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THE GUNS OF THE TAWANTINSUYA
An Alternate History Timeline
by Robert Perkins
An Alternate History Timeline
by Robert Perkins
PART ONE: 800-1600 A.D.
ca. A.D. 800: Under the leadership of Taycanamo, the Chimu, a people probably descended from the earlier Moche culture which had once held sway in the same region, form the Kingdom of Chimor in the northern coastal region of Peru. Construction begins on their capital, the city of Chan Chan. Buildings are made of adobe brick, covered with a cement into which intricate designs are carved. At about the same time, other related tribes form the Kingdom of Sican, north of Chimor.
ca. A.D. 900--The Chimu conquer the Kingdom of Sican, north of Chan Chan.
ca. A.D. 950: A priest in the city of Chan Chan (the capital city of the Chimu civilization of Peru) is mixing magic powders for use in the local religious festival and accidentally discovers gunpowder when the mixture explodes in his face. Fortunately, he was mixing a very small amount, and the mixture wasn't quite right anyway, so he manages to survive the explosion. Thinking that this might be a good thing to use in his ceremonies to overawe the populace, he continues to work with the formula and improve it. He trains other priests how to make it too.
ca. A.D. 1000: Observations of a storage vessel reacting to another gunpowder accident lead to the invention of a crude rocket. It begins to dawn on the Chimu that the "Magic Powder" might have military applications.
A.D. 1100-1300: Knowledge of gunpowder has spread from the Chimu to other area cultures. Rockets are a standard part of regional militaries, although they are dreadfully inaccurate and don't cause a lot of damage. Sometime around 1250 A.D., an anonymous metalworker in what is now northern Chile discovers the formula for bronze, knowledge of which slowly spreads northward. Also at about this time, a new people, the Tawantinsuya, have appeared, lead by their semi-legendary ruler (or "Inca," as he is called), Manco Capac. They settle at the city of Cuzco, founding the state of Tawantinsuyu.
A.D. 1300-1400: Bronze begins to be worked in Chan Chan before 1350 A.D. Knowledge of the formula soon spreads to other cultures in the region. By 1400, the Chimu Empire extends for some 200 miles to the north and south of Chan Chan. The Tawantinsuya learn of the Chimu "Magic Powder" and begin adapting it to their own military.
A.D. 1400-1500: The Tawantinsuya begin to expand from the Cuzco region. In 1460 they conquer Chan Chan, and by 1476 have conquered all of the Kingdom of Chimor. They find that the Chimu were working on a primitive bronze siege cannon and bronze hand-cannons, take over the prototypes, and after further development, put them into production. By the end of the 1400s, a Tawantinsuya inventor has devised a wheeled artillery carriage (based on the wheeled children's toys found in the region from very early times), and the Tawantinsuya begin to incorporate field artillery into their armies, pulled by teams of llama. The Tawantinsuyu Empire continues to expand, reaching it's OTL limits by 1500.
A.D. 1415-1460--Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal launches the Age of Exploration by sponsoring expeditions to discover a new route from Europe to the Orient.
A.D. 1425-1438--Reign of Viracocha Inca, the last semi-legendary ruler of Tawantinsuyu.
A.D. 1438-1471--Reign of Pachacuti Inca, who begins the expansion of the Tawantinsuyu kingdom out of the Cuzco valley to the south. He also captures the Chimu capital of Chan Chan in 1460.
A.D. 1471-1493--Reign of Tupac Yupanqui Inca, who conquers the Kingdom of Chimor by 1476 and extends the Tawantinsuyu Empire along the coast southward into Chile. The last Chimu King, Minchancaman, is taken to Cuzco, where he lives as a "guest" of the Tawantinsuya Inca.
A.D. 1479--Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille marry, uniting their kingdoms. Spain is born. They shortly afterward, with the approval of Pope Sixtus IV, begin the Spanish Inquisition.
A.D. 1492--Christopher Columbus, sailing in the pay of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, makes landfall on the island of Hispaniola, in the West Indies. On October 29, he also lands in Cuba.
A.D. 1493-1528--Reign of the Wayna Capac Inca, who extends the Tawantinsuyu Empire northward into the regions that in OTL would become Ecuador and Colombia.
A.D. 1494--Treaty of Tordesillas divides the New World between Spain and Portugal.
A.D. 1497-1498--John Cabot, in the pay of King Henry VII of England, explores the coast of North America in the neighborhood of Newfoundland.
A.D. 1498--Columbus discovers the coastline of South America.
A.D. 1499--Amerigo Vespucci, sailing in the pay of Spain, explores the mouths of the Amazon.
A.D. 1500--Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal.
A.D. 1500-1501--Portuguese explorer Gaspar Corte-Real explores North America on behalf of the King of Portugal. His first journey brings him to the coasts of Greenland. In 1501, he disappears without any trace while navigating south along the coast of Labrador.
A.D. 1504--First documented sojourns of Breton fishermen on the banks of Newfoundland.
A.D. 1507--A German cartographer makes a map in which he names the New World "America," after Amerigo Vespucci.
A.D. 1508--The French adventurer Thomas Aubert captures seven local Natives from Newfoundland, with whom he returns to France. Ponce de Leon establishes the first Spanish settlement on Puerto Rico.
A.D. 1509--Francisco Pizzaro leaves Spain for the New World.
A.D. 1510--The Spanish introduce the first African slaves into the New World.
A.D. 1511--Diego Columbus, son of Christopher, founds the first permanent Spanish settlements in Cuba. He defeats the local natives when they rebel later that same year. Spain will rule in Cuba for the almost the next 500 years.
A.D. 1512--Vasco de Balboa explores the region which will be come known as Panama, and discovers the Pacific Ocean. Among the men in his expedition is a young man named Francisco Pizzaro.
A.D. 1513--Ponce de Leon makes the first Spanish landfall in North America, when he lands in Florida. He explores the peninsula while searching for the "Fountain of Youth."
A.D. 1516--Charles V becomes Emperor of Austria and King of Spain (where he reigns as Charles I). Charles will spend most of his reign fighting wars against the Ottoman Turks and King Francis I of France, as well as in suppressing the Protestant Reformation.
A.D. 1515 onward--Spanish settlement of Argentina meets strong resistance from the natives. The area will never be firmly under Spanish control.
A.D. 1517--Martin Luther nails the 95 Theses to the door of the cathedral in Wittenburg, Saxony. Beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
A.D. 1519-1521--Hernando Cortez conquers the Aztec Empire in Mexico.
A.D. 1519--Ferdinand Magellan sails around Cape Horn, through the straits which will later bear his name. Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor.
A.D. 1520--The first large group of African slaves in the New World are brought to Cuba, where they are put to work in the gold mines. Also in this year, Portuguese navigator Joao Alvares Fagundes explores the coasts of Newfoundland, where he plans to establish a colony.
A.D. 1521--Charles V issues the Edict of Worms, which outlaws Martin Luther and declares his teachings to be heresy. Luther goes into hiding. The Ottoman Turks capture Belgrade. Also in this year, a few Portuguese families settle around Cape Breton (Canada), but the colony does not survive. Their fate remains unknown to this day.
A.D. 1522--The first Spanish settlement in South America, Nueva Cadiz, is founded in the region known in OTL as Venezuela. Spanish settlers will mine gold...first with Native American slaves, then with African slaves...and raise cattle on the grassy plains. Few Spaniards come to the colony.
A.D. 1522-1524--First expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. In 1522 the accounts of the achievements of Hernando Cortez, and the return of Pascual de Andagoya from his expedition to the southern part of Panama, bringing news of the countries situated along the shore of the ocean to the south, fires Francisco Pizzaro with enthusiasm. With the approbation of Governor Pedrarias Davila of Panama, he forms, together with Diego de Almagro, a soldier of fortune who was at that time in Panama, and Hernando de Luque, a Spanish cleric, a company to conquer the lands situated to the south of Panama. Their project seems so utterly unattainable that the people of Panama call them the "company of lunatics." Having collected the necessary funds Pizarro places himself at the head of the expedition; Almagro is entrusted with the equipping and provisioning of the ships; and Luque is to remain behind to look after their mutual interests and to keep in Pedrarias's favour so that he might continue to support the enterprise. In November, 1524, Pizarro sets sail from Panama with a party of one hundred and fourteen volunteers and four horses, with Almagro to follow him in a smaller ship just as soon as it can be made ready. The result of this first expedition is disheartening. Pizarro gets no further than Punta Quemada, on the coast of what is now Colombia, and having lost many of his men he returns to Chicamá, a short distance from Panama. Meanwhile Almagro follows him, going as far as the Rio de San Juan (Cauca, Colombia), and, not finding him, returns to rejoin him at Chicamá.
A.D. 1524--Pedro de Alvarado conquers Guatemala. Also in this year, on behalf of King Francis I of France, Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sails to what is today North Carolina. He explores the shoreline of North America north to Newfoundland. He names the entire territory "Francesca," and the name "Nova Gallia" appears on a map drawn by his brother Girolamo.
A.D. 1525--The Peasant’s Revolt in Germany is brutally suppressed. Many of the peasants claimed loyalty to the new religious doctrines espoused by Martin Luther, which hardens the attitudes of Emperor Charles V against Luther and his teachings.
A.D. 1526--Pizarro's Second Expedition: This expedition is much larger, with 160 men and several horses carried in two ships. After some initial probing, Pizarro's expedition splits, with Bartolome Ruiz, the pilot, taking half the command. While sailing off the coast of what is now Ecuador, Ruiz makes first contact with the Tawantinsuya. Aboard a balsa trading raft with a huge triangular cotton sail are 20 Tawantinsuya crew and passengers. The Spanish board the vessel and, to their delight, see many pieces of silver and gold, precious stones and intricately woven fabrics. Ruiz kept three of the Tawantinsuya to be trained as interpreters. Through sign language, the captives told him that their gold came from a land far to the south, a land of wonders. When Ruiz rejoins Pizzaro, he finds him encamped on a swampy island off the coast of Colombia, his command decimated by disease and mutiny in the air. Although Pizzaro is greatly heartened by the news Ruiz brings, he orders the abandonment of the expedition. Also in this year, the Ottoman Turks defeat the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohacs.
A.D. 1527--The rulers of Sweden adopt Lutheranism, making Sweden the world’s first Protestant nation. Other rulers, primarily German princelings who seek to undermine the power of the House of Habsburg (family of Emperor Charles V), will adopt Lutheranism shortly afterward.
A.D. 1528--Third expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. The expedition explores the coast of South America to a point south of the Equator, but the outbreak of disease among the explorers forces them to abandon the expedition and return to Panama. During this expedition a brief landfall is made at the Tawantinsuya settlement of Tumbez, and it is from this small contact that smallpox is released into the Tawantinsuyu Empire. It will spread rapidly, killing many thousands of victims over the next two years. The Governor of Panama having withdrawn his support for future expeditions southward by Pizzaro, Pizzaro sets sail for Spain, where he meets with Emperor Charles V.
A.D. 1528-1532--Civil War in the Tawantinsuyu Empire. At the arrival of the strange white-skinned visitors from the sea, the Tawantinsuya governor at Tumbez sent his runners with all speed to the Inca, Wayna Capac, who was near Quito resting after battle. The Inca, weighing up the potential consequences of these foreign invaders, and also the sinister news of the outbreak of pestilence in the heart of his empire, decides to come to Tumbez to investigate. But he gets only a short way south when the disease strikes his camp. The incubation period of smallpox is only a few days and, in no time, it sweeps through the army. Many of his trusted generals die, and then the Inca himself catches it. As Wayna Capac's health rapidly worsens, he is asked to name a successor to be ratified by his council of wise men. The two contenders are his 25-year-old son Atahuallpa and his 21-year-old brother Huascar--Wayna Capac’s son by a different queen. Wayna’s solution is to divide the empire between the two sons, but neither Atahualpa nor Huascar is willing to accept such a division permanently. Both sons begin building their forces, and within a short time, the empire is plunged into a bloody civil war. Atahualpa will eventually emerge victorious, decisively defeating Huascar’s army in late 1532 and capturing Huascar himself. However, Atahualpa does not execute his brother, and Huascar’s supporters do not immediately give up. Rebellion continues to simmer in the empire while Huascar lives.
A.D. 1528 onward--The smallpox outbreak of 1528-1530 which kills Wayna Capac Inca is just the first of several over the course of the rest of this century. In addition to smallpox, Old World Diseases like influenza, measles and malaria will also make their appearance in the empire. As a result, the overall population of the Tawantinsuyu Empire, which stood at nearly twelve million at the arrival of the Europeans in 1528, will fall to approximately three million by 1561...an approximate 75% reduction. This naturally causes severe economic and social dislocations within the empire. But, as immunity to the diseases gradually takes hold in the population, the population will rebound and by the end of the century will stand at over five million and growing rapidly.
One of many problems which the plagues cause is the decimation of the Tawantinsuya nobility, which is essential in the Tawantinsuya system of government as they provide the bureaucrats, generals, and other officials which allow the empire to function. Fortunately, the Tawantinsuya have a system in place which allows them to weather this crisis. The descendants of the original Tawantinsuya ruling tribe were never numerous enough to administer their empire without help. To cope with the need for leadership at all levels, therefore, the Tawantinsuya Incas have a long-established civil service system. All children in the empire are tested by local Tawantinsuya officials, boys at age 13 and girls at the age of first menstruation. Those who fail the exam are taught one of many trades, such as farming, gold working, weaving, or military skills, by their ayullu (extended family unit). While many of these non-noble professions are highly esteemed, they cannot themselves ever enter the ruling classes. But their children can, if they pass the exam. Those who pass the exam are sent to Cuzco to attend school to become administrators. There they learn to read the quipu (knotted cord records) and are taught Tawantinsuya iconography, leadership skills, religion, and, most importantly, mathematics. The graduates of this school are elevated to the nobility and are expected to marry within the nobility.
In addition, the Tawantinsuya, at the time of the Spanish invasions, were also working toward integrating the ruling classes of the various conquered tribes into the imperial structure. The epidemics, by decimating the native Tawantinsuya nobility, encourage the acceleration of this process, and by the end of the century, this is far advanced.
A.D. 1529--Emperor Charles V signs an agreement which confers upon Pizzaro the titles of Governor and Captain General, and grants him authority to make new expeditions into the newly discovered lands to the south of Panama. Pizzaro is to have absolute authority...in the name of Emperor Charles V, of course...in all lands he might conquer and subjugate. Also in this year, the Ottoman Turks lay siege to Vienna.
A.D. 1530--Francisco Pizzaro returns to Panama with his new authority, and begins raising troops, ships, and money for his expedition. Also in this year, Protestant Princes in Germany form the Schmalkaldic League. Emperor Charles V, not wishing to push the League into the arms of his enemy, King Francis I of France, grants de facto recognition to the League...at least for now. Also in this year, King John of Portugal introduces a program of systematic colonization of the newly acquired territories in Brazil. As a first step the king divides Brazil into 15 districts, or captaincies, and grants each of the districts, in perpetuity, to a person prominent at the Portuguese court. The grantees, known as donatarios, are vested with extraordinary powers over their domains. However, immigration into Brazil is slow.
A.D. 1531--Fourth Expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. In January 1531, Francisco Pizzaro sets sail with 3 ships, 180 infantrymen, and 27 cavalrymen. Pizarro lands at Tumbez once again, but is attacked by the local natives. He retreats to the island of Puna to await reinforcements.
A.D. 1532--In the spring of 1532, Pizzaro’s expedition is reinforced by a further 100 men and more horses under Hernando de Soto. In May 1532, Pizzaro lands again at Tumbez and proceeds to march into Peru. Along their march the Spaniards encounter many villages and are generally made welcome in them. While on the march, Pizarro takes note the lack of adult males in residence in the villages, which, he discovers, is due to the fact that Atahualpa Inca had called them for his army. Through several inquiries, Pizarro learns of the civil war between Atahualpa Inca and his brother, Huascar. He also learns of the present whereabouts of Atahaulpa Inca, who was said to be in Caxamalca. Pizarro proceeds to march in that direction.
On the long march from Tumbez to Caxamalca, Pizzaro learns of the victory of Atahualpa Inca and the capture of Huascar, and he and his men begin recruiting Tawantinsuyu soldiers loyal to Huáscar and also some from the nations that the Tawantinsuyu had conquered and that held an animosity toward the empire. However, upon finally reaching Caxamalca in November 1532, the Spaniards find the town deserted, but they learn that Atahualpa and his main army are nearby. On November 15, Pizzaro sends an emissary to Atahualpa, who agrees to come to meet with Pizzaro at Caxamalca.
Atahualpa arrives the next day, accompanied by a large body of soldiers...infantry armed with bronze spears, axes, and maces, a force of slingers, a force armed with bronze hand-cannon, and 2 bronze artillery pieces. The Spaniards treacherously attempt to ambush Atahualpa’s party and seize Atahualpa himself, and the natives are temporarily discomfited by the charge of the Spanish cavalry, but then Atahualpa’s two field cannon and the hand-cannoneers open fire, dropping about half the Spanish cavalry and scattering the rest in disorder. The other Tawantinsuya soldiers take heart, and charge the white-skinned invaders. Pizzaro is killed in the melee, along with about half of his men. The other half are taken prisoner.
The Tawantinsuya take control of the surviving horses, as well as the Spanish arms and armor. They shortly begin breeding horses, and, trained by their Spanish prisoners...who, having watched a few of their number horribly tortured to death, are more than willing to cooperate...learn to ride. They also capture the expedition blacksmith, who begins to show them the rudiments of iron-working and smelting.
A.D. 1532-1533--King Henry VIII of England breaks with the Roman Catholic Church and establishes the Church of England. Beginning of the English Reformation.
A.D. 1533--Diego de Almagro, leading reinforcements for Pizzaro, lands at Tumbez. He advances inland, but is met north of Tumbez by a Tawantinsuya army, and his force meets the same fate as Pizzaro’s. Almagro is killed, about half of his men and most of their horses are captured. Yet more Spanish "technical advisors" are unwillingly added to the service of the Inca. It is from this group that Atahualpa learns of the contents of the Treaty of Tordesillas, and realizes that he has a MAJOR problem. Shortly afterward, Atahualpa has his brother, Huascar, put to death. Lacking a leader, the remaining rebel forces gradually disperse, and order is restored to the empire. Atahualpa begins preparing the empire’s defenses for the confrontation with the Spanish imperialists which he knows is going to occur, sooner or later. Also in this year, the first recorded uprising of African slaves in the New World takes place in Cuba. The slaves are defeated and killed, and their heads brought back to Bayamo to quiet the alarmed colonists.
A.D. 1534--The disappearance of the expeditions of Francisco Pizzaro and Diego de Almagro leads the Governor of Guatemala, Pedro de Alvarado, to believe that Pizzaro and Almagro have conquered the rich lands rumored to be to the south and are hoarding their wealth for their own. Alvarado leads a well-equipped expedition of 1,000 Spanish soldiers (including over 200 cavalry) southward. He lands on the Ecuadorian coast and advances toward Quito. Runners bring this news to Atahualpa Inca, who immediately leads his main army northward from Cuzco. The Tawantinsuya army of 40,000 meets Alvarado’s force near Quito, and in a bloody and hard-fought battle, the Spanish force is defeated and routed. The Tawantinsuya pursue, and only a few Spaniards make it back to the coast, where they escape aboard one of their ships. The remainder of the ships are captured by the Tawantinsuya. About 1/4 of the Spanish force (including Alvarado himself) are taken prisoner...including more blacksmiths...and most of the horses are captured, along with all the Spanish arms, armor, and other equipment. A cadre of Spanish sailors is also captured, which teach the Tawantinsuya the rudiments of sailing the captured Spanish ships, and also serve as "technical advisors" for the construction of additional vessels. It is thus that the Tawantinsuya Navy is born. The Spanish armor and other equipment is used to equip an elite regiment in the Tawantinsuya army which forms the Inca’s personal bodyguard. Alvarado is sacrificed to Inti, the Tawantinsuya sun god, later that year.
A.D. 1534-1560--The survivors of the Alvarado expedition arrive back in Guatemala in late 1534. They bring terrifying tales of a powerful and well-armed empire to the south. Short of manpower, and with English and French "pirates" beginning to encroach on their domains, Spanish leaders in the colonies decide to give the Tawantinsuya a wide berth, at least for now. There will be a few clashes between Spanish and Tawantinsuya warships off the Pacific coast of the Tawantinsuya Empire, but little more will happen during this time period.
A.D. 1534-1536--Jacques Cartier explores the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River as far as present day Quebec and Montreal. He claims the region for France, and establishes a settlement at Montreal, which does not, however, survive (the site will be resettled at a later date).
A.D. 1535--The Spanish establish the colony of New Spain in Mexico.
A.D. 1536--Denmark adopts Lutheranism. Also in this year, Richard Hore sails from England accompanied by some enthusiastic Englishmen who are enthralled at the idea of exploring the coasts of North America as "tourists". It is largely because of these individuals that the English become interested in establishing a colony on this continent.
A.D. 1538--Norway adopts Lutheranism. Colombia is conquered for Spain by Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada.
A.D. 1540--Francisco de Coronado strikes north from Mexico and explores much of the American southwest, claiming the area for Spain.
A.D. 1541--John Calvin establishes the Reformed Church in Geneva.
A.D. 1546-47--The Schmalkaldic War: Emperor Charles V, having made peace at last with France, gathers an army and declares war on the Schmalkaldic League. His forces inflict a decisive defeat on the League at the Battle of Muhlburg in 1547. The League is effectively destroyed, but warfare will continue between Catholics and Protestants in Germany.
A.D. 1547--King Henry VIII of England dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as King Edward VI. Edward continues the active royal support of the Reformation begun by his father.
A.D. 1549--Because of the dangers implicit in the French depredations along the Brazilian coast, King John revokes most of the powers held by the donatarios and places Brazil under the rule of a governor-general. The first governor-general, Thomé de Souza, arrives in Brazil in 1549, organizes a central government, with the newly founded city of Salvador, or Bahia, as his capital, institutes comprehensive administrative and judicial reforms, and established a coastal defense system. Large numbers of slaves are brought into the region from Africa to overcome the shortage of laborers.
A.D. 1553--King Edward VI of England dies. He is succeeded by his older sister, Mary. Mary is the daughter of Catherine of Aragon, whose divorce from King Henry VIII precipitated the English Reformation. She is a stauch Catholic, and will spend her reign ruthlessly suppressing Protestantism within her Kingdom.
A.D. 1554--Queen Mary of England marries Prince Philip of Spain, son of Emperor Charles V. They produce no children, however. Sao Paulo, in the south of Brazil, is founded by Portugal.
A.D. 1555--The French found a colony on Rio de Janeiro Bay. Emperor Charles V signs the Peace of Ausburg, which recognizes the right of individual German states to choose whether they shall be Protestant or Catholic.
A.D. 1556--Emperor Charles V abdicates his throne. The Spanish Empire, including the Netherlands and all territories in the New World, go to Prince Philip, who reigns as King Philip II. The Austrian Empire, and the claim to the title of Holy Roman Emperor, go to Ferdinand, brother of the outgoing Emperor.
A.D. 1557--Death of Atahualpa Inca. He dies childless and is succeeded by his half-brother, who reigns as Manco Capac II, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire.
A.D. 1558--Queen Mary of England dies, and is succeeded by her Protestant sister, Elizabeth. Under the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Protestantism is restored, English power and influence will grow, and England will become a constant thorn in the side of the King of Spain.
A.D. 1559--Tristan de Luna y Arellano leads an attempt by Spaniards to colonize Florida. He establishes a settlement at Pensacola Bay, but a series of misfortunes causes his efforts to be abandoned after two years.
A.D. 1560--Portugal destroys the French colony on Rio de Janeiro Bay.
A.D. 1560-1566--War between Spain and the Tawantinsuyu Empire: Upon his accession to the throne, King Philip II of Spain decides that the pagans of Tawantinsuyu, whose increasingly formidable navy is causing problems for Spanish shipping along the South American coast, must be brought to heel. He orders a fleet to be fitted out, which is to transport a professional army of 20,000 men to Mexico. From there, the army will be transported from a port on Mexico’s west coast to the coast of the Tawantinsuyu Empire. The fleet sets sail in 1560, arriving in Mexico later that year. By 1561, enough shipping has been accumulated on Mexico’s west coast to transport the army to Peru (of course, by this time, the army has been much reduced by disease, shipwrecks, etc.).
In early 1562, the Spanish force, now numbering about 15,000 men, lands near Tumbez. Runners quickly inform the Inca Manco Capac II of this development, and the Inca orders mobilization of the imperial army. The Tawantinsuya army...which, despite the ravages of disease over the past few decades, still quickly musters over 50,000 men to meet the invaders...meets the Spanish near Chan Chan in August, 1562.
In a very sanguine struggle, the heavily outnumbered Spaniards are defeated. They are pursued as they flee to their ships, and fewer than 2,000 manage to escape. The war will drag on for another four years, mainly in the form of individual encounters at sea between Spanish and Tawantinsuyu warships. But in 1566 King Philip, who had been planning to send a second expedition, under the Duke of Alva, to South America, faces the outbreak of the Dutch revolt, and is forced to send his army to the Netherlands instead. So the war essentially peters out without a peace treaty being signed. Another period of relative peace settles on the region.
A.D. 1562-1598--The Wars of Religion (Huguenot Wars) in France between Catholics and Protestants.
A.D. 1563--Death of Manco Capac II, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Sayri Tupac, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire.
A.D. 1562--Frenchman Jean Ribault explores the Florida coast.
A.D. 1564--Frenchman René Goulaine de Laudonnière establishes Fort Caroline at the mouth of the St. Johns River, near present-day Jacksonville, Florida. Most of the settlers are Protestant Huguenots.
A.D. 1565--Pedro Menéndez de Avilés is ordered by King Philip II of Spain to remove the French and create a Spanish settlement in Florida. He arrives at a place he calls San Augustín (St. Augustine) and establishes what will be the first permanent European settlement in what will one day be the United States. Later that year he will attack the French settlement at Fort Caroline, and massacre everyone except some non-combatants and those who profess the Roman Catholic faith. He renames the captured French settlement as Fort San Mateo.
A.D. 1566 onward--The Dutch Revolt. In the Spanish Netherlands, Protestantism (in the form of Calvinism) has been gaining influence. In 1566, Calvinist mobs storm Catholic churches across the Netherlands and destroy the "heretical" statues of Catholic saints. In response, King Philip II of Spain orders the Duke of Alva to take an army into the Netherlands to suppress the "rebellion." Alva is so brutal in his tactics that within two years, the Spanish Netherlands are in a state of full-scale war. The Protestants are joined by Dutch nobles who object to heavy-handed Spanish taxation policies, and merchants who object to Philip II’s almost constant wars against many of the biggest trading partners of the Dutch.
A.D. 1567--Portugal founds the city of Rio de Janeiro. Also in this year, Frenchman Dominique de Gourgues recaptures San Mateo and massacres the Spanish soldiers stationed there. But Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, returning from Spain, soon leads another expedition which wipes out the new French incursion, and ends forever French attempts to colonize Florida.
A.D. 1567 onward--Spain's pattern of constructing forts and Roman Catholic missions is continued in Florida. Spanish missions are established among native people, a chain of these soon extending across north Florida and as far north along the Atlantic coast as the area that we now call South Carolina. From there, European diseases will be introduced to the native peoples of southeastern North America. The diseases will spread along native trade routes, with devastating consequences. Under the stress caused by these epidemics, the Mississippian chiefdoms which dominate much of the area will collapse within a century, and a great social and political reorganization of the region will begin.
A.D. 1572--St. Bartholmew’s Day Massacre in France. Thousands of Protestants are murdered in cold blood by rampaging Catholics.
A.D. 1578--Queen Elizabeth having missioned him to occupy the lands that had not yet been conquered by Spain, Portugal or France, Sir Humphrey Gilbert appropriates Newfoundland to the Crown of England, as well as a vast territory north and south of the island. No attempt at immediate colonization is made, however.
A.D. 1578-1581--Englishman Francis Drake, having passed through the Straits of Magellan and sailed north along the South American coast, encounters a Tawantinsuya trading vessel. As it happens, some of the Tawantinsuya speak Spanish, and Drake manages to have a peaceful dialog with the Tawantinsuya crew. He finds out about the Tawantinsuya defeats of the Spanish Empire, and decides to try to enlist them as allies for England against Spain. He lands on the Peruvian coast, accompanied by some of the Tawantinsuya from the trading vessel. He is escorted to the palace of the Inca at Cuzco, and after a series of discussions, the Inca agrees to send an ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth of England with an offer of alliance. Drake arrives back in England, with the ambassador, in 1581. Queen Elizabeth is impressed by Drake’s descriptions of the power and wealth of the Tawantinsuyu Empire, and she signs a treaty of alliance between England and the Tawantinsuyu Empire. Although this will have little immediate practical military effect, as the Tawantinsuya are too far away to intervene effectively in England’s coming wars with Spain, trade between England and the Tawantinsuya begins, and English ships operating in the Pacific now will be able to use Tawantinsuya ports as a base of operations against the Spanish.
A.D. 1579--The new Spanish Governor of the Netherlands, the Duke of Parma, prompts the southern (Walloon) states of the Netherlands to sign the Union of Atrecht, which pledges loyalty to the Spanish King and rejects Protestantism. In response, William of Orange, known as "the Silent," unites the Protestant northern (Dutch) provinces into the Union of Utrecht.
A.D. 1580--Philip II forcibly unites the crown of Portugal with that of Spain. The Spanish found the settlement of Buenos Aires on the Rio de la Plata in Argentina.
A.D. 1581 onward--The Trade between England and the Tawantinsuyu Empire has great impacts on both societies. English domestic animals...cattle and sheep primarily...are introduced to the Tawantinsuya, as well as crops such as wheat, barley, oats, and others. In turn, the English import llamas, maize, potatoes, and tomatoes. English-style ale becomes a popular drink among many in Tawantinsuyu, and Chicha (a maize beer produced by the Tawantinsuya) makes it’s appearance on English tables alongside Port Wine from Portugal, England’s other traditional ally. Chewing coca leaves becomes a fashionable pastime for English gentlemen, ranking right up there with tobacco (another New World import). And perhaps most importantly of all, the Tawantinsuya learn much from the English which enables them to dramatically improve their military technology, especially naval technology. "Race-built" galleons begin to replace the old Spanish style vessels which currently make up the Tawantinsuya Navy.
A.D. 1581--The Union of Utrecht declares independence from the Spanish Empire. The United Provinces of the Netherlands is born. King Philip II of Spain sends another army to put down this revolt.
A.D. 1584--William the Silent is assassinated. Leadership of the Protestant cause in the Netherlands passes to his son, Maurice of Nassau. Also in this year, Sir Walter Raleigh establishes the first English colony in the New World, on Roanoke Island.
A.D. 1585--The Treaty of Nonsuch. Queen Elizabeth of England agrees to send an army to the aid of the beleaguered Dutch rebels. The Earl of Leicester lands in the Netherlands with 5,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry. The English will continue to fight alongside the Dutch for the next two decades. This, along with unofficially sanctioned English piratical activity in the Caribbean and the Pacific, enrages King Philip of Spain, who decides on war with England.
A.D. 1587--Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed by orders of her cousin, Queen Elizabeth of England. This further encourages King Philip of Spain to go to war with England.
A.D. 1588-1604--King Philip II of Spain dispatches the first of several Great Armadas with the purpose of invading England, beginning a sixteen year war between the two countries.
A.D. 1589--King Henri III of France is assassinated. The heir to the throne is Henri of Navarre, a Protestant. The new King Henri IV soon finds himself in conflict with the powerful Catholic League (heavily supported by King Philip II of Spain), which opposes the idea of a Protestant King of France.
A.D. 1590-1604--Sayri Tupac Inca, honoring his treaty with Queen Elizabeth of England, declares war on King Philip II of Spain. Tawantinsuya armies invade Colombia and Argentina, and a series of see-saw campaigns results. With his resources being tied up in the ongoing struggle with England, Philip II has little to spare for the colonies, and in the end, the Spaniards are driven from Argentina, and parts of Colombia are conquered as well. The Tawantinsuyu incorporate the conquered areas into their empire. When the peace treaty between England and Spain is signed at London in 1604, representatives of the Tawantinsuyu Empire will also be present and will sign, ending their own war with Spain.
A.D. 1591--An English relief expedition to the colony on Roanoke Island, which had been delayed by the outbreak of war with Spain, finds the settlement deserted. Noone ever discovers what became of the colonists.
A.D. 1592--Tupac Yupanqui, son of Tupac Amaru Inca, is sent to serve as Ambassador to England, a position he in which he will serve until the death of his father in 1616. While in England, he partakes of English culture, including education at Oxford University and the University of Cambridge, where he meets, befriends, and is deeply influenced by Puritan leaders such as Thomas Cartwright and Walter Travers.
A.D. 1593--Henri IV of France (formerly Henri of Navarre, a Protestant who is head of the House of Bourbon), converts to Catholicism, declaring that "Paris is worth a Mass." Over the next few years, this clever political move will cut the support for his enemies and enable him to finally end the Wars of Religion in France. He enters Paris without firing a shot the next year, and by 1598, the war will be over.
A.D. 1597--Death of Sayri Tupac Inca. He is succeeded by his half brother, Tupac Amaru Inca.
A.D. 1598--The Edict of Nantes, issued by King Henri IV, grants religious toleration to Protestants in France. End of the Wars of Religion in France. Also in this year, King Henri IV of France names Troilus de La Roche de Mesgouez "Lieutenant-general of the countries of Canada, Newfoundland, Labrador and Norembègue". Between 1598 and 1603, a few dozen men and women are transported and established on Sable island, a part of what today is Nova Scotia. The endeavour of the Marquis de La Roche is the second attempt to colonize Canada, and like the earlier attempt of Jacques Cartier, will fail.
Also in this year, King Philip II of Spain dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as King Philip III. Philip III continues his father’s war against England and the Tawantinsuya. Also in this year, the Tawantinsuya capture Buenos Aires, ending Spanish occupation of what in OTL would be Argentina. The Tawantinsuya decide not to destroy the town, as it provides them with a ready-made port on the Atlantic, giving them better access to trade with their English allies. Over the next decade a road linking the port to the main part of the Tawantinsuyu Empire will be built, and the port itself will be heavily fortified.
A.D. 1600--The East India Company, a joint venture between the English and the Tawantinsuya, is formed. The purpose of the company is to help break the Dutch monopoly on the spice trade with the East Indies. The British partners hope to use Tawantinsuyu’s position on the Pacific as a base for voyages to the Spice Islands, China, and India.
PART TWO: 1600-1700 A.D.
c. A.D. 1600 onward--The new English and Tawantinsuya East India Company will compete with the Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, and native forces for control of the riches of the Spice Islands in the East Indies.
c. A.D. 1600--Escaped black slaves who have fled the sugar plantations in Pernambuco province, Brazil, found the maroon community, or quilombo, of Palmares in the Serra da Barriga hills. The population grows, eventually reaching thirty thousand. Also at about this time, the first Dutch merchants arrive in the Tawantinsuyu Empire. Like the English, the Protestant Dutch will generally be on good terms with the Tawantinsuya, although they will not enter into a formal alliance with them.
A.D. 1600 onward--Jesuit missionaries begin exploring the Amazon River region. Also at this about this time, English Protestant missionaries begin preaching among the Tawantinsuya. The Tawantinsuya, remembering the role played by Spanish Catholic priests in the abortive Spanish conquest of the Tawantinsuyu Empire (a Spanish Priest had played a leading role in the attempted ambush of Atahualpa Inca in 1532), have been hostile to Christianity up to this point, and have arrested and executed any Christian priests they have found within their borders.
But contact with the English has lead them to reconsider this viewpoint. They now understand that there are different varieties of Christianity, and the English have subtly (or not so subtly) encouraged the Tawantinsuya to consider ROMAN CATHOLICS as enemies, as opposed to Christians in general.
In 1600, Tupac Amaru Inca, urged by his son, Tupac Yupanqui (who has, for the past several years, been serving as Ambassador to England) agrees to allow Protestant Christian missionaries from England into his realm, and they soon begin to preach among the people, making many converts. Most of these missionaries will be Puritans, who will tend to reinforce the anti-Catholic prejudices of the Tawantinsuya even more than would normally have been the case.
A.D. 1601--An expedition of the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company, operating from Tawantinsuya ports on the Pacific coast, sets up a fort at Banda in the East Indies.
A.D. 1602--Sir James Lancaster leads an English and Tawantinsuya East India Company expedition...including several Tawantinsuya trading ships...to the East Indies, reaches Aceh, and builds a trading post at Banten. He sails from a base on the Tawantinsuya Pacific Coast, and returns via the same route.
A.D. 1603--Samuel de Champlain of France begins exploration of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and St. Lawrence River. Also in this year, Queen Elizabeth of England dies. King James VI of Scotland, son of Mary, Queen of Scots, becomes King of England, ruling as King James I and founding the Stuart Dynasty. James, a popular and successful monarch in Scotland, will be a total failure in England. He will be unable to deal with a hostile Parliament, and the refusal on the part of the House of Commons to impose sufficiently high taxes will cripple the royal finances. His belief in absolutism and the "divine right of kings," his mismanagement of the kingdom's funds and his cultivation of unpopular favorites will establish the foundation for the English Civil War, which will lead to the overthrow and execution of his son and successor, Charles I, a few decades later.
A.D. 1604--The Treaty of London ends the war between Spain, England, and the Tawantinsuyu Empire. Spain officially cedes Argentina to Tawantinsuyu. The French found their first settlements in the region which will become known as the Guianas, on the coast of South America to the north of Brazil. Also in this year, an English and Tawantinsuya East India Company expedition under Sir Henry Middleton visits Ternate, Tidore, Ambon, and Banda in the East Indies. It returns to England sailing across the Pacific and around Cape Horn, with stops at Tawantinsuya ports.
A.D. 1606 onward--Increasing Tension between Catholic and Protestant in Europe. In 1606, tensions between Protestants and Catholics in Germany lead to violence at the town of Donauworth. This prompts Duke Maximilian of Bavaria to intervene on behalf of the Catholics. After the violence ceases, the Calvinists in Germany (who are quite a minority) feel the most threatened, so they band together in the League of Evangelical Union, created in 1608 under the leadership of Frederick IV, the elector of Palatinate. This provokes Catholics to band together in the Catholic League (created in 1609) under the leadership of Duke Maximilian. Europe, which has seen relative peace between Catholic and Protestant since the Peace of Ausburg in 1555, is now firmly on the road to war.
A.D. 1607--Jamestown, Virginia established—first permanent English colony in the New World.
A.D. 1608--Permanent French colony founded in Quebec by Samuel de Champlain.
A.D. 1609--Galileo Galilei discovers moons of Jupiter. Henry Hudson explores the Hudson River. The Dutch establish their first trading posts in India.
A.D. 1610--Henry Hudson discovers Hudson's Bay, Canada.
A.D. 1611--The King James Bible is published in England. The English and their Tawantinsuya allies begin setting up many posts in the Indies, including at Makassar, Jepara, Aceh and Jambi.
A.D. 1612--The English and Tawantinsuya East India Company establishes their first trading colonies in India.
A.D. 1615--The Dutch establish the first of many settlements in the region which will become known as the Guianas. It is located on the lower Essequibo River. The colonists will remain on friendly terms with the natives of the area and will raise sugar and cacao.
A.D. 1616--Death of Tupac Amaru Inca. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Tupac Yupanqui Inca II.
A.D. 1617--The ultra-Catholic Archduke Ferdinand of the House of Habsburg becomes King of Bohemia. Ferdinand soon begins to repress the large Protestant segment of his population, leading to a revolt.
A.D. 1618--King Ferdinand of Bohemia is deposed, and by the Protestant Frederick V, Elector Palatine. Frederick is the son-in-law of King James I of England. Ferdinand calls for support from the Catholic League, and full scale war soon begins. Thus begins the Thirty Years War, which will eventually involve nearly all the major European powers.
A.D. 1618-1629--War between the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company and the Dutch East India Company in the East Indies. Although the English do somewhat better due to Tawantinsuya support, in the end the Dutch win as in OTL, and begin the process of expelling the English from the East Indies. By 1628, the English and Tawantinsuya will have abandoned their claims in the East Indies, and the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company will be focusing it’s efforts on trade in India. Having ejected the English (and the Portuguese), the Dutch East India Company begins to switch its focus from merely trading to actual conquest and colonization of the area, which will remain in Dutch control for the next two centuries.
A.D. 1619--First black slaves arrive in Virginia aboard a Dutch trading vessel. Also in this year, King Christian IV of Denmark missions Jens Eriksen Munk to find a maritime road leading to the Orient. This explorer discovers the Hudson Straits and navigates as far as the Churchill River in northern Canada, appropriating the territory to his King. The Danes do not take advantage of the rights they could have enjoyed from Munk's discoveries, however. Also in this year, Ferdinand II (whose election as King of Bohemia had sparked the Thirty Years War) becomes Holy Roman Emperor.
c. A.D. 1620--First contacts between the Tawantinsuya and French traders. The contacts are at first hostile, as the French are Roman Catholics, and thus are considered enemies by the Tawantinsuya. But as time goes on, contact continues, and attitudes among the Tawantinsuya toward the French begin to soften. By the end of the century, regular trade between France and the Tawantinsuyu Empire will be a reality, somewhat to the chagrin of the other major trading partner of the Tawantinsuya, England. The contact with France will also begin to erode the anti-Catholic prejudices of the Tawantinsuya, as they slowly come to realize that, just as all Christians in general are not the same, so all Catholics are not the same. But the Tawantinsuya will remain highly suspicious of Catholics in general, despite these contacts, for some time to come.
A.D. 1620--Francis Bacon prepares the foundations for rational scientific experimentation. Also in this year, the Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. They found the first English settlement outside of Virginia, the Plymouth Colony. Battle of White Mountain, in which the Catholic forces of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II defeat the Protestant forces of King Frederick of Bohemia (Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate). In the aftermath of the battle, Frederick flees to Holland. Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria (leader of the Catholic League) confiscates Frederick’s Palatine lands.
A.D. 1621--Tupac Yupanqui Inca II, who had been, while an ambassador in England, deeply influenced by his contacts with Puritan leaders such as Thomas Cartwright and Walter Travers, officially converts to Christianity. Millions of his subjects will, over the next few years, follow the example of their Inca and convert as well. Within 50 years, the Tawantinsuyu Empire will be a virtually completely Christian nation.
Also in this year, King Philip III of Spain dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as King Philip IV. Like his father, Philip IV will mostly devote his time to the pursuit of pleasure, and Spain will be governed, very poorly, by various court favorites. Spanish power, already in decline, will plummet during his reign. Also in this year, the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company founds a trading post at Ambon, in the East Indies.
A.D. 1624--A Dutch fleet seizes Bahia, Brazil from the Spanish and Portuguese.
A.D. 1625--King James I of England dies. His son, Charles I, is like his father, a believer in the "divine right of kings," and although he is pious and holds little personal ambition, Charles will demand outright loyalty in return for "just rule". His personality is such that he considers any questioning of his orders insulting, at best, treason at worst. It is this latter trait and a series of events that will test it, seemingly minor on their own, that will lead to a serious break between Charles and his Parliament, eventually leading to war.
Another factor which bodes ill for his reign is his choice of bride. Later that year, Charles marries Princess Henrietta Maria of France, a Roman Catholic. This creates great suspicion within England that Charles is a "closet papist" who is going to emancipate the Catholics within the kingdom. It also will serve to chill relations with the Tawantinsuya, who are deeply anti-Catholic, and strongly influenced by the Puritan ministers who are preaching in the Tawantinsuyu Empire. The suspicions of both the English people and the Tawantinsuya will seem to be confirmed as rumors of Henrietta Maria’s secret negotiations with the pope, with foreign powers, and with English army officers surface in the upcoming years. Also in this year, a force of Spaniards, Portuguese and native allies retake Bahia, Brazil from the Dutch.
c. A.D. 1625--At this time, the French begin to establish trading settlements in the Caribbean and begin to export sugar and tobacco.
A.D. 1625-1626--King Charles I of England decides to intervene in the fighting in Europe in support of his brother-in-law, Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate. Frederick had been expelled from his lands by Catholic forces of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, and Charles hopes that by waging war against King Philip IV of Spain, he will be able to force Philip to intercede with Emperor Ferdinand on Frederick’s behalf. He appoints one of his favorites, the Duke of Buckingham, to command the army.
Unfortunately, this brings Charles into conflict with Parliament, where Buckingham is generally loathed. In exchange for agreeing to authorize taxation to support the war, Parliament reserves unto itself the right to dismiss Buckingham if his conduct proves unsatisfactory. Charles, needing the taxes Parliament is offering to authorize, consents to this, apparently not believing that Parliament would actually act without his approval. When Buckingham’s incompetence leads to disaster in France, Parliament immediately recalls him without consulting Charles. Charles, aghast at this "insolence" on the part of Parliament, dissolves Parliament.
A.D. 1627--The English colonize Barbados, the first of their Caribbean colonies. Like the French, they will export sugar and tobacco.
A.D. 1628--King Charles I of England, still wishing to pursue his participation in the Thirty Year’s War then raging in Europe, but unable to raise money without Parliament, is forced to call another Parliament. The new Parliament draws up a Petition of Right, which amongst other things referred to the Magna Carta and said that a citizen should have freedom from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment, non-parliamentary taxation, the enforced billeting of troops, and martial law. Desperate for money, Charles accepts it as a concession to get his subsidy. Also in this year, King Charles reissues the Thirty-Nine articles into the Church of England. This is seen, both at home and by the Tawantinsuya, as a move toward Rome and as evidence of the King’s Catholic leanings.
A.D. 1629-1640--The Eleven Years’ Tyranny in England: King Charles I, determined not to summon another Parliament, instead rules by personal edict. He enrages many by imposing what many view as unjust taxes, in particular by extending the "ship money" tax, a tax for the upkeep of the Royal Navy which had traditionally been levied only on seaports, to the inland counties as well.
A.D. 1630--An expedition sponsored by the Dutch West India Company captures Pernambuco (now Recife) and Olinda in Brazil. Most of the territory between Maranhão Island and the lower course of the São Francisco River falls to the Dutch in subsequent operations. The Dutch establish trading settlements in Brazil, where they export sugar and silver. They also try, but fail, to crush the Quilombo of Palmares.
A.D. 1630--More than 1000 Puritans settle in Massachusetts.
A.D. 1630--Thirty Years War: Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, invades Holy Roman Empire to protect Protestant states.
A.D. 1631--Thirty Years War: Catholic army under General Tilly sacks Madgeburg.
A.D. 1632--Galileo, "Dialogues Concerning Two World Systems," presents evidence for heliocentric solar system.
A.D. 1633--The Roman Inquisition forces Galileo to retract his views. King Charles I of England appoints William Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury. Charles believes in a sacramental version of the Church of England, called High Anglicanism, a theology shared by Laud. Laud, upon his appointment as Archbishop, starts a series of reforms in the Church to make it more ceremonial, starting with the replacement of the wooden communion tables with stone altars. Puritans accuse Laud of trying to reintroduce Catholicism, and Laud has them arrested.
A.D.1637--René Descartes establishes modern scientific method; Descartes also invented coordinate geometry. In England, Puritan leaders John Bastwick, Henry Burton, and William Prynne have their ears cut off for attacking the policies of Archbishop Laud. This is a rare penalty for gentlemen to suffer, and arouses much anger.
A.D. 1639--France enters Thirty-Years War.
A.D. 1639-1640--The Bishop’s War in England. King Charles I, in furtherance of his desire to have one unified, High Anglican Church across all of his kingdoms, attempts to force the English Book of Common Prayer upon Scotland. The Scots react explosively, and when King Charles sends an army north against them, it is defeated. As a result he is forced to agree to the humiliating Pacification of Berwick, in which he agrees not only to not interfere with the Scottish Church, but also to pay Scottish war expenses!
A.D. 1640--Portugal rebels against Spanish rule, and a native dynasty is restored for the first time in sixty years when King John IV of the House of Braganza ascends the throne. Also in this year, TupacYupanqui Inca II of the Tawantinsuyu Empire dies. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Wayna Capac Inca II. Wayna Capac Inca is, like his father, a Christian, and will continue to encourage the spread of the Protestant brand of Christianity within his empire.
Also in April 1640, in need of money to raise another army to put down the rebellion in Scotland, King Charles I recalls Parliament, ending his eleven-year period of personal rule. Parliament takes this appeal for money as an opportunity to discuss grievances against the Crown, and to express opposition to the military option. Charles takes exception to this and dismisses the Parliament in May...this Parliament will be known to history as "The Short Parliament." Without Parliament's support, Charles attacks Scotland again and is comprehensively defeated; the Scots, seizing the moment, take Northumberland and Durham.
Desperate, Charles is forced to recall Parliament in November 1640. None of the issues raised in the "Short Parliament" had been addressed, and again Parliament takes the opportunity to raise them, refusing to be dismissed...this Parliament will be known to history as "The Long Parliament." The Parliament passes laws stipulating that Parliament should be reformed every three years and refusing the king's right to dissolve Parliament. Other laws are passed making it illegal for the king to impose his own taxes, and giving members control over the king's ministers.
A.D. 1640--The English and Tawantinsuya East India Company builds a trading center at Madras. From its base in Madras Indian cottons are shipped to the East Indies to buy spices aboard both English and Tawantinsuya ships.
A.D. 1641--King Charles I of England, thinking he sees a way to continue his war without having to ask Parliament for money, turns to Ireland, where his able Viceroy, the Earl of Strafford, had successfully raised much needed money for Charles by granting religious concessions to the Irish Catholic gentry in exchange for taxes. Strafford had raised an Irish Catholic army, and offers it to Charles for use against the rebellious Scots. The idea of using a Catholic army, based on Protestant English soil, against Protestant Scots, causes much outrage in Parliament, and the Earl of Strafford is arrested and charged with treason. Although Parliament is unable to prove it’s case, King Charles is forced to sign a Bill of Attainder ordering his execution. The execution of Strafford leads to rebellion in Ireland later that year, and rumors start that the Irish are being supported by King Charles.
A.D. 1642-1646--First English Civil War. Relations between King Charles I and his Parliament finally reach the breaking point, and war results. In January 1642, Charles attempts to arrest several of the most radical members of Parliament, but fails when the Parliament openly refuses to hand the men over. Everyone recognizes this as a virtual declaration of war, and both sides soon begin raising armies.
Later in January, Charles sends his wife Henrietta Maria to the Continent to enlist Catholic support for his cause against Parliament. She is also to pawn the crown jewels to buy arms. Incidentally, when news of Queen Henrietta Maria’s mission reaches the Tawantinsuya, it deepens their suspicions about King Charles, and relations chill even further. The new Inca, Wayna Capac II, declares their neutrality and virtually ceases trading with England (the one major exception being continued participation in the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company). Thus a potential source of revenue for the King is cut off at the very time he most needs it.
The war quickly spreads and eventually involves every level of society throughout the British Isles. Many areas attempt to remain neutral but find it impossible to withstand both the King and Parliament. On one side the king and his supporters fight for traditional government in Church and state. On the other, supporters of Parliament seek radical changes in religion and economic policy and major reforms in the distribution of power at the national level. Despite some early royalist victories, in the end, the Parliamentarian forces are triumphant, and Charles is captured in the summer of 1646, ending the war.
A.D. 1644-1654--Portuguese colonists in those areas of Brazil held by the Dutch, urged on by the restored native dynasty in Portugal, revolt against their Dutch overlords. After a bitter, ten-year struggle, the Dutch finally capitulate. Brazil is once again under the rule of Portugal.
A.D. 1644--The Portuguese attempt, and fail, to destroy the Quilombo of Palmares.
A.D. 1646-1648--The Interregnum in England. During this period, King Charles I was a prisoner and Parliament, lead by Oliver Cromwell, rules the country directly. King Charles is basically forgotten as Parliament and the Army squabbles over such things as arrearages of pay. The conservative faction within Parliament is also concerned by the strong Puritan contingent within the Army, which it views as a threat. Parliament attempts to disband the Army, the Army refuses to be disbanded and marches on London. Whilst all this is going on, King Charles, still a prisoner, is meanwhile negotiating with the Scots for support against Parliament.
A.D. 1646 onward--Wayna Capac Inca II, upon learning of the capture and imprisonment of King Charles I of England and the advent of direct Parliamentary rule over England, has mixed feelings. While he strongly disliked King Charles and felt he was taking England toward an alliance with the enemies of the Tawantinsuya (i.e. Roman Catholicism), he happens to share Charles’ belief in the divine right of kings. After all, the Inca is considered the representative of God on earth in his own realm (indeed, up until a couple of decades ago, the Inca was considered to be A GOD ON EARTH, and many in his realm still consider him so). Should not all Kings be considered likewise? So although relations and trade resume between the two realms at the conclusion of war, relations remain somewhat chilly.
A.D. 1647-1659--French-Spanish war.
A.D. 1647--The English colonize the Bahamas.
A.D. 1648--Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty-Years War. The results of the treaty were wide ranging. Among other things, the Netherlands gained independence from Spain, ending the Eighty Years War, and Sweden gained several territories in Germany. The power of the Holy Roman Emperor was broken, and the rulers of the German states were again able to determine the religion of their lands. The treaty also gave Calvinists legal recognition. Three new great powers arose from this peace: Sweden, the United Netherlands and France. The Peace of Westphalia initiates the modern fashion of diplomacy as it marks the beginning of the modern system of nation states (or "Westphalian states"). Subsequent wars will not about issues of religion, but will rather revolve around issues of state. This will allow Catholic and Protestant Powers to ally, leading to a number of major realignments in the upcoming years.
A.D. 1648-1649--The Second English Civil War. A Scottish invasion in support of King Charles takes place in mid 1648, but is defeated. A series of royalist rebellions also take place, but all are defeated by the end of 1648. In the aftermath of the war and what it perceives as the betrayal by King Charles, and disgusted that Parliament still countenances the King’s rule, the Parliament’s army turns on it, conducting a purge in which 45 members of Parliament are arrested and another 146 are refused to take their seats. A "Rump Parliament" of only 75 of the most radical members is left, and this body moves forward on a proposal to bring the King to trial on a charge of treason. Charles I is convicted, and condemned to be beheaded. The sentence is carried out on January 30, 1649.
A.D. 1648-1653--French civil war.
A.D. 1649--The "Rump Parliament" abolishes the Monarchy and the House of Lords in England. The House of Commons, through a Council of State, rules England. England is declared a "Commonwealth and a Free State." Wayna Capac Inca II is utterly shocked when he hears of this, following as it does upon the news of the execution of Charles I. Relations between England and the Tawantinsuya remain correct, but chilly.
A.D. 1649-1652--Oliver Cromwell bloodily suppresses Catholic and Royalist resistance in Ireland. Virtually all Irish Catholic land is seized and given to the English Parliament’s creditors, former soldiers, and Protestant residents of Ireland. The Irish Catholic majority is reduced to the status of tenant farmers...virtual serfdom...working for English Protestant landlords.
A.D. 1650--English settlers, sent by Lord Willoughby, Governor of Barbados, settle in the Guianas, on the South American coast north of Brazil (in OTL Suriname). Oliver Cromwell defeats the Scots, who have rallied to the standard of Prince Charles Stuart (son of the executed King Charles I), at the Battle of Dunbar. Parliament passes an act prohibiting trade with the Royalist colonies in Virginia, Bermuda, Barbados and Antigua. General-at-Sea Ayscue is sent to recover Barbados.
c. A.D. 1650 onward--At about this time, Portuguese explorers from Sao Paulo (Paulistas) first reach the upper course of the Paraná River. Because these expeditions are undertaken principally for the purpose of enslaving the Native Americans, the Paulistas encounter vigorous opposition from the Jesuits who have been exploring the interior of Brazil for decades. Supported by the Crown in their efforts to protect the Native Americans, the Jesuits finally triumph, and many Paulistas thereupon become prospectors. A feverish hunt for mineral wealth ensues.
A.D. 1651--Charles II is crowned at Scone, and is recognized by the English Commonwealth as "King of the Scots." However, Charles refuses to give up claim to the English throne, and a Scottish army invades England later that year. It is defeated, and Charles flees to France. Parliament issues a Declaration for the incorporation of Scotland into a single commonwealth with England.
A.D. 1652--George Fox establishes the Society of Friends (Quakers). The Dutch establish a colony called New Amsterdam in North America encompassing the area of the Hudson River.
A.D. 1652-1654--First Anglo-Dutch War. Friction had been increasing since the early 17th century as both nations competed in maritime trade and colonial expansion. However, the English Council of State regarded the Protestant Dutch Republic as a natural ally of the English Commonwealth in its apocalyptic struggle against Monarchy and Popery. A diplomatic team went to The Hague in October 1650 to negotiate an alliance between the two nations. Dutch republicans were in favour, but supporters of the influential House of Orange vehemently opposed the alliance, expressing outrage at the execution of King Charles I and refusing to recognise the Commonwealth. Furthermore, the Dutch signed a treaty with Denmark in February 1651 which had the effect of injuring English trade in the Baltic. With the failure of his diplomatic mission, Parliament drafted the provocative Navigation Act of October 1651, which greatly increased tensions between the two nations.
During the winter and spring of 1651-2, large numbers of Dutch vessels were intercepted and searched. French support for the Royalists had led the Commonwealth to issue "letters of reprisal", which authorised English captains to seize French cargoes carried in Dutch ships. When George Ayscue arrived to claim the colony of Barbados for the Commonwealth in October 1651, he seized 27 Dutch ships that were trading with the Royalists in contravention of a Commonwealth embargo. The Commonwealth also continued the traditional claim to sovereignty of the "British Seas" — from the North Sea to Cape Finisterre — and required foreign ships in these waters to strike their flags to English men-of-war as a mark of respect. Dutch ambassadors in London tried to ease the growing tension, but war had become inevitable. The States General, which governed the United Provinces after the death of the Stadtholder William II, decided to expand the fleet by hiring and equipping 150 merchant ships as warships. The veteran admiral Maarten Tromp put to sea in April 1652 with orders to protect Dutch shipping from English aggression. After a confrontation between Tromp and Robert Blake off Dover in May, war broke out in July 1652.
During the course of the war, which was fought entirely at sea, both sides are forced to review naval administration and tactics. Following the English defeat at the battle of Dungeness in November 1652, an Admiralty Committee is established which introduces better rates of pay for seamen and greater efficiency in supplying the fleet. Reliance upon the hiring and arming of merchant vessels is phased out because captains and owners are often reluctant to risk damage to their ships in battle. The first official Articles of War and Fighting Instructions are issued to English naval commanders, which will remain the basis of naval tactics and discipline throughout the next century. The concept of fighting in line-of-battle to maximize the use of the broadside is established for the first time. This will give a definite advantage to the English fleet which has bigger and more powerful warships ("ships of the line") than the Dutch, who continue to rely on armed merchant vessels. The line-of-battle tactic will continue to be used in naval warfare for centuries to come.
The death in action of Admiral Tromp in July 1653 would prove a severe blow to the Dutch Orangist faction. The republican Jan de Witt succeeds in purging the Dutch fleet of supporters of the House of Orange. Increasing republican influence in town councils across the United Provinces created an atmosphere conducive to peace with the Commonwealth. In England, peace negotiations began when moderates dissolved the Nominated Assembly and handed power to Oliver Cromwell, who had never been in favour of war against a Protestant nation. The Treaty of Westminster, signed in April 1654, was aimed principally at limiting the powers of the pro-Stuart House of Orange in the United Provinces and at securing the expulsion of English Royalist exiles from Dutch territory.
A.D. 1653--Oliver Cromwell dissolves Parliament. In it’s place a new body is formed, called the Nominated Assembly. This, too, will not survive the year. In December, the Nominated Assembly surrenders its powers to Cromwell, who is installed as Lord High Protector. Cromwell will rule England as virtual Dictator for the next several years.
A.D. 1654-1667--Russian-Polish war; Russia captures the Ukraine.
A.D. 1654-1660--Anglo-Spanish War. After the ending of the First Anglo-Dutch War, Cromwell turns his attention to England's traditional enemies, France and Spain. Both are Catholic countries and Cromwell fervently believes it to be God's will that the Protestant religion should prevail in Europe. Spain is selected as the principal target of England's aggressive foreign policy partly because war against France risks the possibility of French help in restoring the Stuarts to the throne of England.
During the first year of the Protectorate, Cromwell negotiates with the French statesman Cardinal Mazarin, resulting in the drafting of an Anglo-French alliance against Spain in October 1655. He also negotiates with Wayna Capac Inca II, seeking to draw the Tawantinsuya into the war against the old common enemy, Spain. Wayna Capac Inca, although he deplores the overthrow of the monarchy in England, nevertheless recognizes that Cromwell is pursuing a policy which will benefit the Tawantinsuyu Empire by weakening Spain, and he joins the war in early 1656. Tawantinsuya armies invade Colombia and Venezuela, and by the end of the war have ejected the Spanish from all of South America.
Meanwhile, the Anglo-French army defeated it’s Spanish adversaries in Flanders over the course of several years. In the treaties which end the war, England gains control of the channel port of Dunkirk as well as of Jamaica in the West Indies, and Tawantinsuya control of the former Spanish colonies of Colombia and Venezuela (formally called "New Granada") is recognized.
A.D. 1655-1660--Brandenburg–Russian war.
A.D. 1655--An English force under Admiral Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables captures the Spanish colony at Jamaica. Over the succeeding decades, the English will import thousands of African slaves, who will be primarily used to raise sugar. The sugar produced will quickly make Jamaica the most valuable of Britain’s American colonies and one of the most valuable possessions in the world for the next 200 years.
A.D. 1655--Zumbi is born in a village in the Quilombo of Palmares.
A.D. 1656--Christiaan Huygens begins development of pendulum clock. This will be a major advance for navigation.
A.D. 1657--The Governor of Jamaica issues an invitation to buccaneers to base themselves at Port Royal as a deterrent to Spanish aggression. Thus begins Jamaica’s career as a pirate haven. This creates much friction between England and the Tawantinsuya, as the pirates of Jamaica are not at all shy about seizing Tawantinsuya ships in the Caribbean.
A.D. 1657-1658--The English defeat two Spanish attempts to retake Jamaica.
A.D. 1660--Oliver Cromwell dies, and the English monarchy is reestablished with the restoration of King Charles II. Also in this year, the English settlements in the Guianas are invaded by the Dutch under Abraham Crinjsen. The Dutch establish control over the region.
A.D. 1661--Louis XIV crowned King of France. By treaty between the Netherlands and Portugal, the Dutch formally renounce their claims to Brazil.
A.D. 1661--The English and Tawantinsuya East India Company occupies Bombay.
A.D. 1662--English Royal Society founded. Zumbi of Palmares is taken prisoner by Portuguese soldiers. He is given to a Portuguese priest, who baptises him and teaches him Portuguese and Latin. King Charles II of England marries Catherine of Braganza, a Catholic Portuguese princess. Although this does not much affect his popularity in England, it does raise suspicions among the Tawantinsuya, and relations between England and the Tawantinsuyu Empire chill measurably.
A.D. 1663--French crown takes direct rule of New France (Canada). Death of Wayna Capac Inca II. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Atahualpa Inca II.
A.D. 1664--English capture New Amsterdam and rename it New York. The Dutch still dispute ownership of the region, however.
A.D. 1664-1666--Isaac S. Newton develops laws of gravity.
A.D. 1665-1667--Second Anglo-Dutch War. After the Restoration of King Charles II, there is a general surge of optimism in England, accompanied by a great hope to end the Dutch dominance in world trade. English privateers begin to attack Dutch ships, capturing about 200 of them by 1665. After incidents involving the English capture of Dutch trading posts and colonies in North America (including New Amsterdam) and West Africa, the Dutch declare war in January 1665; in response, the English declare war on the Netherlands in March 1665.
The Dutch greatly outproduce the English, adding 80 warships to their fleet against English gains of only twelve new warships for England. The English are also beset by two great disasters...the Great Plague of 1665 (which killed upwards of 60,000 people) and the Great London Fire of 1666, which destroyed most of the English capital city. Coupled with the pressures of the war, these disasters practically cripple the English. So, although there are some English victories, the Dutch more than hold their own, concluding with the humiliating Dutch raid on the Medway, in which the Dutch fleet burns much of the English fleet while at anchor in supposedly safe harbor, as well as capturing the English flagship, H.M.S. ROYAL CHARLES, and towing it back to the Netherlands.
The psychological impact of this final humiliation is enough to bring the English to the negotiating table, and the Treaty of Breda is signed, by which the Dutch agree to give up their claims to the New Amsterdam colony in exchange for the withdrawal of English claims to the Guianas. It is not a satisfying peace for either power, and it will not last long.
A.D. 1665--Death of King Philip IV of Spain. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as King Charles II. Physically disabled and disfigured and mentally retarded, sadly weak in mind and body, barely able to walk and speak, he is not the leader Spain needs at this time to recover it’s lost glory. He will also prove to be impotent, and thus will be the last of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty.
A.D. 1666--Isaac Newton discovers the spectrum.
A.D. 1666--French Académie Royale des sciences founded.
A.D. 1667-1668--The War of Devolution. In 1667, King Louis XIV orders the French army to invade the Spanish Netherlands, intent on seizing control of the rich market cities of the Catholic Low Countries and their long-established textile trade, which competed with French interests; the ports that offer advantageous positions opening on the English Channel and the North Sea; and opportunity to control river traffic at the mouth of the Rhine River.
This naked aggression soon brings together an alliance of French enemies...England, the Netherlands, and Sweden...which issues a decree granting Louis the territory he had demanded at the start of the war, but warns that if the French continue their offensive beyond those lines the three would join the Spanish in repelling them. Ill-positioned to oppose four of the great powers of Europe at once, Louis XIV backs down, and the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle is signed in 1668. France gains some minor territory in Flanders, but the Spanish Netherlands, as well as Franche Comté, are returned to Spain.
A.D. 1668--First French trading post and factory, at Surat, established in India. This will be the beginning of a century of competition for dominance in India between the French East India Company and it’s counterpart, the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company.
A.D. 1670--Britain establishes the Hudson Bay Company in Canada. Zumbi runs away from his Portuguese captors. He returns to the Quilombo of Palmares.
A.D. 1671--Isaac Newton invents the reflecting telescope. Leibniz invents an adding machine.
A.D. 1672-1674--The Third Anglo-Dutch War: The English, in alliance with the French, again attack the Netherlands in 1672, sparking a two-year war. In general, the war goes very badly for the English, who suffer several naval defeats, as well as losing control of the colonies of New York and New Jersey. But the Dutch are also hard pressed, and in the end, all agree to a peace based on "status quo ante bellum" at the Treaty of Westminster. Interestingly, the Stadholder of the Netherlands at the time was William III of Orange, who would later become (following the Glorious Revolution) King William III of England.
A.D. 1673--Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet explore the Mississippi River for France.
A.D. 1674--France establishes it’s first trading colonies in India.
A.D. 1675--Beginning of Construction of St. Paul's Cathedral, London; establishment of Greenwich Observatory (both designed by Christopher Wren). Olaus Roemer calculates speed of light. In battle against Portuguese soldiers, Zumbi proves himself as a great warrior and military planner.
A.D. 1677--Anton van Leeuwenhoek , inventor of single-lens microscope, discovers protozoa; he will discover bacteria in 1683.
A.D. 1678--Deciding that the Palmares Quilombo is not worth the men and resources it would take to fully conquer it, Pedro Almeida, Portuguese governor of Pernambuco, offers peace and freedom for all the runaway slaves in the Quilombo, if they will agree to submit to Portuguese rule and cease raiding Portuguese plantations. The chief of the Quilombo, Ganga Zumba, wants to agree to the terms, but is opposed by Zumbi, who argues that the struggle to free the slaves of the plantations should go on. A power struggle between the two men ensues, which Zumbi will eventually win.
A.D. 1680--The Portuguese dispatch an expedition southward to the east bank of the estuary of the Río de la Plata (in what would, in OTL, become Uruguay) and found a settlement called Colonia. This is in territory claimed by the Tawantinsuya, and an extended period of undeclared warfare between the two powers over control of the region will rage for the next seven years.
At about the same time, Zumbi triumphs in the struggle for control over the Palmares Quilombo, becoming the acknowledged chief of the Quilombo. Zumbi knows that, in the end, the Quilombo cannot prevail against Portugal...at least, not without allies. And while a prisoner of the Portuguese, he had heard of a strange power to the south and west...the Tawantinsuya...who might just become such an ally. By secret roads through the Amazon, Zumbi dispatches messengers in search of the Tawantinsuya...who, just at this time, are coming into conflict with Portugal over the settlement at Colonia.
A.D. 1681--A messenger from the Palmares Quilombo makes contact with the Tawantinsuya. He is taken to Cuzco, where he is allowed to present his proposal to the Inca himself. Atahualpa is amazed at the appearance of the man...the Tawantinsuya have heard rumors of the black men who work as slaves on the plantations of the Spanish and Portuguese, but up until now, have never seen them. He listens to the proposal of alliance brought by the man, and although he does not think the Quilombo will likely succeed in their struggle for freedom, he decides that it might be a good idea to help them simply because they will draw men and resources away from his own borders. He orders regular shipments of guns, powder, and other supplies to the Quilombo. Although it is impractical to ship them overland, the Quilombo is quite near the seacoast, and Tawantinsuya vessels will make secret rendezvous with men from the Quilombo at pre-arranged times over the next several years. Some of these shipments will be intercepted by the Portuguese, of course. Others, however, will not, and they will greatly strengthen the ability of the Quilombo to resist the Portuguese.
A.D. 1682--Louis XIV establishes French court at Versailles. The French claim large territories in Louisiana.
A.D. 1683--Turks besiege Vienna.
A.D. 1683-1689--Russia at war with China.
A.D. 1684--The infusions of Tawantinsuya guns, ammunition, and other weapons emboldens Zumbi, who decides on a bold plan...nothing less than the total expulsion of the Portuguese from Brazil and the creation of a free black nation. Zumbi’s plan is not as crazy as it seems, as the total population of Brazil is, at this time, less than 200,000, of which about 120,000 are African slaves, and only about 60,000 of which are white (Portuguese, Spanish, or Dutch) with the remainder being native Indians and mixed-bloods who are of dubious loyalty to their Portuguese overlords. If Zumbi can arm a large enough proportion of the slave population, he just may triumph. Once again, messengers are dispatched to Atahualpa Inca...
A.D. 1685--James II crowned King of England. Also in this year, messengers from the Quilombo reach Atahualpa Inca, who agrees to increase the shipments of arms and powder to the Quilombo in support of Zumbi’s plan to raise a slave army and expel the Portuguese from Brazil. He also agrees to increase Tawantinsuya pressure on Brazil’s southern border, so as to draw away as many of the Portuguese defenders as possible. Also in this year, King Louis XIV of France revokes the Edict of Nantes.
A.D. 1687--Turks defeated at Mohacs. In Brazil, the Great Uprising, lead by Zumbi, takes place in conjunction with Tawantinsuya incursions along the southern border of Brazil. Massacres of Portuguese men, women, and children take place all over Brazil as the slaves...armed with Tawantinsuya weapons...rise against their masters. The Portuguese military forces, occupied with stopping the Tawantinsuya invasion, is unable to protect the civilian populace. The fortunate flee to the ports, where they escape by sea. The unfortunate perish, often in horrible ways. The Portuguese military command, afraid of the alternative, surrenders to the Tawantinsuya, and most of the Portuguese military are permitted to take ship home to Portugal. Portugal surrenders it’s settlement at Colonia to the Tawantinsuya. The Tawantinsuya are somewhat sickened by the horrors of the slave revolt, but nevertheless recognize the new Brazilian Quilombo, and issue statements warning against any attempt by European powers to interfere there.
A.D. 1687 onward--In the newly independent Brazilian Quilombo, the jubilant victorious ex-slaves are faced with a major problem, namely the formation of a government which will be acceptable to all. The former slaves of Brazil come from many different tribal backgrounds, many of which were hostile to each other back in Africa. To some extent, the shared experience of slavery has created a bond between them, but old hatreds still remain, and with the removal of the common Portuguese enemy, centrifugal forces threaten to tear the Quilombo apart. The charismatic personality of Zumbi, who is universally respected by all as the leader who brought freedom to all, for the time being keeps this from happening.
Zumbi tries to instill a crusading zeal among his fellow freedmen, as he points to the neighboring Dutch and French colonies in the Guianas, where slavery is still being practiced, and argues that the Quilombo will never be truly safe until all slaves on the continent are freed. His fiery rhetoric stirs the hearts of the freedmen, and over the next decade, the Quilombo will be the springboard for numerous raids on the neighboring Dutch and French colonies in which whites are killed and slaves are freed and brought back to the Quilombo. The Dutch and French protest to the Tawantinsuya, but the Tawantinsuya refuse to intervene.
Zumbi also recognizes that in order for the Quilombo to survive, the population must be expanded. He hits on a novel solution. With Tawantinsuya aid, the Quilombo will build a small merchant fleet and begin trading the cacao, sugar, rum, and other products they produce to the Tawantinsuya...since no European nation will trade with the Quilombo, which will be an international pariah for quite some time...in exchange for cash (they also, as mentioned elsewhere, get a windfall when gold is discovered in 1697 in the Minas Gerais region of Brazil). Armed with this cash, Quilombo ships make regular visits to the great slave-trading ports of west Africa, where they buy slaves, transport them to the Quilombo, free them, and give them land to cultivate.
Zumbi’s plan allows many thousands of Africans who would have ended up as slaves in various European colonies to avoid this sad fate, while also dramatically increasing the population of the Quilombo. By the end of the century, the population of the Brazilian Quilombo will have nearly doubled as a result of these efforts. In the short term, this is good, as it allows more land to be cleared and brought into cultivation, economic production to be increased, and a larger military force to be maintained. In the long term, however, the arrival of these people creates additional problems for the Quilombo, as the newly arrived "immigrants" have no shared experience of slavery under the Portuguese to balance against their old tribal loyalties. Thus, while their arrival adds to the population (good from an economic and military standpoint), it also adds to the centrifugal forces which lurk just beneath the surface of the Quilombo.
A.D. 1688--The Glorious Revolution in England. King James II is deposed, and William of Orange (who is married to Mary, daughter of King James) is given the throne of England. They reign as King William III and Queen Mary II.
A.D. 1688 onward--The accession of the firmly Protestant William III and Mary II to the throne of England leads to greatly thawed relations between England and the Tawantinsuya. This is especially true after news of the Act of Settlement, which prohibits any Roman Catholic, or anyone who marries a Roman Catholic, from inheriting the English throne, reaches the Tawantinsuya.
A.D. 1688-1697--War of the Grand Alliance between France and the Grand Alliance (composed of most of Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, and England). In North America, this will be known as "King William’s War," the first of the so-called "French and Indian Wars" fought between France and Britain for control of North America. The Tawantinsuya remain neutral during the conflict.
A.D. 1689--In December, one of the most important constitutional documents in English history, the Bill of Rights, is passed. The Act—which restates and confirms many provisions of the earlier Declaration of Right—establishes restrictions on the royal prerogative; it is provided, amongst other things, that the Sovereign can not suspend laws passed by Parliament, levy taxes without parliamentary consent, infringe the right to petition, raise a standing army during peacetime without parliamentary consent, deny the right to bear arms to Protestant subjects, unduly interfere with parliamentary elections, punish members of either House Parliament for anything said during debates, require excessive bail or inflict cruel or unusual punishments. King William III is opposed to the imposition of such constraints, but he wisely chooses not to engage in a conflict with Parliament and agrees to abide by the statute. The nature of English monarchy is forever changed. Also in this year, King William III defeats the first Jacobite uprising in Scotland.
A.D. 1690--Christiaan Huygens proposes wave theory of light. The English and Tawantinsuya East India Company builds trading centers in Calcutta. Also in this year, King William III defeats the Irish supporters of the ousted King James II at the Battle of the Boyne.
Also in 1690, news of the successful slave revolt in Brazil, and Tawantinsuya support of it, has caused much consternation in England. Many in England are horrified that their erstwhile allies would support such an indiscriminate massacre of Christians, even if they are "papists." But even more fundamentally, the revolt in Brazil has pointed out a serious weakness inherent in the slave system of labor which is gradually spreading through England's colonies in the New World...the possibility that foreign powers could incite rebellions and massacres by the slaves. For example, in North America, the English share borders with both Spanish and French colonies, which could easily become conduits for smuggling of arms to the slaves. And the recent massacre carried out by the French and their Indian allies at Schenectady, New York, in January 1690 only serves to heighten fears as to what the French might resort to next...if the French are capable of butchering women and children by their own hands, or of using Native Americans to do the same, why would they be squeamish about using slaves for the same purpose?
A debate in Parliament rages over this subject for several months in mid-1690 as lawmakers argue over the economic consequences of ending slavery versus the very real threat which foreign-supported slave rebellions cause. Finally, in September 1690, Parliament passes the Abolition Bill. The new law states that effective on January 1, 1691, it shall be illegal to import slaves into any English colony. New indentured servants may be imported, but black indentured servants shall enjoy all legal protections given to white indentured servants, and no indentured servant thus imported shall be indentured to labor for more than seven years. Furthermore, all children of slaves or indentured servants born after January 1, 1691 will be free. In order to cushion the economic impact of the abolition law, all slaves held in bondage prior to January 1, 1691 will become the indentured servants of their current masters for a term of twenty years, with all the legal protections given to white indentured servants.
There is much outcry in some of the colonies, especially in Jamaica, Barbados, and other Caribbean sugar islands which depend heavily on slavery, when news of this law reaches them. The outcry is much less in the North American colonies, where slavery has not yet taken deep root. But King William makes in known that he will enforce the law and deal with any who resist it as traitors, and the law does function as intended. Within twenty years, there are no African slaves in any of the British colonies (a trade in illegal Native American slaves does arise, as will be discussed elsewhere, however), and no indentured servants bound for more than seven years labor. Black indentured servants are not treated markedly differently than white ones are, and blacks who have completed their indentures are living in sizable numbers as free men throughout the colonies. Many will continue to work as paid laborers on the plantations and farms where they were formerly indentured, while others, not wishing to remain where they are and lacking land of their own, will take the westward trails in the upcoming century, forming a major part of the impetus for westward expansion of the British American colonies, alongside the Scots Irish and other major immigrant groups.
A.D. 1690 onward--The effect of the English Abolition Act on the development of the British colonies in America and the Caribbean is profound. The development of the some of the colonies in the southeastern portion of North America is significantly slowed, as sufficient numbers of men willing to labor in the hot, humid, malaria and yellow-fever infested region cannot be easily found. Plantation agriculture, which had begun in Virginia earlier, never spreads to any great degree to most of the other Southern colonies. Instead, the Carolinas and Georgia will be settled primarily by hardy, independent Scots-Irish, German, or freed African farmers who each till their own small farms.
Many of the plantations of Virginia itself do not continue much beyond the end of the 17th century, as the labor to make them economically viable is no longer to be had. Those that do survive (and this model applies also to the plantations of the Caribbean sugar islands) do so by instituting a system similar to the old manorial system which existed in Europe during the Middle Ages. The former indentured servants are given title to small plots of land by the plantation owner, which they can farm for their own profit and subsistence. In exchange, they agree to labor on the lands owned by the plantation owner on certain days of the week. This offer proves attractive to many former slaves and indentured servants, who have no means to acquire land of their own otherwise, and allows the plantation owner to continue to receive the benefits of labor without paying wages for it.
Another, less savory option for plantation and factory owners who refuse to give up the benefits of slave labor is an illegal trade in Native American "indentured laborers"...in actuality slaves...who are ruthlessly captured by English raiding parties, or more often, by the Native American allies of the English, and forced to work on the farms and in the industries of the English colonies. These laborers are brutally treated, and although they are technically given seven year indentures...as specified by law...in practice, many are held far longer than seven years. Ironically, many of the most successful and ruthless raiders are former African slaves who, having been set free, see this as a lucrative trade and a way to make a comfortable living (many of them come from slave-raiding cultures in Africa itself, so this is not a major moral dilemma for them). This trade has devastating impacts on the Native American tribes of the South especially, where it results in nearly constant inter-tribal warfare...for the purpose of capturing prisoners who can be sold to the English...and the decimation of whole tribes by slavers.
However, for the most part, slavery ceases to be a major part of the South’s agricultural system, and the lack of a slave-based agricultural system will prevent the dominance of a "Planter Class" from arising in the South in the ATL. Indeed, the South will begin to industrialize as entrepreneurs begin to set up industries to exploit the region’s resources. Within a short time major industries dealing in timber, rosin, turpentine, and other "naval stores" derived from the South’s immense stands of pine trees will arise, companies producing pottery and bricks from Southern clays, as well as many others. There will even be attempts to produce silks for export (via the introduction of mulberry trees and silkworms from China), with mixed results. As a result, the economy, political structure, and population of the South will be markedly different from that of OTL, and this will have dramatic impacts as time goes on.
A.D. 1690 onward--The Tawantinsuya explore and occupy the lands at the southern tip of South America and encompassing the Straits of Magellan. A Tawantinsuya naval base is established in the region to control traffic through the Straits.
A.D. 1692--Port Royal, Jamaica is destroyed in an earthquake. The pirates who based themselves there are scattered.
A.D. 1692-1693--Witchcraft trials, Salem, Massachusetts.
A.D. 1693--Rich gold deposits are discovered in the region of what would, in OTL, be present-day Minas Gerais in Brazil. The mineral wealth is jointly exploited by the Tawantinsuya and the Quilombo. Also in this year, King William III of England writes a new charter for the English East India Company (the English portion of the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company). He doubles the capital and broadens the membership of the East India Company. This is a response to the following objections to the Company: narrow membership, exorbitant profits, and involvement in costly wars. The Tawantinsuya agree to the provisions of the new charter, and continue their partnership in the company.
A.D. 1696--Thomas Savery invents first practical steam engine. However, it is not immediately successful. Also in this year, a rival company forms in England to challenge the East India Company’s dominance over the Far Eastern trade.
A.D. 1697--By the Treaty of Ryswick which ends the War of the Grand Alliance, King Louis XIV of France formally recognizes William III as King of England, signaling the end of French support for ousted King James II and his Jacobite faction.
A.D. 1699--Austrians recapture Hungary from Turks. Death of Atahualpa Inca II. He is succeeded by his grandson, who reigns as Huascar Inca. The English and Tawantinsuya East India Company begins trading in China, importing silk, tea and porcelain. In England the demand for tea booms and by the late 1700s tea will account for more than 60% of the Company's total trade. It will also become very popular in the Tawantinsuyu Empire as well.
MORE TO COME...