The forgotten Eyalet behind the mountains - 1811 Dalmatia was conquered in the 1750s from Venice. Venice offered no real resistance and the biggest rival to keep Dalmatia away was Austria. After repelling the Austrians, the Ottomans secured their rule over Dalmatia. Dalmatia was rather unique in the Ottoman State as the governor was appointed by Istanbul but the Pasha of Dalmatia had much more autonomy to defend the region from possible Austrian and later French attacks. The current governor, Ali Pasha Ahmedagic, was the son of a converted Croatian Janissary from Mostar. As his father was later appointed as mayor of Mostar, Ahmed Aga gave his son Ali the education to have him work as a government official. After being noticed in the battlefield against the Austrians under command of Kara Ali Pasha, Ali was appointed as the Commander of the Ottoman Forces in Dalmatia under Suleiman Pashas supervision. The death of Suleiman Pasha in 1805 was followed by him taking over as Pasha of Dalmatia. Ali Pasha started to fortify settlements and ports against the growing threat and fought the Serb Rebels in the interior of Dalmatia with his Croatian Militia. When comparing Dalmatia with Bosnia, Dalmatia looked more like to be a part of Italy than the Balkans. In the cities Italian was the primary Language. In his Divan in Zadar, he had many wealthy Italians who helped him rule the region. The absence of Ottoman Authority kept the happiness of the local elite high. Even the soldiers there locals. Even though most soldiers were Croatian and Muslim, there were also Catholic Croatians from the cities, Muslim Serbs from the hinterland and Albanians from the south. The absence of Janissary nuisance helped Dalmatia develop the region with Local Christian collaboration, unlike Bosnia who still was dominated by the Ayans and their Janissary allies. Sultan Selim made no attempts to limit Dalmatian Autonomy. It seemed all good as long as the ruling class there did not try to break off. Of all Eyalets in the Empire, Dalmatia was the wealthiest. Being between Italy and the Balkans turned Dalmatia in a regional middle man. Peace in India - 1812 The Indian War was ended by 1808 with military combat but there was no treaty until 1809. Amir Ali Khan left for Agra to meet with the EIC officials to discuss terms of peace. The Maratha envoys joined and at the Mughal Emperors insistence, the Mysori and Hyderabadi envoys were invited as well. Amir Ali Khan was instructed by Ismail IV to preserve the Mughal State as much as possible. The Mughal Emperor is their way to intervene in India and to keep the growing European Influence down. Amir Ali Khan, knowing what to do demanded the following Rajasthan transferred under direct Mughal Vassalage Sindh under direct Mughal Vassalage Kashmir under direct Mughal Vassalage Awadh under direct Mughal Vassalage Hyderabad recognises the Mughal Emperor as their superior Mysore recognises the Mughal Emperor as their superior Maratha Confederacy recognises the Mughal Emperor as their superior The EIC recognises the Mughal Emperor as their superior The Mughal Emperor is on the currency in India by all participants The Shah of Persia has the right to intervene on behalf of the Mughal Emperor should any participant breach the treaty Persia has the right to intervene in the peace treaties between the EIC and the Maratha Confederacy The most important matter in the Persian demand was to secure Mughal Power to fend themselves against any future Maratha or EIC threats. Putting under direct rule was not desired by either the Persians or other participants. Amir Ali Khan did not want to antagonise the vassals by direct rule from Delhi. The rulers of Awadh, Sindh, Kashmir and Rajasthan could continue to rule but as vassals of the Mughal Emperor. Accepting Mughal Superiority had no real meaning other than accepting that the Mughal Emperor was the Emperor of India and all rulers had to recognise this right. The Sultan of Mysore and the Nizam of Hyderabad did not care too much as their old rule continued. But the Marathas had their issues with this. Seeing that they lost their superiority over the Mughals, made them feel uneasy. But the Persians guaranteeing to intervene on Maratha behalf should the EIC demand unacceptable concessions, made the Marathas accept the Safavid offer. The EIC was not willing to accept the treaty. The biggest obstacles were the Persians having the right to intervene in a treaty with the Marathas. Amir Ali Khan made clear that to ensure lasting peace in India, this was necessary. With threatening to raid Western Bengal and attack Ahmedabad, the EIC decided to accept the Persian offer. And the EIC-Maratha treaty followed: The Marathas will cede Ahmedabad to the EIC The Marathas will cede Cuttack to the EIC The Marathas will pay 40,000,000 Pound worth of war reparations The Marathas will reduce the Army to 40,000 man standing The Marathas will surrender or destroy all naval vessels The Marathas will destroy all forts in the Maharashtra and Gujarat to ensure the safety of Bombay, Surat and Ahmedabad governorates. Peshwa Baji Rao II will be paid 10,000,000 Pound for being ousted of power The Marathas agreed to this and were even willing to accept to return Baji Rao II back to continue his rule as Peshwa of the Marathas. But this demand was vetoed by the Safavids fearing for joint Maratha-EIC alliance against the Persian-Mughal Alliance. This was followed by an EIC demand to limit the Maratha forces in case a new war broke out with the Marathas. Amir Ali Khan secured Safavid interests in Northern India while the EIC became the new threat, replacing the Marathas. If Baji Rao II did return to the Maratha lands it was impossible to not keep the EIC and the Marathas away from each other. A new war would follow likely within 15 years. Amir Ali Khan recognised the fact that the success of the Persian Campaign was due to the Maratha-Company conflict. The Mughal Forces turned out to be weaker than he expected and the Persian Numbers were not enough to crush both Company and Maratha Forces. Keeping them divided is the best chance of survival the Mughal Emperor has. This treaty was signed in 1809 and only ratified entirely by 1812. The Ottomans in the Indian Ocean - 1812 With the Wahabite raids in Iraq and Hejaz, the Ottomans lost most of their small fortifications as the troops were needed somewhere else. Thus the Ottomans evacuated Somaliland and Oman to protect Bahrain and Sudan from pirate attacks. What the Ottomans did not give up were the Comoros. The archipelago in the Mozambique Channel were visited by a small Ottoman Fleet from Egypt as an expedition Force. There they were welcomed as the envoy of the Caliph. The Sultans of the islands asked Ottoman Protection as the growing power of Portugal in Mozambique became a threat to them. For this to happen, the Ottoman Navy needs a base. Every Sultan on the archipelago agreed to the demands and the rule of the Sultans were respected. Commander of the Ottoman Navy in Bahrain was instructed by the Commander of the Ottoman Navies to build a fortress near the sea and send 3 frigates to the islands. Every Island would have 100 men in the fortresses. As the Ottoman Navy secured the Comoros, they started to look West to Zanzibar and hoped to get success there as well. This time they were not so successful but the Omani Sultan who fled Muscat for Zanzibar offered privileges to the Ottomans as much as they offer to the EIC. The Ottoman Naval Vessels would not have to pay to enter the ports of Zanzibar Sultanate. Further to the west was the realm of the Kingdom of the Maldives.This was rather problematic. The EIC had interest in the islands and offered protection to the islands. To get the Maldives in Ottoman Influence, it has to be confirmed by the officials of the EIC. Sultan Selim wanted to avoid pointless conflicts with the EIC and the British as much as possible. Negotiations were started. The EIC had demands but did not refuse outright. Although a possible Ottoman Naval base close to Southern India made the EIC nervous. The obstacle was the ITL, the newly formed Istanbul Trade League. The Trade and Cargo Company was starting to rival the EIC in the Indian Trade. Due to the limited gains in the Great Indian War, the EIC wanted to avoid a new concurrent in India. Their demands was to keep the ITL out of India, only to allow them in the Sultanate of Mysore and in the dominion of the Nizam. With trade goods from other parts of India the ITL was kept away. And the EIC remained thus the primary trade company in the Indian Ocean. The ITL being a small company made concurrence hard if not impossible. But the rising investments made it sure it would not disappear anytime soon.