The Grey Revolution

Pennsylvania Campaign 1863
Chapter 69: Gettysburg Day 1
The morning of May 25th began with Reynolds Pennsylvania Reserves and elements of the 15th Corp under Major General Thomas Sherman began attacking Confederate troops atop McPherson Ridge just outside of Gettysburg. The Confederate troops belonged to Jackson’s Corp the Kanawha Division. These troops were raised came from Western Virginia and had served under Lee personally when he commanded the Army of Western Virginia.
Now under one of Lee’s protégés Major General Robert S. Garnett these troops knew their mission…to hold up the Union advance, and when ordered to withdraw to the second line of defenses. These defenders held their ground until Union reinforcements under John Pope arrived and began a flanking movement to dislodge their opponents.
Under the watchful eye of Generals Jackson a withdrawal through the town of Gettysburg was ordered. After extracting his troops from their positions Jackson went to place his troops on the third defensive lines. Now Lt. General James Longstreet’s troops stood along the second defensive positions atop Seminary Ridge.
Here the Union troops met stronger Confederate resistance. After conferring with each other Reynolds, Sherman, and Pope called on McClellan to send the rest of the Army of the Susquehanna immediately as Jackson was in full retreat.
Around midday Union forces began their renewed thrust toward the Confederate positions. Already many Union commanders admiring the rebel defenses noticed that these troops had been dug in for awhile, and wondered what else awaited them.

The Confederate troops atop Seminary Ridge belonged to the divisions of Major Generals Richard Anderson and Theoliphus Holmes. These troops had been hardened by fighting along the Rappahannock and the Siege of Washington. As planned Anderson and Holmes held up the Union advance until near sundown. Throughout the day troops would later write of Longstreet, Anderson, and Holmes walking the battle lines encouraging their troops until Holmes himself was killed by a Union sharpshooter. This caused Brigadier General George Pickett to assume command of the division, and was given the honor to cover the retreat to the last defensive position atop Cemetery Ridge.
 
Pennsylvania Campaign 1863
Chapter 70: Gettysburg Day 2
Around midnight on the 26th McClellan called for a council of war. In attendance was the commanders of each corps: John Pope (21st), Thomas Sherman (15th), John Reynolds (Pennsylvania Reserves), Darius Couch (4th), Jefferson Davis (28th), plus the newly arrived German Expeditionary Corps under Franz Siegel (29th), Peter J. Osterhaus (30th), plus the German Commissary Karl Marx. During the meeting McClellan asked the officers attended if their counsel was to fight or disengage. All men in attendance believed that even though their has been heavy fighting but that the addition of the addition of the 28th, 29th, and 30th Corps the advantage was on their side.
Through the early hours of May 26th Union troops moved into position. McClellan’s plan called for the Pennsylvania Reserves supported by the 4th Corp to assault the Confederate extreme right while the German Corps assaulted the two smaller hills anchoring the extreme left.
With a few hours of rest troops from Major General Jefferson Davis 28th Corp began their assault upon Culp’s Hill. Beginning with capturing a section of the Confederate line. Once Stonewall saw that his position was in peril Jackson called upon his famed brigade and with their former commander drove the Union troops off the hill.
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Stonewall ralling his troops

At the southern end of the Confederate line troops under Lt. General Edmund Kirby-Smith anchored the defenses. At the very end a top the hill Little Round Top troops under Colonel Theodore Roosevelt Sr 81st Georgia Infantry held the vital position. If the Union troops could occupy Little Round Top then the whole Confederate position could be rolled up.
Roosevelt who had fled New York City due to his wife’s southern learnings and later help raised the 81st Georgia from Democrat and Irish refugees was attached to Major General Francis Meagher’s Division. The 81st had served during the Rappahannock Campaign and during the Maryland Campaigns of 1862, but now with a growing Union advance the 81st now stood at destiny’s doorstep.
The ensuing fight saw the Revolutionary Guards from Peter Osterhaus’s Corp storm Little Round Top. Three times the battle hardened revolutionary veterans tried to storm Roosevelt’s position and three time the Georgians with their Yankee Colonel repelled the attackers. With the day turning late Osterhaus ordered a final charge up the hill with him personally leading his veterans.
Roosevelt with ammunition running low decided on a gamble. Knowing that retreat wasn’t an option and with no reinforcements forthcoming Roosevelt ordered his troops to fix bayonets. With momentum on their side the Georgians smashed into the oncoming Germans and routed the Famed Revolutionary Guards, and capturing Their corp commander Osterhaus in the process.
 
Pennsylvania Campaign of 1863
Chapter 71: Committee on the Conduct of War August 8, 1863
Senator Stephen Douglas (IL): Major Custer please tell us about the events around 10pm May 26th.

Major George Armstrong Custer: Yes sir, After the failure of our German allies to capture Little Round Top General McClellan ordered a halt to all offensive actions. He was convinced that a flanking movement to the left and decided to meet with General Stanley and Reynolds.

Senator Douglas: Who accompanied General McClellan?

Major Custer: Myself, Captain Forsyth, General Marcy, and a squad of the 4th US Cavalry

Douglas: What happened next?

Custer: As we approached the encampment of the Pennsylvania Reserves sentries from the newly arrived 120th Pennsylvania Militia opened fired on us believing us to be Confederate Cavalry.
General McClellan immediately was hit and I saw him topple from his horse. In what seemed liked an eternity before Captain Forsyth was able to get the attention and stopped the firing as our own escort had returned fire.

Douglas: What happened later at the Headquarters of General John Reynolds?

Custer: General McClellan instructed General Marcy to have General Pope assume command and use his flanking plan to rout the Confederates off those “damn” hills. His words not mine.

Douglas: So General Pope was given an order by his superior office?

Custer: Yes Sir.

Douglas: And who delivered those instructions?

Custer: I did.

Douglas: Did Pope follow those orders?

Custer: No sir

Douglas: What did he do then?

Custer: He had me inform all corp commanders to met at his headquarters immediately.

Douglas: Thank You Major you are dismissed.
August 10, 1863
Senator Simon Cameron (Pa): Please tell us about the events that transpired on May 27th General Palmer?

Brigadier General John M. Palmer: Certainty. With the elevations of General Hamilton to Commander of the 21st Corp I assumed the duties as divisional commander. I was later informed by General Hamilton that the 21st and 28th Corps would be launching an assault on the Confederate positions atop Cemetery Ridge.
Cameron: An assault over open ground, attacking a fortified position? Was there any objections?

Palmer: Yes quite a few actually General Hamilton expressed his opinions of success, but knew his duty. Not to mention General Davis’s response.

Cameron: You mean Brigadier Jefferson C. Davis?

Palmer: Yes. He pleaded with General Pope to call off the assault and suggested a flanking maneuver.

Cameron: What was General Pope’s response?

Palmer: Threatened him with insubordination. General Davis swore to him that he would carry out his orders or, and I quote “see him in hell.”

Cameron: After the fail assault on Cemetery Ridge when was the next time you saw General Pope?

Palmer: About five days later. Once Stonewall Jackson saw our decimated ranks he led the whole damn Confederate army and followed us all the way to York, Pennsylvania. General Davis overheard General Pope comment that if his assault had be led by better men then victory would had been assured.
Cameron: What happened next?
Palmer: Davis kindly asked Pope for an apology. General Pope told him to go to hell but Davis said “you first” and shot him dead in the middle of the street.

Cameron: Do you have anything else to add General.

Palmer: I only wished that Davis had shot him on the field of Gettysburg. The whole nation would have better off.

Following the disastrous defeat at Gettysburg the Chase administration asked the British Government to help mediate an armistice.
 
Treaty of London
Chapter 73: Military Situation
Eastern Theater

Confederate forces had reclaimed all of Delaware and Eastern Maryland. The Army of Northern Virginia stationed itself inside Central Pennsylvania to act as a bargaining chip in the up coming negotiations.
The Franco-Spanish-Confederate Navies withdrew to friendly waters and allowed commerce to begin again. Leaders on both sides knew that the Union was at a disadvantage since much needed manpower was needed to protect the Eastern Seaboard.
Western Theater
Kentucky was divided but without significant reinforcements neither Bowling Green or Columbus Kentucky was going to fall to the Union any time soon.
Transmississippi
In Missouri Confederate forces controlled the fortifications of Island Number Ten and Cape Girardeau along the Mississippi. In the central part of the state General Albert S. Johnston held the Springfield and threatened the Union’s hold on St. Louis
In Kansas Territory Union troops held on to Fort Leavenworth as Confederate Native auxiliaries roamed the plains keeping what little resources held in reserve.
Far West
After securing the New Mexico Territory Major General John Bell Hood advanced into the Colorado territory with the help of his Apache and Navajo allies. Securing gold and silver shipments heading east.
On the Pacific coast the California’s conducted guerrilla warfare with no major battle after the first couple of months.
Central America
Confederate forces occupied Costa Rico, Honduras, and El Salvadore installing puppet governments. Abolitionist guerrillas carry out hit and run operations.
Mexico
French, Spanish, and Confederate forces occupy the Gulf Coast States of Mexico and begin the process of starving Mexican President Benito Juarez of war material from the US. Along with Conservative forces of Mexico an offer to become Emperor of Mexico to Maximilian of the Hapsburg Dynasty is offered by France and Spain setting up a puppet government in Vera Cruz.
 
Treaty of London
Chapter 74: Negotiations
British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston hosted the negotiations along with his Foreign Secretary Lord Granville on October 18, 1863. In attendance was Confederate Vice President Otto von Bismarck and Secretary of State Judah Benjamin, Union representatives were Secretary of State Jacob Collamer, Former Speaker of House and Major General Nathaniel Banks, and Republican Senator Benjamin Wade.
While France, Spain, The German Socialist Republic, Mexico, and the defeated nations of Honduras, Costa Rico, and El Salvador sent representatives the main discussion centered among the British, Union and Confederate negotiators.
No one could deny that the Confederate States of America had gained its independence. After intense negotiations the treaty was finalized by the early December:
  • The United States agreed to acknowledge the Confederate States.
  • The Virginia Panhandle (Hancock, Brooke, Ohio, and Marshall Counties) we’re ceded to the United States
  • CSA renounce claim on Colorado Territory
  • CSA annex New Mexico Territory and Kansas Territory
  • CSA claim and sphere of influence over Costa Rica, Honduras, and El Salvador
  • Great Britain acknowledges the CSA
  • United States was granted commercial rights along the Mississippi River for 15yrs
  • United States refused attempts at Confederate claims of War Damage. Great Britain in exchange for trade concessions granted loans to the CSA.
  • In regards to the status of Mexico all sides agreed to let a later conference handle as word filtered into London that a Franco-Confederate army had captured Mexico City.
By February both the CSA and the USA had ratified the treaty and the War For Southern Independence was finally over……..
 
Chapter 74: Negotiations
British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston hosted the negotiations along with his Foreign Secretary Lord Granville on October 18, 1863. In attendance was Confederate Vice President Otto von Bismarck and Secretary of State Judah Benjamin, Union representatives were Secretary of State Jacob Collamer, Former Speaker of House and Major General Nathaniel Banks, and Republican Senator Benjamin Wade.
While France, Spain, The German Socialist Republic, Mexico, and the defeated nations of Honduras, Costa Rico, and El Salvador sent representatives the main discussion centered among the British, Union and Confederate negotiators.
No one could deny that the Confederate States of America had gained its independence. After intense negotiations the treaty was finalized by the early December:
  • The United States agreed to acknowledge the Confederate States.
  • The Virginia Panhandle (Hancock, Brooke, Ohio, and Marshall Counties) we’re ceded to the United States
  • CSA renounce claim on Colorado Territory
  • CSA annex New Mexico Territory and Kansas Territory
  • CSA claim and sphere of influence over Costa Rica, Honduras, and El Salvador
  • Great Britain acknowledges the CSA
  • United States was granted commercial rights along the Mississippi River for 15yrs
  • United States refused attempts at Confederate claims of War Damage. Great Britain in exchange for trade concessions granted loans to the CSA.
  • In regards to the status of Mexico all sides agreed to let a later conference handle as word filtered into London that a Franco-Confederate army had captured Mexico City.
By February both the CSA and the USA had ratified the treaty and the War For Southern Independence was finally over……..
Nice update. Can we see a map of the end result of the treaty?
 
Chapter 75: Birth of Political Parties in the CSA
Following the Treaty of London the CSA honored its treaty obligations by dispatching 25,000 troops under General Albert S. Johnston to join with the French and Spanish forces inside of Mexico to bring the government of Benito Juarez to the negotiating table and finally end the conflict.
By early 1864 politicians began to call for the CSA to reduce their military and end the strict military hold upon the population. With a presidential election about to take place in the USA Wise was reluctant to reduce the military knowing full well that it was only a matter of time before the USA would want revenge.
The Military Act of 1864 soon had Richmond divided into two camps.
The Military Act called for Universal Conscription but divided into different stages. Step #1 Junior Reserves : from ages 15-18 all able bodied are required to sign up and drill and train one week a month. Junior Reserves can be called up during times of peace for up to 60 days at a time. This was planned to help in place of harvest time and natural disasters in their local community. Command of the Junior Reserves would be placed under a Lieutenant General with state offices and county offices.
Stage #2 Service by Allotment: from ages 18-22 anyone could be called to service into the Confederate Military. Once called upon you served for 4yrs. After service term expired you could continue your service at 4yr increments or get moved to the next stage.
Stage#3 Reserves: from the age of 22-40 all able bodied were placed in this category for call up to service by Emergency Presidential Decree followed by Act of Congress. Reserves we’re required to be activated for two weeks per year for training and drilling.
Stage #4 State Militia: from ages 40-65 all able bodied were assigned to state militia and would report to their state’s military head for service requirements by their governor.

Opponents of this bill claim this was another power grab by the President and his “foreign advisors”. One of these voices was Former General Jefferson Davis. Davis who failed to win great fame during the war became disenfranchised with the Wise administration, but kept his opinion to himself as honor dictated that he served in the field. With no need for further service Davis offered his resignation and took over a vacant Senate Seat from Mississippi and hopefully run for President in 1868. With the final passage of the Military Act Davis and his A
allies formed the State’s Rights Party and planned to battle Wise and his administration.
 
Chapter 76: Confederate Unity
Following the fierce debate over the Military Act Wise was able to get get a majority of Congress on his side for many bills. The Confederate Supreme Court was finally established with James L. Orr of South Carolina becoming the Confederacy’s first Chief Justice . The court was filled in with Henry R. Jackson of Georgia, Jesse J. Finley of Florida, Andrew J. Donelson of Tennessee, Thomas N. Waul of Texas, Albert Rust of Arkansas, & John B. Clark Sr. of Missouri.
Bills passed that offered land grants to veterans in Texas, South California, and the South West met with near unanimous votes. Even offering French and Spanish troops that had served in the Confederacy with the consent of their respective governments.
To help stimulate the devastated states of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Virginia aid in the form of tax incentives soon poured into those states. With foreign investors former Colonel in the Confederate army Andrew Carnegie began to plan railroads in these areas.
For the remaining months of President Wise’s term almost all of his agenda was pushed through the CSA Congress.
 
Confederate Industry New
Chapter 77: Andrew Carnegie
By the start of the war Andrew Carnegie had become quite successful working for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and it’s President Thomas Scott, but that all changed when nativist elements gripped Carnegie home of Pittsburg. After the Irish Riots in New York City nativists took Carnegie’s accent to be Irish and forced him, his family and hundreds of Irish families out of Pittsburg.
Enraged Carnegie took his family southward where some of his connections within the railroad industry got him in with Issac Trimble who headed the Confederate Railroads Operations. Over the course of the war Carnegie became driven with his work in securing a Confederate victory, and became noticed by many within the government and the military.
With the passage of the Railroad Act of 1864 which allowed the CSA government to retain control of railroads citing national defense Carnegie planned to make his mark not in building railroads but being the man who supplied the necessary product to produce railways: steel. After leaving the military in December of 1864 Carnegie formed the Cumberland Ironworks in Nashville, Tennessee. With the need for steel for railroads and gunboats lucrative military contracts soon flooded Carnegie, and within months set him up to become a leading industrialists within the CSA.
 
Election of 1864 New
Chapter 78: US Presidential Election of 1864
With the signing of the Treaty of London the Democratic Party went in to 1864 sensing a tidal wave at the upcoming election. Over a dozen of candidates would descend on Chicago, Illinois chief among them favorite son Senator Stephen Douglas, Senator from Indiana Jesse Bright, New York Governor Horatio Seymour, Connecticut Governor Thomas Seymour, New Jersey Governor Joel Parker, Ohio Governor David Todd, Former Representative of Ohio Clement Vallandigham, Former Senator of Iowa Augustus Dodge, Major Generals George McClellan, Dan Sickles, William Rosecrans, And Railroad Executive Edwin Stanton.
The battle for the nomination pitted War Democrats against Cooperheads, or politicians who were sympathetic to the Confederacy. The Cooperheads of Bright and Vallandigham were easily maneuvered out of contention after about a dozen roll calls. The battle centered around the three top contenders of Douglas, McClellan, and surprisingly Stanton. With grim determination Douglas won over all the contestants including Stanton and McClellan. After 76 ballots Stephen Douglas was nominated as the Democratic nominee for President with Stanton as his running mate.
The Republican Party on the other hand refused President Chase the option to run again with moderates and some radicals refusing to endorse his nomination. Seeing the writing on the wall Chase announced his choice to not seek re-election. This in effect offered an opening for many Republicans to try and grab the nomination but few took the bait as seeing the nomination as a bitter pill with the nation angry and the loss of life and treasure with nothing to show in the aftermath. Vice President Charles Sumner against his wishes was nominated, and reluctantly accepted the nomination with former Major General James Wadsworth of New York as his running mate.
The ensuing campaign saw the incumbent party trounced. Summer won only the New England states of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire. With many state legislations moving into the Democratic camp this would lead to more Democratic Senators in the future.
 
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CSA Spanish Problem New
Chapter 79: The CSA Spanish Problem
The Spanish Empire was a declining empire following the Napoleonic Wars. After losing most of its North and South American Colonies Spain continued its decline until the opportunity of a revival with the coming of the American Civil War. For most of the 1850’s American military advisors help modernize the Spanish Royal Army. With the Union occupied Spain undertook the Dominican War of Restoration when Dominican President Buenaventura Baez was ousted by a military coup under General Pedro Santana. Santana seeing the effects of Baez’s corruption which drain the nations treasury for himself. Faced with a Haitian invasion and an economic crisis Santana offered the Spanish Crown the opportunity to reclaim the nation after only 17yrs of independence. Queen Isabella of Spain jumped at the offer even though Spain had already secretly agreed to join France in Mexico. With the addition of Spain’s involvement in helping the Confederacy’s gain it’s independence the Spanish military was stretched to the max.
After the Treaty of London Spain had secured a friendly and grateful partner in the CSA which sent assistance to Dominica to help Spain regain control over the country. Reports soon began to filter from the CS commander on the ground in Dominica Brigadier General Jean Mouton describing the total deterioration on infrastructure, law, and rampant starvation in the countryside.
Things soon became worse for Spain in 1866 when a small war broke out between Spain and her former colonies of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador. The cause being the death of two Spanish citizens and the refusal of Peru to pay an indemnity that escalated into a naval war that would tax Spanish resources even further. Spain would occupy the guano-rich Chinchas Islands and imposed a naval blockade upon the South American nations.
Soon politicians and diplomats in Paris and Richmond began to become worried about their ally. Fearful that a Socialist revolution might take place or even worse Socialist Germany or the United States might intervene against their ally causing a restart of hostilities might take place. Vice President Bismarck was dispatched to France under the guise of vacation to meet secretly with French officials. It was decided that a change was needed to put Spain on a different path other than Isabella.
Under the guise of a conference Queen Isabella was
Called to the Franco-Spanish border while at the same time Marshal Juan Prim launched a coup that overthrew Isabella’s government. Emperor Napoleon and Bismarck convinced Isabella to not return to Spain and instead accept exile in France.
 
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