The Guns of the Tawantinsuya

Part One--800-1600 AD

ca. A.D. 800: Under the leadership of Taycanamo, the Chimu, a people probably
descended from the earlier Moche culture which had once held sway in the same region,
form the Kingdom of Chimor in the northern coastal region of Peru. Construction begins
on their capital, the city of Chan Chan. Buildings are made of adobe brick, covered with
a cement into which intricate designs are carved. At about the same time, other related
tribes form the Kingdom of Sican, north of Chimor.

ca. A.D. 900--The Chimu conquer the Kingdom of Sican, north of Chan Chan.

ca. A.D. 950: A priest in the city of Chan Chan (the capital city of the Chimu civilization
of Peru) is mixing magic powders for use in the local religious festival and accidentally
discovers gunpowder when the mixture explodes in his face. Fortunately, he was mixing a
very small amount, and the mixture wasn't quite right anyway, so he manages to survive
the explosion. Thinking that this might be a good thing to use in his ceremonies to
overawe the populace, he continues to work with the formula and improve it. He trains
other priests how to make it too.

ca. A.D. 1000: Observations of a storage vessel reacting to another gunpowder accident
lead to the invention of a crude rocket. It begins to dawn on the Chimu that the "Magic
Powder" might have military applications.

A.D. 1100-1300: Knowledge of gunpowder has spread from the Chimu to other area
cultures. Rockets are a standard part of regional militaries, although they are dreadfully
inaccurate and don't cause a lot of damage. Sometime around 1250 A.D., an anonymous
metalworker in what is now northern Chile discovers the formula for bronze, knowledge
of which slowly spreads northward. Also at about this time, a new people, the
Tawantinsuya, have appeared, lead by their semi-legendary ruler (or “Inca,” as he is
called), Manco Capac. They settle at the city of Cuzco, founding the state of
Tawantinsuyu.

A.D. 1300-1400: Bronze begins to be worked in Chan Chan before 1350 A.D.
Knowledge of the formula soon spreads to other cultures in the region. By 1400, the
Chimu Empire extends for some 200 miles to the north and south of Chan Chan. The
Tawantinsuya learn of the Chimu "Magic Powder" and begin adapting it to their own
military.

A.D. 1400-1500: The Tawantinsuya begin to expand from the Cuzco region. In 1460
they conquer Chan Chan, and by 1476 have conquered all of the Kingdom of Chimor.
They find that the Chimu were working on a primitive bronze siege cannon and bronze
hand-cannons, take over the prototypes, and after further development, put them into
production. By the end of the 1400s, a Tawantinsuya inventor has devised a wheeled
artillery carriage (based on the wheeled children's toys found in the region from very early
times), and the Tawantinsuya begin to incorporate field artillery into their armies, pulled
by teams of llama. The Tawantinsuyu Empire continues to expand, reaching it's OTL
limits by 1500.

A.D. 1415-1460--Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal launches the Age of
Exploration by sponsoring expeditions to discover a new route from Europe to the Orient.

A.D. 1425-1438--Reign of Viracocha Inca, the last semi-legendary ruler of Tawantinsuyu.

A.D. 1438-1471--Reign of Pachacuti Inca, who begins the expansion of the Tawantinsuyu
kingdom out of the Cuzco valley to the south. He also captures the Chimu capital of
Chan Chan in 1460.

A.D. 1471-1493--Reign of Tupac Yupanqui Inca, who conquers the Kingdom of Chimor
by 1476 and extends the Tawantinsuyu Empire along the coast southward into Chile. The
last Chimu King, Minchancaman, is taken to Cuzco, where he lives as a “guest” of the
Tawantinsuya Inca.

A.D. 1479--Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille marry, uniting their
kingdoms. Spain is born. They shortly afterward, with the approval of Pope Sixtus IV,
begin the Spanish Inquisition.

A.D. 1492--Christopher Columbus, sailing in the pay of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain,
makes landfall on the island of Hispaniola, in the West Indies. On October 29, he also
lands in Cuba.

A.D. 1493-1528--Reign of the Wayna Capac Inca, who extends the Tawantinsuyu Empire
northward into the regions that in OTL would become Ecuador and Colombia.

A.D. 1494--Treaty of Tordesillas divides the New World between Spain and Portugal.

A.D. 1497-1498--John Cabot, in the pay of King Henry VII of England, explores the
coast of North America in the neighborhood of Newfoundland.

A.D. 1498--Columbus discovers the coastline of South America.

A.D. 1499--Amerigo Vespucci, sailing in the pay of Spain, explores the mouths of the
Amazon.

A.D. 1500--Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal.

A.D. 1507--A German cartographer makes a map in which he names the New World
“America,” after Amerigo Vespucci.

A.D. 1509--Francisco Pizzaro leaves Spain for the New World.

A.D. 1510--The Spanish introduce the first African slaves into the New World.

A.D. 1511--Diego Columbus, son of Christopher, founds the first permanent Spanish
settlements in Cuba. He defeats the local natives when they rebel later that same year.
Spain will rule in Cuba for the almost the next 500 years.

A.D. 1512--Vasco de Balboa explores the region which will be come known as Panama,
and discovers the Pacific Ocean. Among the men in his expedition is a young man
named Francisco Pizzaro.

A.D. 1513--Ponce de Leon makes the first Spanish landfall in North America, when he
lands in Florida.

A.D. 1516--Charles V becomes Emperor of Austria and King of Spain (where he reigns
as Charles I). Charles will spend most of his reign fighting wars against the Ottoman
Turks and King Francis I of France, as well as in suppressing the Protestant Reformation.

A.D. 1515 onward--Spanish settlement of Argentina meets strong resistance from the
natives. The area will never be firmly under Spanish control.

A.D. 1517--Martin Luther nails the 95 Theses to the door of the cathedral in Wittenburg,
Saxony. Beginning of the Protestant Reformation.

A.D. 1519-1521--Hernando Cortez conquers the Aztec Empire in Mexico.

A.D. 1519--Ferdinand Magellan sails around Cape Horn, through the straits which will
later bear his name. Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor.

A.D. 1520--The first large group of African slaves in the New World are brought to
Cuba, where they are put to work in the gold mines.

A.D. 1521--Charles V issues the Edict of Worms, which outlaws Martin Luther and
declares his teachings to be heresy. Luther goes into hiding. The Ottoman Turks capture
Belgrade.

A.D. 1522-1524--First expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. In 1522 the accounts of the
achievements of Hernando Cortez, and the return of Pascual de Andagoya from his
expedition to the southern part of Panama, bringing news of the countries situated along
the shore of the ocean to the south, fires Francisco Pizzaro with enthusiasm. With the
approbation of Governor Pedrarias Davila of Panama, he forms, together with Diego de
Almagro, a soldier of fortune who was at that time in Panama, and Hernando de Luque, a
Spanish cleric, a company to conquer the lands situated to the south of Panama. Their
project seems so utterly unattainable that the people of Panama call them the "company of
lunatics". Having collected the necessary funds Pizarro places himself at the head of the
expedition; Almagro is entrusted with the equipping and provisioning of the ships; and
Luque is to remain behind to look after their mutual interests and to keep in Pedrarias's
favour so that he might continue to support the enterprise. In November, 1524, Pizarro
sets sail from Panama with a party of one hundred and fourteen volunteers and four
horses, with Almagro to follow him in a smaller ship just as soon as it can be made ready.
The result of this first expedition is disheartening. Pizarro gets no further than Punta
Quemada, on the coast of what is now Colombia, and having lost many of his men he
returns to Chicamá, a short distance from Panama. Meanwhile Almagro follows him,
going as far as the Rio de San Juan (Cauca, Colombia), and, not finding him, returns to
rejoin him at Chicamá.

A.D. 1524--Pedro de Alvarado conquers Guatemala.

A.D. 1525--The Peasant’s Revolt in Germany is brutally suppressed. Many of the
peasants claimed loyalty to the new religious doctrines espoused by Martin Luther, which
hardens the attitudes of Emperor Charles V against Luther and his teachings.

A.D. 1526--Pizarro's Second Expedition: This expedition is much larger, with 160 men
and several horses carried in two ships. After some initial probing, Pizarro's expedition
splits, with Bartolome Ruiz, the pilot, taking half the command. While sailing off the
coast of what is now Ecuador, Ruiz makes first contact with the Tawantinsuya. Aboard a
balsa trading raft with a huge triangular cotton sail are 20 Tawantinsuya crew and
passengers. The Spanish board the vessel and, to their delight, see many pieces of silver
and gold, precious stones and intricately woven fabrics. Ruiz kept three of the
Tawantinsuya to be trained as interpreters. Through sign language, the captives told him
that their gold came from a land far to the south, a land of wonders. When Ruiz rejoins
Pizzaro, he finds him encamped on a swampy island off the coast of Colombia, his
command decimated by disease and mutiny in the air. Although Pizzaro is greatly
heartened by the news Ruiz brings, he orders the abandonment of the expedition. Also in
this year, the Ottoman Turks defeat the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohacs.

A.D. 1527--The rulers of Sweden adopt Lutheranism, making Sweden the world’s first
Protestant nation. Other rulers, primarily German princelings who seek to undermine the
power of the House of Habsburg (family of Emperor Charles V), will adopt Lutheranism
shortly afterward.

A.D. 1528--Third expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. The expedition explores the coast of
South America to a point south of the Equator, but the outbreak of disease among the
explorers forces them to abandon the expedition and return to Panama. During this
expedition a brief landfall is made at the Tawantinsuya settlement of Tumbez, and it is
from this small contact that smallpox is released into the Tawantinsuyu Empire. It will
spread rapidly, killing many thousands of victims over the next two years. The Governor
of Panama having withdrawn his support for future expeditions southward by Pizzaro,
Pizzaro sets sail for Spain, where he meets with Emperor Charles V.

1528 onward--The smallpox outbreak of 1528-1530 which kills Wayna Capac Inca is just
the first of several over the course of the rest of this century. In addition to smallpox, Old
World Diseases like measles and malaria will also make their appearance in the empire.
As a result, the overall population of the Tawantinsuyu Empire, which stood at nearly
twelve million at the arrival of the Europeans in 1528, will fall to less than six million
within the next two decades. But, as immunity to the diseases gradually takes hold in the
population, the population will rebound and by the end of the century will stand at over
ten million and growing rapidly.

A.D. 1528-1532--Civil War in the Tawantinsuyu Empire. At the arrival of the strange
white-skinned visitors from the sea, the Tawantinsuya governor at Tumbez sent his
runners with all speed to the Inca, Wayna Capac, who was near Quito resting after battle.
The Inca, weighing up the potential consequences of these foreign invaders, and also the
sinister news of the outbreak of pestilence in the heart of his empire, decides to come to
Tumbez to investigate. But he gets only a short way south when the disease strikes his
camp. The incubation period of smallpox is only a few days and, in no time, it sweeps
through the army. Many of his trusted generals die, and then the Inca himself catches it.
As Wayna Capac's health rapidly worsens, he is asked to name a successor to be ratified
by his council of wise men. The two contenders are his 25-year-old son Atahualpa and
his 21-year-old brother Huascar--Wayna Capac’s son by a different queen. Wayna’s
solution is to divide the empire between the two sons, but neither Atahualpa nor Huascar
is willing to accept such a division permanently. Both sons begin building their forces,
and within a short time, the empire is plunged into a bloody civil war. Atahualpa will
eventually emerge victorious, decisively defeating Huascar’s army in late 1532 and
capturing Huascar himself. However, Atahualpa does not execute his brother, and
Huascar’s supporters do not immediately give up. Rebellion continues to simmer in the
empire while Huascar lives.

A.D. 1529--Emperor Charles V signs an agreement which confers upon Pizzaro the titles
of Governor and Captain General, and grants him authority to make new expeditions into
the newly discovered lands to the south of Panama. Pizzaro is to have absolute
authority...in the name of Emperor Charles V, of course...in all lands he might conquer
and subjugate. Also in this year, the Ottoman Turks lay siege to Vienna.

A.D. 1530--Francisco Pizzaro returns to Panama with his new authority, and begins
raising troops, ships, and money for his expedition. Also in this year, Protestant Princes
in Germany form the Schmalkaldic League. Emperor Charles V, not wishing to push the
League into the arms of his enemy, King Francis I of France, grants de facto recognition
to the League...at least for now.

A.D. 1531--Fourth Expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. In January 1531, Francisco Pizzaro
sets sail with 3 ships, 180 infantrymen, and 27 cavalrymen. Pizarro lands at Tumbez
once again, but is attacked by the local natives. He retreats to the island of Puna to await
reinforcements.

A.D. 1532--In the spring of 1532, Pizzaro’s expedition is reinforced by a further 100 men
and more horses under Hernando de Soto. In May 1532, Pizzaro lands again at Tumbez
and proceeds to march into Peru. Along their march the Spaniards encounter many
villages and are generally made welcome in them. While on the march, Pizarro takes
note the lack of adult males in residence in the villages, which, he discovers, is due to the
fact that Atahualpa Inca had called them for his army. Through several inquiries, Pizarro
learns of the civil war between Atahualpa Inca and his brother, Huascar. He also learns
of the present whereabouts of Atahaulpa Inca, who was said to be in Caxamalca. Pizarro
proceeds to march in that direction. On the long march from Tumbez to Caxamalca,
Pizzaro learns of the victory of Atahualpa Inca and the capture of Huascar, and he and his
men begin recruiting Tawantinsuyu soldiers loyal to Huáscar and also some from the
nations that the Tawantinsuyu had conquered and that held an animosity toward the
empire. However, upon finally reaching Caxamalca in November 1532, the Spaniards
find the town deserted, but they learn that Atahualpa and his main army are nearby. On
November 15, Pizzaro sends an emissary to Atahualpa, who agrees to come to meet with
Pizzaro at Caxamalca. Atahualpa arrives the next day, accompanied by a large body of
soldiers...infantry armed with bronze spears, axes, and maces, a force of slingers, a force
armed with bronze hand-cannon, and 2 bronze artillery pieces. The Spaniards
treacherously attempt to ambush Atahualpa’s party and seize Atahualpa himself, and the
natives are temporarily discomfited by the charge of the Spanish cavalry, but then
Atahualpa’s two field cannon and the hand-cannoneers open fire, dropping about half the
Spanish cavalry before they can reach the Tawantinsuya lines and scattering the rest in
disorder. The other Tawantinsuya soldiers take heart, and charge the white-skinned
invaders. Pizzaro is killed in the melee, along with about half of his men. The other half
are taken prisoner. The Tawantinsuya take control of the surviving horses, as well as the
Spanish arms and armor. They shortly begin breeding horses, and, trained by their
Spanish prisoners...who, having watched a few of their number horribly tortured to death,
are more than willing to cooperate...learn to ride. They also capture the expedition
blacksmith, who begins to show them the rudiments of iron-working and smelting.

A.D. 1532-1533--King Henry VIII of England breaks with the Roman Catholic Church
and establishes the Church of England. Beginning of the English Reformation.

A.D. 1533--Diego de Almagro, leading reinforcements for Pizzaro, lands at Tumbez. He
advances inland, but is met north of Tumbez by a Tawantinsuya army, and his force
meets the same fate as Pizzaro’s. Almagro is killed, about half of his men and most of
their horses are captured. Yet more Spanish “technical advisors” are unwillingly added to
the service of the Inca. It is from this group that Atahualpa learns of the contents of the
Treaty of Tordesillas, and realizes that he has a MAJOR problem. Shortly afterward,
Atahualpa has his brother, Huascar, put to death. Lacking a leader, the remaining rebel
forces gradually disperse, and order is restored to the empire. Atahualpa begins preparing
the empire’s defenses for the confrontation with the Spanish imperialists which he knows
is going to occur, sooner or later. Also in this year, the first recorded uprising of African
slaves in the New World takes place in Cuba. The slaves are defeated and killed, and their
heads brought back to Bayamo to quiet the alarmed colonists.

A.D. 1534--The disappearance of the expeditions of Francisco Pizzaro and Diego de
Almagro leads the Governor of Guatemala, Pedro de Alvarado, to believe that Pizzaro
and Almagro have conquered the rich lands rumored to be to the south and are hoarding
their wealth for their own. Alvarado leads a well-equipped expedition of 1,000 Spanish
soldiers (including over 200 cavalry) southward. He lands on the Ecuadorian coast and
advances toward Quito. Runners bring this news to Atahualpa Inca, who immediately
leads his main army northward from Cuzco. The Tawantinsuya army of 40,000 meets
Alvarado’s force near Quito, and in a bloody and hard-fought battle, the Spanish force is
defeated and routed. The Tawantinsuya pursue, and only a few Spaniards make it back to
the coast, where they escape aboard one of their ships. The remainder of the ships are
captured by the Tawantinsuya. About 1/4 of the Spanish force (including Alvarado
himself) are taken prisoner...including more blacksmiths...and most of the horses are
captured, along with all the Spanish arms, armor, and other equipment. A cadre of
Spanish sailors is also captured, which teach the Tawantinsuya the rudiments of sailing
the captured Spanish ships, and also serve as “technical advisors” for the construction of
additional vessels. It is thus that the Tawantinsuya Navy is born. The Spanish armor and
other equipment is used to equip an elite regiment in the Tawantinsuya army which forms
the Inca’s personal bodyguard. Alvarado is sacrificed to Inti, the Tawantinsuya sun god,
later that year.

A.D. 1534-1560--The survivors of the Alvarado expedition arrive back in Guatemala in
late 1534. They bring terrifying tales of a powerful and well-armed empire to the south.
Short of manpower, and with English and French “pirates” beginning to encroach on their
domains, Spanish leaders in the colonies decide to give the Tawantinsuya a wide berth, at
least for now. There will be a few clashes between Spanish and Tawantinsuya warships
off the Pacific coast of the Tawantinsuya Empire, but little more will happen during this
time period.

A.D. 1534-1536--Jacques Cartier explores the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence
River as far as present day Quebec and Montreal. He claims the region for France.

A.D. 1535--The Spanish establish the colony of New Spain in Mexico.

A.D. 1536--Denmark adopts Lutheranism.

A.D. 1538--Norway adopts Lutheranism. Colombia is conquered for Spain by Gonzalo
Jimenez de Quesada.

A.D. 1540--Francisco de Coronado strikes north from Mexico and explores much of the
American southwest, claiming the area for Spain.

A.D. 1541--John Calvin establishes the Reformed Church in Geneva.

A.D. 1546-47--The Schmalkaldic War: Emperor Charles V, having made peace at last
with France, gathers an army and declares war on the Schmalkaldic League. His forces
inflict a decisive defeat on the League at the Battle of Muhlburg in 1547. The League is
effectively destroyed, but warfare will continue between Catholics and Protestants in
Germany.

A.D. 1547--King Henry VIII of England dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as
King Edward VI. Edward continues the active royal support of the Reformation begun by
his father.

A.D. 1553--King Edward VI of England dies. He is succeeded by his older sister, Mary.
Mary is the daughter of Catherine of Aragon, whose divorce from King Henry VIII
precipitated the English Reformation. She is a stauch Catholic, and will spend her reign
ruthlessly suppressing Protestantism within her Kingdom.

A.D. 1554--Queen Mary of England marries Prince Philip of Spain, son of Emperor
Charles V. They produce no children, however.

A.D. 1555--Emperor Charles V signs the Peace of Ausburg, which recognizes the right of
individual German states to choose whether they shall be Protestant or Catholic.

A.D. 1556--Emperor Charles V abdicates his throne. The Spanish Empire, including the
Netherlands and all territories in the New World, go to Prince Philip, who reigns as King
Philip II. The Austrian Empire, and the claim to the title of Holy Roman Emperor, go to
Ferdinand, brother of the outgoing Emperor.

A.D. 1557--Death of Atahualpa Inca. He dies childless and is succeeded by his
half-brother, who reigns as Manco Capac II, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire.

A.D. 1558--Queen Mary of England dies, and is succeeded by her Protestant sister,
Elizabeth. Under the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Protestantism is restored, English power
and influence will grow, and England will become a constant thorn in the side of the King
of Spain.

A.D. 1560-1566--War between Spain and the Tawantinsuyu Empire: Upon his accession
to the throne, King Philip II of Spain decides that the pagans of Tawantinsuyu, whose
increasingly formidable navy is causing problems for Spanish shipping along the South
American coast, must be brought to heel. He orders a fleet to be fitted out, which is to
transport a professional army of 20,000 men to Mexico. From there, the army will be
transported from a port on Mexico’s west coast to the coast of the Tawantinsuyu Empire.
The fleet sets sail in 1560, arriving in Mexico later that year. By 1561, enough shipping
has been accumulated on Mexico’s west coast to transport the army to Peru (of course, by
this time, the army has been much reduced by disease, shipwrecks, etc.). In early 1562,
the Spanish force, now numbering about 15,000 men, lands near Tumbez. Runners
quickly inform the Inca Manco Capac II of this development, and the Inca orders
mobilization of the imperial army. The Tawantinsuya army...which, despite the ravages
of disease over the past few decades, still quickly musters over 50,000 men to meet the
invaders...meets the Spanish near Chan Chan in August, 1562. In a very sanguine
struggle, the heavily outnumbered Spaniards are defeated. They are pursued as they flee
to their ships, and fewer than 2,000 manage to escape. The war will drag on for another
four years, mainly in the form of individual encounters at sea between Spanish and
Tawantinsuyu warships. But in 1566 King Philip, who had been planning to send a
second expedition, under the Duke of Alva, to South America, faces the outbreak of the
Dutch revolt, and is forced to send his army to the Netherlands instead. So the war
essentially peters out without a peace treaty being signed. Another period of relative
peace settles on the region.

A.D. 1562-1598--The Wars of Religion (Huguenot Wars) in France between Catholics
and Protestants.

A.D. 1563--Death of Manco Capac II, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire. He is succeeded
by his son, who reigns as Sayri Tupac, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire.

A.D. 1566 onward--The Dutch Revolt. In the Spanish Netherlands, Protestantism (in the
form of Calvinism) has been gaining influence. In 1566, Calvinist mobs storm Catholic
churches across the Netherlands and destroy the “heretical” statues of Catholic saints. In
response, King Philip II of Spain orders the Duke of Alva to take an army into the
Netherlands to suppress the “rebellion.” Alva is so brutal in his tactics that within two
years, the Spanish Netherlands are in a state of full-scale war. The Protestants are joined
by Dutch nobles who object to heavy-handed Spanish taxation policies, and merchants
who object to Philip II’s almost constant wars against many of the biggest trading
partners of the Dutch.

A.D. 1572--St. Bartholmew’s Day Massacre in France. Thousands of Protestants are
murdered in cold blood by rampaging Catholics.

A.D. 1578-1581--Englishman Francis Drake, having passed through the Straits of
Magellan and sailed north along the South American coast, encounters a Tawantinsuya
trading vessel. As it happens, some of the Tawantinsuya speak Spanish, and Drake
manages to have a peaceful dialog with the Tawantinsuya crew. He finds out about the
Tawantinsuya defeats of the Spanish Empire, and decides to try to enlist them as allies for
England against Spain. He lands on the Peruvian coast, accompanied by some of the
Tawantinsuya from the trading vessel. He is escorted to the palace of the Inca at Cuzco,
and after a series of discussions, the Inca agrees to send an ambassador to the court of
Queen Elizabeth of England with an offer of alliance. Drake arrives back in England,
with the ambassador, in 1581. Queen Elizabeth is impressed by Drake’s descriptions of
the power and wealth of the Tawantinsuyu Empire, and she signs a treaty of alliance
between England and the Tawantinsuyu Empire. Trade between England and the
Tawantinsuya begins, and English ships operating in the Pacific now will be able to use
Tawantinsuya ports as a base of operations against the Spanish.

A.D. 1579--The new Spanish Governor of the Netherlands, the Duke of Parma, prompts
the southern (Walloon) states of the Netherlands to sign the Union of Atrecht, which
pledges loyalty to the Spanish King and rejects Protestantism. In response, William of
Orange, known as “the Silent,” unites the Protestant northern (Dutch) provinces into the
Union of Utrecht.

A.D. 1580--Philip II forcibly unites the crown of Portugal with that of Spain.

A.D. 1581 onward--The Trade between England and the Tawantinsuyu Empire has great
impacts on both societies. English domestic animals...cattle and sheep primarily...are
introduced to the Tawantinsuya, as well as crops such as wheat, barley, oats, and others.
In turn, the English import llamas, maize, potatoes, and tomatoes. English-style ale
becomes a popular drink among many in Tawantinsuyu, and Chicha (a maize beer
produced by the Tawantinsuya) makes it’s appearance on English tables alongside Port
Wine from Portugal, England’s other traditional ally. Chewing coca leaves becomes a
fashionable pastime for English gentlemen, ranking right up there with tobacco (another
New World import). And perhaps most importantly of all, the Tawantinsuya learn much
from the English which enables them to dramatically improve their military technology,
especially naval technology. “Race-built” galleons begin to replace the old Spanish style
vessels which currently make up the Tawantinsuya Navy.

A.D. 1581--The Union of Utrecht declares independence from the Spanish Empire. The
United Provinces of the Netherlands is born. King Philip II of Spain sends another army
to put down this revolt.

A.D. 1584--William the Silent is assassinated. Leadership of the Protestant cause in the
Netherlands passes to his son, Maurice of Nassau. Also in this year, Sir Walter Raleigh
establishes the first English colony in the New World, on Roanoke Island.

A.D. 1585--The Treaty of Nonsuch. Queen Elizabeth of England agrees to send an army
to the aid of the beleaguered Dutch rebels. The Earl of Leicester lands in the Netherlands
with 5,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry. The English will continue to fight alongside the
Dutch for the next two decades. This, along with unofficially sanctioned English piratical
activity in the Caribbean and the Pacific, enrages King Philip of Spain, who decides on
war with England.

A.D. 1587--Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed by orders of her cousin, Queen Elizabeth
of England. This further encourages King Philip of Spain to go to war with England.

A.D. 1588-1604--King Philip II of Spain dispatches the first of several Great Armadas
with the purpose of invading England, beginning a sixteen year war between the two
countries.

A.D. 1589--King Henri III of France is assassinated. The heir to the throne is Henri of
Navarre, a Protestant. The new King Henri IV soon finds himself in conflict with the
powerful Catholic League (heavily supported by King Philip II of Spain), which opposes
the idea of a Protestant King of France.

A.D. 1590-1604--Sayri Tupac Inca, honoring his treaty with Queen Elizabeth of England,
declares war on King Philip II of Spain. Tawantinsuya armies invade Colombia and
Argentina, and a series of see-saw campaigns results. With his resources being tied up in
the ongoing struggle with England, Philip II has little to spare for the colonies, and in the
end, the Spaniards are driven from Argentina, and parts of Colombia are conquered as
well. The Tawantinsuyu incorporate the conquered areas into their empire. When the
peace treaty between England and Spain is signed at London in 1604, representatives of
the Tawantinsuyu Empire will also be present and will sign, ending their own war with
Spain.

A.D. 1591--An English relief expedition to the colony on Roanoke Island, which had
been delayed by the outbreak of war with Spain, finds the settlement deserted. Noone
ever discovers what became of the colonists.

A.D. 1593--Henri IV of France (formerly Henri of Navarre, a Protestant who is head of
the House of Bourbon), converts to Catholicism, declaring that “Paris is worth a Mass.”
Over the next few years, this clever political move will cut the support for his enemies
and enable him to finally end the Wars of Religion in France. He enters Paris without
firing a shot the next year, and by 1598, the war will be over.

A.D. 1597--Death of Sayri Tupac Inca. He is succeeded by his half brother, Tupac
Amaru Inca.

A.D. 1598--The Edict of Nantes grants religious toleration to Protestants in France. End
of the Wars of Religion in France.

A.D. 1600--The East India Company, a joint venture between the English and the
Tawantinsuya, is formed. The purpose of the company is to help break the Dutch
monopoly on the spice trade with the East Indies. The British partners hope to use
Tawantinsuyu’s position on the Pacific as a base for voyages to the Spice Islands, China,
and India.
 
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Very nice, Robert. I do think the after the plague rebound is a bit quick. There is also some relgious questions. Is the Incan Empire closed to missionaries? Is there some Jesuit Plan B strategies at work (they are the Jesuits after all)? Does that Hittite invention--the one that makes printing books easier--get spread to the Fugawi (that was their real name right?).

Oh and won't an alliance with pagan make the Puritans even more Puritan (Mencken's ultimate nightmare)?

Tom
 
Tom_B said:
Very nice, Robert. I do think the after the plague rebound is a bit quick.
yeah, probably so. If we reduce it to 7 or 8 million by the end of the century, though, it doesn't make much difference to the timeline.

Tom_B said:
There is also some relgious questions. Is the Incan Empire closed to missionaries? Is there some Jesuit Plan B strategies at work (they are the Jesuits after all)?
I would imagine there is some missionary activity going on. But the Incas are going to be somewhat hostile to such activity because (although not mentioned in the timeline) part of the Spanish attempt to ambush Atahualpa was a demand by a Christian priest that Atahualpa convert to Christianity. When Atahualpa refused to do so, that was the signal for the Spanish attack.
Now it's possible that English Protestant missionaries might have more luck, since they are enemies of the Spaniards.

Tom_B said:
Does that Hittite invention--the one that makes printing books easier--get spread to the Fugawi (that was their real name right?).
I would imagine that writing...and printing...will be adopted by the Tuwantisuya relatively soon, once they recognize the usefulness of it. Maybe some English missionary creates an alphabet for them and translates the Bible into Quechua. As far as their name for themselves, I am not sure. I searched quite a few sources and did not come up with a good answer. The sources I was able to find indicated that they called their kingdom Tuwantisuyu (Land of the Four Quarters), and themselves Tuwantisuya (which I am guessing would be basically equivalent to "People of the Land of the Four Quarters").

Tom_B said:
Oh and won't an alliance with pagan make the Puritans even more Puritan (Mencken's ultimate nightmare)?
Well, the Puritans aren't really a factor just yet. That might become a problem later. But then, the English were involved in India beginning about the time of the English Civil War, and were not loath to make alliances with Hindu and Muslim princes when the situation called for it.
 
Wow Robert I am quite Impressed by the quality of work on this new Timeline. Here's a few question's to help you keep going on it.

1.Shouldn't there have been Chinese contact with Tawantinusaya already with the voyages of Zheng Hee? With ships based off of Chinese designs...The Incans should have an well equipped Navy by the time of the Spainards.

2. Will the Super Quilumbo known as Palmares still be founded? It would be interesting to see it grow as an possibe client state to the Tawantinsuya empire. For more Info here's an good website http://www.vidaslusofonas.pt/zumbi_dos_palmares2.htm

3. What's the top Native American Power in North America about this time? Has the tribe made sufficent contact with Tawantinsuya?
 
Historico said:
Wow Robert I am quite Impressed by the quality of work on this new Timeline. Here's a few question's to help you keep going on it.

1.Shouldn't there have been Chinese contact with Tawantinusaya already with the voyages of Zheng Hee? With ships based off of Chinese designs...The Incans should have an well equipped Navy by the time of the Spainards.
Well, Zheng He apparently never made it to Tawantinsuyu. They were still using balsa wood rafts when the Spaniards arrived in OTL. Nothing in this timeline changes that.

Historico said:
2. Will the Super Quilumbo known as Palmares still be founded? It would be interesting to see it grow as an possibe client state to the Tawantinsuya empire. For more Info here's an good website http://www.vidaslusofonas.pt/zumbi_dos_palmares2.htm
Yes, I would think so. There is nothing in this timeline which greatly impacts events in northeast Brazil, so it should still arise.

Historico said:
3. What's the top Native American Power in North America about this time? Has the tribe made sufficent contact with Tawantinsuya?
Probably the Mississippian chiefdoms in the southeast and midwest, at this period of time. Since Hernando de Soto was killed in Peru in 1534, his devastating march through the southeast didn't take place. But of course these tribes will probably be exposed to diseases by French explorers in the next century (La Salle), by Englishmen at Jamestown, and by Spaniards moving north from Florida. So their collapse is only a matter of time.
 
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I like how you did not change European history too much. After all, this isn't that much of a difference, yet.

I really doubt that the Inca would be interested in India. They still must be exstremely backwater. An ally, maybe. A coloniser? no.

Why to they have professional diplomats? Diplomacy wasn't exactly as popular in pre-columbian America as it was in Europe.
 
reformer said:
I like how you did not change European history too much. After all, this isn't that much of a difference, yet.
agreed.

reformer said:
I really doubt that the Inca would be interested in India. They still must be exstremely backwater. An ally, maybe. A coloniser? no.
I don't envision the Tawantinsuya to be colonizers either. Basically their involvement in the East India Company is something the English have talked them into doing. "Let us use your ports and we will share the profits with you." And by now, they will have been introduced to some East Indian goods...spices primarily...through trade with England. The idea of having more direct access to such things might be appealing to them.

reformer said:
Why to they have professional diplomats? Diplomacy wasn't exactly as popular in pre-columbian America as it was in Europe.
They don't really have professional diplomats, at least not at first contact with the English. Although such things were not totally unknown among Mesoamerican civilizations, so it would not be as foreign to them as one might think. The first Tawantinsuya ambassador to England was simply an important and trusted nobleman who the Inca sent to negotiate with the English Queen.
 
I would imagine the Tawantinsuya were just floored by the notion of a ruling Queen. I wonder what that did for their political situation back home?

Did the Inca rule with absolute power at the time? Were there also religious associations with him?

I had the impression that the Inca-in OTL-was as much chief priest as ruler, although i could be wrong about that.

Either way, the fact of a reigning Queen would rock their world, I think...

vandevere
 

Diamond

Banned
Very good work, Robert. But then, I'd expect no less from you! :)

I agree with Vandevere about the effects on the Incas (sorry, I'm still gonna call 'em that cause its easier to type) of seeing a ruling woman.

Also, the Incas had a sort of prototypical form of communism - there was no privately owned property; it all belonged to the state, and farmers worked 'their' land for the state. How will English mercantilism affect this?

Another thing to consider is that all leadership positions in the Incan armies were designated for Imperial Family members. No commoner could ever hold those spots. Has this stayed the same in your TL, or has the need for good leaders to hold off the Spanish convinced the Inca that he needs to change with the times?

In short, how is the overall Inca culture changing and adapting to the opening to them of a huge new world?
 
I would think that the massive epidemics would effect the nobility more than the peasents percentage wise, especially if they are mostly in the field. Perhaps the Inca could end up doing what England did and bring in more wealthy commoners into command and governemtn positions.
 
Justin Green said:
I would think that the massive epidemics would effect the nobility more than the peasents percentage wise, especially if they are mostly in the field. Perhaps the Inca could end up doing what England did and bring in more wealthy commoners into command and governemtn positions.
There is precedence for this. The Black Death in Europe and England in the Fourteenth Century probably did more to eliminate feudalism that anything else.

So, the reduction of the total population by plague probably would be an opportunity for some commoners, at least, moving up in rank. However, I think this would happen less often in the Tawantinsuya Empire. I get the feeling that their society is very rigidly stratified as of now, and only a pretty severe rebellion will shake things loose enough for advancement to be a more common occurence...

Vandevere
 
Diamond said:
Another thing to consider is that all leadership positions in the Incan armies were designated for Imperial Family members. No commoner could ever hold those spots. Has this stayed the same in your TL, or has the need for good leaders to hold off the Spanish convinced the Inca that he needs to change with the times?
Justin Green said:
I would think that the massive epidemics would effect the nobility more than the peasents percentage wise, especially if they are mostly in the field. Perhaps the Inca could end up doing what England did and bring in more wealthy commoners into command and governemtn positions.
vandevere said:
There is precedence for this. The Black Death in Europe and England in the Fourteenth Century probably did more to eliminate feudalism that anything else.

So, the reduction of the total population by plague probably would be an opportunity for some commoners, at least, moving up in rank. However, I think this would happen less often in the Tawantinsuya Empire. I get the feeling that their society is very rigidly stratified as of now, and only a pretty severe rebellion will shake things loose enough for advancement to be a more common occurence.
Actually, the Incas had a system that could easily be adapted to meet these needs. It was basically a civil service examination, which was open to both boys and girls (boys age 13 and girls at first menstruation). Those who passed the exam became part of the Inca nobility and were given important imperial adminstrative posts. The exam was open to the children of commoners as well as to those of the nobility, but obviously commoners had a harder time passing it. This system could have been expanded and modified to allow more commoners to enter the nobility via examination.

And the Incas were also integrating the ruling classes of the conquered tribes into the imperial structure. So, if the epidemics kill off too many Inca nobles, they can draw on the "Inca-ized" nobles of the conquered peoples as well.
 
vandevere said:
I would imagine the Tawantinsuya were just floored by the notion of a ruling Queen. I wonder what that did for their political situation back home?

Did the Inca rule with absolute power at the time? Were there also religious associations with him?

I had the impression that the Inca-in OTL-was as much chief priest as ruler, although i could be wrong about that.

Either way, the fact of a reigning Queen would rock their world, I think...

vandevere
Perhaps not as much as you might think. Although the Tawantinsuya society was patriarchal, the wives of the ruling Inca actually exercised power and helped to rule the empire. So the concept of a woman holding power might be be completely foreign to them, although I am sure it would come as somewhat of a shock to find a woman holding SUPREME power.

As for the religious angle, the Inca was considered to be the "Son of the Sun" and thus semi-divine. As such he was the official head of the religion, but not the High Priest, who was a separate official who ran the chief temple in Cuzco. They may well have found Elizabeth, in her position as Head of the Church of England, to be somewhat similar to that of their own Inca, with the Archbishop of Canterbury equivalent to their own High Priest.
 
Diamond said:
Also, the Incas had a sort of prototypical form of communism - there was no privately owned property; it all belonged to the state, and farmers worked 'their' land for the state. How will English mercantilism affect this?
I think that is kind of a misconception. What the Tawantinsuya had was basically akin to the situation in a lot of nations in an early stage of development, in that the king held title over all the land, and the commoners held the land as tenant farmers, giving the king a portion of their produce but keeping the rest for themselves. The Hittites, for example, had a very similar system, and what we are talking about is basically similar to what prevailed in most of medieval Europe (where serfs worked the land for their feudal lords). It's not really proto-communism as much as a form of feudalism.

English mercantilism, at the present time, does not yet exist. That was more a development which took place in the later 17th and early 18th centuries. But as continued contact between the two societies evolves, this issue will doubtless become important. We may see the Tawantinsuya influenced by English ways...or the other way around.
 
ADDITIONS TO EARLIER SEGMENTS OF THE TIMELINE

A.D. 1522--The first Spanish settlement in South America, Nueva Cadiz, is founded in
the region known in OTL as Venezuela. Spanish settlers will mine gold...first with Native
American slaves, then with African slaves...and raise cattle on the grassy plains. Few
Spaniards come to the colony.

A.D. 1530--King John of Portugal introduces a program of systematic colonization of the
newly acquired territories in Brazil. As a first step the king divides Brazil into 15
districts, or captaincies, and grants each of the districts, in perpetuity, to a person
prominent at the Portuguese court. The grantees, known as donatarios, are vested with
extraordinary powers over their domains. However, immigration into Brazil is slow.

A.D. 1549--Because of the dangers implicit in the French depredations along the
Brazilian coast, King John revokes most of the powers held by the donatarios and places
Brazil under the rule of a governor-general. The first governor-general, Thomé de Souza,
arrives in Brazil in 1549, organizes a central government, with the newly founded city of
Salvador, or Bahia, as his capital, institutes comprehensive administrative and judicial
reforms, and established a coastal defense system. Large numbers of slaves are brought
into the region from Africa to overcome the shortage of laborers.

A.D. 1554--Sao Paulo, in the south of Brazil, is founded by Portugal.

A.D. 1555--The French found a colony on Rio de Janeiro Bay.

A.D. 1560--Portugal destroys the French colony on Rio de Janeiro Bay.

A.D. 1567--Portugal founds the city of Rio de Janeiro.

A.D. 1580--The Spanish found the settlement of Buenos Aires on the Rio de la Plata in
Argentina.

A.D. 1598--The Tawantinsuya capture Buenos Aires, ending Spanish occupation of what
in OTL would be Argentina. The Tawantinsuya decide not to destroy the town, as it
provides them with a ready-made port on the Atlantic, giving them better access to trade
with their English allies. Over the next decade a road linking the port to the main part of
the Tawantinsuyu Empire will be built, and the port itself will be heavily fortified.
 
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