The Guns of the Tawantinsuya

Discussion of this timeline can be conducted here.

An Alternate History Timeline
by Robert Perkins

PART ONE: 800-1600 A.D.

ca. A.D. 800: Under the leadership of Taycanamo, the Chimu, a people probably descended from the earlier Moche culture which had once held sway in the same region, form the Kingdom of Chimor in the northern coastal region of Peru. Construction begins on their capital, the city of Chan Chan. Buildings are made of adobe brick, covered with a cement into which intricate designs are carved. At about the same time, other related tribes form the Kingdom of Sican, north of Chimor.

ca. A.D. 900--The Chimu conquer the Kingdom of Sican, north of Chan Chan.

ca. A.D. 950: A priest in the city of Chan Chan (the capital city of the Chimu civilization of Peru) is mixing magic powders for use in the local religious festival and accidentally discovers gunpowder when the mixture explodes in his face. Fortunately, he was mixing a very small amount, and the mixture wasn't quite right anyway, so he manages to survive the explosion. Thinking that this might be a good thing to use in his ceremonies to overawe the populace, he continues to work with the formula and improve it. He trains other priests how to make it too.

ca. A.D. 1000: Observations of a storage vessel reacting to another gunpowder accident lead to the invention of a crude rocket. It begins to dawn on the Chimu that the "Magic Powder" might have military applications.

A.D. 1100-1300: Knowledge of gunpowder has spread from the Chimu to other area cultures. Rockets are a standard part of regional militaries, although they are dreadfully inaccurate and don't cause a lot of damage. Sometime around 1250 A.D., an anonymous metalworker in what is now northern Chile discovers the formula for bronze, knowledge of which slowly spreads northward. Also at about this time, a new people, the Tawantinsuya, have appeared, lead by their semi-legendary ruler (or "Inca," as he is called), Manco Capac. They settle at the city of Cuzco, founding the state of Tawantinsuyu.

A.D. 1300-1400: Bronze begins to be worked in Chan Chan before 1350 A.D. Knowledge of the formula soon spreads to other cultures in the region. By 1400, the Chimu Empire extends for some 200 miles to the north and south of Chan Chan. The Tawantinsuya learn of the Chimu "Magic Powder" and begin adapting it to their own military.

A.D. 1400-1500: The Tawantinsuya begin to expand from the Cuzco region. In 1460 they conquer Chan Chan, and by 1476 have conquered all of the Kingdom of Chimor. They find that the Chimu were working on a primitive bronze siege cannon and bronze hand-cannons, take over the prototypes, and after further development, put them into production. By the end of the 1400s, a Tawantinsuya inventor has devised a wheeled artillery carriage (based on the wheeled children's toys found in the region from very early times), and the Tawantinsuya begin to incorporate field artillery into their armies, pulled by teams of llama. The Tawantinsuyu Empire continues to expand, reaching it's OTL limits by 1500.

A.D. 1415-1460--Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal launches the Age of Exploration by sponsoring expeditions to discover a new route from Europe to the Orient.

A.D. 1425-1438--Reign of Viracocha Inca, the last semi-legendary ruler of Tawantinsuyu.

A.D. 1438-1471--Reign of Pachacuti Inca, who begins the expansion of the Tawantinsuyu kingdom out of the Cuzco valley to the south. He also captures the Chimu capital of Chan Chan in 1460.

A.D. 1471-1493--Reign of Tupac Yupanqui Inca, who conquers the Kingdom of Chimor by 1476 and extends the Tawantinsuyu Empire along the coast southward into Chile. The last Chimu King, Minchancaman, is taken to Cuzco, where he lives as a "guest" of the Tawantinsuya Inca.

A.D. 1479--Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille marry, uniting their kingdoms. Spain is born. They shortly afterward, with the approval of Pope Sixtus IV, begin the Spanish Inquisition.

A.D. 1492--Christopher Columbus, sailing in the pay of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, makes landfall on the island of Hispaniola, in the West Indies. On October 29, he also lands in Cuba.

A.D. 1493-1528--Reign of the Wayna Capac Inca, who extends the Tawantinsuyu Empire northward into the regions that in OTL would become Ecuador and Colombia.

A.D. 1494--Treaty of Tordesillas divides the New World between Spain and Portugal.

A.D. 1497-1498--John Cabot, in the pay of King Henry VII of England, explores the coast of North America in the neighborhood of Newfoundland.

A.D. 1498--Columbus discovers the coastline of South America.

A.D. 1499--Amerigo Vespucci, sailing in the pay of Spain, explores the mouths of the Amazon.

A.D. 1500--Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal.

A.D. 1500-1501--Portuguese explorer Gaspar Corte-Real explores North America on behalf of the King of Portugal. His first journey brings him to the coasts of Greenland. In 1501, he disappears without any trace while navigating south along the coast of Labrador.

A.D. 1504--First documented sojourns of Breton fishermen on the banks of Newfoundland.

A.D. 1507--A German cartographer makes a map in which he names the New World "America," after Amerigo Vespucci.

A.D. 1508--The French adventurer Thomas Aubert captures seven local Natives from Newfoundland, with whom he returns to France. Ponce de Leon establishes the first Spanish settlement on Puerto Rico.

A.D. 1509--Francisco Pizzaro leaves Spain for the New World.

A.D. 1510--The Spanish introduce the first African slaves into the New World.

A.D. 1511--Diego Columbus, son of Christopher, founds the first permanent Spanish settlements in Cuba. He defeats the local natives when they rebel later that same year. Spain will rule in Cuba for the almost the next 500 years.

A.D. 1512--Vasco de Balboa explores the region which will be come known as Panama, and discovers the Pacific Ocean. Among the men in his expedition is a young man named Francisco Pizzaro.

A.D. 1513--Ponce de Leon makes the first Spanish landfall in North America, when he lands in Florida. He explores the peninsula while searching for the "Fountain of Youth."

A.D. 1516--Charles V becomes Emperor of Austria and King of Spain (where he reigns as Charles I). Charles will spend most of his reign fighting wars against the Ottoman Turks and King Francis I of France, as well as in suppressing the Protestant Reformation.

A.D. 1515 onward--Spanish settlement of Argentina meets strong resistance from the natives. The area will never be firmly under Spanish control.

A.D. 1517--Martin Luther nails the 95 Theses to the door of the cathedral in Wittenburg, Saxony. Beginning of the Protestant Reformation.

A.D. 1519-1521--Hernando Cortez conquers the Aztec Empire in Mexico.

A.D. 1519--Ferdinand Magellan sails around Cape Horn, through the straits which will later bear his name. Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor.

A.D. 1520--The first large group of African slaves in the New World are brought to Cuba, where they are put to work in the gold mines. Also in this year, Portuguese navigator Joao Alvares Fagundes explores the coasts of Newfoundland, where he plans to establish a colony.

A.D. 1521--Charles V issues the Edict of Worms, which outlaws Martin Luther and declares his teachings to be heresy. Luther goes into hiding. The Ottoman Turks capture Belgrade. Also in this year, a few Portuguese families settle around Cape Breton (Canada), but the colony does not survive. Their fate remains unknown to this day.

A.D. 1522--The first Spanish settlement in South America, Nueva Cadiz, is founded in the region known in OTL as Venezuela. Spanish settlers will mine gold...first with Native American slaves, then with African slaves...and raise cattle on the grassy plains. Few Spaniards come to the colony.

A.D. 1522-1524--First expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. In 1522 the accounts of the achievements of Hernando Cortez, and the return of Pascual de Andagoya from his expedition to the southern part of Panama, bringing news of the countries situated along the shore of the ocean to the south, fires Francisco Pizzaro with enthusiasm. With the approbation of Governor Pedrarias Davila of Panama, he forms, together with Diego de Almagro, a soldier of fortune who was at that time in Panama, and Hernando de Luque, a Spanish cleric, a company to conquer the lands situated to the south of Panama. Their project seems so utterly unattainable that the people of Panama call them the "company of lunatics." Having collected the necessary funds Pizarro places himself at the head of the expedition; Almagro is entrusted with the equipping and provisioning of the ships; and Luque is to remain behind to look after their mutual interests and to keep in Pedrarias's favour so that he might continue to support the enterprise. In November, 1524, Pizarro sets sail from Panama with a party of one hundred and fourteen volunteers and four horses, with Almagro to follow him in a smaller ship just as soon as it can be made ready. The result of this first expedition is disheartening. Pizarro gets no further than Punta Quemada, on the coast of what is now Colombia, and having lost many of his men he returns to Chicamá, a short distance from Panama. Meanwhile Almagro follows him, going as far as the Rio de San Juan (Cauca, Colombia), and, not finding him, returns to rejoin him at Chicamá.

A.D. 1524--Pedro de Alvarado conquers Guatemala. Also in this year, on behalf of King Francis I of France, Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sails to what is today North Carolina. He explores the shoreline of North America north to Newfoundland. He names the entire territory "Francesca," and the name "Nova Gallia" appears on a map drawn by his brother Girolamo.

A.D. 1525--The Peasant’s Revolt in Germany is brutally suppressed. Many of the peasants claimed loyalty to the new religious doctrines espoused by Martin Luther, which hardens the attitudes of Emperor Charles V against Luther and his teachings.

A.D. 1526--Pizarro's Second Expedition: This expedition is much larger, with 160 men and several horses carried in two ships. After some initial probing, Pizarro's expedition splits, with Bartolome Ruiz, the pilot, taking half the command. While sailing off the coast of what is now Ecuador, Ruiz makes first contact with the Tawantinsuya. Aboard a balsa trading raft with a huge triangular cotton sail are 20 Tawantinsuya crew and passengers. The Spanish board the vessel and, to their delight, see many pieces of silver and gold, precious stones and intricately woven fabrics. Ruiz kept three of the Tawantinsuya to be trained as interpreters. Through sign language, the captives told him that their gold came from a land far to the south, a land of wonders. When Ruiz rejoins Pizzaro, he finds him encamped on a swampy island off the coast of Colombia, his command decimated by disease and mutiny in the air. Although Pizzaro is greatly heartened by the news Ruiz brings, he orders the abandonment of the expedition. Also in this year, the Ottoman Turks defeat the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohacs.

A.D. 1527--The rulers of Sweden adopt Lutheranism, making Sweden the world’s first Protestant nation. Other rulers, primarily German princelings who seek to undermine the power of the House of Habsburg (family of Emperor Charles V), will adopt Lutheranism shortly afterward.

A.D. 1528--Third expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. The expedition explores the coast of South America to a point south of the Equator, but the outbreak of disease among the explorers forces them to abandon the expedition and return to Panama. During this expedition a brief landfall is made at the Tawantinsuya settlement of Tumbez, and it is from this small contact that smallpox is released into the Tawantinsuyu Empire. It will spread rapidly, killing many thousands of victims over the next two years. The Governor of Panama having withdrawn his support for future expeditions southward by Pizzaro, Pizzaro sets sail for Spain, where he meets with Emperor Charles V.

A.D. 1528-1532--Civil War in the Tawantinsuyu Empire. At the arrival of the strange white-skinned visitors from the sea, the Tawantinsuya governor at Tumbez sent his runners with all speed to the Inca, Wayna Capac, who was near Quito resting after battle. The Inca, weighing up the potential consequences of these foreign invaders, and also the sinister news of the outbreak of pestilence in the heart of his empire, decides to come to Tumbez to investigate. But he gets only a short way south when the disease strikes his camp. The incubation period of smallpox is only a few days and, in no time, it sweeps through the army. Many of his trusted generals die, and then the Inca himself catches it. As Wayna Capac's health rapidly worsens, he is asked to name a successor to be ratified by his council of wise men. The two contenders are his 25-year-old son Atahuallpa and his 21-year-old brother Huascar--Wayna Capac’s son by a different queen. Wayna’s solution is to divide the empire between the two sons, but neither Atahualpa nor Huascar is willing to accept such a division permanently. Both sons begin building their forces, and within a short time, the empire is plunged into a bloody civil war. Atahualpa will eventually emerge victorious, decisively defeating Huascar’s army in late 1532 and capturing Huascar himself. However, Atahualpa does not execute his brother, and Huascar’s supporters do not immediately give up. Rebellion continues to simmer in the empire while Huascar lives.

A.D. 1528 onward--The smallpox outbreak of 1528-1530 which kills Wayna Capac Inca is just the first of several over the course of the rest of this century. In addition to smallpox, Old World Diseases like influenza, measles and malaria will also make their appearance in the empire. As a result, the overall population of the Tawantinsuyu Empire, which stood at nearly twelve million at the arrival of the Europeans in 1528, will fall to approximately three million by approximate 75% reduction. This naturally causes severe economic and social dislocations within the empire. But, as immunity to the diseases gradually takes hold in the population, the population will rebound and by the end of the century will stand at over five million and growing rapidly.

One of many problems which the plagues cause is the decimation of the Tawantinsuya nobility, which is essential in the Tawantinsuya system of government as they provide the bureaucrats, generals, and other officials which allow the empire to function. Fortunately, the Tawantinsuya have a system in place which allows them to weather this crisis. The descendants of the original Tawantinsuya ruling tribe were never numerous enough to administer their empire without help. To cope with the need for leadership at all levels, therefore, the Tawantinsuya Incas have a long-established civil service system. All children in the empire are tested by local Tawantinsuya officials, boys at age 13 and girls at the age of first menstruation. Those who fail the exam are taught one of many trades, such as farming, gold working, weaving, or military skills, by their ayullu (extended family unit). While many of these non-noble professions are highly esteemed, they cannot themselves ever enter the ruling classes. But their children can, if they pass the exam. Those who pass the exam are sent to Cuzco to attend school to become administrators. There they learn to read the quipu (knotted cord records) and are taught Tawantinsuya iconography, leadership skills, religion, and, most importantly, mathematics. The graduates of this school are elevated to the nobility and are expected to marry within the nobility.

In addition, the Tawantinsuya, at the time of the Spanish invasions, were also working toward integrating the ruling classes of the various conquered tribes into the imperial structure. The epidemics, by decimating the native Tawantinsuya nobility, encourage the acceleration of this process, and by the end of the century, this is far advanced.

A.D. 1529--Emperor Charles V signs an agreement which confers upon Pizzaro the titles of Governor and Captain General, and grants him authority to make new expeditions into the newly discovered lands to the south of Panama. Pizzaro is to have absolute the name of Emperor Charles V, of all lands he might conquer and subjugate. Also in this year, the Ottoman Turks lay siege to Vienna.

A.D. 1530--Francisco Pizzaro returns to Panama with his new authority, and begins raising troops, ships, and money for his expedition. Also in this year, Protestant Princes in Germany form the Schmalkaldic League. Emperor Charles V, not wishing to push the League into the arms of his enemy, King Francis I of France, grants de facto recognition to the least for now. Also in this year, King John of Portugal introduces a program of systematic colonization of the newly acquired territories in Brazil. As a first step the king divides Brazil into 15 districts, or captaincies, and grants each of the districts, in perpetuity, to a person prominent at the Portuguese court. The grantees, known as donatarios, are vested with extraordinary powers over their domains. However, immigration into Brazil is slow.

A.D. 1531--Fourth Expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. In January 1531, Francisco Pizzaro sets sail with 3 ships, 180 infantrymen, and 27 cavalrymen. Pizarro lands at Tumbez once again, but is attacked by the local natives. He retreats to the island of Puna to await reinforcements.

A.D. 1532--In the spring of 1532, Pizzaro’s expedition is reinforced by a further 100 men and more horses under Hernando de Soto. In May 1532, Pizzaro lands again at Tumbez and proceeds to march into Peru. Along their march the Spaniards encounter many villages and are generally made welcome in them. While on the march, Pizarro takes note the lack of adult males in residence in the villages, which, he discovers, is due to the fact that Atahualpa Inca had called them for his army. Through several inquiries, Pizarro learns of the civil war between Atahualpa Inca and his brother, Huascar. He also learns of the present whereabouts of Atahaulpa Inca, who was said to be in Caxamalca. Pizarro proceeds to march in that direction.
On the long march from Tumbez to Caxamalca, Pizzaro learns of the victory of Atahualpa Inca and the capture of Huascar, and he and his men begin recruiting Tawantinsuyu soldiers loyal to Huáscar and also some from the nations that the Tawantinsuyu had conquered and that held an animosity toward the empire. However, upon finally reaching Caxamalca in November 1532, the Spaniards find the town deserted, but they learn that Atahualpa and his main army are nearby. On November 15, Pizzaro sends an emissary to Atahualpa, who agrees to come to meet with Pizzaro at Caxamalca.

Atahualpa arrives the next day, accompanied by a large body of soldiers...infantry armed with bronze spears, axes, and maces, a force of slingers, a force armed with bronze hand-cannon, and 2 bronze artillery pieces. The Spaniards treacherously attempt to ambush Atahualpa’s party and seize Atahualpa himself, and the natives are temporarily discomfited by the charge of the Spanish cavalry, but then Atahualpa’s two field cannon and the hand-cannoneers open fire, dropping about half the Spanish cavalry and scattering the rest in disorder. The other Tawantinsuya soldiers take heart, and charge the white-skinned invaders. Pizzaro is killed in the melee, along with about half of his men. The other half are taken prisoner.

The Tawantinsuya take control of the surviving horses, as well as the Spanish arms and armor. They shortly begin breeding horses, and, trained by their Spanish prisoners...who, having watched a few of their number horribly tortured to death, are more than willing to cooperate...learn to ride. They also capture the expedition blacksmith, who begins to show them the rudiments of iron-working and smelting.

A.D. 1532-1533--King Henry VIII of England breaks with the Roman Catholic Church and establishes the Church of England. Beginning of the English Reformation.

A.D. 1533--Diego de Almagro, leading reinforcements for Pizzaro, lands at Tumbez. He advances inland, but is met north of Tumbez by a Tawantinsuya army, and his force meets the same fate as Pizzaro’s. Almagro is killed, about half of his men and most of their horses are captured. Yet more Spanish "technical advisors" are unwillingly added to the service of the Inca. It is from this group that Atahualpa learns of the contents of the Treaty of Tordesillas, and realizes that he has a MAJOR problem. Shortly afterward, Atahualpa has his brother, Huascar, put to death. Lacking a leader, the remaining rebel forces gradually disperse, and order is restored to the empire. Atahualpa begins preparing the empire’s defenses for the confrontation with the Spanish imperialists which he knows is going to occur, sooner or later. Also in this year, the first recorded uprising of African slaves in the New World takes place in Cuba. The slaves are defeated and killed, and their heads brought back to Bayamo to quiet the alarmed colonists.

A.D. 1534--The disappearance of the expeditions of Francisco Pizzaro and Diego de Almagro leads the Governor of Guatemala, Pedro de Alvarado, to believe that Pizzaro and Almagro have conquered the rich lands rumored to be to the south and are hoarding their wealth for their own. Alvarado leads a well-equipped expedition of 1,000 Spanish soldiers (including over 200 cavalry) southward. He lands on the Ecuadorian coast and advances toward Quito. Runners bring this news to Atahualpa Inca, who immediately leads his main army northward from Cuzco. The Tawantinsuya army of 40,000 meets Alvarado’s force near Quito, and in a bloody and hard-fought battle, the Spanish force is defeated and routed. The Tawantinsuya pursue, and only a few Spaniards make it back to the coast, where they escape aboard one of their ships. The remainder of the ships are captured by the Tawantinsuya. About 1/4 of the Spanish force (including Alvarado himself) are taken prisoner...including more blacksmiths...and most of the horses are captured, along with all the Spanish arms, armor, and other equipment. A cadre of Spanish sailors is also captured, which teach the Tawantinsuya the rudiments of sailing the captured Spanish ships, and also serve as "technical advisors" for the construction of additional vessels. It is thus that the Tawantinsuya Navy is born. The Spanish armor and other equipment is used to equip an elite regiment in the Tawantinsuya army which forms the Inca’s personal bodyguard. Alvarado is sacrificed to Inti, the Tawantinsuya sun god, later that year.

A.D. 1534-1560--The survivors of the Alvarado expedition arrive back in Guatemala in late 1534. They bring terrifying tales of a powerful and well-armed empire to the south. Short of manpower, and with English and French "pirates" beginning to encroach on their domains, Spanish leaders in the colonies decide to give the Tawantinsuya a wide berth, at least for now. There will be a few clashes between Spanish and Tawantinsuya warships off the Pacific coast of the Tawantinsuya Empire, but little more will happen during this time period.

A.D. 1534-1536--Jacques Cartier explores the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River as far as present day Quebec and Montreal. He claims the region for France, and establishes a settlement at Montreal, which does not, however, survive (the site will be resettled at a later date).

A.D. 1535--The Spanish establish the colony of New Spain in Mexico.

A.D. 1536--Denmark adopts Lutheranism. Also in this year, Richard Hore sails from England accompanied by some enthusiastic Englishmen who are enthralled at the idea of exploring the coasts of North America as "tourists". It is largely because of these individuals that the English become interested in establishing a colony on this continent.

A.D. 1538--Norway adopts Lutheranism. Colombia is conquered for Spain by Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada.

A.D. 1540--Francisco de Coronado strikes north from Mexico and explores much of the American southwest, claiming the area for Spain.

A.D. 1541--John Calvin establishes the Reformed Church in Geneva.

A.D. 1546-47--The Schmalkaldic War: Emperor Charles V, having made peace at last with France, gathers an army and declares war on the Schmalkaldic League. His forces inflict a decisive defeat on the League at the Battle of Muhlburg in 1547. The League is effectively destroyed, but warfare will continue between Catholics and Protestants in Germany.

A.D. 1547--King Henry VIII of England dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as King Edward VI. Edward continues the active royal support of the Reformation begun by his father.

A.D. 1549--Because of the dangers implicit in the French depredations along the Brazilian coast, King John revokes most of the powers held by the donatarios and places Brazil under the rule of a governor-general. The first governor-general, Thomé de Souza, arrives in Brazil in 1549, organizes a central government, with the newly founded city of Salvador, or Bahia, as his capital, institutes comprehensive administrative and judicial reforms, and established a coastal defense system. Large numbers of slaves are brought into the region from Africa to overcome the shortage of laborers.

A.D. 1553--King Edward VI of England dies. He is succeeded by his older sister, Mary. Mary is the daughter of Catherine of Aragon, whose divorce from King Henry VIII precipitated the English Reformation. She is a stauch Catholic, and will spend her reign ruthlessly suppressing Protestantism within her Kingdom.

A.D. 1554--Queen Mary of England marries Prince Philip of Spain, son of Emperor Charles V. They produce no children, however. Sao Paulo, in the south of Brazil, is founded by Portugal.

A.D. 1555--The French found a colony on Rio de Janeiro Bay. Emperor Charles V signs the Peace of Ausburg, which recognizes the right of individual German states to choose whether they shall be Protestant or Catholic.

A.D. 1556--Emperor Charles V abdicates his throne. The Spanish Empire, including the Netherlands and all territories in the New World, go to Prince Philip, who reigns as King Philip II. The Austrian Empire, and the claim to the title of Holy Roman Emperor, go to Ferdinand, brother of the outgoing Emperor.

A.D. 1557--Death of Atahualpa Inca. He dies childless and is succeeded by his half-brother, who reigns as Manco Capac II, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire.

A.D. 1558--Queen Mary of England dies, and is succeeded by her Protestant sister, Elizabeth. Under the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Protestantism is restored, English power and influence will grow, and England will become a constant thorn in the side of the King of Spain.

A.D. 1559--Tristan de Luna y Arellano leads an attempt by Spaniards to colonize Florida. He establishes a settlement at Pensacola Bay, but a series of misfortunes causes his efforts to be abandoned after two years.

A.D. 1560--Portugal destroys the French colony on Rio de Janeiro Bay.

A.D. 1560-1566--War between Spain and the Tawantinsuyu Empire: Upon his accession to the throne, King Philip II of Spain decides that the pagans of Tawantinsuyu, whose increasingly formidable navy is causing problems for Spanish shipping along the South American coast, must be brought to heel. He orders a fleet to be fitted out, which is to transport a professional army of 20,000 men to Mexico. From there, the army will be transported from a port on Mexico’s west coast to the coast of the Tawantinsuyu Empire. The fleet sets sail in 1560, arriving in Mexico later that year. By 1561, enough shipping has been accumulated on Mexico’s west coast to transport the army to Peru (of course, by this time, the army has been much reduced by disease, shipwrecks, etc.).

In early 1562, the Spanish force, now numbering about 15,000 men, lands near Tumbez. Runners quickly inform the Inca Manco Capac II of this development, and the Inca orders mobilization of the imperial army. The Tawantinsuya army...which, despite the ravages of disease over the past few decades, still quickly musters over 50,000 men to meet the invaders...meets the Spanish near Chan Chan in August, 1562.

In a very sanguine struggle, the heavily outnumbered Spaniards are defeated. They are pursued as they flee to their ships, and fewer than 2,000 manage to escape. The war will drag on for another four years, mainly in the form of individual encounters at sea between Spanish and Tawantinsuyu warships. But in 1566 King Philip, who had been planning to send a second expedition, under the Duke of Alva, to South America, faces the outbreak of the Dutch revolt, and is forced to send his army to the Netherlands instead. So the war essentially peters out without a peace treaty being signed. Another period of relative peace settles on the region.

A.D. 1562-1598--The Wars of Religion (Huguenot Wars) in France between Catholics and Protestants.

A.D. 1563--Death of Manco Capac II, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Sayri Tupac, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire.

A.D. 1562--Frenchman Jean Ribault explores the Florida coast.

A.D. 1564--Frenchman René Goulaine de Laudonnière establishes Fort Caroline at the mouth of the St. Johns River, near present-day Jacksonville, Florida. Most of the settlers are Protestant Huguenots.

A.D. 1565--Pedro Menéndez de Avilés is ordered by King Philip II of Spain to remove the French and create a Spanish settlement in Florida. He arrives at a place he calls San Augustín (St. Augustine) and establishes what will be the first permanent European settlement in what will one day be the United States. Later that year he will attack the French settlement at Fort Caroline, and massacre everyone except some non-combatants and those who profess the Roman Catholic faith. He renames the captured French settlement as Fort San Mateo.

A.D. 1566 onward--The Dutch Revolt. In the Spanish Netherlands, Protestantism (in the form of Calvinism) has been gaining influence. In 1566, Calvinist mobs storm Catholic churches across the Netherlands and destroy the "heretical" statues of Catholic saints. In response, King Philip II of Spain orders the Duke of Alva to take an army into the Netherlands to suppress the "rebellion." Alva is so brutal in his tactics that within two years, the Spanish Netherlands are in a state of full-scale war. The Protestants are joined by Dutch nobles who object to heavy-handed Spanish taxation policies, and merchants who object to Philip II’s almost constant wars against many of the biggest trading partners of the Dutch.

A.D. 1567--Portugal founds the city of Rio de Janeiro. Also in this year, Frenchman Dominique de Gourgues recaptures San Mateo and massacres the Spanish soldiers stationed there. But Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, returning from Spain, soon leads another expedition which wipes out the new French incursion, and ends forever French attempts to colonize Florida.

A.D. 1567 onward--Spain's pattern of constructing forts and Roman Catholic missions is continued in Florida. Spanish missions are established among native people, a chain of these soon extending across north Florida and as far north along the Atlantic coast as the area that we now call South Carolina. From there, European diseases will be introduced to the native peoples of southeastern North America. The diseases will spread along native trade routes, with devastating consequences. Under the stress caused by these epidemics, the Mississippian chiefdoms which dominate much of the area will collapse within a century, and a great social and political reorganization of the region will begin.

A.D. 1572--St. Bartholmew’s Day Massacre in France. Thousands of Protestants are murdered in cold blood by rampaging Catholics.

A.D. 1578--Queen Elizabeth having missioned him to occupy the lands that had not yet been conquered by Spain, Portugal or France, Sir Humphrey Gilbert appropriates Newfoundland to the Crown of England, as well as a vast territory north and south of the island. No attempt at immediate colonization is made, however.

A.D. 1578-1581--Englishman Francis Drake, having passed through the Straits of Magellan and sailed north along the South American coast, encounters a Tawantinsuya trading vessel. As it happens, some of the Tawantinsuya speak Spanish, and Drake manages to have a peaceful dialog with the Tawantinsuya crew. He finds out about the Tawantinsuya defeats of the Spanish Empire, and decides to try to enlist them as allies for England against Spain. He lands on the Peruvian coast, accompanied by some of the Tawantinsuya from the trading vessel. He is escorted to the palace of the Inca at Cuzco, and after a series of discussions, the Inca agrees to send an ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth of England with an offer of alliance. Drake arrives back in England, with the ambassador, in 1581. Queen Elizabeth is impressed by Drake’s descriptions of the power and wealth of the Tawantinsuyu Empire, and she signs a treaty of alliance between England and the Tawantinsuyu Empire. Although this will have little immediate practical military effect, as the Tawantinsuya are too far away to intervene effectively in England’s coming wars with Spain, trade between England and the Tawantinsuya begins, and English ships operating in the Pacific now will be able to use Tawantinsuya ports as a base of operations against the Spanish.

A.D. 1579--The new Spanish Governor of the Netherlands, the Duke of Parma, prompts the southern (Walloon) states of the Netherlands to sign the Union of Atrecht, which pledges loyalty to the Spanish King and rejects Protestantism. In response, William of Orange, known as "the Silent," unites the Protestant northern (Dutch) provinces into the Union of Utrecht.

A.D. 1580--Philip II forcibly unites the crown of Portugal with that of Spain. The Spanish found the settlement of Buenos Aires on the Rio de la Plata in Argentina.

A.D. 1581 onward--The Trade between England and the Tawantinsuyu Empire has great impacts on both societies. English domestic animals...cattle and sheep primarily...are introduced to the Tawantinsuya, as well as crops such as wheat, barley, oats, and others. In turn, the English import llamas, maize, potatoes, and tomatoes. English-style ale becomes a popular drink among many in Tawantinsuyu, and Chicha (a maize beer produced by the Tawantinsuya) makes it’s appearance on English tables alongside Port Wine from Portugal, England’s other traditional ally. Chewing coca leaves becomes a fashionable pastime for English gentlemen, ranking right up there with tobacco (another New World import). And perhaps most importantly of all, the Tawantinsuya learn much from the English which enables them to dramatically improve their military technology, especially naval technology. "Race-built" galleons begin to replace the old Spanish style vessels which currently make up the Tawantinsuya Navy.

A.D. 1581--The Union of Utrecht declares independence from the Spanish Empire. The United Provinces of the Netherlands is born. King Philip II of Spain sends another army to put down this revolt.

A.D. 1584--William the Silent is assassinated. Leadership of the Protestant cause in the Netherlands passes to his son, Maurice of Nassau. Also in this year, Sir Walter Raleigh establishes the first English colony in the New World, on Roanoke Island.

A.D. 1585--The Treaty of Nonsuch. Queen Elizabeth of England agrees to send an army to the aid of the beleaguered Dutch rebels. The Earl of Leicester lands in the Netherlands with 5,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry. The English will continue to fight alongside the Dutch for the next two decades. This, along with unofficially sanctioned English piratical activity in the Caribbean and the Pacific, enrages King Philip of Spain, who decides on war with England.

A.D. 1587--Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed by orders of her cousin, Queen Elizabeth of England. This further encourages King Philip of Spain to go to war with England.

A.D. 1588-1604--King Philip II of Spain dispatches the first of several Great Armadas with the purpose of invading England, beginning a sixteen year war between the two countries.

A.D. 1589--King Henri III of France is assassinated. The heir to the throne is Henri of Navarre, a Protestant. The new King Henri IV soon finds himself in conflict with the powerful Catholic League (heavily supported by King Philip II of Spain), which opposes the idea of a Protestant King of France.

A.D. 1590-1604--Sayri Tupac Inca, honoring his treaty with Queen Elizabeth of England, declares war on King Philip II of Spain. Tawantinsuya armies invade Colombia and Argentina, and a series of see-saw campaigns results. With his resources being tied up in the ongoing struggle with England, Philip II has little to spare for the colonies, and in the end, the Spaniards are driven from Argentina, and parts of Colombia are conquered as well. The Tawantinsuyu incorporate the conquered areas into their empire. When the peace treaty between England and Spain is signed at London in 1604, representatives of the Tawantinsuyu Empire will also be present and will sign, ending their own war with Spain.

A.D. 1591--An English relief expedition to the colony on Roanoke Island, which had been delayed by the outbreak of war with Spain, finds the settlement deserted. Noone ever discovers what became of the colonists.

A.D. 1592--Tupac Yupanqui, son of Tupac Amaru Inca, is sent to serve as Ambassador to England, a position he in which he will serve until the death of his father in 1616. While in England, he partakes of English culture, including education at Oxford University and the University of Cambridge, where he meets, befriends, and is deeply influenced by Puritan leaders such as Thomas Cartwright and Walter Travers.

A.D. 1593--Henri IV of France (formerly Henri of Navarre, a Protestant who is head of the House of Bourbon), converts to Catholicism, declaring that "Paris is worth a Mass." Over the next few years, this clever political move will cut the support for his enemies and enable him to finally end the Wars of Religion in France. He enters Paris without firing a shot the next year, and by 1598, the war will be over.

A.D. 1597--Death of Sayri Tupac Inca. He is succeeded by his half brother, Tupac Amaru Inca.

A.D. 1598--The Edict of Nantes, issued by King Henri IV, grants religious toleration to Protestants in France. End of the Wars of Religion in France. Also in this year, King Henri IV of France names Troilus de La Roche de Mesgouez "Lieutenant-general of the countries of Canada, Newfoundland, Labrador and Norembègue". Between 1598 and 1603, a few dozen men and women are transported and established on Sable island, a part of what today is Nova Scotia. The endeavour of the Marquis de La Roche is the second attempt to colonize Canada, and like the earlier attempt of Jacques Cartier, will fail.

Also in this year, King Philip II of Spain dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as King Philip III. Philip III continues his father’s war against England and the Tawantinsuya. Also in this year, the Tawantinsuya capture Buenos Aires, ending Spanish occupation of what in OTL would be Argentina. The Tawantinsuya decide not to destroy the town, as it provides them with a ready-made port on the Atlantic, giving them better access to trade with their English allies. Over the next decade a road linking the port to the main part of the Tawantinsuyu Empire will be built, and the port itself will be heavily fortified.

A.D. 1600--The East India Company, a joint venture between the English and the Tawantinsuya, is formed. The purpose of the company is to help break the Dutch monopoly on the spice trade with the East Indies. The British partners hope to use Tawantinsuyu’s position on the Pacific as a base for voyages to the Spice Islands, China, and India.

PART TWO: 1600-1700 A.D.

c. A.D. 1600 onward--The new English and Tawantinsuya East India Company will compete with the Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, and native forces for control of the riches of the Spice Islands in the East Indies.

c. A.D. 1600--Escaped black slaves who have fled the sugar plantations in Pernambuco province, Brazil, found the maroon community, or quilombo, of Palmares in the Serra da Barriga hills. The population grows, eventually reaching thirty thousand. Also at about this time, the first Dutch merchants arrive in the Tawantinsuyu Empire. Like the English, the Protestant Dutch will generally be on good terms with the Tawantinsuya, although they will not enter into a formal alliance with them.

A.D. 1600 onward--Jesuit missionaries begin exploring the Amazon River region. Also at this about this time, English Protestant missionaries begin preaching among the Tawantinsuya. The Tawantinsuya, remembering the role played by Spanish Catholic priests in the abortive Spanish conquest of the Tawantinsuyu Empire (a Spanish Priest had played a leading role in the attempted ambush of Atahualpa Inca in 1532), have been hostile to Christianity up to this point, and have arrested and executed any Christian priests they have found within their borders.

But contact with the English has lead them to reconsider this viewpoint. They now understand that there are different varieties of Christianity, and the English have subtly (or not so subtly) encouraged the Tawantinsuya to consider ROMAN CATHOLICS as enemies, as opposed to Christians in general.

In 1600, Tupac Amaru Inca, urged by his son, Tupac Yupanqui (who has, for the past several years, been serving as Ambassador to England) agrees to allow Protestant Christian missionaries from England into his realm, and they soon begin to preach among the people, making many converts. Most of these missionaries will be Puritans, who will tend to reinforce the anti-Catholic prejudices of the Tawantinsuya even more than would normally have been the case.

A.D. 1601--An expedition of the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company, operating from Tawantinsuya ports on the Pacific coast, sets up a fort at Banda in the East Indies.

A.D. 1602--Sir James Lancaster leads an English and Tawantinsuya East India Company expedition...including several Tawantinsuya trading the East Indies, reaches Aceh, and builds a trading post at Banten. He sails from a base on the Tawantinsuya Pacific Coast, and returns via the same route.

A.D. 1603--Samuel de Champlain of France begins exploration of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and St. Lawrence River. Also in this year, Queen Elizabeth of England dies. King James VI of Scotland, son of Mary, Queen of Scots, becomes King of England, ruling as King James I and founding the Stuart Dynasty. James, a popular and successful monarch in Scotland, will be a total failure in England. He will be unable to deal with a hostile Parliament, and the refusal on the part of the House of Commons to impose sufficiently high taxes will cripple the royal finances. His belief in absolutism and the "divine right of kings," his mismanagement of the kingdom's funds and his cultivation of unpopular favorites will establish the foundation for the English Civil War, which will lead to the overthrow and execution of his son and successor, Charles I, a few decades later.

A.D. 1604--The Treaty of London ends the war between Spain, England, and the Tawantinsuyu Empire. Spain officially cedes Argentina to Tawantinsuyu. The French found their first settlements in the region which will become known as the Guianas, on the coast of South America to the north of Brazil. Also in this year, an English and Tawantinsuya East India Company expedition under Sir Henry Middleton visits Ternate, Tidore, Ambon, and Banda in the East Indies. It returns to England sailing across the Pacific and around Cape Horn, with stops at Tawantinsuya ports.

A.D. 1606 onward--Increasing Tension between Catholic and Protestant in Europe. In 1606, tensions between Protestants and Catholics in Germany lead to violence at the town of Donauworth. This prompts Duke Maximilian of Bavaria to intervene on behalf of the Catholics. After the violence ceases, the Calvinists in Germany (who are quite a minority) feel the most threatened, so they band together in the League of Evangelical Union, created in 1608 under the leadership of Frederick IV, the elector of Palatinate. This provokes Catholics to band together in the Catholic League (created in 1609) under the leadership of Duke Maximilian. Europe, which has seen relative peace between Catholic and Protestant since the Peace of Ausburg in 1555, is now firmly on the road to war.

A.D. 1607--Jamestown, Virginia established—first permanent English colony in the New World.

A.D. 1608--Permanent French colony founded in Quebec by Samuel de Champlain.

A.D. 1609--Galileo Galilei discovers moons of Jupiter. Henry Hudson explores the Hudson River. The Dutch establish their first trading posts in India.

A.D. 1610--Henry Hudson discovers Hudson's Bay, Canada.

A.D. 1611--The King James Bible is published in England. The English and their Tawantinsuya allies begin setting up many posts in the Indies, including at Makassar, Jepara, Aceh and Jambi.

A.D. 1612--The English and Tawantinsuya East India Company establishes their first trading colonies in India.

A.D. 1615--The Dutch establish the first of many settlements in the region which will become known as the Guianas. It is located on the lower Essequibo River. The colonists will remain on friendly terms with the natives of the area and will raise sugar and cacao.

A.D. 1616--Death of Tupac Amaru Inca. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Tupac Yupanqui Inca II.

A.D. 1617--The ultra-Catholic Archduke Ferdinand of the House of Habsburg becomes King of Bohemia. Ferdinand soon begins to repress the large Protestant segment of his population, leading to a revolt.

A.D. 1618--King Ferdinand of Bohemia is deposed, and by the Protestant Frederick V, Elector Palatine. Frederick is the son-in-law of King James I of England. Ferdinand calls for support from the Catholic League, and full scale war soon begins. Thus begins the Thirty Years War, which will eventually involve nearly all the major European powers.

A.D. 1618-1629--War between the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company and the Dutch East India Company in the East Indies. Although the English do somewhat better due to Tawantinsuya support, in the end the Dutch win as in OTL, and begin the process of expelling the English from the East Indies. By 1628, the English and Tawantinsuya will have abandoned their claims in the East Indies, and the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company will be focusing it’s efforts on trade in India. Having ejected the English (and the Portuguese), the Dutch East India Company begins to switch its focus from merely trading to actual conquest and colonization of the area, which will remain in Dutch control for the next two centuries.

A.D. 1619--First black slaves arrive in Virginia aboard a Dutch trading vessel. Also in this year, King Christian IV of Denmark missions Jens Eriksen Munk to find a maritime road leading to the Orient. This explorer discovers the Hudson Straits and navigates as far as the Churchill River in northern Canada, appropriating the territory to his King. The Danes do not take advantage of the rights they could have enjoyed from Munk's discoveries, however. Also in this year, Ferdinand II (whose election as King of Bohemia had sparked the Thirty Years War) becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

c. A.D. 1620--First contacts between the Tawantinsuya and French traders. The contacts are at first hostile, as the French are Roman Catholics, and thus are considered enemies by the Tawantinsuya. But as time goes on, contact continues, and attitudes among the Tawantinsuya toward the French begin to soften. By the end of the century, regular trade between France and the Tawantinsuyu Empire will be a reality, somewhat to the chagrin of the other major trading partner of the Tawantinsuya, England. The contact with France will also begin to erode the anti-Catholic prejudices of the Tawantinsuya, as they slowly come to realize that, just as all Christians in general are not the same, so all Catholics are not the same. But the Tawantinsuya will remain highly suspicious of Catholics in general, despite these contacts, for some time to come.

A.D. 1620--Francis Bacon prepares the foundations for rational scientific experimentation. Also in this year, the Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. They found the first English settlement outside of Virginia, the Plymouth Colony. Battle of White Mountain, in which the Catholic forces of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II defeat the Protestant forces of King Frederick of Bohemia (Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate). In the aftermath of the battle, Frederick flees to Holland. Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria (leader of the Catholic League) confiscates Frederick’s Palatine lands.

A.D. 1621--Tupac Yupanqui Inca II, who had been, while an ambassador in England, deeply influenced by his contacts with Puritan leaders such as Thomas Cartwright and Walter Travers, officially converts to Christianity. Millions of his subjects will, over the next few years, follow the example of their Inca and convert as well. Within 50 years, the Tawantinsuyu Empire will be a virtually completely Christian nation.

Also in this year, King Philip III of Spain dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as King Philip IV. Like his father, Philip IV will mostly devote his time to the pursuit of pleasure, and Spain will be governed, very poorly, by various court favorites. Spanish power, already in decline, will plummet during his reign. Also in this year, the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company founds a trading post at Ambon, in the East Indies.

A.D. 1624--A Dutch fleet seizes Bahia, Brazil from the Spanish and Portuguese.

A.D. 1625--King James I of England dies. His son, Charles I, is like his father, a believer in the "divine right of kings," and although he is pious and holds little personal ambition, Charles will demand outright loyalty in return for "just rule". His personality is such that he considers any questioning of his orders insulting, at best, treason at worst. It is this latter trait and a series of events that will test it, seemingly minor on their own, that will lead to a serious break between Charles and his Parliament, eventually leading to war.

Another factor which bodes ill for his reign is his choice of bride. Later that year, Charles marries Princess Henrietta Maria of France, a Roman Catholic. This creates great suspicion within England that Charles is a "closet papist" who is going to emancipate the Catholics within the kingdom. It also will serve to chill relations with the Tawantinsuya, who are deeply anti-Catholic, and strongly influenced by the Puritan ministers who are preaching in the Tawantinsuyu Empire. The suspicions of both the English people and the Tawantinsuya will seem to be confirmed as rumors of Henrietta Maria’s secret negotiations with the pope, with foreign powers, and with English army officers surface in the upcoming years. Also in this year, a force of Spaniards, Portuguese and native allies retake Bahia, Brazil from the Dutch.

c. A.D. 1625--At this time, the French begin to establish trading settlements in the Caribbean and begin to export sugar and tobacco.

A.D. 1625-1626--King Charles I of England decides to intervene in the fighting in Europe in support of his brother-in-law, Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate. Frederick had been expelled from his lands by Catholic forces of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, and Charles hopes that by waging war against King Philip IV of Spain, he will be able to force Philip to intercede with Emperor Ferdinand on Frederick’s behalf. He appoints one of his favorites, the Duke of Buckingham, to command the army.

Unfortunately, this brings Charles into conflict with Parliament, where Buckingham is generally loathed. In exchange for agreeing to authorize taxation to support the war, Parliament reserves unto itself the right to dismiss Buckingham if his conduct proves unsatisfactory. Charles, needing the taxes Parliament is offering to authorize, consents to this, apparently not believing that Parliament would actually act without his approval. When Buckingham’s incompetence leads to disaster in France, Parliament immediately recalls him without consulting Charles. Charles, aghast at this "insolence" on the part of Parliament, dissolves Parliament.

A.D. 1627--The English colonize Barbados, the first of their Caribbean colonies. Like the French, they will export sugar and tobacco.

A.D. 1628--King Charles I of England, still wishing to pursue his participation in the Thirty Year’s War then raging in Europe, but unable to raise money without Parliament, is forced to call another Parliament. The new Parliament draws up a Petition of Right, which amongst other things referred to the Magna Carta and said that a citizen should have freedom from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment, non-parliamentary taxation, the enforced billeting of troops, and martial law. Desperate for money, Charles accepts it as a concession to get his subsidy. Also in this year, King Charles reissues the Thirty-Nine articles into the Church of England. This is seen, both at home and by the Tawantinsuya, as a move toward Rome and as evidence of the King’s Catholic leanings.

A.D. 1629-1640--The Eleven Years’ Tyranny in England: King Charles I, determined not to summon another Parliament, instead rules by personal edict. He enrages many by imposing what many view as unjust taxes, in particular by extending the "ship money" tax, a tax for the upkeep of the Royal Navy which had traditionally been levied only on seaports, to the inland counties as well.

A.D. 1630--An expedition sponsored by the Dutch West India Company captures Pernambuco (now Recife) and Olinda in Brazil. Most of the territory between Maranhão Island and the lower course of the São Francisco River falls to the Dutch in subsequent operations. The Dutch establish trading settlements in Brazil, where they export sugar and silver. They also try, but fail, to crush the Quilombo of Palmares.

A.D. 1630--More than 1000 Puritans settle in Massachusetts.

A.D. 1630--Thirty Years War: Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, invades Holy Roman Empire to protect Protestant states.

A.D. 1631--Thirty Years War: Catholic army under General Tilly sacks Madgeburg.

A.D. 1632--Galileo, "Dialogues Concerning Two World Systems," presents evidence for heliocentric solar system.

A.D. 1633--The Roman Inquisition forces Galileo to retract his views. King Charles I of England appoints William Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury. Charles believes in a sacramental version of the Church of England, called High Anglicanism, a theology shared by Laud. Laud, upon his appointment as Archbishop, starts a series of reforms in the Church to make it more ceremonial, starting with the replacement of the wooden communion tables with stone altars. Puritans accuse Laud of trying to reintroduce Catholicism, and Laud has them arrested.

A.D.1637--René Descartes establishes modern scientific method; Descartes also invented coordinate geometry. In England, Puritan leaders John Bastwick, Henry Burton, and William Prynne have their ears cut off for attacking the policies of Archbishop Laud. This is a rare penalty for gentlemen to suffer, and arouses much anger.

A.D. 1639--France enters Thirty-Years War.

A.D. 1639-1640--The Bishop’s War in England. King Charles I, in furtherance of his desire to have one unified, High Anglican Church across all of his kingdoms, attempts to force the English Book of Common Prayer upon Scotland. The Scots react explosively, and when King Charles sends an army north against them, it is defeated. As a result he is forced to agree to the humiliating Pacification of Berwick, in which he agrees not only to not interfere with the Scottish Church, but also to pay Scottish war expenses!

A.D. 1640--Portugal rebels against Spanish rule, and a native dynasty is restored for the first time in sixty years when King John IV of the House of Braganza ascends the throne. Also in this year, TupacYupanqui Inca II of the Tawantinsuyu Empire dies. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Wayna Capac Inca II. Wayna Capac Inca is, like his father, a Christian, and will continue to encourage the spread of the Protestant brand of Christianity within his empire.

Also in April 1640, in need of money to raise another army to put down the rebellion in Scotland, King Charles I recalls Parliament, ending his eleven-year period of personal rule. Parliament takes this appeal for money as an opportunity to discuss grievances against the Crown, and to express opposition to the military option. Charles takes exception to this and dismisses the Parliament in May...this Parliament will be known to history as "The Short Parliament." Without Parliament's support, Charles attacks Scotland again and is comprehensively defeated; the Scots, seizing the moment, take Northumberland and Durham.

Desperate, Charles is forced to recall Parliament in November 1640. None of the issues raised in the "Short Parliament" had been addressed, and again Parliament takes the opportunity to raise them, refusing to be dismissed...this Parliament will be known to history as "The Long Parliament." The Parliament passes laws stipulating that Parliament should be reformed every three years and refusing the king's right to dissolve Parliament. Other laws are passed making it illegal for the king to impose his own taxes, and giving members control over the king's ministers.

A.D. 1640--The English and Tawantinsuya East India Company builds a trading center at Madras. From its base in Madras Indian cottons are shipped to the East Indies to buy spices aboard both English and Tawantinsuya ships.

A.D. 1641--King Charles I of England, thinking he sees a way to continue his war without having to ask Parliament for money, turns to Ireland, where his able Viceroy, the Earl of Strafford, had successfully raised much needed money for Charles by granting religious concessions to the Irish Catholic gentry in exchange for taxes. Strafford had raised an Irish Catholic army, and offers it to Charles for use against the rebellious Scots. The idea of using a Catholic army, based on Protestant English soil, against Protestant Scots, causes much outrage in Parliament, and the Earl of Strafford is arrested and charged with treason. Although Parliament is unable to prove it’s case, King Charles is forced to sign a Bill of Attainder ordering his execution. The execution of Strafford leads to rebellion in Ireland later that year, and rumors start that the Irish are being supported by King Charles.

A.D. 1642-1646--First English Civil War. Relations between King Charles I and his Parliament finally reach the breaking point, and war results. In January 1642, Charles attempts to arrest several of the most radical members of Parliament, but fails when the Parliament openly refuses to hand the men over. Everyone recognizes this as a virtual declaration of war, and both sides soon begin raising armies.

Later in January, Charles sends his wife Henrietta Maria to the Continent to enlist Catholic support for his cause against Parliament. She is also to pawn the crown jewels to buy arms. Incidentally, when news of Queen Henrietta Maria’s mission reaches the Tawantinsuya, it deepens their suspicions about King Charles, and relations chill even further. The new Inca, Wayna Capac II, declares their neutrality and virtually ceases trading with England (the one major exception being continued participation in the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company). Thus a potential source of revenue for the King is cut off at the very time he most needs it.

The war quickly spreads and eventually involves every level of society throughout the British Isles. Many areas attempt to remain neutral but find it impossible to withstand both the King and Parliament. On one side the king and his supporters fight for traditional government in Church and state. On the other, supporters of Parliament seek radical changes in religion and economic policy and major reforms in the distribution of power at the national level. Despite some early royalist victories, in the end, the Parliamentarian forces are triumphant, and Charles is captured in the summer of 1646, ending the war.

A.D. 1644-1654--Portuguese colonists in those areas of Brazil held by the Dutch, urged on by the restored native dynasty in Portugal, revolt against their Dutch overlords. After a bitter, ten-year struggle, the Dutch finally capitulate. Brazil is once again under the rule of Portugal.

A.D. 1644--The Portuguese attempt, and fail, to destroy the Quilombo of Palmares.

A.D. 1646-1648--The Interregnum in England. During this period, King Charles I was a prisoner and Parliament, lead by Oliver Cromwell, rules the country directly. King Charles is basically forgotten as Parliament and the Army squabbles over such things as arrearages of pay. The conservative faction within Parliament is also concerned by the strong Puritan contingent within the Army, which it views as a threat. Parliament attempts to disband the Army, the Army refuses to be disbanded and marches on London. Whilst all this is going on, King Charles, still a prisoner, is meanwhile negotiating with the Scots for support against Parliament.

A.D. 1646 onward--Wayna Capac Inca II, upon learning of the capture and imprisonment of King Charles I of England and the advent of direct Parliamentary rule over England, has mixed feelings. While he strongly disliked King Charles and felt he was taking England toward an alliance with the enemies of the Tawantinsuya (i.e. Roman Catholicism), he happens to share Charles’ belief in the divine right of kings. After all, the Inca is considered the representative of God on earth in his own realm (indeed, up until a couple of decades ago, the Inca was considered to be A GOD ON EARTH, and many in his realm still consider him so). Should not all Kings be considered likewise? So although relations and trade resume between the two realms at the conclusion of war, relations remain somewhat chilly.

A.D. 1647-1659--French-Spanish war.

A.D. 1647--The English colonize the Bahamas.

A.D. 1648--Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty-Years War. The results of the treaty were wide ranging. Among other things, the Netherlands gained independence from Spain, ending the Eighty Years War, and Sweden gained several territories in Germany. The power of the Holy Roman Emperor was broken, and the rulers of the German states were again able to determine the religion of their lands. The treaty also gave Calvinists legal recognition. Three new great powers arose from this peace: Sweden, the United Netherlands and France. The Peace of Westphalia initiates the modern fashion of diplomacy as it marks the beginning of the modern system of nation states (or "Westphalian states"). Subsequent wars will not about issues of religion, but will rather revolve around issues of state. This will allow Catholic and Protestant Powers to ally, leading to a number of major realignments in the upcoming years.

A.D. 1648-1649--The Second English Civil War. A Scottish invasion in support of King Charles takes place in mid 1648, but is defeated. A series of royalist rebellions also take place, but all are defeated by the end of 1648. In the aftermath of the war and what it perceives as the betrayal by King Charles, and disgusted that Parliament still countenances the King’s rule, the Parliament’s army turns on it, conducting a purge in which 45 members of Parliament are arrested and another 146 are refused to take their seats. A "Rump Parliament" of only 75 of the most radical members is left, and this body moves forward on a proposal to bring the King to trial on a charge of treason. Charles I is convicted, and condemned to be beheaded. The sentence is carried out on January 30, 1649.

A.D. 1648-1653--French civil war.

A.D. 1649--The "Rump Parliament" abolishes the Monarchy and the House of Lords in England. The House of Commons, through a Council of State, rules England. England is declared a "Commonwealth and a Free State." Wayna Capac Inca II is utterly shocked when he hears of this, following as it does upon the news of the execution of Charles I. Relations between England and the Tawantinsuya remain correct, but chilly.

A.D. 1649-1652--Oliver Cromwell bloodily suppresses Catholic and Royalist resistance in Ireland. Virtually all Irish Catholic land is seized and given to the English Parliament’s creditors, former soldiers, and Protestant residents of Ireland. The Irish Catholic majority is reduced to the status of tenant farmers...virtual serfdom...working for English Protestant landlords.

A.D. 1650--English settlers, sent by Lord Willoughby, Governor of Barbados, settle in the Guianas, on the South American coast north of Brazil (in OTL Suriname). Oliver Cromwell defeats the Scots, who have rallied to the standard of Prince Charles Stuart (son of the executed King Charles I), at the Battle of Dunbar. Parliament passes an act prohibiting trade with the Royalist colonies in Virginia, Bermuda, Barbados and Antigua. General-at-Sea Ayscue is sent to recover Barbados.

c. A.D. 1650 onward--At about this time, Portuguese explorers from Sao Paulo (Paulistas) first reach the upper course of the Paraná River. Because these expeditions are undertaken principally for the purpose of enslaving the Native Americans, the Paulistas encounter vigorous opposition from the Jesuits who have been exploring the interior of Brazil for decades. Supported by the Crown in their efforts to protect the Native Americans, the Jesuits finally triumph, and many Paulistas thereupon become prospectors. A feverish hunt for mineral wealth ensues.

A.D. 1651--Charles II is crowned at Scone, and is recognized by the English Commonwealth as "King of the Scots." However, Charles refuses to give up claim to the English throne, and a Scottish army invades England later that year. It is defeated, and Charles flees to France. Parliament issues a Declaration for the incorporation of Scotland into a single commonwealth with England.

A.D. 1652--George Fox establishes the Society of Friends (Quakers). The Dutch establish a colony called New Amsterdam in North America encompassing the area of the Hudson River.

A.D. 1652-1654--First Anglo-Dutch War. Friction had been increasing since the early 17th century as both nations competed in maritime trade and colonial expansion. However, the English Council of State regarded the Protestant Dutch Republic as a natural ally of the English Commonwealth in its apocalyptic struggle against Monarchy and Popery. A diplomatic team went to The Hague in October 1650 to negotiate an alliance between the two nations. Dutch republicans were in favour, but supporters of the influential House of Orange vehemently opposed the alliance, expressing outrage at the execution of King Charles I and refusing to recognise the Commonwealth. Furthermore, the Dutch signed a treaty with Denmark in February 1651 which had the effect of injuring English trade in the Baltic. With the failure of his diplomatic mission, Parliament drafted the provocative Navigation Act of October 1651, which greatly increased tensions between the two nations.

During the winter and spring of 1651-2, large numbers of Dutch vessels were intercepted and searched. French support for the Royalists had led the Commonwealth to issue "letters of reprisal", which authorised English captains to seize French cargoes carried in Dutch ships. When George Ayscue arrived to claim the colony of Barbados for the Commonwealth in October 1651, he seized 27 Dutch ships that were trading with the Royalists in contravention of a Commonwealth embargo. The Commonwealth also continued the traditional claim to sovereignty of the "British Seas" — from the North Sea to Cape Finisterre — and required foreign ships in these waters to strike their flags to English men-of-war as a mark of respect. Dutch ambassadors in London tried to ease the growing tension, but war had become inevitable. The States General, which governed the United Provinces after the death of the Stadtholder William II, decided to expand the fleet by hiring and equipping 150 merchant ships as warships. The veteran admiral Maarten Tromp put to sea in April 1652 with orders to protect Dutch shipping from English aggression. After a confrontation between Tromp and Robert Blake off Dover in May, war broke out in July 1652.

During the course of the war, which was fought entirely at sea, both sides are forced to review naval administration and tactics. Following the English defeat at the battle of Dungeness in November 1652, an Admiralty Committee is established which introduces better rates of pay for seamen and greater efficiency in supplying the fleet. Reliance upon the hiring and arming of merchant vessels is phased out because captains and owners are often reluctant to risk damage to their ships in battle. The first official Articles of War and Fighting Instructions are issued to English naval commanders, which will remain the basis of naval tactics and discipline throughout the next century. The concept of fighting in line-of-battle to maximize the use of the broadside is established for the first time. This will give a definite advantage to the English fleet which has bigger and more powerful warships ("ships of the line") than the Dutch, who continue to rely on armed merchant vessels. The line-of-battle tactic will continue to be used in naval warfare for centuries to come.

The death in action of Admiral Tromp in July 1653 would prove a severe blow to the Dutch Orangist faction. The republican Jan de Witt succeeds in purging the Dutch fleet of supporters of the House of Orange. Increasing republican influence in town councils across the United Provinces created an atmosphere conducive to peace with the Commonwealth. In England, peace negotiations began when moderates dissolved the Nominated Assembly and handed power to Oliver Cromwell, who had never been in favour of war against a Protestant nation. The Treaty of Westminster, signed in April 1654, was aimed principally at limiting the powers of the pro-Stuart House of Orange in the United Provinces and at securing the expulsion of English Royalist exiles from Dutch territory.

A.D. 1653--Oliver Cromwell dissolves Parliament. In it’s place a new body is formed, called the Nominated Assembly. This, too, will not survive the year. In December, the Nominated Assembly surrenders its powers to Cromwell, who is installed as Lord High Protector. Cromwell will rule England as virtual Dictator for the next several years.

A.D. 1654-1667--Russian-Polish war; Russia captures the Ukraine.

A.D. 1654-1660--Anglo-Spanish War. After the ending of the First Anglo-Dutch War, Cromwell turns his attention to England's traditional enemies, France and Spain. Both are Catholic countries and Cromwell fervently believes it to be God's will that the Protestant religion should prevail in Europe. Spain is selected as the principal target of England's aggressive foreign policy partly because war against France risks the possibility of French help in restoring the Stuarts to the throne of England.

During the first year of the Protectorate, Cromwell negotiates with the French statesman Cardinal Mazarin, resulting in the drafting of an Anglo-French alliance against Spain in October 1655. He also negotiates with Wayna Capac Inca II, seeking to draw the Tawantinsuya into the war against the old common enemy, Spain. Wayna Capac Inca, although he deplores the overthrow of the monarchy in England, nevertheless recognizes that Cromwell is pursuing a policy which will benefit the Tawantinsuyu Empire by weakening Spain, and he joins the war in early 1656. Tawantinsuya armies invade Colombia and Venezuela, and by the end of the war have ejected the Spanish from all of South America.

Meanwhile, the Anglo-French army defeated it’s Spanish adversaries in Flanders over the course of several years. In the treaties which end the war, England gains control of the channel port of Dunkirk as well as of Jamaica in the West Indies, and Tawantinsuya control of the former Spanish colonies of Colombia and Venezuela (formally called "New Granada") is recognized.

A.D. 1655-1660--Brandenburg–Russian war.

A.D. 1655--An English force under Admiral Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables captures the Spanish colony at Jamaica. Over the succeeding decades, the English will import thousands of African slaves, who will be primarily used to raise sugar. The sugar produced will quickly make Jamaica the most valuable of Britain’s American colonies and one of the most valuable possessions in the world for the next 200 years.

A.D. 1655--Zumbi is born in a village in the Quilombo of Palmares.

A.D. 1656--Christiaan Huygens begins development of pendulum clock. This will be a major advance for navigation.

A.D. 1657--The Governor of Jamaica issues an invitation to buccaneers to base themselves at Port Royal as a deterrent to Spanish aggression. Thus begins Jamaica’s career as a pirate haven. This creates much friction between England and the Tawantinsuya, as the pirates of Jamaica are not at all shy about seizing Tawantinsuya ships in the Caribbean.

A.D. 1657-1658--The English defeat two Spanish attempts to retake Jamaica.

A.D. 1660--Oliver Cromwell dies, and the English monarchy is reestablished with the restoration of King Charles II. Also in this year, the English settlements in the Guianas are invaded by the Dutch under Abraham Crinjsen. The Dutch establish control over the region.

A.D. 1661--Louis XIV crowned King of France. By treaty between the Netherlands and Portugal, the Dutch formally renounce their claims to Brazil.

A.D. 1661--The English and Tawantinsuya East India Company occupies Bombay.

A.D. 1662--English Royal Society founded. Zumbi of Palmares is taken prisoner by Portuguese soldiers. He is given to a Portuguese priest, who baptises him and teaches him Portuguese and Latin. King Charles II of England marries Catherine of Braganza, a Catholic Portuguese princess. Although this does not much affect his popularity in England, it does raise suspicions among the Tawantinsuya, and relations between England and the Tawantinsuyu Empire chill measurably.

A.D. 1663--French crown takes direct rule of New France (Canada). Death of Wayna Capac Inca II. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Atahualpa Inca II.

A.D. 1664--English capture New Amsterdam and rename it New York. The Dutch still dispute ownership of the region, however.

A.D. 1664-1666--Isaac S. Newton develops laws of gravity.

A.D. 1665-1667--Second Anglo-Dutch War. After the Restoration of King Charles II, there is a general surge of optimism in England, accompanied by a great hope to end the Dutch dominance in world trade. English privateers begin to attack Dutch ships, capturing about 200 of them by 1665. After incidents involving the English capture of Dutch trading posts and colonies in North America (including New Amsterdam) and West Africa, the Dutch declare war in January 1665; in response, the English declare war on the Netherlands in March 1665.

The Dutch greatly outproduce the English, adding 80 warships to their fleet against English gains of only twelve new warships for England. The English are also beset by two great disasters...the Great Plague of 1665 (which killed upwards of 60,000 people) and the Great London Fire of 1666, which destroyed most of the English capital city. Coupled with the pressures of the war, these disasters practically cripple the English. So, although there are some English victories, the Dutch more than hold their own, concluding with the humiliating Dutch raid on the Medway, in which the Dutch fleet burns much of the English fleet while at anchor in supposedly safe harbor, as well as capturing the English flagship, H.M.S. ROYAL CHARLES, and towing it back to the Netherlands.

The psychological impact of this final humiliation is enough to bring the English to the negotiating table, and the Treaty of Breda is signed, by which the Dutch agree to give up their claims to the New Amsterdam colony in exchange for the withdrawal of English claims to the Guianas. It is not a satisfying peace for either power, and it will not last long.

A.D. 1665--Death of King Philip IV of Spain. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as King Charles II. Physically disabled and disfigured and mentally retarded, sadly weak in mind and body, barely able to walk and speak, he is not the leader Spain needs at this time to recover it’s lost glory. He will also prove to be impotent, and thus will be the last of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty.

A.D. 1666--Isaac Newton discovers the spectrum.

A.D. 1666--French Académie Royale des sciences founded.

A.D. 1667-1668--The War of Devolution. In 1667, King Louis XIV orders the French army to invade the Spanish Netherlands, intent on seizing control of the rich market cities of the Catholic Low Countries and their long-established textile trade, which competed with French interests; the ports that offer advantageous positions opening on the English Channel and the North Sea; and opportunity to control river traffic at the mouth of the Rhine River.

This naked aggression soon brings together an alliance of French enemies...England, the Netherlands, and Sweden...which issues a decree granting Louis the territory he had demanded at the start of the war, but warns that if the French continue their offensive beyond those lines the three would join the Spanish in repelling them. Ill-positioned to oppose four of the great powers of Europe at once, Louis XIV backs down, and the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle is signed in 1668. France gains some minor territory in Flanders, but the Spanish Netherlands, as well as Franche Comté, are returned to Spain.

A.D. 1668--First French trading post and factory, at Surat, established in India. This will be the beginning of a century of competition for dominance in India between the French East India Company and it’s counterpart, the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company.

A.D. 1670--Britain establishes the Hudson Bay Company in Canada. Zumbi runs away from his Portuguese captors. He returns to the Quilombo of Palmares.

A.D. 1671--Isaac Newton invents the reflecting telescope. Leibniz invents an adding machine.

A.D. 1672-1674--The Third Anglo-Dutch War: The English, in alliance with the French, again attack the Netherlands in 1672, sparking a two-year war. In general, the war goes very badly for the English, who suffer several naval defeats, as well as losing control of the colonies of New York and New Jersey. But the Dutch are also hard pressed, and in the end, all agree to a peace based on "status quo ante bellum" at the Treaty of Westminster. Interestingly, the Stadholder of the Netherlands at the time was William III of Orange, who would later become (following the Glorious Revolution) King William III of England.

A.D. 1673--Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet explore the Mississippi River for France.

A.D. 1674--France establishes it’s first trading colonies in India.

A.D. 1675--Beginning of Construction of St. Paul's Cathedral, London; establishment of Greenwich Observatory (both designed by Christopher Wren). Olaus Roemer calculates speed of light. In battle against Portuguese soldiers, Zumbi proves himself as a great warrior and military planner.

A.D. 1677--Anton van Leeuwenhoek , inventor of single-lens microscope, discovers protozoa; he will discover bacteria in 1683.

A.D. 1678--Deciding that the Palmares Quilombo is not worth the men and resources it would take to fully conquer it, Pedro Almeida, Portuguese governor of Pernambuco, offers peace and freedom for all the runaway slaves in the Quilombo, if they will agree to submit to Portuguese rule and cease raiding Portuguese plantations. The chief of the Quilombo, Ganga Zumba, wants to agree to the terms, but is opposed by Zumbi, who argues that the struggle to free the slaves of the plantations should go on. A power struggle between the two men ensues, which Zumbi will eventually win.

A.D. 1680--The Portuguese dispatch an expedition southward to the east bank of the estuary of the Río de la Plata (in what would, in OTL, become Uruguay) and found a settlement called Colonia. This is in territory claimed by the Tawantinsuya, and an extended period of undeclared warfare between the two powers over control of the region will rage for the next seven years.

At about the same time, Zumbi triumphs in the struggle for control over the Palmares Quilombo, becoming the acknowledged chief of the Quilombo. Zumbi knows that, in the end, the Quilombo cannot prevail against least, not without allies. And while a prisoner of the Portuguese, he had heard of a strange power to the south and west...the Tawantinsuya...who might just become such an ally. By secret roads through the Amazon, Zumbi dispatches messengers in search of the Tawantinsuya...who, just at this time, are coming into conflict with Portugal over the settlement at Colonia.

A.D. 1681--A messenger from the Palmares Quilombo makes contact with the Tawantinsuya. He is taken to Cuzco, where he is allowed to present his proposal to the Inca himself. Atahualpa is amazed at the appearance of the man...the Tawantinsuya have heard rumors of the black men who work as slaves on the plantations of the Spanish and Portuguese, but up until now, have never seen them. He listens to the proposal of alliance brought by the man, and although he does not think the Quilombo will likely succeed in their struggle for freedom, he decides that it might be a good idea to help them simply because they will draw men and resources away from his own borders. He orders regular shipments of guns, powder, and other supplies to the Quilombo. Although it is impractical to ship them overland, the Quilombo is quite near the seacoast, and Tawantinsuya vessels will make secret rendezvous with men from the Quilombo at pre-arranged times over the next several years. Some of these shipments will be intercepted by the Portuguese, of course. Others, however, will not, and they will greatly strengthen the ability of the Quilombo to resist the Portuguese.

A.D. 1682--Louis XIV establishes French court at Versailles. The French claim large territories in Louisiana.

A.D. 1683--Turks besiege Vienna.

A.D. 1683-1689--Russia at war with China.

A.D. 1684--The infusions of Tawantinsuya guns, ammunition, and other weapons emboldens Zumbi, who decides on a bold plan...nothing less than the total expulsion of the Portuguese from Brazil and the creation of a free black nation. Zumbi’s plan is not as crazy as it seems, as the total population of Brazil is, at this time, less than 200,000, of which about 120,000 are African slaves, and only about 60,000 of which are white (Portuguese, Spanish, or Dutch) with the remainder being native Indians and mixed-bloods who are of dubious loyalty to their Portuguese overlords. If Zumbi can arm a large enough proportion of the slave population, he just may triumph. Once again, messengers are dispatched to Atahualpa Inca...

A.D. 1685--James II crowned King of England. Also in this year, messengers from the Quilombo reach Atahualpa Inca, who agrees to increase the shipments of arms and powder to the Quilombo in support of Zumbi’s plan to raise a slave army and expel the Portuguese from Brazil. He also agrees to increase Tawantinsuya pressure on Brazil’s southern border, so as to draw away as many of the Portuguese defenders as possible. Also in this year, King Louis XIV of France revokes the Edict of Nantes.

A.D. 1687--Turks defeated at Mohacs. In Brazil, the Great Uprising, lead by Zumbi, takes place in conjunction with Tawantinsuya incursions along the southern border of Brazil. Massacres of Portuguese men, women, and children take place all over Brazil as the slaves...armed with Tawantinsuya weapons...rise against their masters. The Portuguese military forces, occupied with stopping the Tawantinsuya invasion, is unable to protect the civilian populace. The fortunate flee to the ports, where they escape by sea. The unfortunate perish, often in horrible ways. The Portuguese military command, afraid of the alternative, surrenders to the Tawantinsuya, and most of the Portuguese military are permitted to take ship home to Portugal. Portugal surrenders it’s settlement at Colonia to the Tawantinsuya. The Tawantinsuya are somewhat sickened by the horrors of the slave revolt, but nevertheless recognize the new Brazilian Quilombo, and issue statements warning against any attempt by European powers to interfere there.

A.D. 1687 onward--In the newly independent Brazilian Quilombo, the jubilant victorious ex-slaves are faced with a major problem, namely the formation of a government which will be acceptable to all. The former slaves of Brazil come from many different tribal backgrounds, many of which were hostile to each other back in Africa. To some extent, the shared experience of slavery has created a bond between them, but old hatreds still remain, and with the removal of the common Portuguese enemy, centrifugal forces threaten to tear the Quilombo apart. The charismatic personality of Zumbi, who is universally respected by all as the leader who brought freedom to all, for the time being keeps this from happening.

Zumbi tries to instill a crusading zeal among his fellow freedmen, as he points to the neighboring Dutch and French colonies in the Guianas, where slavery is still being practiced, and argues that the Quilombo will never be truly safe until all slaves on the continent are freed. His fiery rhetoric stirs the hearts of the freedmen, and over the next decade, the Quilombo will be the springboard for numerous raids on the neighboring Dutch and French colonies in which whites are killed and slaves are freed and brought back to the Quilombo. The Dutch and French protest to the Tawantinsuya, but the Tawantinsuya refuse to intervene.

Zumbi also recognizes that in order for the Quilombo to survive, the population must be expanded. He hits on a novel solution. With Tawantinsuya aid, the Quilombo will build a small merchant fleet and begin trading the cacao, sugar, rum, and other products they produce to the Tawantinsuya...since no European nation will trade with the Quilombo, which will be an international pariah for quite some exchange for cash (they also, as mentioned elsewhere, get a windfall when gold is discovered in 1697 in the Minas Gerais region of Brazil). Armed with this cash, Quilombo ships make regular visits to the great slave-trading ports of west Africa, where they buy slaves, transport them to the Quilombo, free them, and give them land to cultivate.

Zumbi’s plan allows many thousands of Africans who would have ended up as slaves in various European colonies to avoid this sad fate, while also dramatically increasing the population of the Quilombo. By the end of the century, the population of the Brazilian Quilombo will have nearly doubled as a result of these efforts. In the short term, this is good, as it allows more land to be cleared and brought into cultivation, economic production to be increased, and a larger military force to be maintained. In the long term, however, the arrival of these people creates additional problems for the Quilombo, as the newly arrived "immigrants" have no shared experience of slavery under the Portuguese to balance against their old tribal loyalties. Thus, while their arrival adds to the population (good from an economic and military standpoint), it also adds to the centrifugal forces which lurk just beneath the surface of the Quilombo.

A.D. 1688--The Glorious Revolution in England. King James II is deposed, and William of Orange (who is married to Mary, daughter of King James) is given the throne of England. They reign as King William III and Queen Mary II.

A.D. 1688 onward--The accession of the firmly Protestant William III and Mary II to the throne of England leads to greatly thawed relations between England and the Tawantinsuya. This is especially true after news of the Act of Settlement, which prohibits any Roman Catholic, or anyone who marries a Roman Catholic, from inheriting the English throne, reaches the Tawantinsuya.

A.D. 1688-1697--War of the Grand Alliance between France and the Grand Alliance (composed of most of Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, and England). In North America, this will be known as "King William’s War," the first of the so-called "French and Indian Wars" fought between France and Britain for control of North America. The Tawantinsuya remain neutral during the conflict.

A.D. 1689--In December, one of the most important constitutional documents in English history, the Bill of Rights, is passed. The Act—which restates and confirms many provisions of the earlier Declaration of Right—establishes restrictions on the royal prerogative; it is provided, amongst other things, that the Sovereign can not suspend laws passed by Parliament, levy taxes without parliamentary consent, infringe the right to petition, raise a standing army during peacetime without parliamentary consent, deny the right to bear arms to Protestant subjects, unduly interfere with parliamentary elections, punish members of either House Parliament for anything said during debates, require excessive bail or inflict cruel or unusual punishments. King William III is opposed to the imposition of such constraints, but he wisely chooses not to engage in a conflict with Parliament and agrees to abide by the statute. The nature of English monarchy is forever changed. Also in this year, King William III defeats the first Jacobite uprising in Scotland.

A.D. 1690--Christiaan Huygens proposes wave theory of light. The English and Tawantinsuya East India Company builds trading centers in Calcutta. Also in this year, King William III defeats the Irish supporters of the ousted King James II at the Battle of the Boyne.

Also in 1690, news of the successful slave revolt in Brazil, and Tawantinsuya support of it, has caused much consternation in England. Many in England are horrified that their erstwhile allies would support such an indiscriminate massacre of Christians, even if they are "papists." But even more fundamentally, the revolt in Brazil has pointed out a serious weakness inherent in the slave system of labor which is gradually spreading through England's colonies in the New World...the possibility that foreign powers could incite rebellions and massacres by the slaves. For example, in North America, the English share borders with both Spanish and French colonies, which could easily become conduits for smuggling of arms to the slaves. And the recent massacre carried out by the French and their Indian allies at Schenectady, New York, in January 1690 only serves to heighten fears as to what the French might resort to next...if the French are capable of butchering women and children by their own hands, or of using Native Americans to do the same, why would they be squeamish about using slaves for the same purpose?

A debate in Parliament rages over this subject for several months in mid-1690 as lawmakers argue over the economic consequences of ending slavery versus the very real threat which foreign-supported slave rebellions cause. Finally, in September 1690, Parliament passes the Abolition Bill. The new law states that effective on January 1, 1691, it shall be illegal to import slaves into any English colony. New indentured servants may be imported, but black indentured servants shall enjoy all legal protections given to white indentured servants, and no indentured servant thus imported shall be indentured to labor for more than seven years. Furthermore, all children of slaves or indentured servants born after January 1, 1691 will be free. In order to cushion the economic impact of the abolition law, all slaves held in bondage prior to January 1, 1691 will become the indentured servants of their current masters for a term of twenty years, with all the legal protections given to white indentured servants.

There is much outcry in some of the colonies, especially in Jamaica, Barbados, and other Caribbean sugar islands which depend heavily on slavery, when news of this law reaches them. The outcry is much less in the North American colonies, where slavery has not yet taken deep root. But King William makes in known that he will enforce the law and deal with any who resist it as traitors, and the law does function as intended. Within twenty years, there are no African slaves in any of the British colonies (a trade in illegal Native American slaves does arise, as will be discussed elsewhere, however), and no indentured servants bound for more than seven years labor. Black indentured servants are not treated markedly differently than white ones are, and blacks who have completed their indentures are living in sizable numbers as free men throughout the colonies. Many will continue to work as paid laborers on the plantations and farms where they were formerly indentured, while others, not wishing to remain where they are and lacking land of their own, will take the westward trails in the upcoming century, forming a major part of the impetus for westward expansion of the British American colonies, alongside the Scots Irish and other major immigrant groups.

A.D. 1690 onward--The effect of the English Abolition Act on the development of the British colonies in America and the Caribbean is profound. The development of the some of the colonies in the southeastern portion of North America is significantly slowed, as sufficient numbers of men willing to labor in the hot, humid, malaria and yellow-fever infested region cannot be easily found. Plantation agriculture, which had begun in Virginia earlier, never spreads to any great degree to most of the other Southern colonies. Instead, the Carolinas and Georgia will be settled primarily by hardy, independent Scots-Irish, German, or freed African farmers who each till their own small farms.

Many of the plantations of Virginia itself do not continue much beyond the end of the 17th century, as the labor to make them economically viable is no longer to be had. Those that do survive (and this model applies also to the plantations of the Caribbean sugar islands) do so by instituting a system similar to the old manorial system which existed in Europe during the Middle Ages. The former indentured servants are given title to small plots of land by the plantation owner, which they can farm for their own profit and subsistence. In exchange, they agree to labor on the lands owned by the plantation owner on certain days of the week. This offer proves attractive to many former slaves and indentured servants, who have no means to acquire land of their own otherwise, and allows the plantation owner to continue to receive the benefits of labor without paying wages for it.

Another, less savory option for plantation and factory owners who refuse to give up the benefits of slave labor is an illegal trade in Native American "indentured laborers" actuality slaves...who are ruthlessly captured by English raiding parties, or more often, by the Native American allies of the English, and forced to work on the farms and in the industries of the English colonies. These laborers are brutally treated, and although they are technically given seven year specified by practice, many are held far longer than seven years. Ironically, many of the most successful and ruthless raiders are former African slaves who, having been set free, see this as a lucrative trade and a way to make a comfortable living (many of them come from slave-raiding cultures in Africa itself, so this is not a major moral dilemma for them). This trade has devastating impacts on the Native American tribes of the South especially, where it results in nearly constant inter-tribal warfare...for the purpose of capturing prisoners who can be sold to the English...and the decimation of whole tribes by slavers.

However, for the most part, slavery ceases to be a major part of the South’s agricultural system, and the lack of a slave-based agricultural system will prevent the dominance of a "Planter Class" from arising in the South in the ATL. Indeed, the South will begin to industrialize as entrepreneurs begin to set up industries to exploit the region’s resources. Within a short time major industries dealing in timber, rosin, turpentine, and other "naval stores" derived from the South’s immense stands of pine trees will arise, companies producing pottery and bricks from Southern clays, as well as many others. There will even be attempts to produce silks for export (via the introduction of mulberry trees and silkworms from China), with mixed results. As a result, the economy, political structure, and population of the South will be markedly different from that of OTL, and this will have dramatic impacts as time goes on.

A.D. 1690 onward--The Tawantinsuya explore and occupy the lands at the southern tip of South America and encompassing the Straits of Magellan. A Tawantinsuya naval base is established in the region to control traffic through the Straits.

A.D. 1692--Port Royal, Jamaica is destroyed in an earthquake. The pirates who based themselves there are scattered.

A.D. 1692-1693--Witchcraft trials, Salem, Massachusetts.

A.D. 1693--Rich gold deposits are discovered in the region of what would, in OTL, be present-day Minas Gerais in Brazil. The mineral wealth is jointly exploited by the Tawantinsuya and the Quilombo. Also in this year, King William III of England writes a new charter for the English East India Company (the English portion of the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company). He doubles the capital and broadens the membership of the East India Company. This is a response to the following objections to the Company: narrow membership, exorbitant profits, and involvement in costly wars. The Tawantinsuya agree to the provisions of the new charter, and continue their partnership in the company.

A.D. 1696--Thomas Savery invents first practical steam engine. However, it is not immediately successful. Also in this year, a rival company forms in England to challenge the East India Company’s dominance over the Far Eastern trade.

A.D. 1697--By the Treaty of Ryswick which ends the War of the Grand Alliance, King Louis XIV of France formally recognizes William III as King of England, signaling the end of French support for ousted King James II and his Jacobite faction.

A.D. 1699--Austrians recapture Hungary from Turks. Death of Atahualpa Inca II. He is succeeded by his grandson, who reigns as Huascar Inca. The English and Tawantinsuya East India Company begins trading in China, importing silk, tea and porcelain. In England the demand for tea booms and by the late 1700s tea will account for more than 60% of the Company's total trade. It will also become very popular in the Tawantinsuyu Empire as well.

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PART THREE: 1700-1800 A.D.

A.D. 1700 onward--Since the middle of the last century, Spanish emigration to the New World has been, due to the loss of Spain’s territories in South America to the Tawantinsuya, diverted to the Caribbean and North America. This has had some important impacts. Large areas of the American west are receiving a much larger settlement of Spanish immigrants than in OTL, and as a result, by 1700, the Spanish colonies in the regions which in OTL became New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, and California are much stronger and more robust than in OTL. In addition, Spain has reaped an additional benefit...the larger concentration of Spanish manpower in North America has allowed a much more thorough and complete exploration of the western region of said continent to be conducted, and by 1700 major gold and silver reserves have been discovered in northern California and Nevada especially, with other, smaller discoveries in New Mexico and what would, in OTL, become Arizona. This infusion of cash...which happens to coincide with the more dynamic leadership provided by the new Bourbon Dynasty, which replaced the old Habsburg Dynasty in 1700...has partially revitalized the power of Spain. This is, of course, a worrisome development for Spain’s old enemy, the Tawantinsuyu Empire.

c. 1700 onward--The effects of the abolition of slavery in the English colonies on the population of those colonies, particularly in the American South, continues to grow. The butterflies caused by this have meant that some important Southern figures of OTL, such as Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Patrick Henry, were never born. Others, such as George Washington, were born, but ended up in different careers (Washington continued to work as a surveyor throughout his life, never became wealthy, and never became an officer. He will later fight in the American a sergeant in the Virginia militia). Others, such as George Rogers Clark and Daniel Morgan, will go on to fulfill roles similar to those they played in OTL. There will be contributions made by people who did not exist in OTL but were created by the butterflies as well. But the impact of these changes will be strongly felt later on, particularly during the American Revolution.

A.D. 1700--Charles XII of Sweden starts the Great Northern War against Russia. King Charles II of Spain dies childless. End of the Habsburg line of Spanish Kings. King Louis XIV of France installs his grandson, Phillipe of Anjou, on the Spanish throne as King Philip V of Spain. Beginning of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty.

A.D. 1701--Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac (1658-1730) establishes a French colony at Detroit, Michigan. Frederick I of the House of Hohenzollern, Elector of Brandenburg, is crowned King of Prussia. Also in this year, Zumbi is assassinated by a rival chieftain. Within a short time, civil war breaks out in the Quilombo, as rival tribal groups, no longer held together by the charismatic personality of Zumbi, go for each other’s throats.

A.D. 1701-1713--War of the Spanish Succession (known in North America as Queen Anne’s War) breaks out as most of the other great powers of Europe, fearing the potential power of a Franco-Spanish combination, oppose the installation of Phillipe of Anjou on the Spanish throne. The Tawantinsuya, fully occupied wth the disturbances in the Quilombo, remain neutral.

A.D. 1702--Anne, last monarch of the Stuart line, becomes Queen of England.

A.D. 1702-1705--Huascar Inca, who is dismayed by the bloodletting which is going on in the Quilombo, sends in the Tawantinsuya military to restore order and prevent the European powers from getting any ideas about intervention of their own. After a hard-fought campaign lasting three years, the Tawantinsuya end the civil war in the Quilombo, and set about creating a stable government there.

Eventually the Quilombo, under the guidance of the Tawantinsuya, will establish a government loosely patterned on that of England. Each tribal group is granted a territory within the Quilombo, and each territory elects a representative to a Great Assembly. The Great Assembly selects annually a Great Chief who will exercise the chief executive/magisterial function of government for one year. The system will eventually work well, but the road to that point is bumpy as the tribal hatreds brought over from the "old country" are slow to die. The Tawantinsuya therefore find themselves acting as peacekeepers in the Quilombo for quite some time to come.

A.D. 1702-1708--The old and new English East India companies reach a settlement. They unite into one body—The Union Company of Merchants of English Trading in the East Indies. Once again, the Tawantinsuya renew their partnership in the new company, which becomes the Union Company of English and Tawantinsuya Merchants Trading in the East Indies. Most people still refer to it simply as the English and Tawantinsuya East India Company.

A.D. 1703--St. Petersburg made capital of Russia.

A.D. 1704--Battle of Blenheim—Duke of Marlborough defeats French. Isaac Newton publishes OPTICKS, in which he proposes the particle theory of light. Deerfield, Massachusetts is destroyed by French and Indian raiders from Canada in another horrible massacre of men, women and children.

A.D. 1705--Edmund Halley (1656-1742) predicts cyclic return of Halley's Comet.

A.D. 1707--Death of Aurangzeb, Emperor of Mughal India at its height. Act of Union unites the thrones of England and Scotland, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Charlestown, South Carolina successfully defended against attack by French and Spanish fleets.

A.D. 1709--Russians rout Swedes at Battle of Poltava, ending Swedish dominance. Russia emerges on the European stage as a great power. In England, Abraham Darby uses coke to smelt iron ore, replacing wood and charcoal as fuel.

A.D. 1711--The South Sea Company is set up in England. It is granted a monopoly over English trade with the Quilombo, as well as trade with certain Tawantinsuya ports and with the South Sea Islands. The company profits handsomely by importing cacao, sugar, and coca leaves into England and exporting English-made textiles and other manufactures to the Quilombo and the Tawantinsuya.

A.D. 1712--Thomas Newcomen introduces the first commercially successful steam engine. It is sold to owners of coal mines, who use it to pump water from the mines, and fuel it with coal from the mines themselves, which allows the engine to be economically feasible despite being extremely inefficient in it’s fuel consumption. Also at this time, the independent state of Hyderabad is established, one of many Muslim and Hindu states to emerge amid the rapid decline of Mughal centralized authority and political chaos in India.

A.D. 1712-1713--Tuscarora Indian War in North and South Carolina. War partly caused by English slave raiding.

A.D. 1713--Treaty of Utrecht ends the War of the Spanish Succession. Frederick William I becomes next King of Prussia. Frederick William will spend most of his reign building up the Prussian army, which will be, by the end of his reign, possibly the finest in Europe and an instrument of which his son will make great use.

A.D. 1714--Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) invents mercury thermometer. In England, Queen Anne, last monarch of the Stuart line, dies. George, Elector of Hanover, becomes George I, King of England.

A.D. 1715--Death of King Louis XIV of France. Accession of Louis XV to the throne. The new King’s leadership skills are not anywhere near equal to those of his predecessor, and he has the additional liability of having inherited a treasury depleted by Louis XIV’s numerous wars. His reign will prove a disaster for France. Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland is defeated by the troops of King George I. Also in this year, Yamassee Indians kill several hundred settlers in South Carolina in retaliation for slave raiding.

A.D. 1716--First Freemason Grand Lodge established in Britain. South Carolina settlers and their Cherokee allies defeat the Yamassee. The Yamassee are virtually annihilated.

A.D. 1717--Jean Watteau (1684-1721), "Departure for the Island of Cythera." Scots-Irich immigration into North America begins. Most settle initially in Pennsylvania, from which they will begin spreading, via backwoods trails, throughout the South and mid-West.

A.D. 1718--French found New Orleans, in their Louisiana provinces. City of San Antonio founded by the Spanish in Texas.

A.D. 1719--Daniel Defoe writes "Robinson Crusoe" (first "real" novel). A second major discovery of gold is made in the Quilombo, in the region which in OTL would be called Mato Grosso. The South Sea Company offers to assume the entire national debt of England, offering it’s own stock in exchange for government bonds, by which it hopes to make a handsome profit. An incredible wave a speculation results, helped along by fraudulent and wildly inflated claims about the profitability of the company, which causes the price of South Sea Company stock to soar.

A.D. 1720--Collapse of "South Sea Bubble" trading empire. Confidence in the ability of the South Sea Company to pay it’s obligations leads to a collapse of the stock price. Banks fail when they can not collect loans on inflated stock, prices of stock fall, thousands are ruined (including many members of the government), and fraud in the South Sea Company is exposed.

Robert Walpole becomes first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer and starts a series of measures to restore the credit of the company and to reorganize it (indeed, the company will survive the bursting of the bubble and continue in business for over another century). The bursting of the bubble ends the prevalent belief that prosperity can be achieved through unlimited expansion of credit. Legislation is soon after enacted that forbids unincorporated joint stock enterprise.

Also in this year, Sir Edmund Halley becomes Astronomer Royal. The French build forts on the Mississippi, Niagra, and St. Lawrence Rivers.

A.D. 1720-1722--Spain occupies Texas.

A.D. 1721--South Carolina becomes English Colony. Peter the Great made Emperor of Russia. Russia takes Livonia and Estonia from Swedes at end of Great Northern War. Sir Robert Walpole becomes first British Prime Minister of Great Britain.

In Boston, a smallpox epidemic prompts Cotton Mather and Zabdiel Boylston to experiment with inoculation against the disease. Mather had learned of the practice from one of his black indentured servants, who had himself been inoculated as a child and knew inoculation to be a widely accepted medical practice in Africa. A Tawantinsuya trader, having observed the effectiveness of this in Boston, brings the practice back to the Tawantinsuyu Empire, where smallpox epidemics are still a major problem. Deaths from smallpox dramatically decline in the Empire as a result.

A.D. 1722--Dutch are first Europeans to visit Easter Island.

A.D. 1725--Death of Peter the Great of Russia. Yet another major discovery of gold is made in the Quilombo, this time in the region which would be called Goias in OTL.

A.D. 1726--Jonathan Swift (1667–1745), "Gulliver's Travels." Also in this year, Huascar Inca dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Tupahualpa Inca.

A.D. 1727--Death of King George I of Great Britain. His son assumes the throne as King George II.

A.D. 1727-1728--Anglo-Spanish War; England's possession of Gibraltar confirmed, 1729.

A.D. 1728-1741--Voyages of Vitus Bering, a Danish officer serving in the Russian Navy, exploring the far northern reaches of the Pacific Ocean. The Aleutian Islands and Alaska are discovered in 1741, and claimed as a colony by Russia shortly thereafter.

A.D. 1729--North Carolina becomes English Colony. In France, Voltaire begins to preach ideas of political freedom...quite a controversial idea in that place and time.

A.D. 1732--Under the leadership of James Oglethorpe, Georgia is chartered as a colony for England’s debtors, who are given the choice between settling there or languishing in debtor’s prison. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) begins publication of "Poor Richard's Almanack."

A.D. 1733--Jethro Tull advances new agricultural practices.

A.D. 1734--Voltaire (1694-1778), "Lettres philosophiques." Jonathan Edwards begins preaching fiery sermons to crowds in Northampton, Massachusetts. This begins the religious revival movement known as the Great Awakening.

A.D. 1739--Persian army sacks Delhi and all but ends Mughal power.

A.D. 1739-1742--The War of Jenkins’ Ear between Britain and Spain.

A.D. 1740--Maria Theresa becomes Empress of Austria. Frederick II (the Great) becomes King of Prussia. Governor James Oglethorpe of the new British colony of Georgia leads an invasion of Spanish Florida. He attempts, but fails, to take St. Augustine.

A.D. 1740-1748--War of the Austrian Succession, begun by Frederick II (the Great)'s occupation of Silesia.

A.D. 1741--The Tawantinsuyu Empire enters the War of Jenkins’ Ear against Spain. Tawantinsuya participation will be mainly naval, and several battles between Tawantinsuya and Spanish fleets will take place off the Pacific coast of Mexico and in the Caribbean. Tawantinsuya marine infantry will also be landed along the coast of Mexico, where they will burn several coastal towns.

A.D. 1742--The Spanish invade Georgia from Florida, attacking Fort Frederica on St. Simon’s Island. They are defeated by James Oglethorpe’s English forces at the Battle of Bloody Marsh, and retreat back to Florida. This will be the last time Spain will contest England’s claim to Georgia and the Carolinas.

A.D. 1743--Battle of Dettingen. The English forces at the battle are commanded by none other than King George II, marking the last time that a British monarch will personally lead troops in battle. Also in this year, Tupahualpa Inca dies, and is succeeded by Sinchi Roca Inca II. Sinchi Roca enters negotiations with Spain to end the war between that country and the Tawantinsuyu Empire.

A.D. 1744--The Treaty of Cuzco ends the war between Spain and the Tawantinsuyu Empire. As the fighting between the two had been mainly inconclusive, the Treaty does not provide major gains to either side. The Tawantinsuya do gain the islands of Trinidad and Margarita, which had been occupied by Tawantinsuya marines during the war (Spanish naval vessels operating from these islands had been a nuisance to Tawantinsuya shipping for quite some time).

A.D. 1744-1745--Second Silesian war between Prussia and Austria.

A.D. 1745--Francis Stephen of Lorraine (spouse of Empress Maria Theresa) elected Holy Roman Emperor. Battle of Fontenoy, a French victory. British capture the French fortress of Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. Prince Charles Stuart, known to history as "Bonnie Prince Charlie," lands in Scotland and calls the Highland clans to his banner. Beginning of the Scottish Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. French from Canada attack and burn Saratoga, New York.

A.D. 1746--French-British fighting in India intensifies when a French fleet seizes Madras in 1746, but hostilities end in stalemate and the French return Madras to the British in 1748. Also in this year, the Battle of Culloden ends the Jacobite rebellion of 1745. Beginning of great persecutions of the Scottish Highlanders and suppression of their culture. Foundation of The Presbyterian College of New Jersey, in 1896 renamed Princeton University.

A.D. 1748--Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends War of Austrian Succession. A Tawantinsuya trading vessel, headed for the East Indies, is blown off course and discovers the Hawaiian Islands. The Tawantinsuya establish friendly relations with the natives, but leave behind a most unwelcome legacy...smallpox...which decimates the islanders over the next few decades.

c. A.D. 1750 onward--The Mughal Empire has disintegrated, after Delhi was plundered by the Muslim forces of Persian king Nadir Shah in 1739, and Delhi was again captured in 1756 by Ahmad Shah, emir of Afghanistan, who had previously seized the Punjab. A united of force of Marathas and Sikhs could not defeat the invaders, and the possibility of a reunification of Indian peoples into a strong national state dims. India thereafter comes increasingly under domination by the British and Tawantinsuya East India Company.

A.D. 1750--Ohio River Region explored by American frontiersman Christopher Gist. The Conestoga Wagon is developed in Pennsylvania. The neoclassical art movement begins in Europe. The Waltz becomes a popular dance form in Europe. It later becomes popular as well in the Tawantinsuya Empire.

A.D. 1750 onward--Sinchi Roca Inca II, who was intrigued by news of the recent discovery of the Hawaiian Islands, authorizes voyages of exploration in the south and Central Pacific. Tawantinsuya ships soon begin venturing out into the unknown, and many new discoveries are made. The best known Tawantinsuya explorer will be Captain Huallpa Rimachi, whose vessel, the I.T.S. Cuntur ("Condor"), will be the first to make landfall in Australia, New Zealand, the Solomon and Marshall Islands, and many other places.

A.D. 1751--Robert Clive, leading a mixed English, Tawantinsuya, and Indian force, takes Arcot in India, thus driving France out of Southern India. The first geological map of France is created by Jean Etienne Guettard. The Worcestor Royal Porcelain Company is founded in England. Diderots' first volume of the "Encyclopedie" is published. The Lightning Conductor is invented by Benjamin Franklin.

A.D. 1752--Over the past three decades, great progress has been made in the Quilombo toward the establishment of a stable regime. By 1752, intertribal violence has virtually ceased, there have been many orderly transfers of power between incoming and outgoing Great Chiefs, and a standing army (made up of men from all the tribes represented within the Quilombo, this has been a great force toward the reduction of intertribal animosity and infighting) has been created, trained, and equipped. As conditions in the Quilombo have improved, the Tawantinsuya peacekeeping force has been gradually reduced. Finally, in this year, Sinchi Roca Inca II orders the withdrawal of the last Tawantinsuya troops from the Quilombo. Security within the Quilombo is fully assumed by the armed forces of the Quilombo government.

Also in this year, Benjamin Franklin invents the Lightning Rod, George Rogers Clark is born in Virginia, and Elizabeth Griscom (the future Betsy Ross) is born in Pennsylvania.

A.D. 1753--Swedish biologist Carolus Linnaeus publishes his system of plant classification. The British Museum is founded.

A.D. 1754--The Seven Years (French and Indian) War unofficially begins. The Albany Congress begins. A cartoon in Benjamin Franklin's PENNSYLVANIA GAZETTE shows a snake cut into sections, each part representing an American colony; with a caption that reads, ''Join or die.'' Benjamin Franklin writes the Albany Plan of Union. Also in this year, Italian architect Rastrelli designs the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and Captain Huallpa Rimachi of the I.T.S. Cuntur discovers the Solomon Islands.

A.D. 1755--The French and Indian War officially begins in America. The Lisbon Earthquake kills 30,000. The independent state of Corsica is founded by Pasquale Paoli. The DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE is published by Samuel Johnson. Captain Huallpa Rimachi of the I.T.S. Cuntur discovers New Zealand, which he claims for the Tawantinsuyu Empire. However, no immediate effort to colonize the islands is made.

A.D. 1756--The Black Hole of Calcutta, 130 British and Tawantinsuya soldiers are alleged to have died there. The Seven Years War (French and Indian) officially begins in Europe. Treaty of Westminster; alliance between Britain and Prussia. The British attempt to entice the Tawantinsuya to join the Anglo Prussian alliance, but Sinchi Roca Inca II decides, for the present, to demur...the traditional enemy of the Tawantinsuya, Spain, is not currently involved in the war, and the Tawantinsuya have nothing major to gain by joining the alliance at this time. Treaty of Versailles; alliance between France and Austria. William Pitt (the Elder) becomes Prime Minister of Britain.

A.D. 1757--Frederick II "the Great" of Prussia defeats the Franco-Austrian army at Rossbach. British and Tawantinsuya East India Company forces lead by British General Robert Clive and Tawantinsuya General Pahuac Cocohuay defeat the nawab of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in India. John Campbell invents the sextant.

A.D. 1758--The Burmese overthrow the Mons; Rangoon becomes the new capital of Burma. Captain Huallpa Rimachi of the I.T.S. Cuntur discovers the east coast of Australia and the Great Barrier Reef. As in New Zealand, he claims the land in the name of his sovereign, Sinchi Roca Inca II, but no immediate attempt at colonization will result.

A.D. 1759--Battle of the Plains of Abraham. The British capture Quebec, death of generals Montcalm and Wolfe. "Candide" written by Voltaire. The Botanical Gardens founded at Kew in London. The Russians defeat Prussian King Frederick II at Kunersdorf.

Also in this year, King Ferdinand VI of Spain dies, and is succeeded by his brother, who reigns as King Charles III. Charles will be, although not brilliant, at least a very dedicated monarch for Spain, and on the whole, the country will prosper during his reign. However, he is not very interested in the military, and although he continues to funnel gold and silver from the New World into the higher levels of military spending begun by his predecessor, it is not always spent wisely (a good number of fine warships are added to the Spanish fleet, for example, but little money is spent on crew training; likewise, the army is expanded, but training and supply are neglected). As a result Spanish military power will not increase as much as it otherwise might have given the increased levels of expenditure being made on the military.

A.D. 1760--Death of King George II of England. His son, George III, assumes the throne. Rousseau publishes "The Social Contract." Catherine II "The Great" becomes ruler of Russia. "Tristram Shandy" by Sterne is published. Berlin is burned by the Russians.

A.D. 1761--James Otis gives a four hour speech against the Writs of Assistance. Franz Josef Haydn becomes court composer to Prince Esterhazy. John Harrison invents the marine chronometer, a navigational clock for measuring longitude. Spain enters the Seven Year’s War on the side of France. The Tawantinsuyu Empire enters the war on the side of Britain.

A.D. 1762--A combined British and Tawantinsuya expeditionary force seizes Cuba, and the British seize the Philippines, from Spain. Louisiana ceded to Spain by France in an attempt to avert British control of the region. "Emile" is published by Rousseau. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart performs at the Imperial court in Vienna at age 6.

A.D. 1763--The Seven Years War ends with the Treaties of Paris and Hubertusburg. Britain returns the Philippines to Spain in exchange for Florida. Spain also wanted to get Cuba back as well, but the Tawantinsuya claim this for their own. An agreement is worked out whereby the Tawantinsuya will pay a portion of Britain’s war debt in exchange for Britain relinquishing any claims to Cuba. Canada and the territory east of the Mississippi River is ceded to Britain by France. France recognizes British and Tawantinsuya dominance in India.

Also in this year, Pontiac's Rebellion flares up in the Ohio country and western Pennsylvania, where it will continue for the next three years. King George III issues a Proclamation prohibiting American settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. This is bitterly resented in the American colonies. King Augustus III of Poland dies and is succeeded by Stanislaw II. Stanislaw will prove to be the last king of Poland.

c. A.D. 1763 onward--Spanish settlement of the Louisiana Territory...recently transferred to them following the Seven Years War, proceeds at a slow but steady pace, following the lines of the various rivers which feed into the Mississippi. This brings the Spaniards into contact...and conflict...with the nomadic tribes of the Great Plains. The Spanish establish military posts at various strategically important locations throughout the region, and missions are established to try to spread Christianity among the tribesmen. They also trade with them, bartering European metalwork, alcohol and guns for buffalo hides and horses.

Later, as Spanish settlement of the region increases (many of the refugees from the surrender of Santo Domingo to the Quilombo in 1815 will be given land grants in the region, and many of the Irish refugees fleeing from the Potato Famine in the 1840s will be settled there as well), so do conflicts with the natives.

Complicating the situation yet further, the British Hudson’s Bay Company, which has operations in much of the northern portion of the territory, has been encouraging Indian attacks on Spanish settlements and forts as a way to keep the Spanish (and later Nueva Espana) authorities from troubling them too much...a tactic to which the Spanish have responded in kind. By the 1840s, the region will be a powder keg, and a major war between the soldiers of Nueva Espana (or, as it will later be known, Aztlan) and the powerful tribes of the Plains will be virtually inevitable.

A.D. 1764--German historian Johann Winckelmann publishes his "History of the Art of Antiquity." Thomas Chatterton writes the Rowley poems at the age of 12. James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny. Sugar Act passed by Parliament to offset expenses of the French and Indian War and to maintain England’s newly acquired territories. The Currency Act is passed by Parliament, which prevents the colonies from issuing their own form of legal tender. James Otis raises the issue of taxation without representation in a Boston town meeting, and later publishes "The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved." Boston merchants begin to boycott British luxury goods. The War of the Regulation, a local rebellion against corrupt taxation, begins in North Carolina. This is the first armed rebellion against British rule in America, and will last for seven years.

A.D. 1765--Joseph II becomes the Holy Roman Emperor. Robert Clive is appointed governor of Bengal in India. Sir William Blackstone begins his "Commentaries on the Laws of England." The Quartering Act, which required the colonies to provided barracks and supplies to British troops, and the Stamp Act, are passed by the British Parliament, once again stirring resentment in the American colonies. In June, the Massachussetts House of Representatives resolves to propose an inter-colonial meeting to resist the Stamp Act, and in October, the Stamp Act Congress meets in New York.

Also in this year, in an attempt to normalize relations and end the ongoing state of hostility between his kingdom and the Tawantinsuya, King Charles III of Spain dispatches the first official embassy to the Tawantinsuyu Empire. This is received with some caution by the Tawantinsuya, but gradually, over time, normal relations will be established. This will have major impacts later on this century.

A.D. 1766--English chemist Henry Cavendish isolates hydrogen gas for the first time. "The Nautical Almanac" provides the first practical method for determining longitude. 18 Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, but then later passes the Declaratory Act, by which Parliament asserted its right to make any laws it sees fit binding on the Colonies. Resistance to the Quartering Act breaks out in New York.

A.D. 1767--The Townshend Duties go into effect. The colonists protest the new taxes by agreeing to stop importing British goods. The Mason-Dixon Line established between Maryland and Pennsylvania. Joseph Priestley invents carbonated, or "soda," water.

A.D. 1768--The first modern Circus is formed in England by Philip Astley. British explorer James Cook, who left port before news of the explorations of Captain Huallpa Rimachi reached England, explores the east coast of Australia. He establishes a competing claim to that continent on behalf of Britain. The Ottoman Turks declare war on Russia. Genoa sells its rights in Corsica to France. Joshua Reynolds becomes the first president of the Royal Academy in London. Bougainville claims the Pacific island of Tahiti for France. The first weekly numbers of the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" are issued. Richard Arkwright patents the spinning frame. British troops arrive in Boston to enforce the customs laws.

A.D. 1769--British explorer James Cook lands in New Zealand, as in Australia, establishing a competing British claim for the islands. The first working automobile in history was a steam tractor used to pull artillery for the French Army. Daniel Boone explores a route through the Cumberland Gap. James Watt patents a condenser to improve the performance of steam engines. Richard Arkwright invents a spinning frame to mechanize cotton weaving.

A.D. 1770--Captain James Cook encounters the Great Barrier Reef off Australia by running his ship the Endeavor on it, by accident. Later, he discovers Botany Bay. Prince Louis, the future king of France, marries Austrian princess Marie Antoinette. Lord North becomes Prime Minister of England. British explorer James Bruce discovers the source of the Blue Nile. Townshend Acts repealed except for the tax on tea. New York Riot over the Quartering Act. British troops fire on a crowd of American civilians in an incident which goes down in history as the Boston Massacre.

Also in this year, King Charles III of Spain offers to buy Cuba from the Tawantinsuyu Empire. In exchange, he offers a large payment of gold and silver, and offers to open several key Spanish ports, both in the New World and in Spain itself, to Tawantinsuya trade vessels. Sinchi Roca Inca II, who has been somewhat dismayed by the expenses associated with holding Cuba...which has a large and resistant Spanish population...accepts the offer. Cuba is officially transferred back into Spanish hands on September 21, 1770.

A.D. 1770-1773--The Bengal Famine kills an estimated 10 million people in Bengal, the British and Tawantinsuya East India Company’s prime holding in India. With this loss of one sixth of the population, military and administrative costs mount beyond control in British administered regions in Bengal due to the ensuing drop in labour productivity, and with it, the tax base. This, combined with a stagnant trade market for company goods caused by an economic recession throughout Europe following the end of the Seven Years War, threatens to drive the company into bankruptcy.

A.D. 1771--Gustav III succeeds his father as king of Sweden. The Battle of Alamance, in which the forces of the Regulators (rebels against corrupt British taxation in western North Carolina) are decisively defeated by the forces of North Carolina Governor Lord William Tryon. End of the War of the Regulation.

A.D. 1772--British explorer James Cook crosses the Antarctic Circle and circumnavigates Antarctica. The First Partition of Poland. American artist Benjamin West paints "The Death of Wolfe." Attack on the "Gaspee," a British customs schooner that was burned by Rhode Island colonists off Namquit Point. Sam Adams pressures the Boston Town Meeting to set up the "Committee of Correspondence" to state the colonies’ rights and grievances. John Sevier organizes independent republic of Watauga in Tennessee.

A.D. 1773--Pope Clement XIV suppresses the Jesuits. Calcutta becomes the capital of British India. Don Cossack Yemelian Pugachev leads the Peasant's Revolt in Russia. To save the bankrupt British East India Company, Parliament passes the Tea Act. In response, the Boston Town Meeting passes resolutions against the Tea Act. In December, the Boston Tea Party takes place. 342 chests of tea are dumped into Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians. Parliament also passes the India Act of 1773, which transfers unprecedented control over British and Tawantinsuya East India Company holdings and operations in India to the British Government. The Tawantinsuya are not consulted during or after the passage of this bill, and are incensed by this "high-handed" treatment at the hands of their erst-while ally.

A.D. 1774--King Louis XV dies. His son, Louis XVI, becomes King of France. Treaty of Kutchuk-Kainardji ends the Russo-Turkish War. British clergyman and scientist Joseph Priestley identifies a gas which he called "dephlogisticated air," later known as oxygen. The British government appoints Warren Hastings to be Governor-General of India. The Tawantinsuya are not consulted on this choice, and relations between the two powers...already strained because of what the Tawantinsuya perceive as "high-handed" British behavior with regard to their joint Indian venture, are further damaged.

The Coercive Acts are passed by Parliament. Boston Port is closed by Parliament until the tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party is paid for by those responsible. The Quebec Act grants the French Catholics of Quebec the right to freedom of Religion among other assurances, and is seen as an attempt by the British government to pit the French Canadians against the rest of the American colonists. The First Continental Congress opens for business. "Declaration and Resolves" by the First Continental Congress.

A.D. 1775--War between the British and Tawantinsuya East India Company and Marathas in India. Alexander Cummings invents the flush toilet. Jacques Perrier invents a steam ship. New England Restraining Act: Parliament passed an act banning trade between the New England colonies and any other country besides Great Britain.

A.D. 1775-1780--The American Revolution. A year by year summary of major events of the Revolution follows.

--Events of 1775.

April 1775: The British commander at Boston, General Thomas Gage, receives intelligence that the colonists are massing arms and ammunition at Concord, Massachusetts. An expedition is sent out to destroy these stores, but meets with resistance. Battles of Lexington and Concord—beginning of American Revolution. Boston is placed under siege by a colonial army. This army, however, lacking artillery, has no means to force the British to abandon the town, and an uneasy stalemate results.

May 1775: The Continental Congress selects Artemas Ward to be the commander-in-chief of the newly christened Continental Army. Later that same month, Colonels Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, leading colonial militia, capture Fort Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain in upper New York, and with it, over 70 pieces of heavy artillery. Artemas Ward sends Henry Knox to Ticonderoga, with orders to bring this artillery to Boston.

June 1775: The Battle of Bunker Hill is fought outside Boston. It is a costly British victory. Another American army, under the command of Brigadier General Richard Montgomery, is ordered to invade Canada and capture Montreal. Benedict Arnold attempts to convince General Artemas Ward to allow him to lead a supporting expedition which will approach Quebec through the Maine wilderness, but is refused. Instead, in what turns out to be one of the few good decisions Ward will make while commander-in-chief, Arnold is sent with more troops to support Montgomery’s drive up the St. Lawrence.

November 1775: American forces under Richard Montgomery capture Montreal. Later that month, Arnold’s force of 1,500 men will arrive at Montreal in fairly good condition (in OTL, the trek through the Maine wilderness cost Arnold almost half of his force, and the remainder were almost dead when they arrived outside of Quebec), and unite with that of Montgomery shortly after the latter captures said city.

December 1775: After spending some time reorganizing and gathering supplies, the combined American force then marches up the St. Lawrence and arrives before Quebec in early December. Under cover of a snowstorm, the Americans assault the British works protecting the city on December 31, and with their extra manpower, manage to defeat the British garrison and capture the city. Both Montgomery and Arnold are severely wounded...Montgomery will succumb to his wounds a week later, and Arnold will walk with a limp for the rest of his life. But Canada, with the exception of the British bases in Nova now under American control.

--Events of 1776.

January 1776: Henry Knox arrives in Boston with fifty cannon, which had been dragged by sled in the dead of winter over 300 miles from Fort Ticonderoga. Also in this month, Brigadier General David Wooster is sent to take command at Quebec, relieving the wounded Benedict Arnold. Arnold is promoted to Brigadier General and ordered to take command at Montreal while he recuperates from his wounds.

March 1776: The cannon from Ticonderoga are positioned atop Dorchester Heights, overlooking Boston. The Americans now have cannon...but no powder for them. The British don’t know this, however, and they evacuate Boston. General Gage sails with his army to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where they await reinforcements. Those reinforcements, when they arrive, will be accompanied by Gage’s replacement as commander...Lord William Howe.

May 1776: General John Burgoyne arrives from England with 4,000 troops outside Quebec. American General Wooster, although heavily outnumbered, enjoys the advantages of Quebec’s strong fortifications, and Burgoyne does not launch an immediate assault, but instead, begins siege operations.

June 1776: A British force under Sir Henry Clinton and Sir Peter Parker attempts to seize Charleston, South Carolina. Patriot forces fighting in a fort made of sand and palmetto logs on Sullivan’s Island, commanded by Brigadier General William Moultrie, withstand the bombardment of the British fleet, which withdraws. Also in this month, incited by royal agents, the Cherokee attack all along the Southern frontier. These attacks, and Patriot counterattacks against the Cherokee, will continue for the next ten months.

In late June, Brigadier General Benedict Arnold, having been reinforced at Montreal and now in command of over 2,000 men, launches a surprise attack on Burgoyne’s army outside Quebec. General Wooster sallies forth with a supporting attack, and the overconfident Burgoyne is decisively defeated and driven away from his lines of supply on the St. Lawrence, with American forces and French Canadian militia in pursuit. Among those killed in the engagement are two British Colonels, Horatio Gates and Charles Lee, who are killed while trying to rally their broken regiments for a counterattack.

July 1776: The American Declaration of Independence is signed at Philadelphia on July 6. This document is authored primarily by John Adams and edited by Benjamin Franklin and several others. Adams, being a lawyer, cites English law and custom...particularly the Magna Carta, the Bill of Rights, and similar legislation passed during the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution in the previous century, as well as Blackstone’s "Commentaries on the Laws of England," to make a case that Parliament and the King are violating the rights of the citizens of the colonies, who therefore have no choice but to sever their political bonds with Britain and declare independence, just as Parliament itself rose up against the King during the English Civil War. There is no mention of "inalienable rights," and the concept that "all men are created equal" (with which Adams personally disagrees) is not expressed in the document.

Meanwhile, later that month, Burgoyne’s army is brought to battle in the wilderness about 40 miles west of Quebec. After a very sanguine struggle, his force is once again defeated. Burgoyne, his supplies running low and his army being driven ever further away from his base, surrenders his army on July 31.

August 1776: In mid-August, the main British Army, heavily reinforced with British troops and Hessian mercenaries, sails from Halifax, Nova Scotia, under Lord Howe and arrives outside New York City. The British occupy Long Island and New York City virtually unopposed, as Continental commander-in-chief General Artemas Ward, having failed to recognize the vital strategic importance of the place, had not moved his army from the Boston area to defend it.

September 1776: In early September, the British strike inland from their new base at New York City, and moving rapidly across central New Jersey in a lightning campaign, they cross the Delaware River and by the end of that month are at the gates of Philadelphia. The Continental Congress hastily evacuates to York, Pennsylvania (where, shortly after their arrival, they learn of the great victory won by Arnold in Canada, and promote him to Major General).

October 1776: On October 2, the British march into Philadelphia. The Continental Army, belatedly brought south by General Ward, arrives in the vicinity a few days later, and is severely mauled by the greatly superior British force (which numbers over 30,000 against less than 20,000 for the Americans) at the Battle of Norristown, Pennsylvania on October 12. More by luck than anything else, Ward manages to get away with the bulk of his mangled army and retreat toward York, Pennsylvania, arriving there before the end of October. The British, with winter rapidly approaching, decide the campaigning season is over and go into winter quarters in various hamlets surrounding Philadelphia. The American rebels, Lord Howe reasons, are beaten. He can mop up the remains...later.

November 1776: In early November, the Continental Congress removes Artemas Ward as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, replacing him with the hero of the Canadian campaign...Benedict Arnold. Arnold is, however, still in Canada, and it will be a while before he can get to Pennsylvania to assume command. In the interim, command of the Continental Army is given to an officer who had been one of few bright spots in the army’s recent debacle outside Philadelphia...Brigadier General Nathaniel Greene. Greene is promoted to Major General. He will spend the next month reorganizing and refitting his shattered army outside York.

December 1776: Benjamin Franklin is appointed as America’s ambassador to the court of King Louis XVI of France. On December 25, newly promoted Major General Nathaniel Greene leads the Continental consisting of less than 5,000 men, the rest having deserted in the interim following the defeat at Norristown...on a daring raid against the winter camp of a brigade of Hessian mercenaries who are encamped near Chester, Pennsylvania. The Hessians are completely surprised, and after a brisk fight, surrender to the Americans. General Howe sends out a force in pursuit of the Americans. However, Greene mauls their advance guard near Lancaster, Pennsylvania on December 31, and the British retreat back to their camps near Philadelphia.

--Events of 1777.

January 1777: On January 2, Major General Greene returns triumphantly to York with this prisoners and captured stores. On January 5, Major General Benedict Arnold arrives in Philadelphia, where he accepts his promotion to Lieutenant General and assumes command of the Continental Army. Arnold inherits a very desperate situation. Despite the morale boost given by the recent victories under Greene, which has finally slowed the rate of desertion in the army, the army is still melting away as cold, hunger, and sickness kill off the remaining loyal troops in their miserable camps outside York. The only hope the army has is that some of it will be left when the Spring thaws come.

March 1777: With the approach of Spring, Patriot recruits begin trickling into the Continental Army’s encampments outside York. The British, too, begin making ready for the new campaigning season. Parliament was shocked by the loss of Canada and the surrender of Burgoyne’s army the previous year, and has made the recapture of Canada a major priority. General Sir Henry Clinton has been given command of an army of 10,000 men...mostly German mercenaries...which is being readied in English ports for a new attack on the province. This will deprive Sir William Howe of much needed reinforcements for his campaign in Pennsylvania.

May 1777: The Cherokee sue for peace with the Patriots. A treaty is signed in which the Cherokee give up all of their lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. The British Army of General Sir Henry Clinton arrives outside Quebec. The local American commander, Major General David Wooster, despite being greatly outnumbered, once again puts up a stout defense, and a major British assault on Quebec’s fortifications is beaten back with heavy losses. Clinton orders siege operations to begin.

Meanwhile in Pennsylvania, General Howe, who has learned that he will not be getting the reinforcements he feels he needs for the upcoming campaign, decides to proceed anyway. However, he does so in a half-hearted fashion, and this gives the American commander-in-chief, Benedict Arnold, time to prepare to meet him. Arnold, by this time, has an army of 12,000 men ready to meet the British attack. He orders all bridges across the Susquehanna River burned, with the exception of one which is located in highly favorable defensive terrain between the towns of Lancaster and York, and has his men build strong earthwork fortifications defending the approaches to this bridge. If Howe attacks, Arnold will have all the advantage.

June 1777: In Canada, the siege of Quebec continues. Meanwhile, on June 5, General Sir William Howe’s British Army, almost 20,000 strong (Howe’s original 30,000 man force has been not only whittled down by losses in battle, but also by disease, and the need to leave garrisons at New York, Philadelphia, and throughout New Jersey), approaches the fortifications held by the Continental Army west of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Surveying the strong defensive positions, Howe might have been given pause, but, remembering the poor performance of the American army at Norristown the previous year, he holds the fighting qualities of these "colonial rabble," as he calls them, in contempt, and he orders an assault for the next day.

On the morning of June 6, the British march out in perfect formation, drums and fifes mockingly playing "Yankee Doodle," and are met with withering fire from the American fortifications. Thus begins the fight that will become known as the Battle of Arnold’s Bridge. The British make no less than five assaults that day, all of them beaten back with horrendous losses. When the smoke clears, almost 6,000 British and Hessian soldiers lie dead or wounded on the fields in front of the American lines, while less than 1,000 Americans have been killed or wounded in the fight.

Lord Howe orders a retreat back toward Philadelphia for the next morning. Benedict Arnold, however, has his own plans, and orders a night assault on the British camp. While the American assault is disorganized, as any night assault by inexperienced troops must be, the very fact that they would try such a thing, combined with the shock of the huge losses suffered earlier that day, causes panic to break out in the British ranks. Thousands of seasoned redcoats and professional German mercenaries, many men casting away their muskets to lighten their load, are soon fleeing, as fast as their legs can carry them, east toward Philadelphia and safety. It is, quite possibly, the worst military defeat in British history.

Arnold orders pursuit, but his jubilant but hungry and ragged troops stop to pillage the British camp, and Arnold cannot restore order in his own ranks until mid-morning the next day. By this time, his scouts report that Lord Howe has restored order to his own army, which is now retreating in good order toward Philadelphia. Arnold orders his army to follow. Another battle is fought near Chester, Pennsylvania on June 12, when Arnold’s advance guard catches up with Howe’s rear guard, but the Americans are repulsed, and Howe makes it back to Philadelphia with the bulk of his army still intact. Arnold retires to Lancaster, where he gives his army a desperately needed reorganization and gathers more recruits. The two armies sit out the rest of the month in relative inactivity.

July 1777: In Canada, the siege of Quebec continues. Meanwhile, in Pennsylvania, Benedict Arnold’s army has received a flood of recruits since news of the victory at Arnold’s Bridge got out. By mid July, he is in command of a force almost 30,000 strong, and growing daily. Most of these are inexperienced militia, of course, but when Lord Howe learns, via his spies, that Arnold is possessed of such a force, he makes the decision to abandon Philadelphia. The British Army crosses the Delaware River into New Jersey on July 28.

August 1777: British and Loyalist agents stir up an uprising among the Iroquois which causes much damage in upstate New York. It also prevents a Patriot relief column, which had been gathering at Fort Ticonderoga, from moving north into Canada to the relief of Major General Wooster’s besieged force at Quebec. As a result, Wooster is forced to surrender Quebec later that month. However, the Americans still control Montreal. On August 3, Benedict Arnold rides, at the head of the Continental Army, into Philadelphia. The Continental Congress returns to Philadelphia to York on August 20. By that time Lord Howe, having abandoned New Jersey except for a few outposts guarding the approaches to New York, has returned to his base at New York City, where he sends a message to London desperately requesting reinforcement.

September 1777: General Sir Henry Clinton advances south from Quebec toward Montreal with 6,000 men (leaving a garrison of 2,000 at Quebec...the remainder of his original 10,000 men force were lost during the siege of Quebec). The American commander at Montreal, Philip Schuyler, finding himself heavily outnumbered, abandons the city and retreats to Fort Ticonderoga. Clinton goes into winter quarters at Montreal and Quebec by the end of September, ending this year’s fighting in the far north. The American occupation of Canada is at an end.

Meanwhile, General Benedict Arnold leads his army into New Jersey. He approaches New York, but decides an assault on the British defenses would be impractical. Instead, he contents himself with attacking the British outposts in New Jersey, which he captures before the end of September. All of New Jersey is back in American hands.

October 1777: The Continental Army, which is not strong enough to attack the British base at New York, goes into winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey. The British Army at New York, not capable of attacking the Americans, does the same.

In upper New York, the combined American forces at Fort Ticonderoga (Schuyler’s force from Montreal and the remains of the Quebec relief column) go out on a devastating raid against the villages of the Iroquois. Under the command of Schuyler, the Americans burn every village, destroy all stored crops and livestock, and kill every warrior they can find. By the time this raid ends in early December, the power of the Iroquois is forever broken, and the pitiful remnants are fleeing to the safety of British Canada.

November 1777: King Louis XVI of France signs a treaty of alliance with the United States of America. French arms, uniforms, gunpowder, and other supplies are soon pouring into the colonies, and a French expeditionary force is being readied. General Sir Henry Clinton is named British Governor of Canada. Also in this month, the Continental Congress passes the Articles of Confederation, and submits it to the States for ratification.

--Events of 1778.

January 1778: General Howe is removed as commander of the British forces at New York, and replaced by General Charles Cornwallis. Cornwallis is an aggressive commander, and his promotion will mark a change in British strategy. Arriving with the orders promoting him to command at New York are reinforcements of 15,000 men, giving him an effective force of almost 30,000. Cornwallis plans to take the bulk of this army to attack and secure the Southern colonies, which are seen as an easy target due to their smaller populations and perceived loyalist leanings. He also asks Governor Clinton of Canada to support his operations by recapturing Fort Ticonderoga and threatening upstate New York. Clinton agrees. Meanwhile, at Morristown, the coming of winter has seen the militia go home, and the American Continental army dwindles to less than 10,000 men.

February 1778: On February 23, Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben arrives at the American winter encampment at Morristown, New Jersey. Von Steuben is an experienced Prussian military officer, and has been recruited by Benjamin Franklin to provide professional training to the Continental Army...something which, up to now, it has lacked. As the Prussian Army is widely regarded as the best in the world, his services are gratefully accepted by General Arnold, and over the next several months, under Von Steuben’s
tutelage, the Continental Army is transformed into a professional, disciplined fighting force.

March 1778: Lord Cornwallis takes ship with 20,000 men and sails for Savannah, Georgia. The British fleet arrives there on March 20, and the British army disembarks. The city surrenders with little resistance. Lord Cornwallis orders his army to march overland to Charleston, South Carolina, which he plans to invest by land while the fleet bombards it by sea.

April 1778: With the arrival of spring, recruits begin to fill up the ranks of the Continental Army at Morristown. By the end of April, General Arnold has almost 15,000 men. However, they still have to be trained and equipped, so Arnold is in no position to immediately commence operations. On April 5, the British army arrives outside Charleston, South Carolina, the fleet having arrived off the harbor on April 1. The town is placed under siege.

Also in April, Governor Henry Clinton leads a force of 4,000 men south from Montreal. The force lays siege to Fort Ticonderoga, which falls by the end of the month. The local American commander in the region, Philip Schuyler, sends messages to General Arnold desperately pleading for units of the Continental Army to be sent north to face Clinton, but Arnold recognizes Clinton’s move for the diversion it is, and sends only a token force, instructing Schuyler to raise as much militia as he can and to harass Clinton’s force in the forests if the British advance south from Ticonderoga.

May 1778: On May 15, General Benjamin Lincoln, commander of the American forces at Charleston, South Carolina, surrenders the town to the British. Meanwhile, the French are making themselves felt, indirectly...French naval and army forces have been attacking British possessions in the West Indies and India, causing much concern among the British leadership in London. Therefore, to General Cornwallis’s consternation, shortly after the surrender of Charleston he receives orders from London to detach a force of 7,000 men, which will go, along with most of the British naval vessels supporting Cornwallis’s campaign, to the West Indies. Combined with losses suffered in the recent campaign from both disease and battle, Cornwallis is left with less than 10,000 men. By the end of May, however, Arnold’s force in New Jersey has increased to over 20,000 trained men. The balance of power is beginning to shift in favor of the Americans.

June 1778: British General Cornwallis, leaving a small garrison at Charleston, moves inland with the aim of taking South and North Carolina completely out of the war. He advances rapidly, finding almost no opposition (the main American Army in the south having been surrendered at Charleston) except for that of various guerrilla bands, and by the end of the month has occupied most of the South Carolina back-country. Meanwhile, American General Benedict Arnold decides on a bold plan. Leaving a token force to keep watch on the 8,000 British soldiers at New York, Arnold leads the main Continental Army south to confront Cornwallis.

July 1778: Cornwallis leads his further reduced by casualties and the need to leave garrisons in the South Carolina back-country...into North Carolina. It is there that he collides with Benedict Arnold and the main Continental Army. In a battle fought on July 17, 1778 just south of Raleigh, North Carolina, Cornwallis’s heavily outnumbered force is severely mauled and forced to retreat. Benedict Arnold pursues his beaten enemy, and on July 29 catches Cornwallis again as his army is waiting to cross the rain-swollen Broad River at Cherokee Ford, near a place called The Cowpens (because cattle are corralled here during annual round-ups by local farmers). Cornwallis is forced into fighting with his back to the Broad River, and his army puts up a stout fight, causing many American casualties. But Arnold’s larger army pulls off a double envelopment of Cornwallis’s force, which is virtually destroyed. Only a few British and Hessian troops who have the presence of mind to take off their heavy coats, throw away their muskets and other equipment, and swim across the river, escape. Among the dead is a dashing British dragoon officer named Banastre Tarleton, and General Cornwallis himself is captured.

Also in this month, Colonel George Rogers Clark leads an expedition from Virginia into the Illinois Country (the region north of the Ohio River and south of the Great Lakes, which is claimed by Virginia but had been assigned to Canada in one of the Acts of Parliament which sparked the Revolution). He captures the town of Kaskaskia on July 4, and the important post at Vincennes shortly afterward. Also in this month, Spain declares war on Britain and signs an alliance with the United States.

August 1778: General Arnold detaches a force of 5,000 men from the main Continental Army and places it under the command of General Nathaniel Greene, and then takes the bulk of the Continental Army back to New Jersey. Greene is charged with retaking the South Carolina back-country, as well as the cities of Charleston and Savannah, and restoring the South to Patriot control. Greene’s operations will consume the next year, as Savannah and Charleston are placed under siege and several British forts in the back-country are reduced. But by late 1779, the South will be back under complete Patriot control.

September 1778: After learning of the disaster of the Battle of Cherokee Ford, the British government calls in Apichu Cusi, the Tawantinsuya ambassador, in an attempt to use the traditional Tawantinsuya animosity toward Spain to persuade that power to enter the war on their side. From the British standpoint, this makes a great deal of sense, because if the Tawantinsuya can take over most of the burden of defending the Caribbean, Britain can redeploy most of it’s troops and ships back to the North American colonies to restore the situation there. But, unbeknownst to the British, the efforts of Spanish King Charles III have borne fruit, and relations between Spain and the Tawantinsuya have grown decidedly less unfriendly over the past decade. So, to the dismay of the British government, Apichu Cusi reiterates his government’s determination to remain neutral in the conflict, and the British are left to their own devices.

Also in September, British forces lead by Henry Hamilton recapture Vincennes while George Rogers Clark is back in Virginia.

October 1778: George Rogers Clark learns of the fall of Vincennes, and begins gathering troops and supplies for a new expedition to recover the Ohio Country. Due to a variety of factors, this will not be ready for some time, however.

Henry Clinton, learning of Cornwallis’s defeat at Cherokee Ford, withdraws with most of his force from Fort Ticonderoga and returns to Montreal, leaving only a token garrison at the Fort. Philip Schuyler, reinforced by additional Continental units sent by General Arnold, soon lays siege to the fort. General Arnold and the Continental Army go into winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey.

November 1778: Fort Ticonderoga surrenders to American forces under Philip Schuyler. For all intents and purposes, the war in the north is over. The British, fully consumed with fighting French and Spanish forces in the Caribbean and India, are not able to significantly reinforce the garrisons in New York and Canada, and these garrisons are not strong enough to do more than hold onto the territory they now hold. The Americans, who, without naval support, lack the capability to cut off New York from supply, cannot take that city, and cannot launch an attack into Canada without possibly allowing the British in New York the ability to break out toward Philadelphia once more. So an uneasy stalemate results.

And so the war in North America gradually winds down. In the aftermath of the disaster at Cherokee Ford, the government of Lord North lost a lack of confidence vote in the British Parliament, and North was succeeded by Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquess of Rockingham. Rockingham was an opponent of the war in America, and immediately opened negotiations with the Americans aimed at ending the war. The main sticking point is the status of the Ohio country and Michigan. But with the recapture of the Ohio country by George Rogers Clark in early 1779, the British negotiating position becomes much less tenable.

The entry of the Netherlands into the war in mid-1779 made the British even more desperate to disengage from America, and a peace agreement is finally signed in January 1780. The independence of the United States is recognized, and all territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes is ceded to Americans, except for Florida. The American Revolution is over.

A.D. 1777--Christianity introduced in Korea.

A.D. 1778-1779-War of Bavarian Succession.

A.D. 1778--Sinchi Roca Inca II dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Auqui Amaru Inca.

A.D. 1779--Samuel Crompton invents the spinning mule.

A.D. 1779-1781--The Quilombo Conquest of the Guianas. The declarations of war on Britain by France, Spain, and the Netherlands have been watched with great interest by the government of the Quilombo. French and Dutch slaveholding colonies lie on the northern frontier of the Quilombo, and the people of the Quilombo have warm feelings toward the British, who are the only major European power to have abolished slavery in their colonies, and also, since the foundation of the South Sea Company, have been the only European country to do any major trading with the Quilombo.

Accordingly, in late 1779, the government of the Quilombo...against the advice of the Tawantinsuya...declare war on France and the Netherlands. Quilombo armies invade the French and Dutch Guianas, where they meet unexpectedly stiff resistance...the white population of these colonies remembers, all too well, the massacres in Brazil which are, even now, less than a century old. But neither France or the Netherlands, both of whom are now involved in a struggle with Britain, have resources to spare for the defense of what are considered relatively valueless colonies. Despite their best efforts, the French and Dutch colonists are gradually defeated over the course of the next year and a half.

By March 1781, both colonies are under full Quilombo control. In the aftermath, many Europeans are massacred, despite protests by the Tawantinsuya and Britain...the Quilombo has little sympathy for slave owners, and cares little for it’s international reputation. Those lucky enough to escape board ship and return to France and the Netherlands.

A.D. 1780-1783--The American Civil War. In the aftermath of the victorious conclusion of it’s war of Independence, the newly independent "United States of America" is in serious trouble. The Articles of Confederation...which cannot go into force until ratified by all 13 States...have still not been ratified. And since the war has now ended...and with it, the immediate threat which bound the colonies looks like the Articles may never be ratified.

The Continental Congress therefore lacks even the limited authority which the Articles would have given it, and there is a major problem...the Continental Army. None of the army has been paid in over a year, and some soldiers have not received pay in as many as six years, but soldiers have been kept fighting by patriotism...and by promises of back-pay and pensions to be paid after the war. But the Continental Congress has no authority to levy taxes, and the States are balking on their earlier agreements to fund the promises of the Congress to Continental troops.

Dark threats of mutiny have rumbled among the army since major fighting ended over a year ago, and these have spread from the rank and file to the officer corps itself. And, unlike in OTL, these have found a receptive ear in the Commander-in-Chief, Benedict Arnold. Arnold has his own reasons to despise the Continental Congress. He has been dogged for years by unproven accusations of embezzlement of funds used for his early campaigns in Canada, and has had an ongoing dispute with Congress over reimbursement of his wartime expenses. He also feels that his contributions to the achievement of American independence are not appreciated (he petitioned Congress for promotion from Lt. General to full General following the decisive victory at Cherokee Ford, and was rebuffed).

And so, when he is approached by a group of officers who urge him to "step forward as the savior of a disorganized civil society and accept the crown from the hand of his faithful soldiers," Arnold accepts. He leads the Continental Army to Philadelphia, arrests those members of the Continental Congress who have not already fled the city, and in a ceremony held on June 1, 1780, is crowned as Benedict, King of the Americans.

But Arnold’s action does not go unchallenged. Most of Congress fled at the approach of the army to Philadelphia, and headed south, where the army of Nathaniel Greene was encamped near Charleston, South Carolina. Greene agrees that Arnold’s action is "beyond the pale," and agrees to "fight for American liberty" against "the usurper." Furthermore, most of the individual State governments denounce Arnold’s action, and many of Arnold’s own troops are shocked by Arnold’s action and desert. But several States pledge loyalty to the new King Benedict, and enough of his troops remain with him that he still has a powerful military force. The result is three years of civil war.

In the end, Arnold is defeated, captured, and hanged. But the Civil War, as it comes to be called, has some important effects. The party within the Continental Congress which wishes for a more centralized government is given a major boost...after all, they argue, if the Congress had been allowed to levy taxes and, in general, act like a central government in the first place, Arnold’s rebellion might never have occurred.

In late 1783, the Continental Congress removes the Articles of Confederation from consideration by the States, and instead, submits a much stronger document for ratification. Only a majority of the States are required to ratify this document in order for it to become law, even among those which do not ratify (Several States which had been loyal to King Benedict had been defeated and subjugated in the recent civil war. And in the aftermath of the civil war, Congress did not immediately disband Greene's army. The obvious threat that army posed prevented any holdouts from attempting to secede or refuse to recognize the Constitution as binding).

The Constitution, as it is called, provides for a strong central government...much stronger than the OTL document of the same name. The independence, rights, and powers of the States are severely curtailed, and the powers of the federal government are increased greatly. Key provisions of the new document are as follows...

1) There is a unicameral Congress. Seats in the Congress are apportioned by population. Representatives serve for 4-year terms, and there is no limit to the number of terms they can serve. Representatives are elected by a dual system...half of each state's representatives are directly elected by the people, and half are selected by the state legislature.

2) The President and Vice President are not elected by the people. Instead, they are elected by Congress. They serve for a six-year term, and there is no limit on the number of terms they can serve. They are not subject to votes of "no confidence," as the Prime Minister in the British system of government would be. But there is a system of impeachment similar to that in the OTL U.S. Constitution.

3) The United States will have a permanent standing army. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of said army. States are not allowed to maintain their own militias. There are no restrictions on the use of the military by the government for "internal security" purposes.

4) There is a bill of rights in the Constitution, but the OTL 2nd, 9th and 10th Amendments are missing. Sovereignty of the national government over that of the States in all matters is supreme. Only the very limited powers specifically given to the States by the Constitution remain...there are no "reserved" or "unenumerated" powers. Everything else is the prerogative of the national government. The First Amendment, guaranteeing freedom of speech, press, and religion, do appear in the document. But the guarantees of speech and press are not as absolute as in the OTL Constitution....instead, the First Amendment reads as follows: "Congress shall make no law, excepting in cases where the security of the nation requires it, restricting freedom of speech or of the press. Congress shall also make no law with respect to an establishment of religion, or restricting the free exercise thereof."

With the State Legislatures frightened by the spectre of more rebellions like Arnold’s (and by the threat posed by Greene's still-undisbanded army, which is loyal to Congress), the document is ratified by the required number of States by the end of the next year.

A.D. 1780--Gordon Riots in London. Benjamin Franklin invents bi-focal eyeglasses.

A.D. 1781--William Herschel discovers the Planet Uranus. Spain...whose military forces are, despite the faults of King Charles III’s administration, much better than in OTL at this period...captures Gibraltar.

A.D. 1782--Treaty of Salbai ends the war between the Marathas and the British and Tawantinsuya East India Company in India. Treaty of Versailles ends fighting between the French, Spanish, Dutch, and British. Freed of the need to maintain forces in America, the British have more than held their own against the powers allied against it, and the treaty generally makes few territorial revisions. Spain does somewhat better than in OTL, and gains the most of all the warring regains Florida, as well as the island of Minorca, and perhaps most significantly, it keeps Gibraltar.

A.D. 1783--A new India Act is passed by the British Parliament. This act gives even greater control over the holdings of the British and Tawantinsuya East India Company in India to the British government. Once again, the Tawantinsuya are not consulted, and this will be the final straw which finally breaks the long-standing British and Tawantinsuya alliance in India. Also in this year, Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier demonstrate the first successful hot-air balloon flight. Louis Sebastien demonstrates the first parachute. Henry Cort of England invents the steel roller for steel production.

A.D. 1784--Enraged by the British India Act of 1783, Auqui Amaru Inca declares the dissolution of the British and Tawantinsuya East India Company. Having just ended a very costly and expensive conflict, Britain is anxious to avoid war, and negotiations between Britain and Tawantinsuyu soon result in the division of India into separate spheres of influence. The British retain control of Bengal and Bombay, and an exclusive sphere of influence which includes all of northern India north of the Narmada and Mahanadi Rivers. The Tawantinsuya receive Madras and an exclusive sphere of influence over the region south of the Krishna River. The region between these two lines...exclusive of Bombay...will be considered a region of overlapping spheres of influence, and not assigned to either power. Also in this year, Andrew Meikle patents the first threshing machine, and the new U.S. Constitution is ratified and becomes law.

A.D. 1785--The first Presidential Election under the new U.S. Constitution is held. Nathaniel Greene is elected as the first President of the United States, with Alexander Hamilton as his Vice President. Greene and Hamilton will establish the early origins of the Federal Bureaucracy, the governmental organizations which will proliferate to regulate nearly every aspect of American life over the next few decades.

Also in this year, the U.S. Congress passes the Land Act of 1785, intended to resolve disputes between the States over the Western Territories, gained as a result of the treaty which ended the War of Independence. It stipulates that States which have claims to western territory may keep those territories, provided there is no competing claim by another State to the same territory. Thus Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia all retain title to vast territories extending to the Mississippi River. However, the land north of the Ohio River and south of the Great Lakes, which is disputed among several States, are to be ceded to the Federal Government, which will administer them for the common benefit of all the States. This land is organized as the Northwest Territory. The Federal Government soon begins to sell off the land to speculators as a means of raising revenue.

Of course, nobody bothers to consult the native inhabitants of the region, and resentment among the various Native American tribes quickly reaches a boiling point as the land speculators sell the lands to white settlers, who begin pouring into the region and evicting the natives from their lands. Later that year, the Miami Confederacy...a powerful alliance of tribes including the Miami, Huron, Wyandot, Shawnee, Pottawatomi, Ottawa, Ojibway, Delaware, the Six Nations of the Iroquois (Mohawk, Cuyuga, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora, and Oneida), the Kickapoo, the Kaskaskia, and the Wabash formed for the stated purpose of resisting American expansion in the Ohio Country.

Also in this year, the "Daily Universal Register" (later to be known as the Times of London) publishes its1st issue. Edmund Cartwright invents the power loom.

A.D. 1786--Mozart's opera "The Marriage of Figaro" premiered in Vienna. Prussian King Friedrich II (The Great) dies. John Fitch invents a steamboat.

A.D. 1787--Assembly of Notables dismissed. Britain acquires Sierra Leone. The planetary satellites of Uranus, Oberon and Titan, were discovered by Herschel.

A.D. 1788--London's Daily Universal Register becomes the Times. First convicts transported from Britain to Botany Bay, Australia. The Tawantinsuya, who also have a claim to Australia, protest. In order to solidify Tawantinsuya claims to these lands, Auqui Amaru Inca orders the preparation of colonization expeditions to both Australia and New Zealand. Death of King Charles III of Spain. His successor, Charles IV, is not a man of his father’s mettle, and Spain will suffer under his reign. However, he does continue his father’s policy of improving relations with Tawantinsuyu, and this will have important consequences later on.

A.D. 1788 onward--The colonization of Australia by the British and the Tawantinsuya is having devastating impacts on the native aboriginal people of the continent. Epidemics of various diseases such as smallpox, chicken pox, influenza, and measles have decimated most of the more populous communities. The introduction of alcohol has proved almost as devastating. Last but not least, conflict with settlers over scarce water resources and land has also resulted in armed clashes between the two groups, with the natives almost always coming out on the losing side. By the 1820s, many aboriginal communities will have been totally exterminated, and most others in the eastern half of the continent are in serious trouble.

A.D. 1789--The French Revolution begins. The Third Estate in France declared itself a national assembly, and undertook to frame a constitution. "The Declaration of the Rights of Man" is approved by the French National Assembly.

In Paris, a delegation of distinguished mulattos (gens de couleur) from France's wealthiest colony, Domingue (Haiti), asks whether the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen applies to them, and they are told that it does.

Also in this year, Tawantinsuya colonization expeditions arrive in Australia and New Zealand. The Australian expedition lands at the mouth of what in OTL would be known as the Brisbane River. A settlement, guarded by a fort, is constructed. This settlement will be named New Cuzco. The New Zealand expedition lands on the north island of the archipelago, and a settlement is constructed there as well. Additional yearly expeditions will reinforce and expand both colonies.

Finally, the planetary satellites of Saturn, Enceladus and Mimas were discovered by Herschel.

A.D. 1790-1791--The Miami War. Over the preceding four years, tensions between the native American tribes in the Northwest Territory and white settlers have increasingly resulted in violence. In early 1790, the Miami Confederacy decides on a war to evict the American invaders from their lands. Hundreds of white, women, and children...are killed and scalped by Indian raiding parties, and many more are carried away as captives. Farms and towns are burned, a panicked mass exodus of whites from the territory results, and for a brief time, American control of the region appears very much in doubt.

But in June 1790, President Nathaniel Greene orders General Anthony Wayne, commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Army, to lead a force into the territory to restore American control. 20,000 American troops...over half of the entire U.S. Army at that time...are mustered for the campaign. In a brutal campaign, Wayne destroys the power of the Miami Confederacy within a year. The leaders of the Miami Confederacy, Miami Chief Little Turtle and Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket, sue for peace in July 1791. A treaty is signed in which the tribes agree to disband their Confederacy and recognize American ownership of the disputed lands.

A.D. 1791--Following a dinner celebrating the second anniversary of the Fall of the Bastille, an angry mob riots in Birmingham, England. The main target of their wrath is the home, church, and laboratory of English chemist and theologian Joseph Priestly, who openly supported the American and French revolutions. Priestly and his family narrowly escape with their lives.

Also in this year, John Barber invents the gas turbine. Early bicycles are invented in Scotland. Nathaniel Greene and Alexander Hamilton are elected to a second term as President and Vice President of the United States.

In Domingue, white vigilantes defeat a small army of gens de couleur. Twenty-two of the gens de couleur, are hanged, as is a priest who had joined them. Slaves revolt. Plantations are burned and around a thousand whites slaughtered. Paris sends soldiers to the colony to restore order.

A.D. 1791 onward--In the years following the Miami War, the U.S. government forcibly evicts all the remaining Native Americans from the Northwest Territory. Thousands of Indians flee north into Canada, where they seek, and are given, the protection of the British crown. Others cross the Mississippi into Spanish Louisiana. By 1800, not one Native American remains in the lands between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes. The main southern tribes living in U.S. Territory (the Cherokee and Creek, and later, the Choctaw and Chickasaw), seeing the fate of their northern neighbors, quickly move to make treaties of friendship and accommodation with the United States. These are granted, in exchange for large land concessions by the tribes. By 1815, these once proud tribes are all confined to reservations consisting of a tiny fraction of their former domains.

A.D. 1792--The "Old Farmer’s Almanac" is published for the first time. Paul Revere opens a foundry to cast cannon and bells. The New York Stock Exchange was founded by brokers meeting under a tree located on what is now Wall Street. William Murdock invents gas lighting.

A.D. 1793--The Second Partition of Poland. Reign of Terror begins in France. First Republican constitution in France adopted. On Domingue, the black leader Toussaint L'Ouverture decrees all slaves emancipated, and many slaves join his rebel army. He sends emissaries to Britain and the Quilombo, asking for aid. The British, at war with France, land a mixed force of British and Quilombo troops in the south of the colony, where they operate in cooperation with the rebel forces.

A.D. 1794--Antoine Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry, is executed on the guillotine during France's Reign of Terror. Maximilien Robespierre guillotined in Paris without a trial. With his death, the Reign of Terror gradually peters out. Eli Whitney patents the cotton gin.

A.D. 1795--Directory rules France (to 1799). Louis XVII, the Dauphin of France allegedly dies at the age of 10, of tuberculosis. The Third Partition of Poland. Poland ceases to exist as an independent nation. Francois Appert invents the preserving jar for food, the forerunner of modern canned food. Death of Auqui Amaru Inca. He is succeeded by his brother, who reigns as Ninan Cuyuchi Inca. Also in this year, the last French troops are expelled from Domingue. Toussaint L’Ouverture declares the independence of Domingue from France, and the Republic of Haiti is born.

A.D. 1796--British conquer Ceylon from Dutch. English physician Edward Jenner administered the first vaccination against smallpox, using serum made from cowpox rather than smallpox itself, to an 8-year-old boy. This is much safer than the smallpox-based inoculations which have been mandatory in the Tawantinsuyu Empire since the 1730s, and will become the standard for smallpox inoculations worldwide over the succeeding decades. The Haitian Revolutionaries adopt a democratic constitution, influenced by those of the Quilombo and the United States of America. Toussaint L’Ouverture is elected the first President of the Republic of Haiti.

A.D. 1797--Nathaniel Greene and Alexander Hamilton are re-elected for a third term as President and Vice President of the United States. Passage of the Sedition Acts...laws intended to quell dissent against the increasing power of the central government in the U.S. Congress in the name of "national security." Among those arrested and jailed is the old revolutionary firebrand, Samuel Adams, who has been very vocal in denouncing the surrender of the "rights and liberties" of the "States and the People" to the central government. Adams dies in suspicious circumstances while in custody later that same year. Also arrested is General Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee of Virginia, who also has been vocal against the growing power of the government. Lee is tried for sedition and sentenced to 10 years at hard labor. He will die of overwork and abuse three years later.
Treaty of Campo Formio signed by France and Austria after Napoleon's first campaign in Italy.

A.D. 1798--The Pope was dethroned from political power. Napoleon Bonaparte lands in Egypt, defeats the Mamelukes at the Battle of the Pyramids. The French fleet supporting Napoleon’s army, however, is destroyed the British fleet at the Battle of the Nile, leaving Napoleon virtually cut off from supply and reinforcement from France.

A.D. 1799--Napoleon Bonaparte invades Syria. Five nations unite against France. Napoleon returns to France from the middle east, leads a coup against the Directory. Consulate rules France (to 1804), with Napoleon as First Consul. Alessandro Volta invents the electric battery.


PART FOUR: 1800-1850 A.D.

TAWANTINSUYU IN A.D. 1800: A Snapshot
At this time it might be good to discuss the state of the Tawantinsuyu Empire as it exists in the year 1800. As might be expected, the continued contact with the nations of Europe has had far-reaching impacts on the Empire and the Tawantinsuya people.

--GOVERNMENT: The Tawantinsuyu Empire remains essentially an absolute monarchy. The Inca, although no longer considered a god-on-earth, nevertheless wields much more authority over his people than most monarchs in Europe. The habit of obedience, which is a carry-over from the days when the Inca was not only a ruler but a deity, is still deeply ingrained in the Tawantinsuya people.

But, there are signs that this could be changing, very gradually. The 18th Century Enlightenment has made it’s impact on the Tawantinsuya, especially on those of the royal family and upper classes, ideas from various European philosophers having been introduced by Tawantinsuya ambassadors. The idea of the "enlightened despot, " has appealed to Tawantinsuya rulers educated at the best universities in Europe, from the reign of Tupahualpa Inca (1726-1743) onward. This trend has been encouraged by correspondence between the Incas and French philosophers such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau, and English thinkers such as Edmund Burke. As a result, the Incas have tried to apply some of these ideas at home, granting freedom of expression and of the press, private property rights, and religious toleration (even to Catholics) to their subjects.

The greatest resistance to these changes has, ironically, come from the common people they are intended to benefit, who have been slow to abandon their traditional ways and world-view. But despite some grumbling, the ingrained habit of obedience to their rulers has prevented any serious opposition from arising.

--SOCIAL STRUCTURE: Tawantinsuya society is sharply divided between aristocracy and commoners. There is little in the way of a middle class, or bourgeoisie, in Tawantinsuya society. One of the primary reasons for this is the existence of the "Aristocracy by Examination" system, which is a means by which any commoners who attain wealth and education tend to be absorbed into the Aristocracy rather than forming a new Middle Class. This system tends to reinforce the dominance of the ruling class...the Aristocracy absorbs the best and brightest of the commoners, and the dream of the average commoner is not to overthrow the Aristocracy, but to become a part of it. This is in contrast to the situation in most of Europe, where the bourgeoisie will tend to lead the commoners toward revolution over the next century.

--RELIGION: The primary religion of the Tawantinsuyu Empire is Christianity, mainly of the Puritan variety. However, English Baptist and Methodist and Scottish Presbyterian ministers have also been allowed to preach in Tawantisuyu, and there are substantial numbers of followers of these faiths as well. There is also a small Catholic minority, mainly descendants of Spaniards who decided to stay when the Spanish colonies in which they lived (Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela primarily) were conquered by the Tawantinsuya. Up until the early 1700s, these were often persecuted by the Tawantinsuya, but the introduction of Enlightenment ideas of religious toleration has ended that persecution over the course of the last century. Last but not least, there is a significant minority of people who continue to practice the old native Tawantinsuya religion, offering sacrifices at mountaintop sanctuaries to the sun god Inti and the other old deities worshipped before the introduction of Christianity.

--ECONOMY AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT: The Tawantinsuya, since the reign of Atahualpa I, have been intensely interested in technological advances occurring in Europe. In particular they have thoroughly embraced the agricultural innovations of such men as Jethro Tull and Andrew Meikle, which have dramatically improved the productivity of Tawantinsuya farming.

These agricultural innovations have also created a labour surplus, as not so many people are needed in the farming industry, and this is good, as the Tawantinsuya are also in the process of industrializing, using imported British technology (or Tawantinsuya copies produced as a result of study of British and other European scientific journals). They have adopted the inventions of men such as Arkwright, Crompton and Hargreaves which have mechanized the textile industry. This has enabled the Tawantinsuya to develop a new mass market for their famous alpaca and vicuna wool fabrics, which have been much sought after since they were first introduced into Europe in the 1600s, but production of which has been very limited heretofore, making them extremely expensive. Mass production will mean the price of these highly desirable fabrics will drop substantially, making them accessible, for the first time, to average people throughout the world. But not coincidentally, the development of this new industry will have some rather dramatic impacts on Tawantinsuyu itself, as the environmental impact of expanding herds of alpaca and vicuna begins to make itself felt over the next century.

Another recent acquisition has been James Watt’s exciting invention, the steam engine. One of the first customers for this device was none other than the Tawantinsuya ambassador to Britain, Apichu Cusi, who purchased one of the very first examples made, along with a license to produce the engines in Tawantinsuyu. And similar stories apply to many other European innovations. Tawantinsuya engineers and scientists are busily adapting the new technology to Tawantinsuya needs.

--POPULATION: The population of the Tawantinsuyu Empire as of A.D. 1800 stands at approximately nine million and growing rapidly. The principal language, of course, is Quechua, a language that has been gradually replacing other local native languages throughout the empire. In part this is because of Tawantinsuya efforts to integrate the nobility of conquered peoples into their imperial structure, and partly because Quechua is the language of trade within the empire, which encourages it's spread amongst the common folk (similar to the spread of Aramaic by similar processes in the middle east). Among the nobility...both that of birth and that which reached the ranks of the Aristocracy by is quite common for English to be spoken as a second language, reflecting the long and close relationship Tawantinsuyu has had with England since the first contact between the two lands in the 1580s.

The general level of education among the populace is quite high...better than 80% of the people read and write at least to some degree. This has been encouraged by the English Puritan missionaries who spread Christianity around the empire in the belief that it is important for all good Christians to be able to read the Bible for themselves. It was they, with the blessings of the Incas, who adapted the Roman alphabet to the Quechua language and set up the school system which spread literacy among the people of the empire.

--FOREIGN RELATIONS: At the present time, the Tawantinsuyu Empire is at peace. Despite the breakup of the British and Tawantinsuyu East India Company and colonial competition with the British in Australia, relations between Tawantinsuyu and Britain remain very close. Indeed, even in India, cooperation between the successor companies of the former B.T.E.I.C. remains the norm, and the Tawantinsuya colony of New Cuzco in Australia trades with it's British counterpart at Botany Bay on a regular basis.

Relations with Spain, the former Great Enemy of Tawantinsuyu, continue to improve, which will have some interesting consequences in the upcoming years. Relations with other European countries such as France and the Netherlands are somewhat strained as a result of Tawantinsuya support of the Brazilian Quilombo. The Tawantinsuya have not, as yet, established relations with the new republic in North America...the United States.

Relations with the Quilombo remain good. The increasingly independent foreign policy of the Quilombo has somewhat irked the Incas, but not enough to threaten a rupture in the relationship between the two nations. The Tawantinsuya continue to extend a shield of protection against European intervention in the affairs of it's neighboring state, and the Quilombo in return gives special privileges to Tawantinsuya business concerns operating in the Quilombo.

--MILITARY FORCES: The Tawantinsuya Navy, as of 1800, currently ranks number 5 in the world, behind the British, French, Dutch and Spanish navies. The Tawantinsuya fleet is slightly smaller than the Spanish fleet, but because the Tawantinsuya can usually concentrate all of their forces in the regions around their shores, they can usually maintain local superiority over the Spanish in time of war between the two powers. The Tawantinsuya maintain squadrons based at naval bases located at Tawantinsuya cities founded on the sites of OTL Caraccas, Venezuela; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Santiago, Chile; and Lima, Peru. They also maintain bases on the island of Trinidad, and at Tierra del Fuego, which controls the route around Cape Horn. Most of the Tawantinsuya fleet consists of frigates, which are very useful for protecting Tawantinsuya commerce, hunting down pirates, and so forth. But they do also maintain two battleship fleets, one based in the Caribbean and one at the base in Peru, which can contend with European fleets in open battle.

The Tawantinsuya Army has a peace-time strength of about 100,000 men. It is organized, trained, and equipped on the model of Britain’s army. Unlike the British, however, the Tawantinsuya Army is not a volunteer army, but uses a system of universal service. All men are expected to serve a term of enlistment (usually 3-5 years) in the army upon reaching adulthood, after which they enter a reserve system, where they report to local depots a couple of times per year for refresher training, until they reach the age of 40. In wartime, this reserve of trained manpower enables the Tawantinsuya Army to rapidly mobilize to meet wartime needs.

c. A.D. 1800, The United States--Since the end of the American Civil War, there has been a segment of the population which supports a restoration of the monarchy and of the House of Arnold (as Benedict Arnold’s surviving in exile in Canada...are now referred to by American monarchists) to the American throne. This segment is growing rapidly.

Although engaged in a struggle for his own survival throughout his brief reign, King Benedict never committed any egregious violations of liberty. He never ordered mass arrests of opponents or shut down newspapers, and in general, attempted to respect civil liberties where and when he could. This is in sharp contrast to the current administration and the increasingly oppressive policies of the Federalist Party, and many people have come to view "Good King Benedict" with a great deal of respect and even nostalgia.

Many important people, including some high-ranking members of the Federalist Party who are secretly opposed to the policies of the current administration (but afraid to voice these opinions for fear of ending up in jail under the Sedition Acts), begin plotting for an eventual restoration of the monarchy.

c. A.D. 1800 onward--Since the 1600s, the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan has maintained a closed society, not allowing foreigners to enter the country, restricting contacts between Japanese citizens and the outside world, and allowing only a small and limited trade to be carried on by the Dutch at a single port in Japan. Furthermore, they have behaved barbarously toward shipwrecked sailors of foreign nations who wash up on their shores, often summarily executing them or enslaving them.

Up until the late 1700s, this has affected the Tawantinsuya very little, as there has been scant Tawantinsuya martime traffic in the neighborhood of the Japanese isles. Tawantinsuya merchants of the British and Tawantinsuya East India Company (and it’s successor, the Tawantinsuya East India Company) have traded in southern Chinese ports, but no closer than that.

But beginning in the late 1700s, the Tawantinsuya begin taking part in whaling expeditions to the north Pacific, and in 1800 the first Tawantinsuya ship is wrecked on the Japanese coast. The crew is captured by the local Daimyo and put to death. When news of this reaches Tawantinsuyu, there is much outrage, and this will only increase as further incidents occur over the succeeding years. No action is immediately taken, however.

c. A.D. 1800 onward--Tawantinsuya colonization of Australia and New Zealand have been proceeding slowly. Although the Tawantinsuya have a large population, they also have a lot of unused land within the mainland empire, and there is little interest among the general population in going overseas to establish colonies.

In 1800, Ninan Cuyuchi Inca establishes a subsidy program to encourage colonization of the overseas territories. The program works as follows...any family which agrees to remove to the colonies will receive a cash payment of 500 gold Qurants (as the Tawantinsuya currency is called...this is short for "quri rantiy," Quechua for "gold used for purchasing"), which is the equivalent of several years’ earnings for most families in Tawantisuyu. They will also receive a land grant of 150 acres of land in the new colonies, as well as tools, seedstock, and other materials needed to establish themselves in their new homes. In exchange, they have to agree to remain in the colonies for at least seven years...Ninan Cuyuchi reasons that within that time, most families will have established themselves on a self-supporting basis within that length of time and will be more likely to stay put.

Ninan Cuyuchi also recognizes the need to get more females out to the colonies...which up until now have been heavily overpopulated with order for them to be made viable in the long term. Therefore, his subsidy program awards families with unmarried virgin daughters an additional 100 Qurants per daughter, on the condition that these daughters marry and remain in the colonies (since in Tawantinsuya society, marriages are arranged, the head of the household can contract for this with the government and thus receive the award).

Finally, he also establishes tax incentives to encourage emigration to the colonies. The result of these measures is a significant increase in the number of people emigrating to the colonies. As a result, the colony in Australia, which had been sparsely populated and in danger of failure, is much strengthened, and is soon not only made viable, but capable of expansion. Likewise, the colony in New Zealand is much strengthened, and within a few years, a second colony will be established on the southern island.

c. AD 1800 onward--In New Zealand, the Tawantinsuya colony has maintained mostly friendly relations with the warlike native Maoris who inhabit the archipelago. Many Tawantinsuya men, lacking suitable Tawantinsuya mates, have married Maori women, and there is a growing number of mixed-blood people as a result. The Tawantinsuya have been somewhat appalled by some of the practices...cannibalism, for example...that exist among the Maori, but lacking the numbers to effectively stamp out these practices, have adopted a "live and let live" policy for the time being. As the number of Tawantinsuya on the islands grows, however, Tawantinsuya efforts to end inter-tribal warfare and stamp out "barbaric" practices among the natives will lead to conflict between the two groups, and eventually war.

A.D. 1800--President Nathaniel Greene dies in office. Alexander Hamilton becomes the second President of the United States. The first Tawantinsuya-built steamship, a paddlewheel coastal trader named the MANCO CAPAC, is launched. It is not a commercial success, but will inspire other designers to improve the design.

A.D. 1801--Britain makes Ireland part of a single British kingdom. The Irish Parliament in Dublin is abolished. The Anglican Church is to be recognized as the official church in Ireland. No Catholics are to be allowed to hold public office.
Napoleon of France has defeated Austria. In the treaty of Lunéville, Austria renounces claims to the Holy Roman Empire.

In England, Matthew Murray and Robert Trevithick demonstrate steam locomotives. One of the observers at the Trevithick demonstration is Huaman Pahuac, the Tawantinsuya ambassador to Great Britain.

A.D. 1802--The war-weary British sign a treaty ending their war against France-The Treaty of Amiens. It will be a temporary truce.

A.D. 1803--Alexander Hamilton wins election to a second term as President of the United States, with Aaron Burr elected as Vice President. The election is basically a farce, as Hamilton’s ruling Federalist Party has taken full advantage of the Sedition Acts to see that no credible opposition is allowed to arise. There is widespread anger among the populace over the increasingly oppressive rule of the Federalist Party.

Also in this year, the Irish are rebelling against British rule. They are crushed militarily by the British, but unrest among the Irish will remain in Ireland through the rest of the century.

Britain and France return to war after their treaty breaks down. Britain begins stopping U.S. ships on the high seas and impressing American seamen into the Royal Navy.
Death of Ninan Cuyuchi Inca. He is succeeded by his nephew (son of Auqui Amaru Inca), who reigns as Apichu Cusi Inca.

A.D. 1804--In the wartime atmosphere and as a defense against French royalty, the Senate in France votes in favor of awarding the crown to Napoleon, who will reign as "Emperor of the French." Napoleon crowns himself emperor. Beethoven is enraged. He dislikes royalty and tears up the title page for his Symfonia Buonaparte, which will be known as his Symphony No. 3. Spain joins Napoleon's war as an ally against the British. Apichu Cusi Inca declares Tawantinsuya neutrality in the war between Britain and Spain.

Also in this year, the Royal College of Surgeons is founded in London. Japan refuses trade with arriving Russian ships. The Russians visit the Hawaiian islands on their way to Fort Ross in California. Nearly half of the population of the Hawaiian Islands are dying from the Great Sickness - an unknown disease brought by Europeans.

The Serbs revolt against Ottoman authority and win autonomy status...self-rule within the Ottoman Empire...demonstrating Ottoman weakness to the Greeks, who remain under Ottoman rule.

Rebirth of the Sons of Liberty in the United States, as people opposed to the increasingly dictatorial rule of President Hamilton and the Federalist Party begin to secretly organize. The organization seeks the restoration of American liberty, and it’s leadership sees as the best remedy for the problem the establishment of a strictly limited constitutional monarchy and the restoration of State’s Rights. Among the leaders of the organization...unknown to President Vice President Aaron Burr, who is secretly grooming Benedict Arnold (eldest son of the former King Benedict) for eventual restoration to the American throne.

Also in this year, Hobart Town, the first British settlement on Tasmania, is established. Irish convicts in Australia staged a failed rebellion at Vinegar Hill.

A.D. 1805--Russia, Austria and Sweden ally themselves with Britain. In Milan, Napoleon is crowned King of Italy. He is looking towards an invasion of England. A French fleet sails north to Spain's Atlantic port of Cadiz. Napoleon orders his French and Spanish ships out of Cadiz to do battle with the British. The British win, at the Battle of Trafalgar, frustrating Napoleon's invasion plan.

For two years the British East India Company has been warring against the Maratha Empire, which was allied with Napoleon. The Tawantinsuya East India Company has cooperated with these efforts, as the Marathas are seen by the Tawantinsuya as a threat to their interests in India as well. As a result the British East India Company wins and gains control over Orissa and western Gujarat.

President L’Ouverture of Haiti is assassinated at the orders of General Jean Jacque Dessalines. Dessalines leads a coup that overturns the Republic, declaring himself Emperor of Haiti.

Also in this year, Tenskwatawa, a Shawnee shaman, leads a religious revival among the exiled Indian tribes living under British protection in Canada. He teaches that if only the Indians can get back in the graces of the Great Spirit by returning to their traditions and rejecting the ways of the whites, the lands stolen from them will be returned and a new Golden Age will dawn. His teachings have a powerful appeal, and he soon has a very large following. His brother, Tecumseh, uses this movement as the basis for his plans for an eventual return of the tribes to their lost homelands. Tecumseh is encouraged in these efforts by the British, who view his warriors as an important component in the defense of Canada in the event of war with the United States.

A.D. 1806--Napoleon institutes "The Continental System," a strict embargo of British trade goods by all nations controlled by, or allied to, Napoleon’s French Empire. In response, Britain declares a naval blockade of those European countries ruled by Napoleon. U.S. shipping is caught in the middle, as the British seize 1,000 American ships and the French nearly 500. Popular opinion and pressure is mounting on President Hamilton to respond to British aggression on the high seas. Hamilton is an Anglophile, however, and continues to follow a policy of appeasement toward Britain.

Also caught in the middle is the shipping of another neutral power...Tawantinsuyu. Apichu Cusi Inca lodges formal protests with both the British and French governments, and orders Tawantinsuya merchant vessels to travel in convoys, escorted by naval vessels. Neither Britain or France want to provoke a war with the Tawantinsuya while still engaged in a death struggle with each other, and the show of force discourages attacks by both powers on the Tawantinsuya convoys. And so, unlike the situation of American shipping, interference with Tawantinsuya trade sharply declines. But Apichu Cusi’s action also significantly chills Tawantinsuya relations with Britain, a state of affairs which will continue for the rest of Apichu Cusi’s reign.

Also in this year, the Emperor of Austria, Francis I, abdicates his other title: Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire, created in the 800s, is formally dissolved, with Napoleon reorganizing much of it into his Confederation of the Rhine.

In Haiti, Jean Jacque Dessalines, self-declared emperor, is seen by his generals as a ridiculous figure. Dessalines announces his plan to march with troops into the south, where he is not popular, and the south explodes in rebellion. Dessalines' generals prepare a trap for him along the way. His horse is shot from under him, and he is pinned under his horse, shot in the head, and his body hacked to pieces with machetes. Haiti is plunged into chaos and civil war as the generals squabble among themselves and attempt to seize power.

A British naval force takes control of Cape Colony in South Africa...the Dutch who had been ruling there now being ruled by Britain's enemy, Napoleon.

A.D. 1807--Extending its power at sea, Britain outlaws slave trading across the Atlantic, for its own ships and for ships from all countries united with Napoleon. Britain turns a presence on the coast of western Africa into a crown colony. With help from the French, Muhammad Ali Pasha drives the British out of Egypt (a part of the Ottoman Empire).

Napoleon moves to consolidate his position in Europe. He defeats a combined Prussian and Russian force in February. Danzig surrenders to him. He defeats the Russians again in June and occupies Königsberg. Tsar Alexander of Russia is annoyed with the British and agrees to meet with Napoleon.
In August, Napoleon demands that Portugal join the trade boycott against the British and declare war on Britain. Portugal hesitates. Napoleon's ally, Spain, allows French troops to pass through its territory to Portugal.

Robert Fulton builds the first commercially successful steamboat. The first passenger train begins running from Swansea to Mumbles, in Britain. Beginning of railroad construction in Britain.

A.D. 1807 onward--In 1807, a delegation of leading citizens from Haiti travels to the Quilombo to petition for aid in ending the civil war and chaos in Haiti. Jabari Gamba, the Great Chief of the Quilombo, with the approval of the Great Assembly, agrees to intervene. A Quilombo military force lands in Haiti and over a three year period, defeats the private armies of the squabbling generals and bandit lords which have been feuding for control of the island since the assassination of Emperor Dessalines in 1806.

Remembering how the Tawantinsuya helped the Quilombo out of it’s own crisis in the early years of the last century, Jabari Gamba and his successors station Quilombo troops permanently in Haiti as peacekeepers, to remain there until a stable government can take over the reins of power.

A.D. 1807-1808--The Second American Revolution. In early 1807, a peace delegation, sent by President Hamilton to Britain, is rudely rebuffed. Then in June 1807, the British frigate H.M.S. LEOPARD fires on the U.S. warship, U.S.S. CHESAPEAKE, after the American ship refuses to be boarded. When news of these two new insults to American honour are received in the United States, public demands for war reach a fever pitch.

President Hamilton once again refuses to declare war, and begins tightening controls on dissent. A wave of arrests only serves to further infuriate the people, and beginning in August, armed rebellion breaks out in most States of the Union. President Hamilton calls out the army to crush these revolts.

On August 10, the Sons of Liberty calls on Vice President Burr to take action, and Burr...who has been planning for this day for quite some time...sends troops personally loyal to himself to the Presidential mansion, where they attempt to arrest Hamilton. Hamilton refuses to go peacefully, and, in violation of Burr’s orders, one of the soldiers bayonets him in the back. He dies in agony a few hours later.

The next day, Vice President Burr calls Congress into session. In a speech which will be remembered as one of the most important in American history, Burr declares that America’s attempt at republicanism has failed. "This government, which was created to protect and defend the liberties of the American people, has become the single greatest threat to those liberties," Burr says. "Our recent experience amply demonstrates that republicanism inevitably degenerates into dictatorship. Certainly this is not what the heroes of the War of Independence fought and died to achieve. It is time to restore the liberties of the American people, and to act to see that they are nevermore threatened by tyranny."

At the conclusion of his speech, Burr asks Congress to do two things...first, immediately repeal the Sedition Acts, and order the release of all those held in prison under the authority of said Acts; and second, call for a convention of the States to draft a new Constitution. Many members of Hamilton’s Federalist Party have been dismayed by the increasingly dictatorial behavior of the Greene and Hamilton administrations...indeed, a great many are secretly members of the Sons of Liberty...and willingly agree to end an unsavory chapter in the country’s history. In the end, they outnumber those who want to cling to power by any means possible, and to Burr’s amazement, Congress narrowly passes both proposals.

When news of these events gets out to the public, armed resistance to the government quickly subsides, and Vice President Burr recalls the Army.

The Constitutional Convention meets in late September 1807, and over a period of four months of hard-fought negotiating, a new Constitution is drafted. The new document creates a limited constitutional monarchy, based loosely on that of Britain. The document mandates a bi-cameral legislature, consisting of an upper house called the Senate whose members will be appointed by the State Legislatures, and a lower house called the Chamber of Delegates whose members will be popularly elected. All bills must originate in the lower house, but must be passed by both houses to become law.

The monarch will be the official head of state, but will wield little actual power. Instead, he will appoint a Prime Minister, who will act as the chief magistrate of the land, as well as acting as the presiding officer of the Chamber of Delegates. The monarch will have the ability to introduce legislation for consideration by the legislature, and a veto over all laws passed by the legislature. Declarations of War will originate with the monarch, but must be approved by both houses of the legislature.

In addition, the Constitution re-establishes States’ Rights, granting the States the power to maintain militias, and clearly limiting the power of the central government over local affairs. And finally, there is an extensive bill of rights attached to protect the liberties of the people.

This Constitution is submitted to the States for ratification in January 1808, and by June 1808, all fourteen States have ratified the document. In it’s last official act, the outgoing Congress, under the leadership of Vice President Burr (who has refused to take the title of President in recognition of his role in the death of President Hamilton), restores the crown of the United States to the House of Arnold. Benedict II, King of the Americans, is crowned at Philadelphia on July 4, 1808.

A.D. 1808--Napoleon’s intervention in a quarrel between Spain's king, Charles IV, and the son of Charles, Ferdinand, seriously misfires. He attempts to make the two of them prisoners, but with the help of the Tawantinsuya ambassador, they manage to escape and take ship to Spain’s American colonies, which rally to the royal standard and become the home of the Spanish Government-in-Exile, which will inspire and provide aid to Spanish resistance to Napoleon. Napoleon declares the throne of Spain vacated, and moves his brother Joseph from the Kingdom of Naples to the throne in Spain.

King Charles IV, from his new capital at Mexico City, abrogates the Franco/Spanish alliance and declares war on France. Shortly afterward, he signs a treaty of alliance with Britain. He calls on his loyal subjects in Spain to resist the French occupation by any means necessary. An unusually barbarous guerrilla war begins within Spain, with atrocities committed on both sides, and with Napoleon as usual caring little about hearts and minds. Resistance to the French spreads to Portugal. The British land a force there to help the resistance. It is the beginning of Napoleon's decline.

Inspired by Robert Fulton’s success, the ANYAS ("Skunk," named after the noxious fumes which pour from it’s smoke stack), the first commercially successful steamship built in Tawantinsuyu, is launched. She will be the first of many.

A.D. 1808-1812--The War of 1808 between the United States and Great Britain. Continued British attacks on American shipping and impressments of American sailors by British warships lead King Benedict II, shortly after his accession to the American throne, to ask his legislature for a declaration of war. This is passed by both houses virtually unanimously on July 23, 1808.

The obvious target for American aggression is the British provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. And the United States is in a very enviable position. Unlike the situation in the OTL War of 1812, the United States has a professionally trained and well-equipped army of approximately 50,000 men (about five times the size of OTL’s Army at the outbreak of war in 1812), and the Royal Legislature soon authorizes an expansion of this force to a strength of 100,000. Recruiting for the authorized expansion of the regular army goes slowly, however, and the actual strength of the regular Army will never exceed 80,000 during the entire war. This force will be further supplemented by the newly re-established State militias, which will provide another 400,000 men to the American war effort. However, the contribution these raw and unevenly trained troops will make to the war effort will be marginal (they will contribute mainly by relieving the Regular Army of the need to provide local defense forces in each State).

The British find themselves in a very difficult position, however. At the outbreak of war, there are only approximately 10,000 British and Canadian regulars in Upper and Lower Canada. The British will raise a further 10,000 Canadian militia (which, like their American counterparts, will be unevenly trained and equipped and will contribute little to the war effort). And they have the support of Tecumseh and the followers of the Shawnee Prophet Tenskwatawa, which provide around 2,000 warriors to the British cause. And unfortunately for the defenders of Canada, Britain’s continuing war with Napoleon will prevent them from sending anything more than token reinforcements to Canada.

And so, the war on land quickly turns in favor of the Americans. American armies enter Canada in early 1809, and by the end of 1810, all of Upper and Lower Canada are under at least nominal American control. The most troublesome aspect of the war for the Americans turns out to be Tecumseh and his native American warriors, who conduct a guerilla campaign which will be very costly for the American occupying forces until Tecumseh is finally caught and killed in late 1811. Without the strong leadership provided by Tecumseh, the native American tribesmen lose heart, and the alliance built by Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa collapses. The remnants move west, out of American controlled territory, and effectively drop out of the war.

The war at sea is another matter entirely. The Federalist administrations of Presidents Greene and Hamilton, which saw the Army as the means of crushing internal dissent and maintaining their own power, made sure that Army appropriations were generous, but, needing to control costs where they could, were very stingy with appropriations for the Navy. The British Navy quickly sweeps the United States fleet from the seas, and by the end of 1809, the only surviving American warships are those which are sheltered in American harbors defended by Army fortresses, and these will not dare to venture out to face the enemy.

But British victory at sea does not change American dominance on land, and in 1812, the British goverment, anxious to concentrate all of it’s resources on defeating Napoleon, agrees to a peace offer from King Benedict, whereby it cedes the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada to the United States. Britain retains the provinces of Nova Scotia (including the important naval base at Halifax) and Newfoundland (along with Cape Breton Island)...these provinces were successfully defended during the war, mainly because what limited British reinforcement could be spared for the war ended up here, along with the survivors of the original British garrison of Canada, which retreated here after being driven from Upper and Lower Canada (The British defenders were also helped by the outbreak of the Florida War, which forced the United States to divert a good portion of it’s forces to it’s southern and western borders to face the forces of Spain). Also retained by Britain is Rupert’s Land, the huge territory administered by the Hudson’s Bay Company which lies to the west of Upper and Lower Canada...American forces never entered this territory in any significant numbers during the war, and so King Benedict did not include it in his list of territorial demands.

A.D. 1809--Russia defeats Sweden. Sweden loses Finland, which becomes an autonomous Grand Duchy within Russia's empire. Returning to the Hawaiian Islands from California and hoping for trade, Russians build a fort at Honolulu and try to establish themselves on the island of Kauai. They ignore Hawaiian customs and are driven out.

Meanwhile, Napoleon is spread thin. The Austrians defeat him at the Battle of Aspern-Essling, and he loses his reputation for invincibility. The Austrians fail to follow up on their victory. Napoleon organizes an assault and defeats the Austrians at Wagram. The Austrians make peace with Napoleon. Napoleon's economic blockade is not working. Britain's exports reach an all-time high.

Sequoyah, a Cherokee silversmith living on the Cherokee reservation in north Georgia, has gained a reputation for his fine work. One day a white man who purchased some of Sequoyah’s silverwork suggests that it might be good if Sequoyah inscribed his name on it as a "trademark," as was the practice of white silversmiths. Sequoyah, of course, doesn’t know how to write, but learns how to do so from a local American settler. He becomes intrigued by the idea of creating a system of writing for his own people.

A.D. 1810--Allied with the Portuguese against Napoleon, the British negotiate an agreement with the Portuguese calling for the gradual abolition of the slave trade across the Atlantic. The ruler of Kauai cedes his island to Kamehameha. Kamehameha is now ruler of all of the Hawaiian Islands. In accordance with Hawaiian tradition he is considered divine and commoners prostrate themselves before him.

A.D. 1810 onward--In 1810, at the orders of Apichu Cusi Inca, a steam locomotive is imported from Britain to Tawantinsuyu. A circular railroad is built near Cuzco, where the machine is tested. Apichu Cusi is impressed, and the possible usefulness of this machine in enabling rapid transport of troops and materials around his empire is immediately clear to him.

Over the next few years, with the assistance of highly paid British construction engineers, the first railroad line (running from Cuzco to Chan Chan) will be constructed in Tawantinsuyu. It will be the first of a network which will eventually extend throughout the empire.

Licenses for the construction of locomotives and other rolling stock are also obtained, and Tawantinsuya engineers begin making their own adaptations and improvements on the British designs. In time, the Tawantinsuya railroad industry will be among the best in the world, and will be exporting locomotives and rolling stock to other nations.

A.D. 1810-1813--The Florida War. Over the years since the end of the Revolutionary War, people have been migrating from the United States into West Florida. In 1810, these settlers rebel and declare independence from Spain. Hoping to take advantage of Spain's apparently weakened condition and occupation by Napoleon, the U.S. government declares the annexation of the region for the United States. However, King Charles IV’s government in Mexico City is not of a mind to allow this, and sends troops to expel the foreigners and restore order in the rebellious region. Thus begins the Florida War.

Despite American expectations of easy victory, Spanish resistance turns out to be unexpectedly tough, as a much larger Spanish population exists in Spain’s North American colonies than existed in OTL. The Americans are further handicapped by the ongoing war in Canada, which prevents them from turning their full forces on the Spanish. In 1811, an American force under General Andrew Jackson is defeated near Pensacola, Florida by Spanish forces, and Jackson is mortally wounded. American attempts to seize the towns of St. Louis and New Orleans are likewise defeated in that same year.

The conclusion of the war against Britain in 1812 allows the Americans to concentrate their forces against Spain, and from that point on, the tide begins to turn. By mid-1813, American forces have expelled the Spanish from the disputed territory of West Florida, and have captured New Orleans. King Charles IV decides to salvage what he can, and agrees to sell all of Spanish Territory east of the Mississippi River to the United States for the paltry sum of five million dollars. In mid-August 1813, a Spanish force evicts the Americans from New Orleans, so in the final treaty, signed on September 28, 1813, that city remains a Spanish possession. Most Spanish settlers in Florida and West Florida decide to remove to Spain’s colonies west of the Mississippi, further strengthening those colonies.

A.D. 1811--The French are driven from Portugal. In Egypt, Viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha exterminates Mameluke warlords. He invites them to a banquet and has them slaughtered.

A.D. 1811 onward--In 1811, Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, is granted 300,000 acres of land by the Hudson’s Bay Company for the purpose of establishing an agricultural settlement. At the time, the Highland which Scottish highland tenant farmers are being driven off their lands by their landlords, who want to use the land to raise sheep, which they view as more profitable than renting their lands out to poor Highland families...are displacing large numbers of Scotsmen, and Douglas wants to provide a haven for these displaced Scotsmen.

Unlike in OTL, this project receives a lot of backing from the British government, which, in the wake of the loss of Upper and Lower Canada to the Americans in the War of 1808, is eager to increase the population of Rupert’s Land (the huge holdings of the Hudson’s Bay Company to the west of the lost provinces) so as to cement the British claim to the region. As a result, the project is extended to include not only destitute Scotsmen, but poor people from all over Britain. Thousands migrate with the promise of free land, and the government purchases several more large tracts of land from H.B.C. over the succeeding years, which it will also open up to settlement.

By the end of the century, a number of sizeable towns and cities will exist in the region, and Rupert’s Land will be divided into several several self-governing Crown Colonies. As it happens, the gradual increase in settlement will coincide with the gradual decline of the H.B.C.’s fur trade, so the company will actually be glad to get rid of the land.

One unintended result of the settlement of these lands by English and Scottish settlers is conflict with the Metis, the people of mixed French and native American ancestry who already live in the region. These people live primarily as fur trappers and small farmers, and most do not have clear title to the lands on which they live. With the new settlers come surveyors and land officials, and it is not long before violence results as these officials sometimes "disappear" while working in remote regions. Several full scale Metis Rebellions...lead by men such as Louis Riel...will take place beginning in the 1860s, as the Metis desperately struggle to preserve their way of life. The Metis will, however, be suppressed, and thus a roadblock to British settlement of the region will be removed.

A.D. 1812--Napoleon's march into Russia exposes his recklessness and shallow strategic thinking. 600,000 men march with Napoleon into Russia. Fewer than 30,000 will return.

In the aftermath of the signing of the treaty ending the war between the two nations, Britain's new prime minister, Lord Liverpool, instructs the British navy to treat U.S. trading ships with new tact and to avoid clashes with Americans.

In England, a few workers in various cities in the spinning and cloth finishing industries have been destroying new machinery. They are called Luddites. Some are executed.

In Spain, the Cortes Generales, the national legislative assembly, meets in Cadiz and adopts a liberal constitution. While the constitution recognizes Charles IV as the legitimate King of Spain, it also enshrines some concepts which are at variance with Charles’s known absolutist views, such as popular sovereignty.

In Haiti, democratic elections have been conducted under the constitution originally adopted immediately following the Haitian revolution. Quilombo peacekeepers successfully prevented any election-day violence and fraud from occurring. A plebiscite was being the Haitian people want to re-establish their own government, or do they wish to join the Quilombo? Most people in Haiti are very grateful to the Quilombo for ending the violence and chaos which wracked their country, and they also see in the Quilombo a successful government of a people very much like themselves. By a substantial majority, the Haitians vote to petition the Quilombo for annexation. This petition is received by the Great Assembly and approved. On August 5, 1812, Haiti officially becomes a province of the Quilombo, and representatives are elected to serve in the Great Assembly shortly thereafter.

A.D. 1812 onward--The annexation Haiti by the Quilombo is causing some problems for the Spanish, whose colony of Santo Domingo (which shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti) is still a slave-holding colony. Slaves in ever increasing numbers flee across the border into Haiti, and raiding parties from Haiti cause much destruction and death during forays against plantations in Santo Domingo.

Until 1813, Spain is too embroiled in The Florida War to consider military action against this threat to it’s colony, but once the war is concluded, King Charles IV begins threatening to take military action against Haiti if attacks on Santo Domingo don’t stop.

Apichu Cusi Inca, who, like his predecessors, has guaranteed to extend military protection to the Quilombo, sees events dragging Tawantinsuyu into a possible war with Spain. He decides to offer a compromise solution. He instructs his ambassador in Mexico City, Pachacutec, to inform the Spanish that if they will not pursue war with the Quilombo, the Tawantinsuya will pressure the Quilombo to offer to purchase the Santo Domingo colony and the slaves within it (which Tawantinsuyu will help finance) and to guarantee to stop the raids on the colony while the Spanish evacuate the white population of the colony. To sweeten the deal, Apichu Cusi offers special privileges and lower tariffs to Spanish vessels trading in Tawantinsuya ports for a period of ten years. The alternative, Pachacutec informs King Charles, is war with Tawantinsuyu.

Although neither King Charles nor the Quilombo leadership are happy about the compromise, in the end, a deal is agreed upon, and Spain withdraws from Santo Domingo. The last Spanish settler leaves in early 1815 (most of them settle in Texas and California). Santo Domingo is annexed by the Quilombo.

A.D. 1813 onward--During the Florida War, both sides courted the major southern Indian tribes, and right from the beginning of the war, some Indian warriors fought for both sides. The tribes themselves, however, remained neutral through most of the the conflict. But when the tide began to shift following the end of the war with Britain, the tribes, seeing which way the wind was blowing, came down firmly on the side of the Americans and made a significant contribution toward the final American victory. In the years that follow, the tribes reap benefits from this in the form of favorable treaties, protection of law, and other rewards.

A.D. 1813--Napoleon is in deep trouble. In Spain, British and Spanish forces defeat his military. Napoleon withdraws from Germany after the Russians, Prussians, Austrians and Swedes defeat him there. His Confederation of the Rhine collapses, with most of the constituent German principalities declaring war on Napoleon.

Napoleon's move against Russia has delayed Russia's ability to protect their fellow Orthodox Christians, the Serbs, who have been rebelling against Ottoman rule. The Ottoman Empire moves against rebel Serb areas, and Albanian troops plunder Serb villages.

American King Benedict II, flush with the victories over Britain and Spain in the recent wars, is more popular than ever. In this year he marries a young woman from Virginia named Mary Lee Fitzhugh. The beautiful Queen Mary will bear King Benedict three sons and two daughters, and will be very popular with the people.

A.D. 1814--France is invaded by British and Spanish forces from the south and by Russian, Prussian, and Austrian forces from the east. Despite a brilliant defensive campaign fought by Napoleon, Russian and Prussian forces enter Paris. Napoleon is forced to abdicate and is exiled to the island of Elba. The terms of peace between the victors and France are settled in another Treaty of Paris. The House of Bourbon, in the person of King Louis XVIII, is returned to the throne of France. The victors over Napoleon gather at the Congress of Vienna to create a stable Europe to their liking.

And, at the same time, the House of Bourbon returns to Spain, as King Charles IV and Crown Prince Ferdinand are welcomed by cheering crowds upon their return to Spain. Charles finds himself at the head of a government based on a liberal constitution which he did not authorize and which he does not support, but knows that the people will reject him if he tampers with it. And so he allows it to stand.

Also in this year, Apichu Cusi Inca holds a conference with Faraji Chiamaka, the Great Chief of the Quilombo. Apichu Cusi is very angry over the fact that Quilombo aggression nearly caused a war between Spain and Tawantinsuyu over Santo Domingo, and he demands guarantees that the Quilombo will not interfere with any of the slaveholding colonies held by European powers in the Caribbean. If the Quilombo refuses to give such guarantees...and live by them...Apichu Cusi informs them that the treaty of mutual defense which exists between Tawantinsuyu and the Quilombo will be abrogated, and the Quilombo will be on it’s own when dealing with the European powers. Faraji Chiamaka takes this threat back to the Great Assembly, where it causes much outrage and indignation. But in the end, cooler heads prevail, and the Great Assembly agrees to the Inca’s terms. The Quilombo formally agrees to cease aggression against neighboring slaveholding colonies.

A.D. 1814 onward--In the United States, settlers begin moving northward into the newly conquered territories of Upper and Lower Canada and Florida. These territories, like the Northwest Territory, are under direct rule by the national government. Within a few years, as populations increase, agitation begins for statehood status.

There is no provision within the American Constitution for the admission of new States into the Union, but King Benedict II finds a way to remedy this. In one of his last official acts before his death, he declares the lands to be, in the absence of provisions to the contrary in the Constitution, property of the Crown. Accordingly, he issues an edict allowing the people in each of the territories, once a population of at least 500,000 has been reached, to hold a plebiscite on the question of statehood. If the majority of the people within the territory favor it, and provided the monarch is not aware of any reason why it should not be granted, the monarch issue a Charter granting Statehood to the territory.

The Northwest Territory has already reached the required population level, and is granted Statehood by Queen Mary (acting as Regent for the future King Benedict III) in 1823 as the State of Arnoldia. By 1840, the remaining three territories (Upper and Lower Canada and Florida) will have reached the required levels as well.

A.D. 1815--Napoleon returns to France, forces King Louis XVIII to flee the country, and takes power once again. The powers at the Congress of Vienna immediately declare war on him. Napoleon attempts to defeat the British and Prussian armies in Belgium before the rest of the allied armies can intervene, but is himself defeated at Waterloo. Napoleon is captured by the British and sent into exile on the lonely island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic, where he can never cause trouble again. Louis XVIII is once again restored to the French throne.

At the Congress of Vienna, the British, Spain, Portugal, a politically new France, and the Netherlands are meeting to discuss the world without Napoleon, and they agree to eventually abolish the slave trade.

Also in this year, King Charles IV of Spain and his son, Crown Prince Ferdinand...who, while in exile, were able to put aside their differences and cooperate, after a fashion, on their joint effort to recover the Spanish throne...have a final falling-out. Ferdinand has been intriguing with enemies of the king in a bid to force his father to abdicate so he can seize the throne for himself, and has been discovered. King Charles is so angered by his son’s conduct that he has to be physically restrained from attacking the Prince when he is brought before him.

Charles orders Ferdinand thrown into jail, and the next day issues a decree removing Ferdinand from the line of succession to the Spanish throne. Instead, King Charles names his second son, the Infante Carlos, as his heir. Carlos, a strong believer in legitimacy, is somewhat ambivalent about this, but in the end, is persuaded to accept and support his father’s action.

A.D. 1815 onward--In Spain’s American colonies, there is a political movement afoot to gain more political freedoms from Spain’s government. Political leaders in the colonies argue that their support for the monarchy during it’s exile from Spain during the Napoleonic Wars entitles them to a greater degree of autonomy and local government than Spain has, heretofore, been willing to grant. King Charles IV, however, has refused to listen. Some in the American colonies begin to see in the quarrel between King Charles and Prince Ferdinand a possible lever to pry out the reforms they seek.

A.D. 1815 onward, North America--In the aftermath of the War of 1808 and the Florida War, the relations of the United States of America with it’s British and Spanish neighbors have remained cordial.

Unlike in OTL, no concept of "Manifest Destiny" has arisen in the United States. In part, this is one of the effects of the U.S. being a constitutional monarchy rather than a republican democracy, as the monarch is able to act as a restraining influence on the more extreme elements...such as those which in OTL took control and created the concept of "Manifest Destiny."

It is also an effect of there being no Louisiana Purchase in this timeline, and no expeditions by Lewis and Clarke, Zebulon Pike, John C. Fremont, etc. to explore this territory, which again has meant that there is not the same interest in expanding westward which existed in OTL.

Finally, the fact that industrialization is spreading fairly evenly through the whole U.S., rather than there being a marked disparity between the northern and southern States, as existed in OTL, means that there are jobs available for the population...and for lots of immigrants...without needing a lot of additional western land.

So the net effect of all this is that the U.S. in this timeline does not see it's ultimate fate as stretching from "sea to shining sea," and has no real reason to attempt to seize territory from it’s neighbors. In treaties with Britain (1821) and Nueva Espana (1825), the last disputes over the borders of the United States with those powers were resolved. By 1900, the United States will have become a prosperous, industrialized, firmly Atlantic-oriented nation, interested mainly in trade with Europe, Nueva Espana, Tawantinsuyu, and to a lesser extent, other regions of the world. It will not pay too much attention to goings-on in the Pacific, and will not become a power in that region.

A.D. 1815 onward--King Benedict II sees the independent native Americans of the Four Civilized Tribes as a potential problem. He appreciates the fact that they allied themselves to the United States during the recent war with Spain. And he also views the tribes as sovereign and equal to the United States. But he also knows that white settlers are drifting into native territory on an increasing basis. Conflict is bound to erupt as the two groups compete for the same territory. King Benedict decides that gradual assimilation of the American Indians is the best policy. He feels this can be accomplished in 50 years, and specifically targets the Cherokee first because they show many traits whites see as promising.

In 1815 he orders Royal Indian Agents to begin introduction of technology in the form of spinning wheels and carding machines to the Cherokee. Government funded spinning wheels arrive in along with cotton and seed just before the hunting season. The Cherokee males are surprised by the cloth their wives weave. The next year, with their own cotton, the Cherokee women weave cloth in six months that is worth more than the pelts the Cherokee men gather in the same amount of time.

The Cherokees begin to see how the technology can help them become more affluent and successful, and they eagerly seek out other technologies and adopt other white ways. The process moves a bit slower among the other southeastern tribes, but much the same result is achieved. While never completely losing their native identities, the tribes gradually merge into mainstream American culture. In return, they find the Royal Government is more inclined to support them in their disputes with white settlers and State governments in the years to come.

A.D. 1816--In France, the income of working people in terms of what it buys (real wages) begins a four-decade decline. The British return to the Dutch their empire in Indonesia.

Also in this year, Prince Ferdinand of Spain, who has been jailed by his father for almost a year, has been in secret contact with reformist politicians from the American colonies. In August 1816, assisted by agents of these politicians, Ferdinand escapes from jail and takes ship to the colonies. He arrives in Mexico City in September 1816, and in a ceremony held on September 29, he is crowned as Ferdinand I, King of New Spain. Ferdinand is an absolutist at heart, and dislikes having to listen to the demands of the reformist faction in the colonies, but he knows that, without their support, he has no way of standing up to the forces of the homeland. And so he grants a liberal constitution, creating an elected legislature which will have power to pass most laws (although Ferdinand retains a veto power), and granting religious freedom as well as freedom of speech and freedom of the press. The people of the colonies wholeheartedly support him.

Back in Spain, King Charles IV suddenly finds himself in a very difficult situation. The revenues from the gold and silver mines of the American colonies are now flowing into Ferdinand’s coffers, not his, and Spain soon finds itself nearly bankrupt (it does still have some income coming in from it’s colonies in Africa and the Philippines, but this is nothing against the revenue which was lost to Ferdinand). But Ferdinand doesn’t control a sufficient population base to make a serious effort at taking Spain by military force, so instead, a tense cold war begins between the homeland and it’s former colonies which will continue for some time.

Also in this year, second Tawantinsuya colony is established in Australia, on the site of OTL Rockhampton. The settlement is named Pacamayo.

Also in this year, King Benedict II of the United States introduces a bill into Congress to build a new capital, befitting the proud new nation, and to move the capital there from Philadelphia, where it has resided since the end of the American War of Independence. This bill is adopted, and it is decided that the new capital should not be located on territory owned by any of the current states of the Union. Therefore, a site on the north bank of the Ohio River is selected (the site that would, in OTL, become the city of Cincinnati, Ohio), and plans are laid out for the new city. The new capital will be called Columbia.

A.D. 1817--In Britain, real wages have been declining at least since the late 1790, as Britain has been burdened by war against France. From this year on and into the next century real wages in Britain will be rising.

In India, the Third Maratha War breaks out, involving both the British East India Company and it’s Tawantinsuya counterpart. The war ends with the break-up of the Maratha Empire and the division of Maratha lands between Britain and Tawantinsuyu. Britain, of course gets the lion’s share, and thus the British find themselves in control of most of India.

Also in this year, a second Tawantinsuya colony is established in New Zealand, this time on the southern island.

A.D. 1818--For the Ottoman Empire, Egyptians are taking control of the Arabian Peninsula. They destroy the mud-brick town of Diriyah (thirteen miles from the center of what today is Riyadh) which had been the home base of the Saud family and Wahhabis.

A.D. 1819--In England, 60,000 gather in a field and listen to a call for universal suffrage. A magistrate sends a force to arrest the main speaker, Henry Hunt. People riot. Eleven are killed and others injured. A movement for reform gathers strength.

Also in this year, King Charles IV of Spain dies. He is succeeded by Prince Carlos, who reigns as King Charles V. Carlos is a firm absolutist, and quickly antagonizes the people with his imperious decrees, including one which repudiates the Constitution of 1812.

A.D. 1820--Death of Apichu Cusi Inca. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Auqui Amaru Inca II. Auqui Amaru is a confirmed Anglophile, and he begins working to repair relations between the Tawantinsuyu Empire and Britain, which were damaged, to a great degree, by the policies of Apichu Cusi Inca during and after the Napoleonic Wars.

Also in this year, a liberal uprising begins in Spain, beginning with soldiers who are joined by others who want a constitutional monarchy, or a republic. King Charles V is captured and imprisoned, but staunchly resists all demands that he reinstate the Constitution of 1812 or failing that, abdicate. The Cortes Generales thereupon votes to offer the throne to Ferdinand, King of New Spain (brother of King Charles who was removed from the line of succession by edict of King Charles IV). Ferdinand quickly accepts, and returns in triumph before the end of the year. He is crowned as King Ferdinand VII of Spain on December 25, 1820.

Knowing that he needs the support of the revolutionaries to survive, Ferdinand restores the Constitution of 1812, and indeed offers amendments to the Cortes...patterned on the provisions of the Constitution of New Spain...which make it even more liberal than before. These amendments are adopted, and despite King Ferdinand’s own desires, Spain now has a liberal, constitutional monarchy.

Also in this year, Hongi Hiki, chief of the Ngapuhi tribe of Maoris in New Zealand, visits Auqui Amaru Inca II on the occasion of his coronation. He attempts to secure a supply of muskets for his tribe, but Auqui Amaru, not wishing to create a potentially explosive situation in his New Zealand colonies, refuses. Hongi Hiki is enraged, and secretly begins planning an uprising against the Tawantinsuya in New Zealand.

Also, for the past several years, conflict has been arising between American authorities and the Seminoles of Florida, who have never reconciled themselves to American rule since the territory in which they live was transferred to the United States from Spain. Clashes between Seminole raiding parties and U.S. troops have become more and more frequent, and in this year, full scale war breaks out. The wily Seminoles retreat into the swamps and jungles of Florida, and it will be years before they are finally brought under control.

A.D. 1821--The stability for Europe sought at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 is coming undone. Following Serb rebellions against Ottoman rule in previous years, the Greeks in March rise simultaneously against Ottoman rule, including in Macedonia, Crete and Cyprus. The Turks respond by hanging the Patriarch of Constantinople, Gregorios V. The Greeks liberate the Peloponnesian Peninsula in September. There, in the city of Tripolitsa, a center of Turkish authority, Muslims in the thousands are massacred for three days and nights.

Also in this year, Napoleon Bonaparte dies at the age of fifty-one under British authority on the island of St. Helena, the reported cause: stomach cancer.

Michael Faraday, son of a blacksmith, has overcome the conceit of aristocrats and, as a scientist, has been promoted in Britain's Royal Institution. His interest in a unified force in nature and work in electro-magnetism produces the foundation for electric motors and contributes to what will be "field theory" in modern physics.

The first railroad lines are laid in the United States and in New Spain. Construction on the new capital at Columbia has proceeded far enough along that the American government moves there in this year. King Benedict takes up residence in the new Royal Palace in March 1821.

Sequoyah demonstrates his new Cherokee syllabary, a system of 86 phonetic symbols for representing the Cherokee language, before a council of the assembled chiefs of the Cherokee tribe. The chiefs decide to formally adopt the system as the official method of writing the Cherokee language.

A.D. 1822--The British reduce the penalty for numerous crimes that had been capital offenses. The Ottoman Turks respond to rebellion on the island of Chios by slaughtering five-sixths of the islands 120,000 inhabitants.

Also in this year, King Benedict II of the United States dies of influenza. His eldest son, also named Benedict, is at this time a child of seven years of age, too young to succeed to the throne. Therefore his mother, Queen Mary, rules as regent for her young son until he comes of age.

A.D. 1823--Agents of the imprisoned former King of Spain, Charles V, have been petitioning the reactionary governments of Europe for assistance in squashing the liberal revolution in Spain. A Congress of the European powers is called at Verona, Italy, for the purpose of discussing the situation in Spain. The Congress votes to authorize French troops to enter Spain to destroy the liberal revolution there and re-establish the rule of King Charles V. Only Britain votes against the proposal. But the people and army of Spain rally to Ferdinand, and the French army is defeated outside of Madrid.

The Congress of Verona reconvenes, and splits develop in the ranks of the powers. It is decided to recognize Ferdinand as the legitimate King of Spain, with one proviso...he must guarantee that no further liberal amendments to the Spanish constitution are passed. Ferdinand the chagrin of his liberal supporters. Shortly afterward, Ferdinand’s brother...the former King Charles found dead in his prison cell. The official story is that he died by choking on a chicken bone, but it is widely suspected that he was murdered at the order of Ferdinand. Fearing for her life and that of her child, Francisca, wife of Charles V, flees the country with their only son, Carlos Luis, going into exile in Britain.

Also in this year, steam powered shipping begins between Switzerland and France on Lake Geneva. The Frenchman, Eugène Delacroix, paints "The Massacre of Chios." Britain's romantic poet, Lord Byron, who has written "We are all Greeks," goes to Greece and fights for Greek independence, where he dies of "marsh fever."

The Tawantinsuya population of New Zealand has increased to the point where the local Governor, Apo-Mayta, feels secure enough to begin attempting to enforce Tawantinsuya law on the native Maoris of the north island. He issues decrees banning cannibalism and forbidding intertribal warfare. Seeking to enforce the latter decree, in a surprise move, Tawantinsuya soldiers move into Maori villages throughout the island and disarm the tribesmen. This creates much resentment against the Tawantinsuya among the Maoris, and provides the opening that Hongi Hiki...chief of the Ngapuhi, who is still seething with anger over being denied muskets by Auqui Amaru Inca back in 1820...needs to form an anti-Tawantisuya alliance among the tribes.

A.D. 1824--In France, King Louis XVIII has died and is succeeded by his reactionary brother, Charles X.

The CHEROKEE PHOENIX, the first newspaper printed in a native American language in North America, begins publication at the Cherokee capital at New Echota (in north Georgia). The success of this venture will lead the southeastern tribes to adopting writing systems (some adopt the Roman alphabet to their own languages, others, like the Cherokee, develop their own script) in the succeeding decades.

A.D. 1825--Russian military officers, who had been exposed to the Enlightenment during Russia's occupation of France, attempt to replace authoritarian rule with a representative democracy. Their coup, called the Decembrist Rising, fails and they are crushed.

The first completely American-built locomotive is constructed in New York. The first rail line linking Tawantinsuyu with the Quilombo opens for business.

A.D. 1825 onward--Tawantinsuya exploration of the interior of the Australian continent has been proceeding slowly, but by 1825, most of what is in OTL the state of Queensland has been explored. In addition to the two major settlements at New Cuzco and at Pacamayo, there are now small settlements along the few rivers which penetrate inland from the coast.

The Tawantinsuya have also set up small posts in various places in the Outback where they conduct trade with the native aborigines...since the establishment of Tawantinsuya settlements in Australia, there has been a growing demand among the Tawantinsuya upper classes for shoes, belts, and other leather items made from kangaroo skin (for example, the height of fashion is for a Tawantinsuya nobleman to carry his coca leaves in a pouch fashioned from a kangaroo scrotum, suspended from his kangaroo skin belt), and the aborigines trade these skins to the Tawantinsuya for iron tools, beads, blankets, and other cheap trinkets, as well as for alcohol.

However, despite the increased settlement brought by the Tawantinsuya government’s subsidy plan, British settlement of Australia is still greatly outpacing Tawantinsuya settlement of the continent. In some regions, disputes are beginning to arise with regard to the ownership of certain areas as Tawantinsuya and British settlers vie for control of scarce water resources. This development is worrisome to Auqui Amaru Inca II, who instructs his ambassador in London to open negotiations to establish the boundaries of British and Tawantinsuya territory in Australia. These negotiations will drag on for some time.

A.D. 1825 onward--The position of the still-independent Indian tribes in the southeastern United States (Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw, collectively known as the Four Civilized Tribes) are protected by treaty, but white settlers are encroaching on their lands nonetheless.

In 1825, representatives of the Four Civilized Tribes petition Queen Mary for redress. Mary is sympathetic to the tribes, and after much negotiation, grants them a form of semi-independence. The tribes will be allowed to rule their reservations, make their own laws, and in general, conduct their own local affairs. American troops will be stationed on the reservations to protect the Indians from troublesome whites. In exchange, they agree to recognize the monarch of the United States as their sovereign, to allow the United States to conduct their foreign affairs, and to furnish troops when needed if the United States goes to war.

The tribes agree to the terms, and U.S. Army units take up station at forts built on the reservations shortly thereafter. The problems the tribes were having with encroaching whites are resolved when the soldiers escort them off the reservations. The tribes are cemented even firmer in loyalty to the United States.

A.D. 1827--Britain, Russia, France break with Austria regarding the Greek war of independence-Austria still feeling threatened by any revolt against empire while the Russians want to protect their fellow Orthodox Christians. Egypt, a part of the Ottoman Empire, is helping the Turks, but a combined British, French and Russian fleet sink an Egyptian and Turkish fleet at Navarino Bay, on the west coast of the Peloponnesian Peninsula. This weakens Ottoman power in Greece and in Arabia.

In Vienna, Austria, over 10,000 mourners attend the burial of Beethoven. In London, parliament extends tolerance, passing the Catholic Emancipation Bill, making it possible for Catholics to hold public office. The third major Tawantinsuya settlement in Australia, called Mayomarca, is founded on the site of the OTL town of Bundaberg.

A.D. 1828-1829--Hongi Hiki’s Rebellion: Chief Hongi Hiki of the Ngapuhi has secretly formed an alliance with the other tribes of the north island of New Zealand, all of whom are angry over the policies of Governor Apo-Mayta and his attempts to enforce Tawantinsuya law on the native tribesmen (Hongi Hiki has had no success with the tribes of the south island, who remain neutral during the conflict).

At dawn on September 21, 1828, the tribesmen rise up in rebellion, and launch surprise attacks on Tawantinsuya communities throughout the north island. Hundreds of Tawantinsuya are killed, and many prisoners are taken (many of these are later eaten by the Maori during victory celebrations later that day). The Maori temporarily throw off Tawantinsuya control of the island, capturing many muskets from Tawantinsuya military stores in the process. Governor Apo-Mayta himself barely escapes with his life, fleeing by ship to the south island.

But the Maori victory is to be short-lived. The division of the captured muskets soon creates a rift between the allied tribes, and fighting breaks out between them. Governor Apo-Mayta is able to raise a force of Tawantinsuya troops from the garrisons on the south island, supplemented by troops sent from Tawantinsuyu itself and by Maori auxilliaries from the loyal south island tribes, and in late November 1828, he returns to the north island.

Finding the formerly allied tribes disunited and at each other’s throats, he methodically subdues them, one by one, until, by January 1829, the entire north island is back under Tawantinsuya control. Hongi Hiki and the leaders of the other rebel tribes are captured and executed, and most of the muskets are recovered (some few will remain in Maori hands, despite the best efforts of the Tawantinsuya to locate them). The power of the northern tribes is effectively destroyed, and from then on, the enforcement of Tawantinsuya law on the north island proceeds relatively unimpeded.

c. 1829 onward--The Tawantinsuya presence on the south island of New Zealand is much smaller than that on the north island, and it will be some time before an effort to enforce Tawantinsuya law is made there. But, seeing the fate of the tribes of the north island, most of the tribes of the south island decide to voluntarily end the practices found abhorrent by the Tawantinsuya, especially cannibalism. Inter-tribal warfare goes on for quite some time, however, until the Tawantinsuya are sufficiently strong to finally put a stop to it.

A.D. 1829--The Treaty of Adrianople ends the war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire grants Greece independence. Russian authority in Georgia is recognized. The Russians are allowed access through the narrow straits from the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea. Autonomy is extended to Serbia and to the Romanians of Moldavia and Walachia, under Russian protection.

The Treaty of London between the British and Tawantinsuyu Empires establishes the borders of British and Tawantinsuya territories in Australia. The border begins on the Barwop River, then runs due west until it reaches the point where Cooper Creek joins Lake Eyre. A second line runs due north from the northernmost tip of Lake Eyre to the northern coastline of the continent. Everything to the north and east of those lines is assigned to Tawantinsuyu. The remainder of the continent is recognized as being British territory.

Also in this year, the U.S. Army finally locates and subdues the last of the free bands of the Seminole tribe in the Florida Everglades, ending the Seminole War. Also in this year, Scotch tape is invented. The British under Captain James Stirling establish the colony of Western Australia, with it’s first settlement at Perth.

A.D. 1829: The Treaty of Columbia--Gold has been mined in the north Georgia mountains since the early 1600s, when Spanish settlers conducted small-scale mining operations there. In 1828, major veins of gold ore are discovered on lands within the Cherokee Indian Reservation (in what, in OTL, would be White, Lumpkin, Union, and Cherokee Counties, Georgia). This leads to a major influx of whites onto the Cherokee reservation...despite the recent treaty between the Four Civilized Tribes and the United States concluded in 1825.

U.S. Army troops, under orders from Queen Mary, attempt to stem the flow, but cannot be everywhere at once, and clashes between white "squatters" and the Cherokee become more and more common, with whites frequently murdering Cherokee officials who dare to interfere with them as they pan for gold in the mountain creeks. The government of the State of Georgia, siding with the miners, begins petitioning the Royal Government for the removal of the Cherokees from the disputed lands. The Cherokees, likewise, petition for the enforcement of the government’s obligations under the Treaty of 1825 and the complete removal of white "invaders" from Cherokee territory.

In early 1829, dismayed by the deteriorating situation, Queen Mary calls representatives from both sides to Columbia in an attempt to work out of compromise. Queen Mary and her able Prime Minister, Henry Clay of Virginia...renowned for his negotiating skills...are able to persuade the two sides to accept a compromise that protects the interests of both. The terms of the agreement are as follows...

--The Georgians are given the right to settle on Cherokee lands and mine the gold there. The Georgians must pay rent to the Cherokees for lands they settle...the whites will not be permitted to own Cherokee land, and "squatting" will not be permitted...and white settlers will be subject to Cherokee taxation while living on the Cherokee Reservation. The Cherokee may not tax whites at a rate greater than that which they impose on their own population.

--The whites agree to abide by Cherokee law while on the reservations, and the U.S. Army will enforce these laws, arresting accused violators and presenting them for trial. A special U.S. Circuit Court, to be composed of a panel of six judges...three whites and three Cherokees...will be created which will have jurisdiction over all cases involving a white accused of violating Cherokee law. In cases where there is a deadlock, the case will be submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court for a final decision. If found guilty, the white criminal will suffer whatever penalties are prescribed by Cherokee Law.

--The Georgians agree to pay a 3 percent tax on all gold mined on Cherokee Territory. The Royal Government agrees to establish a mint at the Cherokee town of Dahlonega, where the gold mined will be coined. The mint will handle the process of transferring the Cherokee tax proceeds to the turning three out of every one hundred dollars worth of coins minted there to the Cherokees.
Neither side is completely happy with the agreement, but both can see that it is a relatively fair and equitable solution, and a treaty is signed in July 1829. The Treaty of Columbia will be the model for future relations between the Indian tribes and whites within the United States in the years to 1840, all of the remaining tribes will have signed similar treaties.

A.D. 1830--With China's great population growth, unemployment has risen and there has been a shortage of land, creating peasant unrest. China is still the leader in manufacturing output (real rather than per capita), but its share is slipping from 32.8 percent in 1750 to 29.8 percent. India's share since 1750 has fallen from 24.5 percent to 17.6 percent. Britain, with a fraction of the population of either China or India, has increased its share in this period from 1.9 to 4.3 percent. The U.S. share is 2.4 percent.

Meanwhile, France has reneged in paying its bill for wheat bought from Algeria. A new era of European imperialism begins with King Charles X sending an invasion force of 36,000 troops to Algeria, claiming that he was responding to an insult to his ambassador. The invasion is described as a civilizing mission and a mission to abolish slavery and piracy-a response to Algeria's reputation in France for having attacked the ships of Christian nations during past centuries and for an estimated 25,000 European slaves in Algeria, including women in the harems.

Businessmen and common people loath Charles X, who has returned to absolutism, including dissolving parliament. The barricades go up in the streets of Paris. Charles X is frightened and rather than fight goes into exile, back to Britain. Parliament returns, creates a constitutional monarchy and elects a new king, Louis-Philippe.

The revolution in France sparks violence across Germany. Rent, tax and military records are burned. People who want bread or are annoyed by higher prices for food, military conscription and in places by feudal dues, rise up against their rulers. In Brunswick, Grand Duke Karl flees and a liberal constitution is created. The king of Saxony grants his subjects a liberal constitution. In Hesse-Kassel a constitution and a unicameral legislature are created. However, these developments will be short-lived, as intervention by the reactionary regimes in Prussia and Austria will soon put an end to the hopes of the revolutionaries.

In Spain, King Ferdinand VII issues the Pragmatic Sanction, ratifying a decree of King Charles IV which had been approved by the Cortes in 1789, but never promulgated. Since the accession of the Bourbon dynasty to the throne of Spain in 1700, the Spanish succession has followed Salic Law...i.e., only a male heir may inherit the throne. The Pragmatic Sanction restores the rules of succession to the laws existing before the Bourbons came to power, and allows females to inherit the throne.

This at first does not cause much disturbance to public opinion, as Ferdinand is, at that point, childless. But later that same year, Ferdinand’s wife bears him a healthy baby daughter, who they name Isabella. Now the conservative elements of the population...already upset with Ferdinand because he has allowed the liberals who control the government to dissolve the religious orders and confiscate the property of the orders including the Jesuits...are outraged at the prospect that a female will inherit the throne. These conservatives begin rallying around Carlos Luis...the exiled son of King Charles the "legitimate" heir to the throne.

A.D. 1831--Various uprisings are taking place onthe Italian peninsula, including the papal states. Pope Gregory XVI is opposed to democracy at any level and calls for help from Austria. Austria's army marches across the peninsula, crushing revolts and revolutionary movements.

In Warsaw, Polish soldiers revolt against Russian rule. Crowds take control of the city. Austria and Prussia want the revolt crushed, while Britain and France are vocal in support of the rebels...but give little tangible support. The Russians are not so timid, and Nicholas I, who considers himself both the Tsar of Russia and King of Poland, sends troops that overwhelm the rebellion.

Spanish troops force the Russians to abandon their settlement at Fort Ross in northern California. Up until now they have tolerated the Russian trading post, but recent worsening of relations between the two countries since King Ferdinand restored the liberal constitution of 1812 (which the reactionary Russian Tsar vehemently opposes) have lead the Spanish to reconsider this position.

Meanwhile, in England, parliament's lower body, the House of Commons, passes a reform bill. Britain's new Prime Minister, Earl Grey, wants to end undue representation of the "rotten boroughs" (towns or other parliamentary constituencies whose small populations allowed them to be effectively controlled by a rich landowner or other wealthy person of influence, thus giving said "patron" an undue and unfair influence in Parliament) and to give Britain's growing industrial towns representation in the House of Commons. The bill is defeated in the House of Lords, dominated by aristocratic conservatives. Rioting erupts in various cities, most seriously in Bristol from April 15 to May 4.

Also in this year, Charles Darwin, 22, has completed his B.A. at Cambridge and sails as an unpaid naturalist on the H.M.S. Beagle to South America, New Zealand, and Australia.

A.D. 1832--Egypt takes advantage of Russia's defeat of the Ottoman Turks and declares independence.

In Britain, the Whigs acquire more power momentarily. They are largely aristocrats with liberal leanings. They want to make Britain's political system fairer and to placate working people without giving in to all their demands. The Great Reform Act, denied in 1831, is passed into law.

Also in this year, Auqui Amaru Inca II decides to establish formal diplomatic relations with the United States. The Tawantinsuya Embassy opens in the American capital city of Columbia in November, 1832.

In Japan, too much rain produces crop failures and what is called the Tempo famine. Prosperity comes to a temporary end. The famine is to last three years and an estimated 300,000 are to die.

A.D. 1833--Port Arthur is established by the British as the first penal colony in Tasmania. Troublesome convicts and defiant Aborigines will be transported there to settlements so brutal that convicts could be flogged for simply having their hands in their pockets.

Upper Canada reaches 500,000 residents, as documented by a special census taken this year. The territory applies for admission to the American Union.

A.D. 1833-1836--The Carlist War. In Spain, King Ferdinand VII dies. Queen Maria Christina is declared Regent by the liberal Cortes in the name of her daughter, Isabella, Princess of Asturias, who is not yet of age to assume the throne. However, an alliance of powerful conservative aristocrats and clergymen soon issue a "pronunciamento" declaring the Pragmatic Sanction invalid, and declaring that the throne rightfully belongs to Carlos Luis, heir of the former King Charles V. Carlos Luis is, at this time, fifteen years old...barely old enough to assume the throne. Both sides begin marshaling their forces, fighting soon breaks out, and thus begins the First Carlist War.

The Carlists, as supporters of Carlos Luis are known, gather much of their support from the Basque provinces, where there is strong support for traditionalism and the Catholic Church, and from Valencia, Catalonia and Aragon, provinces which had supported the Habsburg contender for the throne during the War of the Spanish Succession and whose special rights had been taken away by King Philip V after the said war in retaliation. Carlos Luis has promised to restore these rights.

The war at first goes badly for the Carlists, since the Isabelistas (as supporters of the young Queen-to-be are called) control most of the major cities and the army. But in 1835, the Carlists capture the important port of Bilboa in northern Spain. This victory encourages Tsar Nicholas of Russia and King Wilhelm of Prussia, reactionary rulers with whom Carlos Luis has been negotiating, to extend financial aid to the Carlists, which allows them to recruit and train a much larger army, capable of meeting the Isabelistas in open battle.

The Carlists, under their brilliant general Tomas de Zumalacárregui, defeat the main Isabelista army and capture Madrid in early 1836, and Regent Maria Christina is forced to flee the country with Princess Isabella. They take ship to the Kingdom of Nueva Espana, where they are welcomed with much fanfare. Carlos Luis is crowned as King Charles VI of Spain on April 1, 1836.

A.D. 1834--In Britain, vaccination becomes mandatory. It has been mandatory in the Tawantinsuyu Empire for almost a century. Upper Canada is granted Statehood by Queen Mary, regent for Crown Prince Benedict of the United States.

A.D. 1835--Britain and Spain renew their agreement against the slave trade. British sea captains are authorized to arrest suspected Spanish slavers and bring them before mixed commissions established at Sierra Leone and Havana. Vessels carrying specified "equipment articles" (extra mess gear, lumber, foodstuffs) are declared prima-facie to be slavers.

Also in this year, Crown Prince Benedict of the United States comes of age and officially succeeds to the throne. He is crowned as King Benedict III on his birthday, May 18, 1835.
The settlement of Melbourne, Australia, is founded. Samuel Colt of Connecticut receives a patent for his revolver in Europe.

A.D. 1836--When Britain took over the Cape Colony in south Africa from the Dutch, it did not immediately emancipate the slaves there, not wishing to alienate the Dutch colonists (Boers). But recently, under pressure from Abolitionist Societies at home, the British government has begun emancipating the slaves in Cape Colony. The Boers in the colony dislike it. From 10,000 to 14,000 Boers begin their Great Trek away from British rule, looking for new African lands to occupy.

Pope Gregory XVI bans railways in his Papal States, calling them "ways of the devil."

Britain invites the U.S., France, Tawantinsuyu and the Quilombo to participate in international patrols to interdict slave ships. All agree to participate.

The British colony of South Australia is established, with capital at Adelaide. Sam Colt receives a patent for his revolver in the United States.

A.D. 1836 Onward--The repression of liberalism in Spain by King Charles VI has lead to a mass exodus of Spanish liberals and their supporters from Spain to the Kingdom of Nueva Espana, as those liberals who manage to avoid arrest (or worse) flee the country. In the end, over 100,000 people leave Spain, never to return, among them most of the most educated and capable people of the Spanish intelligentsia. Spain is left with a largely uneducated but extremely conservative population...just the sort of people King Charles VI wants in his society...and begins to slide ever deeper into irrelevance on the world scene.

Nueva Espana, however, will see a flowering of culture and science...supported by the wealth of the New World, which, of course, no longer will be diverted to Spain...and will become a major world power in the years to come.

A.D. 1836 onward--In Spain, the new King Charles VI, hating the liberals who imprisoned (and he feels murdered) his father, conducts a bloody crackdown on anyone who opposes his rule. He formally repudiates the Constitution of 1812, restores the religious orders, including the Jesuits, and reinstitutes the Inquisition. He purges the army of liberal officers, and dissolves the Cortes, declaring his intention to restore absolutism to Spain. Conservatives are happier than clams, but everyone else hates the new King. Unfortunately for them, Charles clearly has the upper hand...and will retain it for some time to come.

Meanwhile, Regent Maria Christina and Princess Isabella assume power in Nueva Espana, and another cold war ensues between the mother country and it’s former colony in the New World. Neither is strong enough to attack the other, however, and the situation will continue for many years.
Also in this year, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Emperor Napoleon I of France, returns to France and leads an attempted Bonapartist coup. The coup fails, and Louis Napoleon escapes the country.

In the United States, the new King Benedict III marries Louisa Catherine Adams, the 25-year-old grand-daughter of the author of the Declaration of Independence, John Adams (in OTL Louisa, daughter of John Quincy Adams, died as an infant, but she has survived to adulthood in the ATL).

A.D. 1837--Queen Louisa, wife of King Benedict III of the United States, gives birth to a healthy daughter. The young princess is named Charlotte Henrietta.

In wake of the famine in Japan, rebellion breaks out in the city of Osaka and fire destroys one-fourth of the city before it is crushed. At Edo a U.S. ship arrives to repatriate shipwrecked Japanese sailors, to establish trade and land missionaries. The ship is fired upon and driven away.

A.D. 1838--In Britain, conservatives kill another reform package, and there are riots in Wales and such cities as Glasgow, Newcastle and Birmingham. Building on a theory about geology by Charles Lyell, Charles Darwin develops a theory of evolutionary selection and specialization.

A.D. 1839--The British fear Russian influence in Afghanistan and want "a trustworthy ally" there-on India's western frontier. There they have sent a force of 12,000 British and Indian troops, with elephants, 38,000 camels and a horde of followers, including families, prostitutes, and sellers of opium, rum and tobacco. The Tawantinsuya East India Company provides some logistical support for the campaign, but otherwise takes no active part.

Also in this year, after a decade of anti-opium campaigns, China's government creates tougher laws and seizes 20,000 chests of British opium. The party in power in London, the Whigs, did not want to be accused of failing to protect Britain's commercial interests. It sends a punitive expedition, starting the first Anglo-Chinese war. The Tawantinsuya East India Company, which also trades opium in China, supports the British effort.

In the United States, Charles Goodyear invents vulcanization, for making rubber. The Egyptians defeat the Ottoman Turks at the battle of Nisibin, near the Turkish-Syrian border.

A.D. 1840--Europe's four big powers, including Britain, force Egypt to relinquish control over Syria. Britain occupies the port of Aden (in south Yemen) to protect itself from the Egyptians.

Science applied to farming is described by Justus Liebig, in his published work "Chemistry in Its Application to Agriculture and Physiology." This is to transform agriculture, and agriculture is to make possible coming advances in industrialization.

Lower Canada and Florida are found, during the national census conducted this year, to both have reached the required population of 500,000 people needed for Statehood. King Benedict III calls for plebiscites in both territories to determine if Statehood is desired by the majority of the people therein.

Also in this year, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte returns to France and makes a second attempt at a Bonapartist coup. The coup fails, once again, and this time he is captured and imprisoned. He will remain in prison for several years.

Also in this year, Queen Louisa of the United States gives birth to a son, Crown Prince Benedict Oliver Charles Arnold (Some readers may question why the name Benedict keeps appearing, generation after generation, in this family. This actually is something that happened in OTL. The first Benedict Arnold was born in England in 1615, immigrated to America and served as Governor of Rhode Island in the late 1600s. General Benedict Arnold of Revolutionary War fame...who in this timeline became King Benedict I...was in fact the sixth descendant of Governor Benedict Arnold to be so named. And it is a fact that his own eldest son was also named Benedict. So it is completely logical to assume that this family tradition would continue).

A.D. 1840: The Division of the Oregon Country--The Oregon Country (the region comprising the OTL U.S. States of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, along with parts of the States of Montana and Wyoming and most of the Canadian province of British Columbia) has been, since the 18th Century, disputed between Britain, Spain (and later the Kingdom of Nueva Espana) and Russia. Russia gave up it’s tenuous claims to the region to Britain by treaty in 1825, but the dispute between Britain and Nuevo Espana has remained unresolved.

Complicating matters is the rather nebulous and ill-defined border between Nueva Espana and Rupert’s Land, the holdings of the British Hudson’s Bay Company to the north. The Company has established trading posts in many parts of Nueva Espana, as far south as the Snake River (in OTL Idaho) , and Company fur trappers have ranged much further south in search of beaver, where they have not always received a warm welcome from officials of Nueva Espana. Both sides have not been shy about turning the native American tribes of the region against each other, and indeed, this activity has created several international incidents between Britain and Nueva Espana over the past few decades and at least a couple of war-scares.

It is therefore clear to officials on both sides that something has to be done to resolve the dispute, and in 1840, a treaty is signed at Mexico City to divide the territories between the two powers. The new border begins at the mouth of the Columbia River, and then follows said river east to the headwaters of said river. It then follows a line due east to the Continental Divide, then follows the Continental Divide northwestward to the 49th Parallel, then proceeds due east until it meets the border with the United States of America. The government of Nueva Espana agrees to allow the Hudson’s Bay Company to continue operating within it’s territory for 20 years, after which all Company posts outside British territory have to be surrendered to Nueva Espana.

A.D. 1841--Britain's political resident at Kabul is hacked to death and an uprising in the city leaves 300 of a British detachment dead.

Lower Canada and Florida hold their plebiscites on the issue of Statehood in the American Union. Both vote in the affirmative, and King Benedict III issues Statehood Charters to both of them before the end of the year. The American Union now consists of 18 States (what would have been the State of Maine in OTL is still held by Massachusetts).

A.D. 1842--The British are forced to withdraw from Afghanistan.

A.D. 1843--Britain and France announce their recognition of the Hawaiian Islands as an independent state.

A.D. 1844--In New Zealand the Maori of the south island rebel, but are defeated by the Tawantinsuya, who take advantage of their victory to begin enforcing laws against intertribal warfare. In British Australia, a "Protection of Children Act" allows Church missionaries to kidnap aboriginal children in order to "civilize" them- a policy that is to last for many decades. In the United States, Samuel Morse invents the telegraph.

A.D. 1845-1849--The Irish Potato Famine. The faster shipment of potatoes from the Americas across the Atlantic to Europe allows the survival of mold arriving with the potatoes. Beginning in 1845 and continuing through 1849, the mold creates potato crop failures across Europe and starvation in Ireland. Beginning of the Irish Potato Famine. It will eventually kill as many as a million people in Ireland, and force as many as two million to flee the country. Most of these settle in the United States, Britain, British North America (Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Rupert’s Land), and Australia. As many as 300,000 migrate to the Kingdom of Nueva Espana, where they find their Catholic faith makes them more welcome than in the Protestant Anglophone nations.

A.D. 1846--In Italy, Ascanio Soberero discovers how to make nitroglycerin. Poles in Krakow revolt against Russian rule. Austrian and Russian troops enter Krakow and Austria annexes the city.

Pope Gregory dies and is replaced by Pius IX, who deviates from his predecessor's policies by introducing street lights and railways to the Papal States.

Also in this year, the British in India are appearing weak after their Afghanistan debacle. A coalition of Sikhs attack the British. In three months of fighting the British forces prevail and the Sikhs sign a treaty obliging them to disband most of their military. The Tawantinsuya East India Company does not take an active part in the conflict, being embroiled in putting down an uprising by the ruler of Mysore, one of the client states of the Tawantinsuya in south India.

Also in this year, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte escapes from prison in France and flees to the Britain. Soon after arriving in Britain he makes the acquaintance of the Tawantinsuya ambassador, Crown Prince Atahualpa, with whom he becomes good friends. Louis Napoleon has long been deeply fascinated by the Tawantinsuya system of government, especially such features as the "aristocracy by examination" system, which provides the dual benefits of increasing popular support for the regime and increasing the efficiency of the government bureaucracy. He has also taken note of the constitutional monarchy which has ruled in the United States since 1807, and admires the stability and popular support it enjoys. Over the next two years he spends much time discussing (over brandy and cigars, of course) these and other issues with Atahualpa. These discussions will influence both men.

A.D. 1847--Three years of fighting in Tahiti ends with the French crushing Tahitian resistance to French domination. Britain's parliament passes the "Ten Hours Bill," which limits to sixty-three the hours of work per week for women and children.

Since his accession to the throne, King Charles VI of Spain, has been a confirmed bachelor, enjoying the pleasures of many of the ladies of the court (it’s good to be the King). There have been some attempts to negotiate a union between him and Princess Isabella of Nuevo Leon as a means of finally ending the split within the family and between the two Kingdoms, but these have all failed. His ministers have been fretting, because Carlos has no heir, and if he dies, Isabella could return to the throne again and bring the liberals back to power. In 1847, Charles finally agrees to his ministers’ demands that he settle down, and marries the Archduchess Beatrix of Austria-Este.

The Tawantinsuya East India Company takes Mysore. The native ruler is dethroned and a Tawantinsuya Governor is installed.

A.D. 1848--The economies of Europe have been suffering from a recent economic downturn. In France and Germany there has been a longer range decline in income as measured by what income can buy (real wages). The economic downturn causes another round of revolutionary turmoil in Europe. In Milan, sixty-one people are killed protesting against a rise in taxes by Austria's authorities. In Palermo, Sicily, people riot. In February, people in Paris go to the barricades. King Louis Phillipe quits and the Second Republic is born.

In the first Presidential Elections held under the new constitution of the Second French Republic, adopted after the ouster of King Louis Phillipe earlier that year, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte wins in a landslide. Louis Napoleon's platform is the restoration of order after months of political turmoil, strong government, social consolidation, and national greatness, to which he appeals with all the credit of his name, that of France's national hero Napoleon I, who in popular memory is credited with bringing the nation to its pinnacle of military greatness and establishing social stability after the turmoil of the French Revolution.

In the summer, economic recovery begins across Europe. Revolutionaries in Paris, upset by elections that did not go in their favor, stage another uprising, and they are crushed.
The revolution in Paris inspires uprisings in Germany and Austria. The middle class in Germany joins the aristocracy against disorder, however, and revolution there is crushed. Meanwhile, the political left in Vienna has alienated the liberal center and reaction there replaces revolution. The Hungarians and Romanians demand independence. Austria crushes Czech and Italian nationalism. With help from Russia, Austria crushes Hungarian resistance to its rule. Switzerland's civil war ends. Federalism and unity win against the separatism wanted by the Catholic Church and Austria.

Also in this year, at a women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York, a call is made for equal treatment of women and men under the law and voting rights for women. Ownership of land in the Hawaiian Islands is individualized, seen by Hawaii's leaders as advantageous for Hawaiians as well as enabling foreigners to buy land. It is called the Great Mahele (land division). An ancient human-like skull is discovered in a quarry on the island of Gibraltar that in eight years will be identified as Neanderthal.

Also in this year, Princess Isabella of Nueva Espana comes of age and ascends to the throne as Queen Isabella I. Isabella has been deeply influenced by the liberal movement in her new realm, one of the goals of which is the end of slavery in the kingdom. Therefore, one of her first official acts is to issue a decree abolishing slavery in her realm. This is met with some outrage by slaveholders in Cuba and other Caribbean island provinces of the kingdom, where slavery is still a very important part of the economy. In most of the kingdom, however, slaves are relatively thin on the ground, and the measure causes little controversy.

Also in this year, Prussia attempts to annex the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein, which are under Danish control, but is opposed by a coalition consisting of Austria, Sweden, Denmark, Saxony, and Hanover in the conflict which will become known as the First Schleswig War.

A.D. 1849--Karl Marx, who has used figures from the recent economic decline to theorize about capitalism making working people more and more miserable and about capitalism's decline and eventual overthrow, is ordered out of Paris and goes to London. The British have defeated a second Sikh rising. The British formally annex the Punjab and territory to Peshawar and the Khyber Pass. Poor sanitation in New York City creates a cholera epidemic, killing 5,000 poor people, most of them poor and Irish. Some believe the epidemic is God's punishment. A son is born to King Charles VI and Queen Beatrix of Spain. He is named Juan Carlos, Prince of Asturias.

Also in this year, President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte of France introduces a bill into the French Parliament to reform the civil service system in France, introducing an entrance examination (similar to that used by the Tawantinsuya) which must be passed in order to be hired for any government post. He also introduces legislation to create a publicly-funded education system for the common people (with the aim of increasing the potential pool of people who can pass the civil service exam). Both bills are defeated in Parliament, which is dominated by monarchists who seek a restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France, and see the bills (since they will tend to force aristocrats seeking positions in the government to compete on a "level playing field" with commoners, and in general to elevate more commoners into positions of authority) as a threat to their plans.

A.D. 1849 onward--A particularly horrifying massacre by Cheyenne Indians at a Spanish mission settlement in what would be in OTL northern Colorado leads the new Queen Isabella of Nueva Espana to issue an edict ordering the subjugation of the Plains tribes and their confinement on reservations under guard by government troops.

The ensuing campaigns by the forces of Nueva Espana against these tribes will consume most of the next 30 years, but in the end, the tribes are defeated, disarmed, and confined to reservations under the control of mission priests, where they are taught Christianity and farming. They also die like flies from disease and mistreatment, and by 1900, only a small number of survivors of these once-proud tribes will be left.

The campaigns themselves will make a deep impact on the popular culture of Nueva Espana (or as it will later come to be called, Aztlan) in the years to come, as they will become a favorite subject of books and films in the nation, and for many generations a favorite children’s game in the nation will be "Vaqueros (or Caballeros) y Indios."

A.D. 1850--The population of the mainland portion of Tawantinsuyu stands at approximately 28 million as of this date, while the population of the Kingdom of Nueva Espana stands at approximately 15 million people and the population of the United States stands at approximately 20 million. The population of the Quilombo stands at approximately 6.5 million. There are approximately 275,000 Tawantinsuya living in Australia (as opposed to over 400,000 British colonists) and approximately 60,000 Tawantinsuya living in New Zealand (along with approximately 100,000 Maoris). A further 100,000 Tawantinsuya live in India.

Also in this year, a Chinese Christian sees himself as the son of God ordered to save the world. He has started a movement for sharing wealth, land distribution and the Ten Commandments. He favors chastity and an end to foot-binding for women and opposes opium smoking. He creates what is to be known as the Taiping Rebellion. It sweeps across central-eastern China, intending to drive away "Manchu demons" and rival faiths.

In Prussia, new freedoms won by peasants are maintained, and a decree moves 640,000 peasants to free farming. The First Schleswig War ends in defeat for Prussia. By the Punctuation of Olmutz (known in Prussia as the Humiliation of Olmutz), signed later that year between Prussia and Austria, Prussia agrees to give up it’s claims for leadership of the German Confederation to Austria.

c. A.D. 1850 onward--Within the Kingdom of Nueva Espana, there is a growing segment of the population, and of the power structure, which supports the adoption of a separate national identity for the Kingdom, divorced from that of Spain. These people support the renaming of the country (various names have been proposed, but the name "Aztlan," after the mythical northern birthplace of the Aztec people...the largest native ethnic group within the kingdom....has the most proponents) and the renunciation of all claims to the Spanish throne by the monarch. Although Queen Isabella does not support the aims of these people, their influence will grow over the succeeding decades.

A.D. 1850 onward--The fact that the United States has never expanded west of the Mississippi means that, by 1850, the attitude of U.S. citizens toward immigration is beginning to change as space in the country begins to fill up at an increasing rate. Within a few years of 1850, nativist sentiment has taken firm hold, and the first major anti-immigration legislation will be passed, directed mainly at non-Protestant peoples coming from southern and eastern Europe (with no Pacific coastline, very few Asians will end up in the United States in the 19th century), while immigration from the primarily Protestant "Nordic countries" such as Britain, Ireland, Germany, Holland, and Scandinavia remains relatively unrestricted.

Particularly impacted are the Italians, who find the gates of America closed to them when large numbers of them begin leaving Italy in the 1880s. Instead, these immigrants go to another burgeoning American nation...Nueva Espana (later known as Aztlan)...where the industrialization of the economy and the construction of a railroad net connecting the far-flung cities of the kingdom during the reign of Queen Isabella is creating the need for hundreds of thousands of new workers, and where their Catholic faith is appreciated rather than scorned. They join the large Irish community in that nation, competing with them for many of the same jobs, and give that nation a major population boost. By 1900, Nueva Espana/Aztlan will have exceeded the United States itself in population, with no end in sight.

PART SIX: A.D. 1850-1900

A.D. 1851 onward, Hawaii--Since the adoption of a formal constitution in 1840, the Hawaiian monarchy has seen it’s power steadily declining, and European settlers have come to the islands in increasing numbers, taking land away from the natives and pushing for constitutional reforms designed to give them more political control over the islands. It looks very much like the islands will be annexed by one European power or another in the near future. Indeed, despite their guarantees to the contrary, as recently as 1849, the French made an abortive attempt to seize the islands.

One power which has not made such inroads into the area has been Tawantinsuyu, which, since the discovery of the islands by Tawantinsuya ships in the 18th Century has engaged in peaceful trading there, but nothing more. Relations between the Hawaiian monarchy and the government of Tawantinsuyu are very good, and it is this which prompts King Kamehameha III to ask for an alliance with the Tawantinsuya. Auqui Amaru Inca II initially declines this request, but Kamehameha is persistent, and upon reflection, the request is granted.

In a treaty remarkably similar to that which Tawantinsuyu maintains with the Quilombo, the Tawantinsuya guarantee to protect Hawaiian independence and the sovereignty of the Hawaiian monarchy. In return, Kamehameha grants the Tawantinsuya the right to construct and maintain a naval base and coaling station (for the ever-increasing fleet of Tawantinsuya steam warships) at Pearl Harbor, as well as giving special concessions for Tawantinsuya business interests in the islands.

News of this agreement is met with outrage in Europe. France openly threatens war, and Britain too is none too pleased. But in the end, cooler heads prevail, and the treaty stands. It will endure until the present day.

A.D. 1851 onward--Gold Rushes in Australia. In 1851, thousands rush to gold in southern Australia, including British, Irish, American, and Chinese prospectors. There are tent cities with populations as large as 40,000. Food growers have a greater market for their produce, stimulating Australia's economy. An agricultural revolution is beginning using a mechanical harvester, called Ridley's Stripper, that had been invented in Australia. Within a short time, the easy surface gold will be exhausted, and gold will be found only by digging for veins of gold buried beneath metres of clay and rock. By 1854, the hills for miles around the gold fields will be entirely denuded of trees in order to provide timber for the deep shafts being environmental disaster from which the area has never fully recovered. Later gold rushes in the Tawantinsuya colony and in other regions of British Australia will have similar effects.

A.D. 1851--In Siam, King Mongkut ascends the throne. He invites European diplomats to his coronation. He becomes known for speaking English, French, and Latin. Meanwhile, in France, the Constitution of the Second Republic states that the presidency of the Republic was to be held for a single term of four years, with no possibility to run for re-election, a restriction written into the constitution for fear that a president would abuse his power to transform the Republic into a dictatorship or a sort of life-presidency.

In 1851, President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, arguing that four years is not enough to fully implement his political and economic program, asks the National Assembly for a revision of the constitution to enable the president to run for re-election. The National Assembly, which is dominated by monarchists who are opposed to Louis-Napoleon and in favor of the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, refuses to amend the constitution. After a stalemate lasting several months, on December 2...the 47th anniversary of the crowning of Napoleon I as Emperor of the French...Louis Napoleon stages a coup and seizes dictatorial powers.

Also in this year, news that the crew of another shipwrecked Tawantinsuya whaler have been executed in Japan reaches Tawantinsuyu. Ever since the first such incident in 1800, the Tawantinsuya have been attempting to resolve the issue by negotiation. But the Japanese have steadfastly refused to receive Tawantinsuya embassies, and have continued to treat shipwrecked Tawantinsuya mariners with great cruelty. The latest incident proves to be the proverbial “straw which broke the camel’s back,” and an enraged Auqui Amaru Inca II orders a military expedition to be sent to the islands. In Australia, the British colony of Victoria is founded.

A.D. 1852--The British arrive in lower Burma and bring opium from India for sale to the Burmese. In southern Africa, Britain recognizes the right of Boers to administer their own affairs beyond its Cape Colony border so long as the Boers end slavery. Also in this year, Louis Napoleon, dictator of France, has consolidated conservative support and dissolves parliament. He crushes an uprising and holds a plebiscite to justify his coup. The referendum’s legality and fairness are very questionable, but peasants and the religiously devout give him the votes he wants. After a second referendum, on December 2, 1852, the Second Republic officially is ended, and the French Empire is declared restored. Louis Napoleon is crowned as Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. Beginning of the Second Empire.

Also in this year, a Tawantinsuya naval expedition arrives in Japan. Upon their arrival in Edo Bay, they are fired upon, and in reply, the Tawantinsuya warships bombard the Japanese fortifications, quickly silencing the enemy guns. Stunned by the destructiveness of the Tawantinsuya artillery, the Japanese send out an embassy which meets with the Tawantinsuya commander, Admiral Vicaquirao, aboard his ship. Vicaquirao presents the Tawantinsuya demands...the opening of Japanese ports to Tawantinsuya trade, the end of Japan's 200 year policy of seclusion, a guarantee of safety for shipwrecked Tawantinsuya whalers and the establishment of permanent diplomatic relations. Failure to comply, he states, will result in war between Japan and Tawantinsuyu. He gives the Shogun one month to decide, during which the Tawantinsuya fleet remains anchored in Edo’s powerful guns pointed threateningly at the city. In the end, Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu relents, and the Treaty of Edo is signed in June 1852. Within five years, all the other major powers will sign similar treaties with Japan (the treaties will come to be known, in Japan, as the “Unequal Treaties” and highly resented). Japan’s long isolation is over.

In Italy, Count Camillio di Cavour becomes Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia. A devout Italian nationalist, he works toward the eventual unification of Italy under the banner of the King of Sardinia.

In Hawaii, King Kamehameha III, emboldened by his new alliance with Tawantinsuyu, promulgates a new Constitution which restricts the rights of non-Hawaiians to own land. This creates a crisis as the European powers protest the restrictions on the rights of their citizens in the islands. In order to defuse the situation, Auqui Amaru Inca II agrees to assist the Hawaiian monarchy in funding a buy-out of the European land-owners affected by the new constitution (in exchange, the Tawantinsuya get an additional naval base in Hawaii). He also extracts a guarantee that Kamehameha will not enact any further changes to the Hawaiian constitution...reminding the Hawaiian King that the alliance between his country and Tawantinsuyu is of more benefit to Hawaii than it is to Tawantinsuyu, he tells Kamehameha that he will not stand for any more actions that might drag Tawantinsuyu into an unnecessary war. Chastened, Kamehameha agrees.

A.D. 1853 onward--Influenced by his admiration for the systems of government in Tawantinsuyu and the United States, French Emperor Napoleon III’s domestic policies are quite different from those he pursued in OTL. As one of his first official acts, Napoleon issues an edict which establishes the civil service examination and the public education system which he had proposed in his legislation of 1859 (which had been defeated by the monarchist majority in Parliament). As he hopes, this measure will serve to dramatically increase the efficiency of the government, reduce corruption, and increase popular support for the government among the general population (although not among the aristocracy, who see government positions which formerly were reserved for them being taken by commoners who outscore them on the examination). And in general, in contrast to OTL, his regime will be quite liberal, and Napoleon issues a new constitution reflecting this, including a reconstituted Parliament called the Chamber of Deputies.

Finally, Napoleon has always been concerned about the plight of the working classes and the poor, a concern which he expressed in a book he wrote during his imprisonment, entitled “The Extinction of Pauperism.” The book had called for what might be termed “mildly socialistic” reforms of the French economic system, and Napoleon will implement these ideas during the course of his reign. This too increases the popular support he enjoys. As a result of these facts, opposition to his regime is much less than in OTL, and many influential people who in OTL were opponents of Napoleon III will be, if not staunch allies, at least not committed foes. Chief among these is Victor Hugo, who will serve in Napoleon’s Chamber of Deputies from the time it is reconstituted in mid-1853 onward, as well as holding various cabinet posts within Napoleon’s government.

A.D. 1853--Tsar Nicholas I of Russia goes to war against the Ottoman Turks over what he sees as his right to defend Orthodox Christians in Turkey and in Jerusalem (then under the authority of the Ottoman Empire). Britain introduces the Enfield Rifle Musket Model 1853 as the standard infantry arm of it’s armies. This will have a major impact when it is introduced among the sepoy troops of the British East India Company a few years later. The last British convicts are shipped to Tasmania. A smallpox epidemic kills 5,000 Hawaiians.

A.D. 1854--Britain and France are afraid of Russian expansion. At a Turkish port on the Black Sea, the Russian navy, using exploding shells for the first time, sets a Turkish fleet afire. The British respond with horror to the devastation. The British declare war, and are joined by Emperor Napoleon III of France. Queen Victoria writes of "the great sinfulness" of Russia having "brought about this War"-the Crimean War.

Also in this year, Pope Pius IX addresses a question about differences between Jesus Christ and others. He proclaims the infallible doctrine of the Immaculate Conception (virgin birth) of Jesus Christ, that Jesus was born exempt from all stain of original sin. Elisha Graves Otis has invented an elevator brake and has started a company to manufacture elevators that will hoist freight. He demonstrates the elevator at the World's Fair in New York City. The scientist John Snow had been claiming that cholera was carried in water or food and could be ingested. Colleagues have dismissed his idea. A cholera epidemic has broken out in London, in an area around a water pump. Snow takes a sample of the water from the pump and through a microscope finds it contaminated. He removes the pump's handle and the cholera comes to a quick end.

The Eureka Stockade Revolt in Australia (a rebellion by Australian gold miners against the authority of the government of Victoria colony) breaks out. The miners are demanding 1) Manhood suffrage (the right for all men to vote); 2) Abolition of the property qualifications for members of parliament; 3)Payment of members of parliament; 4) Voting by secret ballot; 5) Short term parliaments; 6) Equal electoral districts; 7) Abolition of diggers and storekeepers licenses; 8) Reform of administration of the gold fields; and 9) Revision of laws relating to Crown land. Although the rebellion is defeated, most of these demands will be met by the colonial governments of Australia within a year after the end of the rebellion. Also in this year, King Kamehameha III of Hawaii dies, and is succeeded by Kamehameha IV.

A.D. 1855--Hoping to secure British and French support for Italian unification, the Kingdom of Sardinia joins the Franco-British alliance against Russia and enters the Crimean War. Much of Japan's capital, Edo (Tokyo), is destroyed by earthquake, tsunami and fire. King Mongkut of Siam signs a trade agreement with Britain. He builds roads, sets up printing presses, creates a currency and sets out to reform slavery. The city of Arnoldtown (OTL Chicago) adopts a plan for the first comprehensive city sewer in United States.

In France, the Emperor Napoleon III, hitherto a bachelor, has been looking for a wife to produce a legitimate heir. Napoleon approaches the eligible daughters of most of the royal families of Europe, but finds them unwilling to marry into the parvenu Bonaparte family, and after a rebuff from Queen Victoria's German niece Princess Adelaide von Hohenlohe Langenburg, Napoleon decides to broaden his horizons and look beyond the established European royal houses. There are two promising candidates: the beautiful 29-year-old Eugenie de Montijo, Countess of Teba, a Spanish noblewoman with some Scottish ancestry who had been brought up in Paris; and Charlotte Arnold, the equally beautiful, 19-year old daughter of King Benedict III of the United States. Napoleon is deeply smitten by Eugenie, but in the end, pressure from the other members of the Bonaparte Family...who argue forcefully that a only a “bride of royal blood” is “good enough” for the Emperor of France...convinces him to pursue the hand of Princess Charlotte (it should also be said that Napoleon is also attracted by the symbolism such a union would represent...being a union of two royal houses which gained their royal status by action rather than by lineage, and this was certainly one determining factor in his final decision). After rather arduous negotiations with King Benedict...who is a doting father and has some misgivings about the age difference between Napoleon and Charlotte (Napoleon, born in 1808, is almost twice Charlotte’s age) agreement is reached, and the pair are wed in the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris on December 21, 1855.

Also in this year, Queen Isabella of Nuevo Espana marries Prince Leopold, of the German royal house of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (a Catholic line related to the Protestant ruling house of Prussia). Isabella and Leopold will prove to be well suited to each other (in OTL, Isabella married one of her cousins, the Duke of Bourbon-Cadige, who was a homosexual, and their marriage was very unhappy, with Isabella engaging in various affairs and coming under the influence of various court favorites as a result), and their union will be a happy and fruitful one. As a result and with Leopold’s strong support, Isabella will have a very successful reign, free from domination by court favorites and other intrigues which characterized her OTL rule in Spain.

A.D. 1856--Tsar Nicholas I of Russia dies. His son, Alexander II, makes peace with Britain and France, the Crimean War ends. Russia's humiliation inspires Alexander's desire for reform. Count Cavour of Sardinia, and Italian nationalists everywhere, are frustrated when the Congress of Paris, the peace conference which ended the Crimean War, totally ignores Italian issues. In France, there has been some outcry against the marriage of Emperor Napoleon III to Princess Charlotte of the United States. Charlotte is not a Catholic, and there are many who object to a Protestant serving as Empress of France. In the end, Charlotte defuses the situation by converting to least officially. Privately, she continues to practice her Protestant faith.

Also in this year, a ship owned by a Chinese, registered with the British in Hong Kong, and docked at Canton, is searched by Manchu government agents looking for a notorious pirate. The British send an expedition of ships seeking redress and are joined by the French, who want to avenge the Manchu execution of a French missionary. There is also dissatisfaction with Chinese compliance to agreements made at the end of the first Opium War. The Second Opium War begins. Unlike the previous Opium War, there will be no Tawantinsuya participation in this one.

In India, the British East India Company advises the reigning Moghul Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, that he will be the last Moghul Emperor of India and the Moghul Empire will cease to exist upon his death. The British colonies in Australia become the first anywhere in the world to employ a “secret ballot” in elections.

A.D. 1857--Elisha Graves Otis installs the first passenger-safe elevator in a department store in New York City. Giuseppe Garibaldi, who has been on Staten Island, New York, for five years, founds the Italian National Association to fight for the unification of Italy. Helmuth von Molkte is appointed Chief of Staff of the Prussian Army. He begins a thorough reorganization of the army to correct the defects which caused the humiliating defeat suffered in the First Schleswig War. Also in this year, Queen Isabella of Nuevo Espana gives birth to a healthy son, who is named Felipe Luis. The birth of the new prince is hailed by the populace of Nuevo Espana, who hold their popular queen in great esteem. Felipe Luis will be the first of no less than eight children Isabella will produce during her long and fruitful marriage to King Consort Leopold.

A.D. 1857-1858--The Indian Mutiny. In India, the Sepoy Rebellion (also known as the Indian Mutiny) breaks out among troops of the British East India Company in 1857. Ostensibly, the rebellion begins when the 1853 Enfield Rifle is introduced into service among the sepoys (although there were many other contributing factors, such as unfair treatment of native troops by European officers, attempts to convert Muslims and Hindus to Christianity, and general resentment of British rule). Hindu agitators tell the sepoys that the cartridges for the new rifles are greased with beef fat, while Muslim agitators tell those of their faith that the cartridges are greased in pig fat. In order to use the cartridges, the soldier must bite off the greased end with his teeth. Thus Hindus think they are being forced to taste the fat of a sacred animal, while Muslims think they are being forced to touch the fat of an unclean animal (in actuality, the cartridges are greased with mutton fat, but the truth is unimportant to the agitators). Both groups are outraged, and rebel. For a time the rebels are successful, and several horrid massacres of British citizens are carried out But by mid-1858, the British are able to defeat the rebels, and savage reprisals for the sepoy massacres are carried out. The British government is sickened by the savagery perpetrated by both sides, and decides to dissolve the British East India Company and take over the formal government of India as a Crown Colony. The last independent enclaves of native rule are soon forced into subjugation to the British Raj. In the years that follow, reforms are introduced. Expropriation of land is discontinued, religious toleration is decreed, and Indians are admitted to subordinate positions in the civil service. But the rebellion will be long remembered with bitterness by the British, and they will never trust Indian troops in quite the same way again.

The Tawantinsuya holdings in south India are little affected by the events of the Mutiny. In southern India, the Tawantinsuya have been less oppressive with the native population than the British have been, and the sepoys employed by the Tawantinsuya East India Company remained loyal (the Enfield Rifle not being adopted by the Tawantinsuya). Indeed, Tawantinsuya East India Company troops assisted the British in putting down the rebellions in the north.

A.D. 1858--The Second Opium War ends. China is forced to pay Britain and France indemnities and to open more ports. The opium trade is legalized. Christians are to be allowed to proselytize and guaranteed protection, and Westerners are to be allowed to hold property in China. Russia and other powers rush in to gain benefit from the British and French victory. In Vietnam, a French and Spanish expedition seizes the port city of Tourane (today Da Nang). The French are interested in ending Vietnamese persecution of Christian missionaries and in trade with Indochina. Italian nationalist Felice Orsini attempts to assassinate French Emperor Napoleon III, but fails. From his prison cell, Orsini makes a passionate plea to Napoleon to support the cause of Italian unification. Napoleon, who as a youth had been active in the Italian nationalist organization, the Carbonari, is swayed by this pleas and decides it is his destiny to help Italy. He meets with Sardinian Prime Minister Count Cavour, and the two agree to jointly wage war against Austria, which is seen as the biggest impediment to Italian unification. The aim of the war will be the annexation by Sardinia of the Austrian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia, as well as the Austrian-supported duchies of Parma and Modena. In exchange for French support, Sardinia agrees to cede to France the provinces of Savoy and Nice. Later this same year, Empress Charlotte of France gives birth to a son who is named Napoleon Louis Jean Joseph Bonaparte, Prince Imperial of France.

Meanwhile, up until now, the British holdings in the Oregon Country have been loosely administered by, but not owned by, the Hudson’s Bay Company. As they are sparsely populated, this has worked fine, so far. But in 1858, gold is discovered at the confluence of the Thompson and Nicoamen Rivers, and when news of this strike reaches the outside world, tens of thousands of people make their way to the territory in search of their fortune. While most of these meet with disillusionment and soon leave the territory, enough stay that the need for a real colonial government is seen by British authorities in London, and accordingly, the Crown Colony of British Columbia is created.

A.D. 1859--In Vietnam, the French take over Saigon. Charles Darwin has been sitting on his Origin of the Species for 21 years. He has it published. The first successful oil well in the United States is drilled, in northern Pennsylvania. Rabbits are brought to Australia, which will produce an ecology disaster.

A.D. 1859-1860--The Austro-Sardinian War: As per their agreement the previous year, the Kingdom of Sardinia goads Emperor Franz Josef of Austria into war over the province of Lombardy, in northern Italy. The combined French and Sardinian armies defeat the Austrians at the battles of Magenta and Solferino, forcing the Austrians to withdraw from Lombardy into Venetia. At this point, Napoleon III, seeing the strong Austrian fortifications on the Venetian border and fearing that a long and bloody campaign would be needed to force the Austrians out of Venetia, decides to make a separate peace with the Austrians.

Napoleon and Franz Josef meet at Villafranca without the knowledge of Napoleon’s Sardinian allies. Together, the two agree on the outlines of a settlement to the conflict. The Austrians will retain Venetia, but cede Lombardy to the French, who will then immediately cede it to Sardinia (the Austrians being unwilling to themselves cede the area to Sardinia). Otherwise, the Italian borders would remain Central Italy, where the authorities had universally been expelled following the outbreak of war, the rulers of Tuscany, Modena, and Parma, who had fled to Austria, will be restored, while Papal control of the Legations is to be resumed. Because Napoleon has not fulfilled the terms of his agreement with Sardinia, he announces that he will not demand cession of Savoy and Nice.

Naturally, the Sardinians are outraged by this agreement, which they rightfully see as a betrayal by Napoleon III. Although King Victor Emanuel II agrees...over the objections of his prime minister, Count the terms of the Villafranca agreement in the Treaty of Zurich signed in November, Sardinian troops soon move to occupy the central Italian states, despite the protests of Austria. Napoleon III does nothing to force the Sardinians to abide by the terms of the treaty. In December, the central Italian states unite into the United Provinces of Central Italy, and apply for annexation by Sardinia. In exchange for French support of this annexation, Sardinia renews it’s offer to cede Savoy and Nice to France, and Napoleon III agrees to give his support. Sardinia annexes the central Italian states in early 1860, and cedes Savoy and Nice to France.

A.D. 1860--Taiping rebels fail to take Shanghai, repelled by a force led by an Englishman, Frederick Townsend Ward. J.J.E. Lenoir of France develops an internal, non-compression, combustion engine. Jews in Britain are allowed to vote. International trade has been increasing. World exports are 4.53 times what they were in 1800.

A.D. 1860 onward--In the Quilombo, there is a growing feeling of, if not resentment, at least dis-satisfaction with the paternalistic relationship which Tawantinsuyu exercises over the Quilombo. The business concessions given to Tawantinsuya business concerns in exchange for Tawantinsuya protection against intervention by foreign powers has meant that the Quilombo has become effectively an economic colony of Tawantinsuyu, supplying raw materials and agricultural produce in exchange for Tawantinsuya manufactured goods. Recognizing this, beginning in 1860, the Great Chiefs of the Quilombo begin pushing for industrialization as a means for the Quilombo to gain a greater measure of independence from Tawantinsuyu, importing British and American machinery for the manufacture of textiles and other goods to the Quilombo. The Quilombo also expands the railroad network in the country. By the reign of Great Chief Aitan Chiamaka in 1900, the Quilombo will have achieved many of it’s goals of economic independence. But by the nature of things, it still remains very dependent on Tawantinsuyu.

A.D. 1860-1861--The War of Italian Unification: In 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi, enraged at the French annexation of Nice (his home city), begins preparing a military force to take the “stolen provinces” back from France. Count Cavour, terrified that Garibaldi will provoke a war between France and Sardinia and undo all that has been accomplished over the past 2 years, persuades Garibaldi to take his “Red Shirts” (as his troops are called) to attack the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies instead. The Two Sicilies, ruled by corrupt Bourbon kings, are ripe for the taking, and their conquest (and unification with Sardinia) would bring almost the whole of Italy under one flag. Garibaldi lands in Sicily with 1,000 men in May 1860, gathers local rebel bands to his banner, and by the end of June has liberated the whole of said island. Eluding the navy of the Two Sicilies, Garibaldi slips across the Straits of Messina in July and advances northward. Military resistance melts away, and the populace everywhere hails him. By mid-September King Francis II of the Two Sicilies, formerly in command of an army of over 150,000 men, has only 4,000 loyal troops left to him, and holds only the fortresses of Capua and Gaeta and a hastily constructed defensive line along the Volturno River. But these last loyal troops prove to be a tough nut for Garibaldi to crack, and he calls on King Victor Emanuel to come to his support.

Victor Emanuel and Count Cavour want to oblige Garibaldi, but there is a order to reach the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, they have to advance across the Papal States. This is politically a very tricky situation, for Emperor Napoleon III of France has pledged to protect the Pope, and Catholics all over the world support the Papal cause. Complicating the situation is Garibaldi, who is demanding that Rome itself be annexed and serve as the capital of the united Italy. In the end, a compromise is reached between Cavour and Napoleon. Sardinia will guarantee that Italian troops will not enter Rome and the Pope will remain in control of said city, but Sardinia will be free to absorb not only the Two Sicilies, but also all of the Papal States outside of Rome itself.

In late September the Sardinians invade the Papal States, defeating the Papal army by the end of September. In October, the Sardinians move into the Two Sicilies, join forces with Garibaldi’s army, and force King Francis to abandon the line on the Volturno River. Francis and his remaining troops are besieged in the fortress of Gaeta, which they stubbornly defend until forced by starvation and disease to surrender in January 1861. In March 1861, the Kingdom of Italy is formally declared, and King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia is crowned as King Victor Emmanuel I of Italy, ruling all of the Italian Peninsula except Venetia and Rome.

A.D. 1861--In Pennsylvania an oil well has begun producing more than 3,000 barrels per day, and oil refining has begun, producing an alternative fuel for lamps (up until now, whale oil has been the primary fuel for lamps). China's Manchu emperor, Xianfeng, has been weakened by debauchery and drugs and dies at the age of thirty. The son of his consort succeeds him. The former consort, Cixi, becomes the boy's regent and acquires the title Dowager Empress. In Germany, workers making mirrors have lost all of their teeth. A professor of medicine discovers they are victims of mercury poisoning. His findings lead to government regulations requiring alternative mirror making processes. In Britain a government commission begins to investigate non-textile industries employing children. Occupational diseases among children are discovered. On June 6, his goal of Italian unification nearly complete, Count Cavour dies. Also in this year, King Charles VI of Spain dies. His son and heir, Juan Carlos, Prince of Asturias, is then a boy of twelve years. In the interim until he comes of age, his mother, Queen Beatrix, rules Spain as regent. Upon the death of King Charles, Queen Isabella of Nuevo Espana issues a proclamation reaffirming her right to the throne of Spain. But since the repression of the liberals in Spain and the flight abroad of most of the liberal intelligentsia, there is little support for Isabella’s cause in Spain itself, most of the population being content under the rule of a traditionalist monarch who staunchly supports the Catholic Church. Therefore, little to no disorder attends the assumption of the rule of Spain by the new regent. The Zion Society is formed at Frankfurt, Germany. It advocates the creation of a national homeland for the Jews in Palestine.

A.D. 1861 onward--Tsar Alexander II of Russia issues a proclamation emancipating the serfs of his realm from their feudal obligations to their landlords. The Tsar optimistically hopes that the abolition of serfdom will create a class of individual peasant landowners and the beginnings of a market economy. However, this is not to be, as in order to gain the acquiescence of the landlords, concessions have to be made to the landlords which will prevent such a thing from happening. The landowners initially pushed for granting the peasants freedom but not any land. The Tsar and his advisers, mindful of the recent revolutions of 1848, were opposed to this, as it would create a proletariat and they feared the instability this could bring. But giving the peasants freedom and land seemed to leave the existing landowners without the large and cheap labour-force they needed to maintain their estates. To 'balance' this, the final legislation contains three measures designed to reduce the potential economic self-sufficiency of the peasants. Firstly a transition period of nine years is introduced, during which the peasant is obligated as before to the old landowner. Additionally large parts of common land are passed to the major landowners as “otrezki,” making many forests, roads and rivers only accessible for a fee. The third and most important measure specifies that the serfs will be required to pay the land-owner for their allocation of land in a series of redemption payments which will extend indefinitely until the land is fully paid off. The government will advance the total sum to the landowner and then the peasants will repay the money, plus interest, to the government. These measures, particularly the redemption payments, will be bitterly resented by the peasantry and will contribute to the increasing unrest against the government, which will arise in Russia over the succeeding decades.

A.D. 1862--Death of Auqui Amaru Inca II. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Atahualpa Inca III. Atahualpa Inca III is a reform-minded ruler, and under his rule great change will be made in the political structure of Tawantinsuyu. In Prussia, the largest of the German states, a member of the landed aristocracy, Otto von Bismarck, becomes minister-president. Representing the king, he declares that his government is to rule without parliament. In the king's court in Siam, women being taught English by Christian missionaries are turned off by their sermons. Anna Leonowens arrives in Bangkok to teach English in their place. She is the English woman to be depicted in The King and I. Also in this year, the Cariboo Gold Rush brings more settlers to British Columbia. Many stay and establish fishing, sawmill, and other industries in the colonies.

A.D. 1863--Slavery ends in Dutch ruled Indonesia. Cambodia become a French protectorate, with the approval of its king, Norodom. In Britain, legislators respond to air pollution from the chemical industry by creating the Alkali Act for reducing hydrogen chloride emissions during alkali production. In London, the first underground (subway) passenger system opens. Cotton growing in Central Asia has become of greater importance to the Russians, and Russia sends its military into Central Asia, where people are sparse, largely tribal, economically undeveloped, and Muslim. King Kamehameha IV of Hawaii dies, and is succeeded by Kamehameha V.

A.D. 1863-1870--War between Spain and Nuevo Espana. Frustrated that her claims to the throne of Spain were once again denied after the death of King Charles VI, Queen Isabella of Nuevo Espana decides to have her revenge by seizing the Spanish colonies in the Philippines. A powerful naval expedition is fitted out and sails across the Pacific, arriving in Manila Bay on April 23, 1863. Despite stout resistance from the Spanish garrison, Manila falls within a week. Over the next several months, landings are made on the remaining islands and the Spanish garrisons there are overpowered. By August, the islands are entirely in the hands of Nuevo Espana.

Of course, the seizure of the colony does not go unchallenged, and upon learning of it in June 1863, the government of the regent of Spain, Queen Beatrix, declares war on Nuevo Espana. Due to Spain’s weakened condition and the great distances separating the two powers, the war will be fought entirely at sea, primarily in the form of single-ship encounters between frigates of the two powers on the open ocean. The largest action of the war takes place in 1869, when a Spanish fleet, sent around the Cape of Good Hope for the purpose of re-taking the Philippines, is met by the fleet of Nuevo Espana off the coast of Lubang Island. The Battle of Lubang Channel, as it comes to be called, is a decisive defeat for the Spanish, with almost the entirety of their fleet being sunk or captured.

Upon learning of the destruction of the Spanish fleet, Queen Beatrix accepts an offer of mediation made by the Tawantinsuya government. Queen Isabella of Nuevo Espana, buoyed by the news of the victory, at first wants to continue the war and invade Spain itself, but is finally persuaded by her husband that logistically, Nuevo Espana is not capable of fighting a major war at such a distance. And so, in early 1870, representatives of Spain and Nuevo Espana meet in Cuzco. In return for the cession of the Philippines to Nuevo Espana, the Spanish delegates insist that Queen Isabella agree to formally recognize the right of the Carlist line to the throne of Spain, and to renounce her own claims to the Spanish throne...either that, they say, or the war can continue indefinitely. Isabella strongly resists this demand, but her husband...along with most of the ministers of her government, who are supporters of the movement for a separate identity for the kingdom...finally persuades her to accept. The final treaty is signed on March 16, 1870, ending the war. Spain and Nuevo Espana are now completely divorced and will follow separate destinies from this time forward.

A.D. 1863 onward--In the wake of it’s seizure of the Philippines from Spain, the Kingdom of Nuevo Espana also seizes the Spanish colonies in the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and in Guam, establishing naval bases there. In the Philippines, it abolishes the old Spanish colonial administration, which had been causing increasing resentment among Filipinos, and institutes a more enlightened rule there. They also, within a few years, grant representation to the Philippines in the Cortez of Nuevo Espana (and later, of Aztlan). The embryonic independence movement among young Filipino intellectuals, which had begun to arise in the years prior to the war, is won over by the new administration, and the Philippines becomes a loyal part of the Kingdom.

A.D. 1864--The Second Schleswig War breaks out as Denmark attempts to formally annex the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck convinces Austria to join her in expelling the Danes from the duchies once and for all. This they do in a war which demonstrates the effectiveness of the recent Prussian military reorganization. The Dutch in Java and Sumatra experiment with rubber cultivation. An astronomer calculates the distance to the sun as 147 million kilometers - short 2.6 million kilometers. In China, the leader of the Taiping Rebellion, Hong Xiuchuan, proclaims that God will defend his city, (southeast of Beijing). When government forces approach he swallows poison and dies. The monarchy re-establishes control over most areas of China. The Taiping rebellion is all but defeated.

A.D. 1865--In what today is Uzbekistan, Russians capture the city of Tashkent, which is to become a Russian administrative center. Over-reaction in crushing a rebellion in Jamaica produces an investigation in England. The island's governor is widely condemned and called to London. Some demand that he be tried for murder. He is removed from office but a grand jury refuses to indict him. The Gastein Convention Treaty is signed by Prussia and Austria, assigning the administration of Schleswig to Prussia and the administration of Holstein to Austria. For some time, there has been some agitation among the nobility and other educated classes in Tawantinsuyu for the creation of a more inclusive system of government. Many of these people have been educated in Britain, France, Nuevo Espana or the United States, and have seen, first hand, the operation of constitutional monarchies in those countries. A similar system, they argue, could be beneficial for Tawantinsuyu as well. And, with the accession of Atahualpa Inca III, they finally have a ruler who agrees with them. And so, in May 1865, Atahualpa Inca III calls a council of the great nobles of Tawantinsuyu and together, over the course of the next six months, they create the first-ever constitution for the Tawantinsuyu Empire. The new system of government is quite similar to that of the United States of America, but retains more power for the Inca than the American King enjoys. Instead of appointing a Prime Minister who will be the chief magistrate of the land, the Inca retains that power for himself. The Constitution creates a bi-cameral legislature which will consist of one house to be composed of commoners, and another house consisting of nobles, and mandating that all legislation must be passed by both houses to become law, with the Inca retaining the power to veto any legislation passed which he considers detrimental. One major difference between the Tawantinsuya Constitution and that of the United States is that there is no Bill of Rights (the nobles successfully arguing, despite Atahualpa’s own misgivings, that “they know what is best for the commoners” and that a Bill of Rights is not needed).

A.D. 1866--In New Zealand, the Tawantinsuya defeat another Maori rebellion. A Russian student, acting alone, tries to assassinate Tsar Alexander II. The government becomes hostile to all students. A new minister of education takes charge of the universities and applies stricter controls. The Gastein Convention breaks down as Prussia and Austria quarrel over the administration of the newly conquered provinces of Schleswig and Holstein. As a result, the Six Weeks War breaks out between Prussia and Austria (in alliance with most of the smaller German states, who see Prussia as the greatest threat to their independence). Prussia, whose army is much better organized and equipped with the modern Dreyse Needle Gun (which can be loaded from a prone position, greatly reducing Prussian casualties from enemy fire), easily wins. The Treaty of Prague dissolves the German Confederation, excludes Austria from German affairs, and allows Prussia to annex Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, Nassau, and Frankfurt. The Kingdom of Italy, which had allied itself to Prussia against Austria, gains Venetia. In Tawantinsuyu, the first elections are held for the new legislature.

A.D. 1867--In Vienna, the Blue Danube Waltz, by Johann Strauss, premiers. In Sweden, Alfred Nobel finds that when nitroglycerin is combined with an absorbent substance it becomes safer and more convenient to manipulate. His mixture is patented as dynamite. Crown Prince Mutsuhito, age 14, ascends the Japanese throne as Emperor Meiji. In Germany, the North German Confederation...comprising all of Germany except the South German states of Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt and formed under the domination of Prussia. In France, Emperor Napoleon III, is stunned by the rapid Prussian victory over Austria the previous year. Learning that the total effective strength (with reserves) of the Prussian army now stands at 1.2 million opposed to roughly 300,000 for France...Napoleon decides that a drastic reorganization and revamping of his army is in order. Aided by the efficient bureaucracy Napoleon has created by his imposition of the civil service examination, over the succeeding years great strides will be made, and by the time of the Emperor’s death in 1873, the total effective strength of the French Army will stand at over 1 million...still smaller than that of Prussia, but much larger than in OTL...and an efficient system of mobilization will be in place to meet wartime needs (again, in stark contrast to OTL).

Meanwhile, the Russian colony in America...Alaska...has never been very profitable due to the high costs of transportation. The Russian government is interested in divesting itself of the colony, but cannot find a buyer (Britain expresses some interest, but Russia has no desire to further increase the imperial holding of it’s great rival, and so refuses to sell). And so, Alaska remains in Russian hands.

A.D. 1868--In Japan, feudal lords and others have been conspiring against the Tokugawa rule. A rallying cry is, "Honor the Emperor; expel the barbarian." Despite the anti-barbarian slogan, British, French, Tawantinsuya and Dutch forces join the rebels against the shogunate, shelling coastal fortresses and sinking the shogun's ships. Tokugawa rule is declared over. The capital, Edo, is renamed Tokyo. The emperor rules nominally while civil war continues. Attacks on foreigners continue, but people with influence and power do not want to provoke intervention by the Western Powers and move to end such attacks. Prince Juan Carlos of Spain comes of age and formally ascends the throne, ruling as King Charles VII. Juan Carlos is of a more liberal mind than his father...although still very conservative...and he will introduce some mild reforms into the Spanish government during his long and mostly successful reign. Among the more important of these reforms is the reconstitution of the Cortes, the national legislative assembly, which he declares by edict within a few months of the beginning of his reign. Although the new Cortes is nothing like the old one which operated under the Constitution of 1812, and cannot pass laws, it does serve in an advisory function to the King, who is disposed, at times, to listen to it’s advice. The final British convicts are shipped to Australia.

A.D. 1869--Tokugawa forces that have attempted to establish rule in Hokkaido are defeated. Leaders of the military victory over the Tokugawa begin associating Emperor Meiji with Shinto ideology. Shinto shrines are common on Buddhist temple grounds, and, in an effort to free Shinto from Buddhist domination, violence and the breaking of images is committed against Buddhism. Buddhist temple lands are confiscated.

Elsewhere in the world, the Suez Canal opens. It is largely French owned but eager for international business. Access is promised ships from all nations, for a fee. The canal is to reduce travel time between Europe and Asia. Also in this year, one-third of the population of Savu (in the Indonesian Archipelago) dies from smallpox. Charles VII of Spain marries Margherita, Princess of Bourbon-Parma.

A.D. 1870--Pius IX convenes the First Vatican Council, at which papal infallibility is proclaimed on matters of faith and morals. Diamond deposits have been discovered in southern Africa, at Kimberley, and in Griqualand, on the northern frontier of the British colony. Diamond diggers are rushing there-Africans, as well as whites from Europe, Australia and the Americas. Australia now has a substantial number of Germans and Catholic Irish, who worship freely. The Irish have found Australia to be without the oppressions they had known in Ireland. Joseph Lister believes that microorganisms transmit disease. He reports success in sterilizing tools used in surgery. In Britain, France, Germany, Austria and in Scandinavian countries, trade relative to population size has increased four to five times what it was in 1830. In Belgium and the Netherlands the increase is about three times. Also in this year, King Benedict III of the United States dies. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as King Benedict IV. Also in this year, Mikveh Israel, the first modern Jewish agricultural school and settlement is established in Palestine.

A.D. 1870-1890--The group Hovevei Zion sets up 30 Jewish farming communities in Palestine.

A.D. 1871--The Meiji government of Japan sends a few men to Europe and to
Tawantinsuyu, hoping to secure abolition of the Unequal Treaties and to examine
Western technology, banking and agricultural techniques-the Iwakura Mission. King
Charles VII and Queen Margherita of Spain have a son, named Luis Ferdinand, Prince of

A.D. 1872--Speaking to Union Leaders in Holland, Karl Marx speaks of the possibility of
victory for the working class through electoral politics. King Kamehameha V of Hawaii
dies, and is succeeded by King Lunalilo.

A.D. 1873--Japan's mission to Europe and the United States returns hopeful that Japan
can catch up with the West in modernization. The Meiji government declares religious
freedom and ends Confucianism as official state ideology. Russia's government orders
students in Switzerland to return to Russia. The returning students launch a "To the
People" movement, which they hope will revolutionize society. Emperor Napoleon III of
France dies. The Prince Imperial, the future Emperor Napoleon IV, is only a boy of 15
years, and until he comes of age, his mother, Empress Charlotte, rules as regent. This
causes some outcry, as many die-hard Catholics in France are not convinced by the
sincerity of Charlotte’s conversion to the national faith, and protests against “that
Protestant hussey” break out in many French cities. Most people still support the regime,
however, and these demonstrations, although occasionally violent, are not large enough to
severely threaten the government, and Empress Charlotte takes a conciliatory approach to
the protests, refusing to call out the army to suppress the demonstrators.

A.D. 1874--Germany is suffering a small pox epidemic. Vaccination becomes mandatory.
In the United States, barbed wire has been invented. It is sold to farmers to keep passing
herds of cattle off their land. Britain makes a colony of coastal territory 100 kilometers
deep and 400 kilometers wide in what today is Ghana. During fighting there a British
commander has his troops wear brown jackets and khaki trousers rather than the
traditional red coats-a move toward camouflage. Also in this year, Atahualpa Inca III is
very satisfied with the progress of his new constitutional government. However, he is
concerned by the fact that the Constitution does not specifically include a Bill of Rights,
and some injustices still continue within his domain as a result. And so, in this year, he
introduces a Bill of Rights as an amendment to the Tawantinsuya Constitution. After
much debate, the amendments are passed by the legislature by the end of the year. Also
in this year, the Cortes of Nuevo Espana, in a move aimed at cementing the divorce of the
kingdom’s identity from that of Spain, formally votes to change the name of the kingdom
to the Kingdom of Aztlan. Queen Isabella vetoes the bill, but the veto is over-ridden.
King Lunalilo of Hawaii dies, and is succeeded by King Kalakaua. The Marshall Islands are claimed
by the Kingdom of Aztlan, which establishes a colonial government there. Later that same year,
Aztlan claims Wake Atoll, and establishes a military base there.

A.D. 1874-1877--The Franco-Prussian War: Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
wants a war with France as a means of unifying the remaining German states under
Prussian rule. Unfortunately, he has been unable to find a suitable pretext (the Spanish
succession crisis which he used in OTL did not take place in the ATL) and the French
have not appeared as such an easy target in this timeline (since there was no failed
Mexican expedition to expose weaknesses in the French military system). And so,
Bismarck has been forced to bide his time and wait for the appropriate opportunity. And
now, viewing the continuing disorders in France, he thinks he has found it. Bismarck
orders Prussian agents to stir up some trouble among the German population of Alsace
and Lorraine, and then, when the French authorities move to quell the disturbances,
makes a great show of outrage over the “oppression of ethnic Germans by the perfidious
French.” Bismarck goes to the Diet of the North German Confederation and demands a
declaration of war against France, which the Diet...which is completely under the thumb
of Prussia anyway...dutifully grants on April 1, 1874. Bismarck invites the south German
states (Bavaria, Baden, Wurtemburg, and Hesse-Darmstadt) to join in the “holy crusade”
to liberate the Germans of Alsace and Lorraine from the French, but seeing the ploy for
what it is, all four states refuse to join Bismarck’s war.

Nevertheless, the ruthlessly efficient Prussian war machine moves quickly into action,
and the North German Confederation soon musters an army of almost 1.5 million men for
the invasion of France. The French mobilization system is also soon in high gear, and by
the time the Prussians and their allies cross the French frontier in June 1874, the French
have already raised almost 1 million men. The French infantry are armed with the totally
superior Chassepot rifle, which has twice the effective range of the Prussian Dreyse
Needle Gun, and is more accurate. They are supported by batteries of mitrailleuse volley
guns whose crews, unlike those of the OTL Franco-Prussian War, have been well-trained
in their use. And the French artillery has been secretly upgraded and is quite equal to the
fine Krupp artillery used by the Prussians. And so, when the armies meet, the Prussians
get a rude shock.

Attacking Prussian and German infantry and cavalry are slaughtered as they make vain
assaults on well-entrenched French positions. The Prussians soon learn that frontal
assaults are virtually suicidal, and they entrench themselves as well. A line of trenches
soon extends across northern France from the Swiss border to the Belgian frontier (as in
OTL, the Prussians are respecting Belgian neutrality in this war). The French line,
anchored on fortress cities like Sedan, Metz, and Verdun, proves impervious to assault,
and the narrowness of the front prevents the Prussians from bringing their large numerical
superiority to bear. The result is a bloody stalemate, which continues for two years.

In late 1876, the Prussians decide that in order to break the stalemate, they have to
outflank the French lines...and that means violating Belgian neutrality. Prussian and
North German Confederation troops march into Belgium on October 1, 1876 in a move
that does indeed prove decisive...but not in the way the Prussian high command had
hoped. The “rape of Belgium,” as it becomes known in the international press, enables
the diplomats of Empress Charlotte to persuade the Austrians (who are eager to avenge
the humiliation suffered at Prussian hands in 1866) and the south German states (who
reason that, if Prussia can violate Belgium’s neutrality when it serves her purposes, what
is to prevent her from violating their own neutrality?) to enter the war on the side of
France. Furthermore, the dominant power of the age, Great Britain, is also threatening
war and mobilizing it’s forces. Finally, after sweeping across Belgium into northern
France, the Prussians find, to their utter dismay, that the French had prepared for such a
move by extending their defensive lines all the way to the English channel. So the
invasion of Belgium gains them no strategic or tactical advantage whatever. About the
only “positive” thing to come out of the move is the entry of the Kingdom of Italy into the
war on Prussia’s side (Italy wants to annex the Tyrol and Istria, both of which are held by
Austria). But Italy’s participation proves ineffectual and does little to redeem the
situation for Prussia.

In early 1877, the Austrian and south German armies invade Prussia, forcing the
Prussians to withdraw a good part of their strength from France. And although the
Prussians soon hand the invaders a stinging defeat at the Battle of Leipzig on March 18,
1877, the withdrawal of half a million troops from northern France to face the Austrian
threat weakens the Prussian lines there to the point where the French (who have been
steadily reinforced by their own ongoing mobilization and by colonial troops brought by
sea...the French navy totally outclasses the Prussian navy and has swept the enemy from
the seas) can take the offensive. French attacks punch through the Prussian lines in
several places, and French troops are soon marching into the territory of Prussia itself,
albeit while incurring extremely high casualties.

On April 5, King Wilhelm I of Prussia demands and accepts the resignation of Chancellor
Otto von Bismarck, who goes into retirement and obscurity, a failure. He asks the
government of Queen Victoria of Great Britain to mediate a peace agreement to end the
war. With the agreement of Empress Charlotte of France (who is horrified by the
casualty reports she is receiving from the front) and Emperor Franz Josef of Austria
(whose armies are on the retreat after being defeated at Leipzig), a cease-fire is declared
and a peace conference is convened at London on May 10, 1877. Negotiations drag on
for most of the remainder of the year, but on November 3, a treaty is signed, officially
ending the war.

The terms of the treaty are relatively easy on Prussia. Prussia will not lose any territory
and will retain leadership of the North German Confederation, but will be required to pay
an indemnity of three billion marks to France and 1 billion marks to Belgium in
reparation for it’s aggression against those nations. It also agrees to recognize, in
perpetuity, French title to Alsace and Lorraine. At the insistence of Britain...which wishes
to see a counterbalance to Prussian power re-established in Germany...Austria gains the
right to form a South German Confederation consisting of itself and (provided those
states agree) the independent south German States. Italy’s army was roughly handled by the
Austrians in the Tyrol and Istria, so it gained nothing there by it's participation in the war.
But it did gain one major got to keep Rome, which it seized shortly after entering
the war from the Papal Army and French garrison defending the city.

A.D. 1875--The light bulb is invented in the United States. Britain has bought into part
ownership of the Suez Canal enterprise. Southern Africa has became the largest diamond
producing area in the world. An attempt by Ottoman agents to collect taxes in
Herzegovina leads to a popular uprising, and the rebellion spreads to Bosnia.

A.D. 1876--Rebellion against Ottoman rule has spread to Bulgaria. A reformist group in
Turkey deposes Sultan Abd al-Aziz. Murad V becomes sultan but is declared insane. Abd
al-Hamid becomes sultan and he accepts a new liberal constitution. The telephone is
invented in Tawantinsuyu by Quehar Tupac. Russians have conquered all of Uzbekistan
and occupy the northern part of Kyrgyzstan. German physician Robert Koch establishes
an procedure that proves the germ theory of disease and boosts microbiology and the
identification of microorganisms. A three-year-old drought has devastated India, China
and the Quilombo, causing as many as 30 million deaths from starvation and disease.
Tawantinsuyu is affected too, but the traditional Tawantinsuya system of food storage
and distribution helps to mitigate the effects there. Japan forces the Koreans to accept a
trade agreement similar to Admiral Vicaquirao’s demands to the Japanese government
back in 1852. The last full-blooded Tasmanian aborigine, Truganini, dies. Also in this year,
King Benedict IV of the United States, who up until this time has been a confirmed bachelor,
marries the Infanta Juana Maria (b. 1858, second child of Queen Isabella) of the Kingdom of Aztlan.
This union between the dynasties of the two American kingdoms is seen as an important event
by observers worldwide, and a portent of closer relations between the two American giants in the future.

A.D. 1877 onward, Europe--In the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War, tensions in
Europe remain high, in large part due to the actions of Prussia. Prussia’s national
confidence has been shattered by defeat. Seeing herself surrounded by enemies and
potential enemies, Prussia once again reorganizes it’s military system, embarks on an
accelerated military buildup, and begins casting about for allies. By the end of the
century it has assumed the aspect of a garrison state, armed to the teeth and full of
bellicosity. It also abandons all pretense and absorbs the other member states of the
North German Confederation within a few years after the end of the disastrous war. The
death of stodgy old King Wilhelm I and the accession of his somewhat unstable grandson
to the throne as King Wilhelm II in 1888 only serves to further escalate tensions.

As a result of the mounting tensions on the continent, a system of alliances grows up in
Europe as the various powers align themselves for self-defense. By 1900, the two main
groupings which have arisen are the Entente Cordiale consisting of France, Austria, the
South German Confederation, and Britain, which opposes the Triple Alliance of Prussia,
Italy (which has ongoing territorial disputes with Austria) and Russia (which is a
traditional adversary of Britain and has disputes with Austria over the Balkans as well).

One side effect of Prussia’s national humiliation that might have been expected to reduce
tensions, but does not, is that those voices within Prussia which had begun calling for
Prussia to join the scramble for overseas colonies (which would necessitate building a
large navy to protect those colonies) are silenced as the national mood turns inward in
self-doubt and recrimination. As a result, there will be no German/Prussian naval race
with Britain, as happened in OTL.

A.D. 1877 onward--In the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War, the various powers
examine the recent events of the war and attempt to find any lessons they might contain.
As a result of these studies, the various armies abandon their brightly coloured and highly
impractical uniforms over the next two decades in favor of outfits dyed in various shades
of brown, gray, and green. The decisive nature of firepower for the defense is recognized,
and the armies quickly adopt bolt-action magazine rifles firing metallic cartridges filled
with smokeless powder as new designs become available in the 1880s and 1890s, as well
as automatic machine guns (Maxim, Hotchkiss, and other designs) and quick-firing
artillery. The value of entrenchment was clearly demonstrated during the war (and will
be further reinforced by the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5), and war planning in most
armies will focus on fighting an essentially defensive battle, with little emphasis given to
the offensive in most battle planning. One army which particularly benefits from these
lessons is that of Austria-Hungary, which reforms itself in the wake of it’s poor
performance in the Franco-Prussian war and becomes much more effective than it’s OTL
counterpart. Austria-Hungary’s forces will, by the outbreak of war in 1914, have become
highly proficient in the new defensive tactics, and will be well-equipped with machine
guns and good artillery which will stand them in good stead during the upcoming conflict.

The great exception to this rule is Prussia, is quite often the case...the sting of
defeat in the recent war has lead many of it’s generals to begin to “think outside of the
box,” and consider novel means of breaking a stalemated front and restoring movement to
the battlefield. Prussian military writers emphasize infiltration tactics, designed to
bypass strongpoints in the enemy line, which can be contained and reduced later, after a
breakthrough is achieved. Others see in the recent inventions of Karl Benz and Gottleib
Daimler...the first practical vehicles propelled by internal combustion engines fueled by
gasoline...the possibility of developing “armored cavalry” which can punch through
enemy defenses and exploit the breakthroughs thus produced. Prussia will
great secrecy...both ideas in the years ahead.

A.D. 1877--In Japan, agrarian and samurai revolts against government reforms have been
defeated militarily, the largest being the Satsuma Rebellion, involving several thousand
men. The fighting drains the national treasury and leads to inflation. Meanwhile, in
southern Africa, the British intend to protect the Boers (Afrikaners of Dutch, French and
German descent) from the Zulus and to repair the Boer Republic of Natal financially.
They suppose that a majority of Boers favor British rule and they annex the republic. Also
in this year, supporting their fellow Orthodox Christians in the Balkans, the Russians
declare war on the Ottoman Empire and are marching toward Constantinople. The Prince
Imperial of France comes of age and officially ascends the French throne as Emperor
Napoleon IV. The Gardner Gun, the first successful mechanical (i.e. hand-cranked)
machine gun, is patented in Britain. The Kingdom of Italy formally moves it's capital from Turin to Rome.
The Pope is allowed to keep the precincts around St. Peter's Basilica as a independent state under his own rule...
the Vatican City. Alfred von Tirpitz becomes Inspector General of the Prussian torpedo boat

A.D. 1878--Ottoman Sultan Abd al-Hamid has dismissed the new liberal constitution and
reformist politicians. The first attempt in modern times to graft western political ideas
onto Islamic society has failed. All opposition is suppressed and all governmental power
transferred to the Sultan's palace. The British fear Russia's expansion southward in the
Balkans. The word jingoism is coined, rising from a popular song in Britain that begins:
"We don’t want to fight, but by jingo if we do We’ve got the ships, we’ve got the men
and got the money too!" The European powers get together in Vienna to settle the
Russian war against the Ottoman Empire and the underlying causes of it, and in the
process they create problems for the future that will lead to disastrous war. They settle
matters to some degree in accordance with national determination, recognizing Bulgarian
and Romanian independence and giving independence to Montenegro and Serbia, but
they also defer to old fashioned empire: the Habsburg monarchy in Vienna is given
approval of its takeover in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vienna's army enters the provinces,
carrying symbols of Roman Catholicism is crushing Orthodox Serb resistance. Cyprus
transfers from Ottoman to British control. Fearing Russia's advances into Turkistan and
Samarqand, the British occupy Kabul. The "Second Afghan War" has begun. In Russia,
Vera Zasulich, a member of the youthful radical group "Land and Liberty," seeks revenge
for the beating that one of her activist friends has received in prison. She shoots and
wounds the military governor of St. Petersburg and is tried by a jury, which fails to
convict her. The government responds by ending jury trials for people charged with
politically motivated crimes. The government also steps up its arrest and exile of persons
suspected of supporting terrorism. In southern Africa, the British order the King of the
Zulus, Cetshwayo, to disband his army of four to six thousand. He refuses. The Zulus
defeat the British at Isandhwana, killing 800 British and capturing 1,000 rifles, with

A.D. 1879--With the help of Gardner guns, the British overpower the Zulus, at the Battle
of Ulundi. Queen Victoria urges "kind and generous treatment of Cetshwayo," who is
exiled to Cape Town. A yellow-fever epidemic begins in New Orleans. In
Constantinople, Turkish authorities forbid Armenian performances. In Russia, St.
Petersburg has its first significant strike by industrial workers. King Benedict IV and
Queen Juana of the United States have a son (actually the second child produced by the marriage),

Crown Prince Benedict William John Arnold. Also in this year, Gold is discovered on the south island of New Zealand. The Tawantinsuya authorities do not want an influx of foreigners, and so the discovery is not allowed to be
leaked to the world at large. The Tawantinsuya mine the gold themselves, and a mint is
set up on the island to produce Qurants from the mined gold.

A.D. 1880--After many failed attempts to assassinate Alexander II, radicals fail again,
blowing up the dining room at the tsar's palace, killing eleven and wounding fifty-six.
The tsar was late for dinner. Police arrest many members of the radical group "Will of the
People," almost destroying the organization. In less than eighty years, the whaling
industry on the Pacific ocean has collapsed, largely as a result of the increased production
of kerosene, which has killed the market for whale oil. The conservative British
politician, Benjamin Disraeli, for the last six years has been in his second run as Britain's
Prime Minister. Many are unhappy with his having raised taxes and unhappy about the
cost of military operations. Election results are not in his favor and he steps down.

A.D. 1881--A member of the radical group, "Will of the People" assassinates Tsar
Alexander II. His son and successor, Alexander III, makes no distinction between
terrorists and political activists of the non-violent variety. Censorship is tightened.
Publishers and writers with liberal ideas are harassed. In the Transvaal, Boers
(Afrikaners) rebel against British rule and defeat the British at Majuba Hill. Britain's
prime minister, Gladstone, returns self-rule to the Boer Republic except for control of
foreign affairs. France declares Tunisia a protectorate. Muhammad Ahmad leads a
pan-Islamic rebellion amid cries for war against infidels. He proclaims himself the Mahdi
(Messiah) who is to rid the world of evil. For some time, there has been a budding
romance between Princess Beatrice, daughter of Queen Victoria of England, and the
handsome, dashing Emperor Napoleon IV. Napoleon speaks fluent English (thanks to his
American mother), and the two met at a party which Beatrice attended in Paris at the
occasion of Napoleon’s coronation. Both have made frequent trips across the Channel to
visit since that time. Finally, in June 1881, the two are wed in London in a ceremony
attended by most of the crowned heads of Europe and the Americas. Atahualpa Inca III,
who had been a friend of the groom’s father, presents the happy couple with a set of
matched imperial robes, woven from finest vicuna, trimmed with jaguar fur, and
embroidered in gold thread with Napoleon’s imperial crest. A photograph of the couple
wearing these robes during the formal coronation of Beatrice as Empress of France later
that month will become one of the most famous of the 19th century.

Also in this year, in Britain and Tawantinsuyu, a joint celebration of the 300th Anniversary of
the Anglo-Tawantinsuya Alliance is held. Both nations issue commemorative postage
stamps and strike commemorative gold coins celebrating the occasion. Queen Victoria
travels to Cuzco and Atahualpa Inca III travels to London to take part in ceremonies
commemorating the signing of the historic agreement. One viewer of these events (or at
least the ones in Britain) is an impressionable young lad named Herbert George Wells.
Wells will one day write a novel inspired by his memories of these events, entitled “The
Empire of Gold,” which will be based on the premise that the Tawantinsuyu Empire had
gone the way of the Aztec Empire in Mexico and fallen under the cruel thumb of the
gold-hungry Spanish conquistadors, and postulates a vastly different world which results
from that outcome. Published in 1889, it will be the first alternate history novel written
in the English language. It will be little remembered, however, compared to Wells’ more
famous works like “War of the Worlds” and “The Time Machine.”

A.D. 1881-1884--Pogroms in Tsarist Russia kill tens of thousands of Jews and force hundreds of
thousands to flee. While most of these end up in the United States, Britain, and other western
countries, many go to Palestine and settle.

A.D. 1882--In response to a nationalist revolt in Egypt against Ottoman rule, Britain and
France support the Ottoman sultan. A British army defeats an Egyptian force at the Battle
of Tell al-Kabir. Britain is concerned about the Suez Canal, and Queen Victoria wants to
protect Christians in Egypt. Exercising her power to consult with and advise her
government, she favors keeping troops in Egypt. Alexander III believes that Jews are the
killers of Christ. Pogroms against Jews have been spreading across Russia's empire. They
are being expelled from Moscow and are fleeing the empire. German physician Robert
Koch, discovers the rod-shaped bacterium that causes tuberculosis.
Also in this year, Crown Prince Felipe Luis of Aztlan marries Princess Caroline Arnold,
youngest daughter of King Benedict III of the United States. Like the earlier marriage of
the Infanta Juana Maria of Aztlan (sister of Crown Prince Felipe Luis) to Crown Prince
Benedict (brother of Princess Caroline), the marriage further cements the relationship
between the two American dynasties.

A.D. 1882-1903--The first Aliyah, or major wave of Jewish immigration into Palestine. About
35,000 Jews move to Palestine, with about half remaining to become permanent residents.

A.D. 1883--Robert Koch discovers the rod-shaped bacterium that causes cholera. Karl
Marx dies, John Maynard Keynes and Benito Mussolini are born. The Ottoman sultan,
Abd al-Hamid II, has his former prime minister, Midhat Pasha, strangled. The Orient
Express railway opens between Constantinople and Baghdad. Hiram Maxim patents the
first recoil-operated automatic machine gun. Konstantian Tsiolkovsky, a Russian school teacher,
publishes FREE SPACE. In this, Tsiolkovsky shows that a rocket will function in a vacuum
due to Newton's Action-Reaction" laws of motion.

A.D. 1884--France incorporates Vietnam into its empire. In Africa, France occupies
Guinea. In Uganda, Christians object to the King Mwanga's homosexual relations with
young boys and men who serve him as pages and attendants. Mwanga, has numerous
Christians put to death, some by burning. Christians arm themselves and ally with local
Muslims in a civil war against Mwanga. Britain proclaims a protectorate over the eastern
half of New Guinea and adjacent islands. Britain sends a force to the Sudan to supervise
an Egyptian withdrawal from Khartoum, and the force takes charge of 2,500 women,
children, sick and wounded. Muhammad Ahmad's force surrounds them. The British
government's rejects a request for military help from a Sudanese slave trader and warlord.

A.D. 1885--After ten months, Muhammad Ahmad overruns the British force in
Khartoum. Its leader, Charles Gordon, is killed. With help from the British, who are
involved in neighboring Sudan, Italy takes from the Egyptians control over what today is
Eritrea. European powers meet in Berlin and make agreements concerning Africa. They
give King Leopold of Belgium control of the Congo. Spain is awarded a colony on the
Atlantic coast of northwestern Africa (which will become known as the Spanish Sahara).
Britain annexes what in OTL would become Botswana, Tanzania, Namibia, and
Cameroon. France is colonizing Central Africa and establishes a little colony on the
northern tip of Madagascar. In Germany, Karl Benz develops an internal combustion
engine. It can run at 250 revolutions per minute. A bicycle with a diamond-shaped frame
and a chain drive to the rear wheel is exhibited in London.Emperor Napoleon IV and Empress
Beatrice of France produce a son, who they name Napoleon Jerome Louis Henri Bonaparte,
Prince Imperial of France.

1886--Gold is discovered in the Transvaal-Boer territory. In Germany, Heinrich Hertz
uses sparks to send a radio signal. After a ten-year effort, troops from Aztlan trap
and destroy the band of the Apache chieftain Geronimo, effectively ending the wars of
Aztlan against the natives of it’s northern territories. Geronimo’s head is taken to
Mexico City, where it is displayed in a museum for years to come. Paul Vielle of France
invents Poudre B, the first practical smokeless gunpowder. Over the next decade, armies
throughout the world will abandon their black-powder-firing small arms in favor of new
weapons using smokeless powder. Crown Prince Felipe Luis and Princess Caroline of Aztlan
produce a son, who they name Ferdinand Carlos.

A.D. 1887--Ethiopians are fighting Italy's attempt at colonization. The Italians remain in
Eritrea. The Yellow River bursts its banks, and the flooding kills 900,000 Chinese.

A.D. 1888--George Eastman invents the Kodak camera, making it easy for
non-professionals to take photographs. In London, five prostitutes who ate poisoned
grapes have been disemboweled. The murders are attributed to Jack the Ripper. King
Wilhelm I of Prussia dies. His son, Friederich III, dies of throat cancer after reigning 99
days. Friederich's son, Wilhelm II, son of Queen Victoria's politically liberal daughter,
Vicki, becomes King of Prussia. Wilhelm had suffered a traumatic breach birth and has a
withered arm as a result. Modern doctors have also claimed that he may also have
received some brain damage during the birth as well. Whether or not that is the case,
Wilhelm has an unstable personality, and will be prone to blustering, bullying behavior
that will serve to alienate most of the nations of Europe at one time or another. Tensions
in Europe will dramatically increase during his reign.

A.D. 1888 onward--With the accession of King Wilhelm II to the throne of Prussia,
Prussia has a King who is interested in naval affairs, for perhaps the first time in it’s
history. Although he is forced by Prussia’s circumstances to forego the acquisition of a
large surface navy, Wilhelm takes an interest in the development of a new and untried
machine which is in development in several countries...the submarine. Remembering the
blockade of Prussia’s ports during the Franco-Prussian War by the victorious French
Navy, Wilhelm knows that in a war with Britain or France in the future, a much more
severe blockade will be imposed, and reasons that Prussia must have a weapon capable of
imposing a blockade on it’s enemies. Since a surface navy is not an option, the
submarine seems a possible answer to this dilemma. This conviction is reinforced when
Wilhelm learns, in 1889, that Spaniard designer Isaac Peral successfully fired three
Whitehead Torpedoes from a submarine vessel of his own design (Peral fails to interest
the government of Spanish King Charles VII, but soon finds agents from King Wilhelm at
his doorstep, and moves to Prussia to pursue submarine development there, working at
Krupp’s Germania shipyard). Over the protests of his ministers and the Reichstag,
Wilhelm will, almost from the moment he succeeds to the throne, divert a portion of
Prussia’s military budget into the development of submarines. He will be supported in
this by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz from the time said officer joins the Naval Ministry in
1892. Tirpitz, who spent most of his naval career in the torpedo boat fleet, can easily see
the potential of submarines as a stealthy platform for firing the deadly torpedo. Tirpitz
will later become Secretary of State for the Navy in 1898, and from that time forward, he
and King Wilhelm will work closely together on their joint dream...building the world’s
preeminent submarine fleet. By 1920, Prussia will have built a fleet of over 200 very
capable long- and medium-range submarines. No other nation in the world will have
anything approaching this fleet in quality or quantity.

A.D. 1889--The Ivory Coast becomes a French protectorate, and the English and French agree
on spheres of influence on the Gold Coast and on the Senegal and Gambia rivers. In a
small town in Austria, Braunau, by the River Inn, which borders Germany, Adolf Hitler is
born. Also in this year...the Tenterfield Oration by Sir Henry Parkes, which advocates the federation
of the five British Australian colonies, which are at this time self-governed but under the
distant administration of the British Colonial Secretary.

A.D. 1890--Death of Atahualpa Inca III. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as
Manco Capac Inca III. Manco continues his father’s reforms, introducing a new and
expanded Bill of Rights within two years of his succession to the crown. In
Constantinople, Armenians in the district of Gum-Gapu protest, and authorities crush the
demonstration with bloodshed. Economies in Europe have been in a downturn. British
investors sell their U.S. stocks for needed money. Also in this year, the Australian Federation
Conference calls a constitutional convention.

A.D. 1891--Hawaii's King Kalakaua dies of kidney disease and is succeeded by his
brilliant sister, Lili'uokalani. In West Africa, the French invade the Mandinka Empire,
employing artillery and machine guns. The Mandinka ruler, Samoie Touré, resorts to a
scorched earth policy and shifts his empire to the east. Prussia’s Social Democratic Party
advocates the 8-hour day, prohibition of child labor under the age of 14; government
regulation of working conditions, the abolition of laws that restrict the right of people to
assemble, direct suffrage by secret ballot, the election of judges, an end to laws that put
women at a disadvantage as compared with men, a graduated income and property tax,
free medical attention, a people's militia for defense, secularized public education and no
public money supporting religious institutions. The Prussian government initiates the first
public old-age pension system. Various Turkish intellectuals, including in the military,
are drawing inspiration from the West. In institutions of higher learning secret societies
have formed. Exiles called Young Turks meet in Geneva to organize a nationalist
movement against Sultan Hamid's rule. His repressions are failing.
Also in this year, The First National Australasion Convention meets, agrees on adopting the
name “Commonwealth of Australia” and drafting a constitution. The constitution is
adopted by the Convention, even though it has no legal authority to do so.

A.D. 1892--In Russian ruled Poland, unrest among workers brings an attack sent by
authorities that kills 46.

A.D. 1893--Hawaii's Queen Lili'uokalani is planning a constitution that will spread power
to native Hawaiians. Although the land amendments passed by King Kamehameha III in
the 1850s have prevented large-scale foreign ownership of Hawaiian land, by that time
the foundations of a plantation system, producing crops, cattle, and sheep for export, had
already been laid, and there simply were not enough Hawaiians to meet all the needs for
labor. So, as in OTL, large numbers of Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, and other primarily
Asian immigrants have been imported to fill these roles (working for Hawaiian
landowners instead of European landowners). Over time, the sheer number of these
people has forced the Hawaiian monarchy to make concessions to allow them access to
political power, and by 1893 a majority of the lower house of the Hawaiian legislature
(which is popularly elected...the upper house consists of nobles appointed by the
monarch) consists of immigrants instead of native Hawaiians. Lili'uokalani sees this as a
threat, and wants to reduce the political power of the immigrants. Laos becomes a French
protectorate. A mounted British column crosses the Umniati River into Matabeleland
(today Zimbabwe). They have rifles, two 7-pounder field guns and a number of Maxim
machine guns. Six thousand Ndebele warriors attack the British encampment. Hundreds
of Ndebele die. Less than 10 members of the British column are killed or wounded.
Also in this year, the Corowa Conference calls on the colonial parliaments of Australia to
pass enabling acts, allowing the election of delegates to a new constitutional convention
aimed at drafting a proposal and putting it to a referendum in each colony.

A.D. 1894--Alexander III dies of kidney disease. His eldest son, at 26, is crowned Tsar
Nicholas II. His main interest is devotion to God and an undisturbed family life. A few
days after his coronation, trinkets and such are presented to the masses as presents from
the tsar. Surging forward to the gifts in an open field, more than a thousand people are
trampled to death. Dahomey becomes a French colony. Korea's king calls for help from
China to suppress riots. Opposed to China's influence in Korea, Japan sends troops and
takes control of Korea. Japan's military moves north from Korea into Manchuria, and they
move eastward to Port Arthur. An antiquated military force from Manchu China is
overwhelmed by Japan's more modern force. In France, Captain Alfred Dreyfus is falsely
accused of passing military information to Prussian agents and is sentenced to life in
prison. Hawaii's Queen Lili'uokalani unveils her new Constitution, which includes a
clause that no person who is not of at least 1/4 native Hawaiian blood may serve in the
Hawaiian legislature...which would exclude over half the members of the lower house of
the current legislature. There is rioting among the large Chinese and Japanese worker
communities on the islands, which the Queen orders her army to suppress. Pictures of
Hawaiian troops firing into crowds of rioting civilians appear in newspapers across the
world. Several European powers begin expressing concern over the safety of their
citizens who live in Hawaii, and threatening to take military action. This prompts Manco
Capac Inca III to intervene in the situation. Tawantinsuya troops from the bases near
Honolulu move on the city and quickly seize the royal palace after a sharp fight with the
Hawaiian palace guards. Queen Lili'uokalani is placed under “protective custody,” and
Tawantinsuya troops disperse both the rioters and the Hawaiian army troops in the city.
Quiet gradually settles back onto the islands. Queen Lili'uokalani is soon on board a ship
headed for Tawantinsuyu for “high level talks” with Manco Capac Inca. The new
constitution is declared suspended in her absence, and the legislature rules the islands
temporarily by itself.

Upon her arrival in Tawantinsuyu, Queen Lili'uokalani is well treated, but Manco Capac
Inca makes it clear that if she wishes to return to Hawaii and resume her throne, she has
to agree to withdraw the new Constitution. Queen Lili'uokalani resists for quite some
time, but finally decides to relent. She is returned to Honolulu by the end of the year and
resumes her throne, formally withdrawing the proposes Constitution.

A.D. 1895--China signs the Treaty of Shimonoseki, ceding to Japan control over the
Liaodong peninsula to Port Arthur, ceding to Japan Taiwan and permitting Japanese to
live in and trade with Chinese. In Germany, Wilhelm Roentgen develops X-rays. Studies
in Hysteria by Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud launch an Age of Analysis.
All British Australian colonies except Western Australia agree to implement
the Corowa Proposals.

A.D. 1896--In Constantinople, Armenian nationalists attack the Ottoman Bank.
Authorities retaliate and 3,000 Armenians die. The British are alarmed by the spread of
French influence in southern Sudan. Britain's military leader, Horatio Kitchener leads an
army into the Sudan. Britain declares Ashanti (today Ghana) a protectorate. At Adowa, in
the far north of Ethiopia, Ethiopians defeat an Italian army, saving themselves from
colonial rule. In Matabeleland, rebels kill more than 120 white settlers. A force of 500
whites is assembled and ends the rebellion. In France the real spy in the Dreyfus Affair
has been found, but the French Army prefers to keep its mistake hidden and to maintain
Dreyfus, as guilty. The Bathurst Conference meets to discuss the 1891 draft constitution for a
united Australia. Also in this year, a Tagish Indian named Keish notices gold nuggets in a tributary creek
of the Yukon River in the far north of British North America. He thinks nothing of it and
word of the discovery doesn’t get out to the world at large.

A.D. 1896-1904--Theodore Herzl unsuccessfully approaches world leaders for assistance in
creating a Jewish national home.

A.D. 1897--The first subway (underground) passenger system in the United States opens
in Boston Massachusetts. Theodor Herzl, a Jewish journalist from Hungary, has been
disturbed by the anti-Semitism connected with the Dreyfus Affair. He organizes and
holds the first Zionist Congress.

A.D. 1897-1898--The Second National Australasian Convention meets and agrees to
adopt a constitution based on the 1891 draft. Later they revise and amend the draft, and
having agreed on a final draft, submit it to the people for the vote in individual
referendums in each colony.

A.D. 1898--Britain obtains a 99-year lease of Hong Kong from the Chinese. In China and
India the bubonic plague begins to kill what will eventually be three million people. A
force of 8,200 British and 17,600 Sudanese troops, under British command, win against
more numerous Dervish warriors, at the battle of Omdurman, in the Sudan, near
Khartoum. The British lose 48 dead. An estimated 5,000 Dervish are taken prisoner and
10,000 are killed. Flashbulb photography begins. A book by a Polish financier, Ivan Bloch, is
widely distributed in Europe thatpredicts the kind of warfare to be fought in the next major European war.
Bloch describes warfare as no longer a solution to diplomatic problems. The French experimental
submarine GUSTAVE ZEDE successfully torpedoes an anchored battleship while on maneuvers. This sends
a wakeup call to the great powers that here is a weapon that has some military potential. Development
accelerates in all countries. The referendums on the adoption of the Australian Constitution and
federation of the British Australian colonies is passed by all of the colonies.

Also in this year, the Emperor Guangxu of China, believing
that by learning from constitutional monarchies like Japan, China would become more
powerful politically and economically, launches what will become known as the 100
Days Reform. The imperial edicts for reform, aimed at making China a modern,
constitutional empire, but still within the traditional framework, as in the example of
Japan's Meiji Restoration, cover a broad range of subjects, including stamping out
corruption and remaking, among other things, the academic and civil service
examination systems, legal system, governmental structure, defense establishment, and
postal services. The edicts attempt to modernize agriculture, medicine, and mining and to
promote practical studies instead of Confucian orthodoxy. The court also plans to send
students abroad for firsthand observation and technical studies. All these changes are to
be brought about under a de facto constitutional monarchy. Unfortunately for Guangxu
and for China, the reforms are opposed by the ultra-conservative Dowager Empress, Cixi,
who engineers a military coup. Guangxu is forced into isolation and stripped of any real
power, the reforms are rescinded, and Guangxu’s supporters are hunted down and
executed or forced to flee the country. Those supporters who manage to flee abroad
actively work to restore him to power, and gain much support from the governments of
Europe, and most significantly as it will turn out, from Tawantinsuyu, whose ruler,
Manco Capac Inca III, who is a reformer himself, strongly sympathizes with Guangxu.

Also in this year three Swedes, Jafet Lindberg, Erik Lindblöm and John Brynteson, discover gold
on Anvil Creek in Russian North America (site of OTL Nome, Alaska). Shortly thereafter, gold is
discovered in the beach sands in the region. Thousands of people of all nationalities head
for Russian America in search of their fortunes. The Russian Government, confronted
with this unexpected windfall, sends more soldiers and administrators to the colony, as
well as encouraging more Russian settlement there.

Also in this year in France, Marie Curie and her husband, Pierre, discover that present in
pitchblende, an ore of uranium, is a substance which emits large amounts of radioactivity,
which they name radium. This raises the hopes of both scientists and lay people that the
elements around us could contain tremendous amounts of unseen energy, waiting to be tapped.

A.D. 1899--British settlers had streamed into Boer country with the discovery of gold
there. The gold mines became British owned. Various British colonial leaders wanted to
annex the two Boer republics. War erupts, with the Boers striking first. Valdermar
Poulsen of Denmark develops the first tape recorder. Tsar Nicholas II moves to tighten
control over autonomous Finland, and Finnish resistance to the Russian tsar's rule begins.
In China angry men take up terrorism. They are known as Boxers. More than terrorists,
they are nationalists. In the streets that display slogans such as "protect the country and
destroy the foreigner." At least half of them are youths, and they have religious fervor.
They fear magic created by the Christians. They attack and kill Christian missionaries and

Chinese converts to Christianity. Rather than rebels, they have government approval.
Also in this year, the decision is made to locate the Australian capital in New South Wales,

with the stipulation that it not be within 100 miles of Sydney. The Tagish Indian Keish
goes to the Alaskan gold fields to work as a laborer, where he informs some of the miners
of his own find in the Yukon region. Preparations begin for an exploratory expedition to
confirm the find
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