of people would be determined by an affair with the wife of a British officer, if the case is true.
While the concern in London was to unite Parliament in favor of the act, Mountbatten worked to ensure India would be strengthened after Independence, granting several industrial licenses and lifting previous restrictions. However they would soon face matters of controversy, such as the Trial of Bose and his Indian National Army, and the Indian Strike of 1947, the latter of which proved determinant in demonstrating that even the Indian Armed Forces now were shifting to the momentum of Independence. Bose's forces were captured after being pushed into Cambodia, with Bose himself attempting to flee North into Japanese-occupied China before being captured as his plane was about to takeoff. The Indian National Army, which included High-ranking officers who defected to the Japanese such as Shah Nawaz Khan and Prem Kumar Saghal, was put on trial on the Red Fort in 1947 and the prosecution was led by the INC, but the notoriety of the trials, which were meant to expose the Japanese atrocities in support of the Military Tribunal of the Far East in Tokyo, ended up backfiring. There was widespread sympathy in India for the INA's goals, although there was not much for the defendants themselves after it became widely known the level of atrocities carried out by the Japanese, especially in China and Singapore.

Furthermore, a mutiny sparked in October with the Royal Indian Navy officer and sailors at Calcutta rallying in support for better living conditions, which soon turned into a full scale strike of all the RIC from Bombay to Calcutta. In land, the Army and Air Force would also have their strikes and workers in large cities called for a week-long General Strike, with millions of workers and soldiers paralyzing the subcontinent during the "Great Strike" in October. The INC would call for the end of the strikes and request for the mutineers to turn themselves in, although the strikes were an important step towards Independence, leaders such as Nehru and Patel did not wish to further antagonize London by pushing their tolerance too far. But in Parliament, the strikes did serve to show many in the Labour and Conservative parties that even the armed forces of India could not be fully counted on to support Britain's endeavors, it also came during the crisis in the Levant, and Parliament was willing to give concessions to appease the army, which was important due to the later intervention against the Syrians in December of 1947.

Perhaps the greatest challenge towards a unified India was the existence of several different Muslim organizations, many formed in the aftermath of the First World War, which advocated for an Independent Islamic Nation. The Muslim League was one of them, although it's existence dated to the Pre-War years in 1906. Led at the time by Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the League was a powerful organization pursuing Muslim interests and representation in Indian affairs, however it's main flaw lied in it's elitism, it was an essentially intelectual movement led by Scholars and Businessmen, rather than a mass movement like INC was. It also had to compete with several other groups for the leadership of said movement, although Jinnah had achieved a certain consensus amongst these factions by 1947 and started to massify his movement. He contrasted with some other Islamic leaders by supporting Britain during the war and after it, which caused friction with radicals which opposed the British due to their support for Israel and rather saw Germany as a leading sponsor of the Islamic World's struggle against Colonialism, those influenced by the Mufti of Jerusalem's vitrolic support for the Linz Pakt had begun to clash with the moderate approach of Jinnah which was not looking optimistic. The League was able to mobilize half a million members at their peak when they called for the "Direct Action Day" on the 18th of August of 1948, with a general strike called, following the Lahore resolution adopted by the League which called for an Independent Muslim Nation in East Bengal and Northwest India. However that move backfired terribly when the call for action turned into an escalation into violent riots in Calcutta. As a result, the British cracked down harshly on the Muslim League, detaining several of it's leaders and representatives in State governments, including Jinnah himself, who stayed in prison for 4 days before his sentence was commuted by Mountbatten due to health concerns.

Independence finally came in 1949, with the Muslim League crippled by the British suppression and the INC gaining more and more momentum, the Parliament acquiesced over fears of further escalation in the Continent, as the mutinies showed they could no longer count on the Indian Army to suppress the movement. The Indian Independence Act of 1949 was signed up by Atlee on the 18th of March of 1949, once King Edward did the same on the 19th, the Independence of the Raj was ensured by law and for the first time in two centuries, British troops marched to leave the new "Union of India", which was still technically a Commonwealth Nation under King Edward VIII at that moment. Jawaharlal Nehru became the First Prime Minister of India with a Constitutional Convention being called, the entire shape and fate of the continent changed that day as Lord Mountbatten, now no longer Viceroy, bid his farewells and hoped that India and Britain would continue a constructive relationship with one another against the threat of Adolf Hitler. With Jinnah's death the previous year, as well as the suppression of the League, it's leadership was fragmented and other Islamist groups fought over it's corpse, as such it was decided in London that there was the need of a Unified Front against the Linz Pakt, and with much of the Islamic world drifting more and more towards Germany and Italy at the time, there was no desire to risk giving Hitler a foothold in Asia.


The reactions were overall positive worldwide, the United States under President Thurmond was one of the first countries to recognize India's independence, followed afterwards by Canada, China, and even Germany, which was still not going through the confusing foreign policy of Anglophilia led by Rudolf Hess. France and Portugal, both French governments, have been obviously slower in that regard, as both Paris and Brazzaville claimed Podicherry and Portugal still held the city of Goa, which would make the two (or rather three?) nations be obviously at odds with the Indian State. Ceylon for the time continued under British control due to the importance of the Tricomalee naval base, especially with the ongoing agitation in Malaya. The Union of Myanmar, previously known as Burma, also gained Independence that year after being the main battleground for the Commonwealth's forces between 1942 and 1946. Despite the fact he started as a Minister of War under the Japanese State of Burma before switching sides during the war, General Aung San would take office as the first President of the newly Independent State in May.


The first challenge of a united India was to Unite India. The Majority of the Raj was already in control of the new Union, but there was the matter of the Princely States led by varying Rajas who once made agreements with Britain to keep their regional fiefdoms. Such level of elitism and fragmentation was not acceptable to the Indian State, which is why the new Administration, under the advice of Deputy-Minister Patel, showed no tolerance, demanding the immediate and unconditional capitulation of the Rajas. Most of them folded, aware that there was little possibility of even posing a threat to the Indian Army, while some resisted, as was the case of the Nizan of Hyderabad who led the strongest of the Princely States, an authoritarian leader who led over a Hindu Majority realm while being a Muslim, that was a difference which was accentuated by Muslim dissidents, some of which even fought for the Nizam, and yet he was unable to fight for more than a week, with Osman Ali Khan surrendering, the war had a profound message that Separatism would not be tolerated. By the end of the year, for the first time since the Mughals, the Subcontinent was united under a single leadership in New Delhi.

Speaking of Muslims, the death of Jinnah may have ended a unified and coordinated effort, but there was no lack of organizations which were outraged by the plans of Independence and attempted to force a Partition. In Northwest India, unrest turned into riots in many areas where the clergy and political figures attempted to rally the locals. In Lahore, the Muslim majority attacked the Hindu and Christian communities of the city after incitation, the growing crisis led to Nehru declaring Martial Law in the State for the next 2 months in 1949, but still no concessions were given in regards to Independence itself. While the Atlee government fell at the start of the new decade, the Constitutional Assembly finished it's work in December creating the world's longest and most complex Constitution, creating the Republic of India and abolishing the Dominion, the last step of Independence. It would be a Federal State extending from the Mountains of Kashmir to Tamil Nadu, from Baluchistan to Bengal, with a population of 400 million people according to the Post-Independence Census. No doubt there was the challenge of how to unite such a diverse nation that has never been united under a Democratic System before. In fact, India now possessed the largest voting population on Earth.

The structure of this State was one of the most challenging and complex works ever done in Constitutional Law, the challenge of how to make sure there would be proper representation between the millions of inhabitants and prevent the Hindu Majority from completely realizing the worst nightmares of the collapsing Muslim League. A system of representation for the religious minorities of each province would be set up, with a reservation of seats through quotas in regional assemblies, as well as in the civic service. It was a compromise which Gandhi gave his support to publicly and led to his death when he was assassinated by a Hindu Nationalist on the 6th of October of 1950, only a week after the Constitution was proclaimed. The death of the Mahatma when at his greatest influence was a shock to the entire Continent, perhaps to the Entire world. A humble figure like few others, who incorporated the principles of civic disobedience and the peaceful search for autonomy among anti-colonial groups, as India's independence was more of an exception of the time as there was no large scale war between the British and Indian Nationalists. His teachings of pursuing peace while also condemning tyranny and seeking a more simple and peaceful lifestyle would be praised by the Indian government, despite the fact the new Indian State would be act aggressively at times and pursued Industrialization at an unmatched speed following Independence. His funeral was accompanied by over two million people in the procession to his final resting place in New Delhi, and it led to a backlash against more radical nationalist groups such as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the Hindu Nationalist paramilitary group responsible for his murder.


There were many other challenges to the newly created Nation, not only were parts of India still occupied by foreign forces, but contrary to the British propaganda of leaving a "Developed Nation in the march for progress", this was a country where only one in every five people were able to read. Poverty rates were among the highest in the world, even worse, the challenge was to feed this incredibly diverse population which at times was at eachothers throats, while much of the country was made up of subsistence farmers. This was a nation which would never be able to face a fully Industrial modern war on it's own in the current conditions as of 1950 when the Republic was declared. This was a challenge which Prime Minister Nehru and President Prasad would have to face and it all began with the largest elections ever held in Human History in 1951, where millions went to vote in January for a new government. With the fall of the Muslim League and the creation of a Secular State which suppressed both Islamic and Hindu radicals, the INC had it's dominance assured, but formed a wide coalition by supporting different groups. The greatest to rise from the ashes of the Muslim League, with origins in the old Muslim-Hindu Khalifat movement, was the Ahrar movement, which would rise up in Lahore and become one of the main political forces in the Muslim majority areas of Northwest India led by Hissam-u Din, a Sheik who called for cooperation with the Indian State to secure a strong nation while also protecting the rights of the Islamic Minority. Said parties did receive support of the INC, a sponsor, to quell the sentiments of separatism among the Middle Class.

The deaths of Patel and Gandhi in 1950 left Nehru as the sole unifying leader of the INC and so he began to pursue the modernization of India, with a renewed interest in expanding the social welfare of the poor and pursuing an ambitious program of Land Reform. India inherited a good Industrial base which grew considerably after the start of the Second World War in 1939, and yet it was still far behind the Great Powers. Education was more than ust a necessity, it would define the very future of India in the short, medium and long term. Speaking of Long, Nehru visited President Huey Long in the United States in 1953 to congratulate him for his victory in the Elections and also to acquire much-needed investments from the West in a time where India was still largely seen as a backwater former colony with an exotic culture, but this crucial initial investment, supported even by Arch-Isolationist Burton K. Wheeler, would grow as India, alongside Russia, would be a crucial ally to the West against Nazism in Asia, especially after the Suez War a year earlier.

India followed a Mixed economy system, with some inspirations from Socialism, French Dirigisme, and even Longism. The State led the efforts in nationalization and growth of National Industry, and yet Nehru encouraged the fostering of small and medium business, using Progressive taxation policies, especially on large landowners, to redistribute the wealth through stimulus checks and tax breaks to small companies and the establishment of farming cooperatives in certain States. Indian Communists, once weakened by the general discrediting of Communism after the Soviet Collapse, were renewed in their efforts thanks to the victory of Mao Zedong in the neighboring China, which would see the rise of the largest Communist State on planet, population-wise at least. Mao and Nehru had a pragmatic relationship, although India protested the invasion of Tibet at first in aprehension that China would control the mountains which were the birthplace of great rivers such as the Indus where millions depended of it's waters. But after the Start of the Korean War, with the antagonization of the United States and the obvious tensions with Russia, Mao seeked a more amicable relationship, and as the new leader of the International, the Chinese Communist Party directed the Indian Communists to support the INC government and seek a Pan-Asian cooperation. The two nations would not have a necessarily friendly relationship due to border tensions over old maps and Ideological differences, as well as India's friendly partnership with Russia, but they both compromised in seeking commerce and mutual development, while both reinforced their opposition towards Imperialism.

This Non-Alignment was restricted to the dispute between the United States and China, because in regards to the Linz Pakt, which was antagonic against practically every principle India was founded on, the relations quickly soared after Independence. At first Hitler believed India could be a potential ally against the British Empire, and while Delhi would have been supportive of ending Colonialism worldwide, that was not going to happen at the cost of allowing Germany to rise over it's ashes. The Linz Pakt already had a disturbing amount of Influence in the Middle East that left Indian interests to be challenged, specially in regards to the oil supply from the Trucial States that were heavily connected to India and the Rupee trade. Hitler's offers were rebuked before the Constitution was even signed, and the Germans were denied an Embassy in New Delhi due to their International Infamy. India was one of the member-states of the United Nations after it's Independence, although the organization had utterly failed in becoming a United worldwide front against the Pakt due to Thurmond's relative skepticism and Huey Long's complete lack of support of the UN (to the point he almost pulled the US out of the organization in 1952 before realizing such move would be far too unpopular in an electoral year). A nation which India had found itself having it's most complex relationship with was Free France, which controlled the French possessions in India. While in one hand that was obviously against Nehru's policies, in fact Free France itself was the living incarnation of Colonialism, they were perhaps the most Anti-German State in Africa that India could count on for a partnership. After Hitler's death in 1951, when De Gaulle went to seize West Africa and move his capital to the Port City of Dakkar, The Indian State arrived with an offer disguised as a threat. In return to handing over Poddichery and the other colonial dominions of France in the Subcontinent, the Republic was willing to create a Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. The Free French agreed, as the crisis in Dakkar was already putting the world on the edge, the last thing France and Britain desired was to see India supporting the Linz Pakt even if indirectly.

The Free French received an exodus of intellectuals from the mainland, especially after Darnand's takeover crushed the last vestiges of Independence and Pre-War governance that the Third Republic had. These intellectuals included Francis Perrin, a Nuclear Physicist, responsible for the creation of the first Nuclear Reactor in African History at Brazzaville, who would travel to India to share his expetise with the nascent Indian Nuclear program. Not only that, the French also gave an enormous help in establishing Universities and Technical Colleges across India during the 1950s. In return, Nehru mostly omitted separatist movements in French Africa from Indian support, instead those were more diverted to the parts of Africa controlled by the Linz Pakt. The Indians also offered much needed manpower and labor for the French programs to improve the agricultural and industrial capacity in Africa through a worker exchange program. The Free French would be able to build up their much needed infrastructure and acquire food imports from India in return of giving the new nation the much needed support in technical knowledge after it's independence.

Britain, on the other hand, was a complex case. There was obviously bad blood between the two countries and India left the Commonwealth of Nations after Declaring the Republic. British colonialism was obviously the main target of criticism from Delhi. Condemning the British response to the Malay insurgency, condemning their occupation of the Suez Canal and policies in India, none of that prevented Nehru from supporting London against Germany of course, but as the British Empire was apparently declining, the Republic wished to replace it with the ambitious plan of a Pan-Asian pact, the beginning of which was the Conference made in 1953 that involved Indonesia, China, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, Afghanistan, Iran and, of course India. Although tensions existed some of these states, all agreed in a joint declaration condemning Colonialism and Imperialism from the European Powers, although the Iranians refused to sign the declaration condemning the Reich and would no longer participate in said meetings following the invasion of Iraq together with Saadeh's Syrian State. In the Island of Ceylon, nationalists have agitated for Independence, said agitation was renewed following the end of the Suez War and a general strike began on the Island on the 1st of October of 1954, the British government under Butler feared that it could lead to the rise of a hostile nation to their interests in the region if the socialists and nationalists successfully pushed them out. With the important Tricomalee naval base in the region, crucial as the control of the Suez and East Africa allowed the Linz Pakt to project influence over the Indian Ocean, at stake, London approached New Delhi and offered the transfer of the Island so long as the Royal Navy was allowed to keep stationing it's force in the Indian Ocean in it. Although it ran contrary to many other proposals of an Independent Dominion, Butler believed that, despite the rhetoric against British colonialism from India, they were an allied force against the Influence of the Pakt in the region, which had become more dangerous after the Syrians annexed Basra and now the Germans had access to the Persian Gulf. Nehru was convinced to accept the transfer of Ceylon and the Island was incorporated as an Indian State, which most locals believed an improvement compared to London, but many still had desired independence and saw that as a betrayal of India's principles. It was one case where pragmatism won over Idealism in this harsh world.

Education was greatly improved within the 1950s thanks to the government policies which included widespread literacy programs, as well as the technical help of the French in establishing higher education institutions. In a decade, Literacy increased from 17% of the Population to almost 40%, although the rate was overall larger when considering only male readers. India, with it's cheap and abundant labor market, attracted investments from all around the Free World, and Industry grew well, continuing the trend of 1939, especially as Nehru drew less inspiration from the heavy-handed "License Raj" model, following the inspiration of the American government in focusing on establishing a strong sector of small businessmen and ensuring the social welfare of the country through the taxation of large companies and landowners. Privileges for the Rajas and their families, an enormous spending in the State salaries, were abolished in 1954 and protectionist tariffs were lowered from the initial levels as the fears of Indian industry being overtaken by foreign ones was lessened. That allowed for capital from London and Washington to come into the country, seeking the opportunities that the growing labor force of the country were offering. The Agricultural sector benefitted from the knowledge brought by French agronomists in diversifying crops with new seeds, more resistant to the climate, in Bengal such policy of crop rotation and the use of new fertilizers and modified seeds was first implemented on a large scale by the local government in 1955, mainly out of desire to avoid incidents such as the famine a decade earlier. The success of this policy would later show to be the start of the Indian Green Revolution, alongside Brazil, India would begin the growth of a vast agricultural sector in the so-called "Developing Nations".

While the compromise immediately after Independence to keep India united was to appease the religious tensions, Nehru understood that making said differences define the divisions within the nation would never allow for a unified country, which is why he pushed for the Indian Parliament to approve the "State Reorganization Act" in 1955, a gesture which seemed purely bureaucratic but would have long-lasting consequences. India was reorganized into several different states which completely ignored religious divides, old feudal states were abolished and instead the nation was reorganized along Linguistic Lines. One such example was the reunification of Punjab, which would become one of the main Indian States, ending the partition and reunifying the Hindu-majority and the Muslim-majority states to undo one of the main British domination tactics of "Divide and Conquer", there were protests over the matter at the start, however those would end soon and a general election would confirm Nehru's mandate that year with the INC once again dominating the majority with a coalition with groups such as the Arhar Party and even the Communists in some matters. The Long-Term effects of said policy, other than creating enormous States which were larger than most European nations both in size and demography, was to dwindle the Islamic-Hindu divide that caused high tensions at the start of the Republic and in the years before Independence. The peoples of India slowly began to identify more alongside their languages and states, such as Punjabi and Bengali, than by their religion, but above all, they would consider themselves as Indians.


The protection of the Nation was crucial for New Delhi, from the West there was the threat of the Linz Pakt in the Middle East, to the North there was the at times tense relationship with the Red Dragon in China, and more closely, Goa was still controlled by the Portuguese who had close cooperation with the Linz Pakt and could one day even use the city as a targetting base against the entire Subcontinent. The Army, Navy, and Air Force were inherited with a strong tradition from the Raj, the experience of the Pacific War was crucial in establishing a strong force, however it lacked in modern equipment, which was mainly prioritized to the British troops themselves, and the Indian officer corps was still relatively new as for a long time it was British officers who led the Indian forces in Battle due to London's impositions. The cooperation with Free France included the support of the French officer corps, with even the visit of General Charles de Gaulle himself in 1957 during a tour. As the Nation still lacked in the Heavy Military Industry necessary to equip it's expanded army, purchase agreements were made with Washington, where Huey Long was all too happy to get easy money for America in return for the excess of supplies after the end of the Korean War in 1956. However, many of these agreements would be suspended due to the start of the Ural War in 1958 which redirected all the effort of American Industry towards supporting Russia.

The Russians themselves saw a great potential in India, as through Afghanistan, a friendly state towards Delhi, the Empire could reach the warm waters of the Indian Ocean. With an abundance of mineral resources and more and more oil and gas reserves being prospected in Siberia with American support, India proved to be an eager customer for Russian exports with it's almost unlimited hunger for resources to it's growing population. Zahir Shah's Afghanistan, despite it's tense relations with Russia due to some "border corrections" during the Civil War accompanying the Iranian invasion, was also surrounded by an aggressive Iran, a potentially vengeful Russia, and a growing Indian State with a border dispute over the Duran Line, and of course there was Mao's Communist State. The Afghans played a dangerous game but naturally leaned more towards India and for that acted as a mediator for the growing Indo-Russian trade. The Russians were unable to offer much military help except for the support of vastly experienced officers to drill the Indian officer corps, as they soon were proven right with the fact they would need all help possible. India also acted as a mediator between Israel and Russia as the three nations, with a shared hatred for Germania and all of it's principles, cooperated in developing a Nuclear Program, with India opening it's first Nuclear reactor in 1956 to generate power to the country, around the same time as the Israelis.
India could not afford to antagonize it's Muslim population, and so the cooperation with Israel was kept a secret, while Delhi had a good relationship with the Gulf States which existed even back in the days of the Raj. Curiously, there was no hostility between Iran and India, despite tensions in the region of Balochistan and Iranian ambitions towards Herat. The Persian State had long enjoyed a cordial relation with the Raj and both shared a hatred over British Colonialism. Even if Tehran was allied with Germania in an unofficial way, and was officially allied with Saadeh's Syria, the Shah did not go out of his way to antagonize India, and in some cases the Indians even acted as mediators on disputes with the Trucial States. The relationship between Nehru and Nasser was initally friendly, but as the latter leaned more and more towards the Italians, Pan-Arabism began to be seen by many as an ideology propped up by Rome to replace the British with an even more despicable Colonial Overlord. The Ethiopian Government in Exile under Haile Selassie, enjoyed a great support from the Indian government and moved in to New Delhi following the coup by King Edward and Britain's "Neo Imperialist" government. The Relations between India and Britain further deteriorated, but were stopped from becoming outright hostile due to Mountbatten's old friendship with Nehru.

Healthcare was another area where India struggled before Independence, child mortality was at an enormous level and the life expectancy around the time of Independence was of just 32 years, that number increased to 46 by 1959, mainly thanks to the government investments on vaccination campaigns and the combat against Malaria and Smallpox. Newly built hospitals, including emergency campaign hospitals in the countryside, and access to healthcare ensured by the Constitution would prove crucial in the enormous improvement in the quality of life that the region enjoyed within the decade. Another matter the government fought was the old Caste system traditions, which practically officiated the class stratification in the Subcontinent, as it was an anathema to the Principles of the Nation. The British had been one of the main causes for the harsh stratification during the Colonial era, as part of their Divide-and-Conquer ruling style, there was not much the government could do in the first moment other than improve the educational system and give the people opportunities to grow out of their stratified roles through intellect and economic growth.

In 1958, as the Ural War began, so did the plans of the Indian government to finally end the last vestige of colonialism by a foreign power in the region: Goa. The Portuguese were once the first European sailors to arrive in India, in 1498 Vasco da Gama crossed the African continent through the south and reached India, later the Portuguese would be involved in the wars between the thalassocratic rulers of Southwest India and would take Goa in 1510, since then it has stood for almost 450 years as a symbol of Colonialism and the start of a struggle which involved European powers conquering India state by State, finishing with the British Raj. Now Goa was a considerably worse threat, for if Salazar decided to join the Pakt, the Reich would be allowed to install an U-Boat base that could strike the entire Indian ocean with the feared German Submarines. Furthermore, it could also serve as a fortress from where nuclear missiles could be installed and even short-range rockets would be able to kill Hundreds of Millions of civilians within two or three hours. Indonesia, Australia, the Philippines and China all shared similar concerns, and the threat became even worse once Ferdinand Schörner began unleashing his tactics of Total War against Russia, which included the use of Goa, East Timor and Macau as bases for German Nuclear Submarines to blockade the ports of Vladivostock and Magadan, cutting off Russia from it's main lifeline in terms of supplies, which could ensure a German victory that would allow Germania to reach the gates of India itself by seizing Central Asia and installing collaborator regimes in the area. Which is why the plans, discussed in secret back during the Second Pan-Asian conference in 1956, would have to be put into action. The Operation was planned for April, a combined plan of action between the three nations of India, China and Indonesia to seize the Portuguese colonies within 24 hours. However these plans had to be expedited and changed to February.


The news of Germania's ultimatum came from an spy in Goa, which led to the three countries entering in contact on the following day, the 21st of February, and on the 24th India would launch it's first solo military operation as an Independent State, a resounding success by all accounts as within hours the Portuguese garrison was overwhelmed by a well coordinated strike from the Air Force, Army and Navy, mobilized under complete secret in the previous four days. Similarly, the People's Liberation Army seized Macau and the Indonesian National Army, despite greater struggles due to the rushed nature of the attack and the better Portuguese defenses, took East Timor, with the three nations each annexing the territories as part of a "Anti-Colonial Operation", and with a joint effort, India had triumphed, with celebrations echoing around the Subcontinent. But by seizing Goa, Nehru would start to play a dangerous game, neutrality was never an option to an Ideological enemy which saw the world in a state of perpetual conflict. They had played their hand and the Reich had it's plans frustrated by the Three Asian powers for the first time, and Germania did not take insults easily. For better or worse, India was now a part of this Cold War, and the German Iron Eagle never forgets an insult.
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