The Great Turk Returns 2.0: Ottoman resurgent TL

I think it was about the Latin American Wars for Independence, it wasn’t part of Ottoman history, but it was just talking about events abroad, outside the Ottoman Empire
That was a massive thread derail. Again much like North America one, the Latin ones where always to happen.
 
That was a massive thread derail. Again much like North America one, the Latin ones where always to happen.
Let’s move on from the Old timeline, and not bring up old wounds. This is new timeline, and we should let the author write what they want too.

I do have another question for @Osman Aga, about the situation in Iran; What happen to Ahmad Shah and the Durrani Empire in Afghanistan?
 
Mahmud I (1752-1753: Maltese raid and Persian War) New
8 January 1751 - Raid of the Knights - Parga, Epirus, Ottoman Empire
The Knights changed their strategy after the Ottoman-Venetian Diplomatic confrontation of 1750. The Knights, using Venetian Greece often as a base, attacked areas of Western Greece to raid Ottoman towns and settlements. The raid on Orthodox Christmas was the last straw. A Muslim-Christian populated town of Parga in Epirus was raided with 200 Muslims being taken as slaves to the Ionian Islands before the preparation of being taken to Malta. When Sultan Mahmud heard of this raid he wanted to make sure such attacks never happen again. The knights had originally since the last Venetian-Ottoman War reduced their attacks on Muslim settlements. However, a few group have continued to attack Muslim settlements, hoping to provoke a new war. Mahmud I and some of his senior officials had long been advocating to conquer Malta. The issue was, Malta being a Spanish-Sicilian fief and thus belonging to the Bourbons. Such an attack would provoke France and destroy the good alliance existing between the Ottoman Empire and France. The issue of the invasion of Malta was no longer conquering the island and using it as a base, but to conquer it and destroy much of the Knights of St. John. Holding the conquest was a secondary desire by the Sultan. But success would mean prestige that the Sultan yearned since his success in 1739 against the Austro-Russian Coalition among the Muslims. Ali Pasha designed a plan and presented it to the Sultan:
  1. The State of Venice and Ottoman Empire are at war
  2. France is at war with the British
  3. The French Navy is not in big numbers in the Mediterranean
  4. Spain is at war with the British
  5. The Spanish Navy is not in big numbers in the Mediterranean
  6. The French and Spanish Armies are busy elsewhere
  7. Venice is offered a peace offer which is beneficial for them and us
  8. The Knights have no backing in Europe anymore

The points 2-5 were considered as crucial and necessary. Ali Pasha’s hostile Anti-Spanish projects were to oust the Spanish from North Africa as much as possible and militarize North Africa. To get the Spanish out of North Africa and cut off from the Eastern Mediterranean requires a strong fleet which the Ottoman Navy is not. With a fleet of 20 Ship of the Lines in 1750 and 33 Frigates. The Spanish had 28 Ship of the Lines and 41 Frigates. The Spanish Seamen were experienced after years of warfare with the British and Dutch. The Ottoman Seamen were less experienced and less trained. The Spanish outgunned the Ottomans as well with on average, the Spanish Ship of the Lines had 65 Guns while the Ottomans had 60 Guns. The Spanish frigates had also out gunned the Ottoman Frigates with on average with 37 guns against 32 guns. Ali Pasha ordered the construction of 15 new Ship of the Lines and 15 new Frigates over 10 years since 1748. The order of the Grand Vizier was approved by the Sultan and since the order, three Ship of the Lines were built and five frigates. The construction of these ships happened in Istanbul, Selanik and Izmir. The recruitment of experienced sailors was the issue. While Greeks were often experienced as sailors, they were not as trained as the Spanish and deemed as risky. Between 1748 and 1752, the Ottoman Navy brought 5,000 Algerians and Tunisians as sailors with their families. They were given houses in Istanbul, Izmir or Selanik. The healthiest 1,000 between the ages of 16 and 40 were trained as Marines. These Marine units were considered as alternatives for the Janissaries on the Navy. The Marine units were often dressed like Janissaries and had Blue uniforms. The difference between the officers and infantry was their helmets.

Albanian Marine Corps Officer, 1755

Some Janissary Officers were brought to these posts to have some sort of officer role among the new Infantry Corps for the Navy. The Marine Corps had to increase to 10,000 men by 1758. Heavy recruitment from North Africa and Greece continued and the Marine Corps was expected to be 20,000 men strong by 1768.
Ali Pasha was envisioning a North Africa which would be free from Christian rule. For that to happen, the Spanish had to be busy and the French would have to be unable to help them. In February 1751, Mahmud I Khan granted the Grand Vizier the freedom to organize drills and prepare for war against Venice. If Spain does anything more than sending military advisors, the Grand Vizier had the right to attack Spanish Shipping and territories. First things first, the Ottomans were almost ready for war against Venice and the Knights of St. John.

25 July 1751 - Battle of Reyy - Tehran, Safavid Persia
The Afshars moved in with armies of 50,000 each to Rasht and Qazvin. They deemed the Safavids as too weak to be a threat after being weakened by the Zand Army. The Afshar forces consisted of Afshar Tribes, Loyalist Persians and Uzbek and Afghan Allies. The latter two formed half the Afshar Army as the Afshar ruled land was rather under populated. The Safavid Shah Ismail III gave Mohammed Hasan a disciplined and Modern Army to face the Afshar Forces moving on Tehran. Much to Mohammed Hasan’s surprise, the Afshar passed Tehran, after seeing it as empty. The Safavid Garrison had retreated and the Qajars left the town. The Afshars were informed that the Qajar Tribe was moving North West towards Tabriz and seemed to have a lot of ill passengers. The Safavid Garrison is there to protect them. The Afshar continued with full force towards Qazvin only to be halted by 15,000 Safavid Troops and 18,000 Qajar Irregulars. The Afshars did not expect such a resistance in Reyy and retreated back with only 3,200 losses. Without much to gain, no intention to keep Tehran and retreating back before the Safavids reach them, the Afshars moved back as far as the ancient town of Nishapur.
The Siege of Rasht was deemed heavier. The Afshars moved in with two forces, South of Tabaristan and through Tabaristan. Both were to unite near Soltaniyeh and move on towards Tabriz. The Safavids would be unprepared against such a force near Tabriz. The Siege started out unprepared and the sorties by the town garrison resulted in increasing casualties. The biggest obstacle was the Uzbek Regiments retreating from the Siege after seeing no hope of success. The Safavid Relief force made an end to the siege. The Afshars lost 9,300 men after the siege was broken.
The Afshar response to the defeats was utter frustration. The Afshars were willing to recognize the Safavids as the sole Shah of Shahs in Persia. The Afshars anticipated keeping Khorasan and hoping to get aid from them to help the Afshars to subdue the Abdali Afghans. Ismail III was advised to accept no less than an unconditional surrender. The Afshars being related to Nader Shah could only end up disastrous if they remained in any form of power. Mustafa Mirza was for the same reason not accepted to return to Persia. When Ismail sent his demands, the Afshars refused and continued the struggle. Within three years, the Afshar struggle would be deemed useless and would be banished to Istanbul. By the time of the victories in Rey and Rasht, the Safavid Army increased to 57,000 Infantry, 93,000 Cavalry and 90,000 Allied tribes. By 1752, Ismail III would rule over Georgia, Azerbaijan, Northern Persia, Eastern Kurdistan (Kermanshah) as East as Kerman. The Zand counter offensives in 1753-1756 would turn Ismail’s rule in danger. Ismail’s open declaration of being a Shia and a follower of the Ahlulbayt when he entered Esfahan in 1755 was seen as the last burden on Shah Ismail being gone. By then, Karim Khan had a little chance to stop the locals from declaring loyalty to the young Shah.
Ali Mirza understood after the Safavid victories that a restoration of the Afshars was not going to happen. Ali Mirza was approached by Mehmed Ragip Pasha to get him in the service of Mahmud Khan. Ali Mirza was appointed as Sancakbey of Gumulcine in 1755. His protege, Mustafa Mirza got a military education to get him a position in the Ottoman Army. Soleiman Safavi had no chance either to get to the throne. Soleiman II Safavi would die in 1752 due to a continuing illness. Ismail III had no serious rivals left outside Persia. Karim Khan was the only power in Persia strong enough to face them. But the reorganized Safavid Forces proved to be too strong.

13 October 1751 - EIC Envoy to Shiraz - Bandar Abbas, Zand Persia
Karim Khan did not remain silent while Ismail was exploiting his victories. Karim Khan approached British merchants to send a military expedition to Persia. The EIC in Madras had a few officers they could miss and sent an expedition of 10 officers for the next 4 years. They had to reorganize the Zand Forces to become a match for the growing Safavid Armies and help the Zands to turn the tides of war. The EIC envoy proved its worth as the Artillery regiments were organized on British levels. The Zands had less infantry than their cavalry units and these were also irregular. The military envoy from Madras had difficulty organizing a new infantry force with an irregular production of muskets. The Zand Monarch purchased 6,000 British made muskets and enough ammunition for training and war. It would still take a long time to get anything formidable.
What the EIC recognized was the anti-British stance of the Safavids. The Safavids were seen as potential partners in the region. Due to the British aiding the Marathas against other hostile Indian Powers, which also includes the Mughals, the Safavid stance took a radical turn. The EIC realized that with the Safavids securing Persia, not only would the EIC lose their trade markets of Persia, it would create a new big enemy near India which would come to the aid of the Mughals and challenge the British allies, the Marathas. The EIC officials expected the Safavids being a force to be reckoned with by the 1780s should they secure Persia within this decade. What bothered the EIC was the lack of interest from London to do anything about it.

2 January 1752 - Last Venetian Envoy to İstanbul - Topkapi Palace, İstanbul, Ottoman Empire
The Venetians did not agree to the terms of demilitarizing the Ionian Islands or Dalmatia. Venice did offer 30,000 Akce to pay for the damage done by the Knights and promised not to allow the Knights on their territory anymore. Ali Pasha knew enough. The Venetian envoy left without hearing what the Sultan had to say. Ali Pasha pursued for war. The Sultan gave him green light. All the Ottoman troops from Persia had been returned now the Safavids had enough of their own. The Venetian Merchants had been observing the Janissaries being out in the streets more often than usual. With the Sultan not giving a reply to the Venetian counteroffer, they were certain of what would happen: War. Comte Charles could not pursue the Venetians to get something done. The French would not intervene in favor of Venice but if it involved Bourbon territory, they had no option but to intervene. The Spanish were not eager to join in either but they were certain not to allow the Ottomans to gain much success too. The Austrians were more focussed on Silesia and Russia under Elizabeth I, and had little chance of starting a new war either. The Russians were focussed on Prussia too as the Austrians and Russians agreed to support each other against Frederick II. If Russia is distracted against the Ottomans, the Prussians will face the Austrians again.
The Ottoman Sekban Corps had been reorganized as an irregular militia turned into a new organized and disciplined infantry Corps. The Prussian Military Envoy would inform Berlin that they almost recognized the Ottoman Sekbans as their own soldiers. The Sekbans grew to 45,000 men between 1749 and 1753, with 30,000 being fit for battle. The Prussians wanted to see how their aid had resulted.

Nizam-I Cedid marching for war, 1757

The Janissary Corps was once again mobilized. The Janissaries were all but happy with the new Sekban Corps. They feared to be replaced on the short matter. When asked if that was the case the Ali Pasha had sarcastically assured them of no intention to do so, except to get rid of some soldiers who are unfit to be janissaries. The Janissary Aga’s can figure it out themselves. With the Sekban Garrison of 5,000 men in Istanbul, the Janissaries had no chance of success should they rebel. They had no high expectation of the Sekbans but did not dare to provoke them either. These largely Turkmen, Albanian and Arab units showed a lot of discipline as not to question orders. The first signs of the Janissaries seeing that they are being outclassed was imminent. The Janissary Aga had his council informed that the Corps will be reorganised soon to remain an Elite Army which to Sultan will not consider to disband.

8 February 1752 - The stranded ship from Malta - Vlore, Epirus, Ottoman Empire
A ship has stranded on the Albanian Coast. The Ship appears to be a Spanish Ship. But letters from inside show that the Ship has been to Malta and was probably going to Venice after departing Malta. All the crew is dead and that is only 54 men remaining on the ship that is a frigate with 38 guns. Mahmud Pasha of Vlore was informed of the wreckage and departed for the site. Reading some letters made him hasten the letters in person to İstanbul. One of the letters was from King Fernando VI of Spain to the Knights of St. John and the Doge of Venice. The letter to the Knights was as followed:

To Grandmaster Manuel Pinto da Fonseca, from the King of Spain, Naples and Sicily, Duke of Parma, protector of the Holy Church

It has come to me that the Great Wolf and his pack has set his eyes on the property of the faithful. The Great Wolf is hungry for blood and will not rest unless it is hit by the hunter. The Faithful among the wolves should rest assured as his fellow companions of the Holy Roman Church will protect their brethren against the treachery of the hungry wolf pack. The wolf pack was defeated by the lion at the river and the gate to the West and so it shall be again. Rest assured, brothers, that the faithful will not let a hungry pack of wolves feast on the sheeps of the Lord Jesus Christ. The day that the fortress and the sheeps fall prey upon the Great Wolf is the day that the Lord almighty has turned from us. As long as the faithful remain true to the lord, no faithful shall be harmed by them who deny the crucifixion of Christ.

May the Lord almighty protect you and your noble men against the threat of the Great Wolf


The term Wolves was the name put for the Ottoman Forces. The Great Wolf was the Sultan himself. Fernando VI was certain to protect Malta with everything in his disposal. The Sultan knows this and will not move to Malta unless he is sure that the Spanish cannot come to aid.

Ottoman Ship of the Line Chaka Bey, 1759

The letter to Venice was less impressive as the King of Spain showed no signs to help them. The Ottoman authorities knew that the Spanish expected an Ottoman attack in the Eastern Mediterranean and no Papal request would bring them to attack the Ottomans unless an attack on Italy was prepared. Mahmud Khan had no interest in an Italian adventure that would not only risk his finances and military resources but also alienate the friends he has in Europe. Malta was however, outside that lack of interest. It took one European War to bring the Army together.

25 April 1752 - Interest in Persian Heritage - İstanbul, Thrace, Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Campaign in Azerbaijan, and in lesser degree Persia proper, brought some Ottoman Officers the contact of Persia and the Sunni Islamic World. Seyyid Abdullah Pasha, was one of those figures. Persia had since the early centuries after Islamic Conquest earned a position of high prestige, delivering Islamic Scholars to the Sunni Islamic World. Seyyid Abdullah Pasha wrote in his notes about the beautiful landscape and the beautiful language spoken there. The North of Persia was filled with Turkmen Tribes who speak more often Persian than their Turkish mother tongue, even in their camps. “The great days of the influence of Persia among the Muslims when Europe remained in the shadow of the Muslim World”, as Seyyid Pasha described, should return. His discoveries in Persia were however disappointing to say at least. The locals had a little interest or knowledge on Pre-Shia Persia let alone Pre-Mongolian Persia. His small part of pre-Islamic information came from the small Zoroastrian communities who he met in Esfahan.
The interest in the Persian Influence of the Muslim World was not new. The interest in an Islamic version of cultural heritage that is active in Europe came as a response. While Europe developed interest in Philhellenism, the interest in Islamic Persian influence was the counter result. This also led senior Pasha’s in favor of the recently legalized Printing Press advocating for the increased use of the machine for all except religious books. The counter response to these ideas and calls was from the reactionary class who deemed it as anti- Islamic. Seyyid Pasha, an ethnic Arab, made something start in Istanbul which would spread in decades over the Muslim world.

19 May 1752 - The fleet has set out - Cape Matapan, Morea, Ottoman Empire
The Sultan declared war on Venice on the 10th of May. Before the declaration of war, two Armies were formed in Corlu and Catalca. The Armies were ready by March and marched to Parga and Sarajevo. When the Sultan declared his war the armies were already in Ioannina and Novi Pazar. The Fleet only sailed out after declaration of war. Venice made a last attempt to save their sovereignty over the borderlands but to no avail. The Ottoman Army to Dalmatia was 60,000 big with 30,000 Janissaries; 20,000 Sipahis and 10,000 Irregulars. The Ottoman Army to the Ionian Islands was 75,000 big with 35,000 Janissaries; 20,000 Sipahis and 15,000 Irregulars. The Irregulars consisted mostly of Albanian and Turkmen groups from Macedonia and Western Anatolia. About 80% of the Janissaries were mobilized for war. The Sipahis were mostly veterans from war. The Ottoman Artillery was 200 Howitzers, 100 mortars and 80 heavy artillery for the fortifications. The Fleet was to secure the landing between Parga and Corfu and blockade the Strait of Otranto. With 20 Ship of the Line and 25 Frigates, the fleet left Istanbul for the Ionian Islands. The Venetian Navy was not bigger but nothing to be disregarded either. In Cape Matapan, the Ottoman Navy stopped and gave an Imperial Decree to the Maniots. The decree explained that the Maniots had Imperial consent for all Venetian property to be taken during the war and it will not be demanded to give a share to İstanbul or to return it to it’s owners. The Maniots had little interest in the Ottoman Authority, but the Imperial decree giving them the right to take over Venetian Ships if they succeeded was too good to ignore. And the Maniots will use this decree.
The Ottoman Navy left Cape Matapan and set sail for the Ionian Islands. It seemed that the Venetians had abandoned Kefalonia, Lefkada and Zakynthos for Corfu to hold out the fortress until war. The islands fell prey to smaller Albanian militias from the mainland. The actual Army has just arrived in Parga and is within a few days ready for departure to Corfu.


20 June 1752 - Siege of Knin - Knin, Dalmatia, Republic of Venice
The Ottoman Army of 60,000 arrived on 4 June 1752, and got assistance from another 25,000 Bosnian Militias from the Ayans. The Ayans were promised the first right to loot in Knin and the Slav villages outside the Coast. The Coastal Cities remained untouched for the Ayans. The Ottomans arrived in the narrow area with the town of Knin between the Coast and Bosnia. The Siege lasted 16 days and fell after the storm of the Janissaries on the opening of the weakened walls. The Janissaries were called outside the town, much to their frustration, as the Ayans had the first right to loot in Knin. About 2,000 people were taken as slaves from the town as well as a bounty worth of 80,000 Akce. The Ottoman Army lost 1,992 men while the Venetian garrison of 200 was completely wiped out.
The siege of Knin opened the entire Coast for the Ottoman Army. This did not mean that the Coastal cities were to be taken easily but the attention of the Venetians were to be diverted with much less resources than the Ottoman Army. Already after the fall of Knin, there were calls to start negotiations again and call for the loss. The Venetians were willing to let Dalmatia turn into a principality and remove all military from there thus leaving the responsibility of protection to the locals. This was something the Ottomans were willing to accept as annexation was seen as a last option. The main issue of failing to negotiate was the status of the Ionian Islands. Venice was even willing to give up all islands but Corfu. The Ottomans accepted no less than surrendering all the Ionian Islands. The lack of intervention coming in soon and the lack of resources put Venice at the risk of desperation. The siege of Corfu would also be not ideal as the Ottomans expected nor facing the Venetian Fleet who came to relieve Corfu.

8 August 1752 - Battle of the Straits of Otranto - Otranto, Southern Italy, Kingdom of Naples
The Venetian Fleet left the port with 12 Ship of the Line and 16 Frigates. The Venetians were given two ships of the lines and 3 frigates by the Pope and a sum of money. The Venetian morale was not high. The Navy was neglected for long yet it had to sail out. Despite the low morale, a mass was held before sailing out and the Admiral of the fleet gave a speech on the upcoming fight. The Venetian Navy arrived near Otranto where they saw the blockade by Aksakal Mustafa Pasha, with 15 Ship of the Line and 25 Frigates. The Venetians tried to cut the Ottoman line formation but to no avail. Aksakal Mustafa Pasha managed to sail around the leading Venetian Ship and surrounded the front of the Navy, forcing the Venetians to sail in the same position to avoid bigger losses and get advantage of the wind. The failure to surround the tail of the Venetian fleet prevented a complete destruction of the Venetians and more casualties on the Ottoman side. The Venetian navy left the battle and sailed for Bari. The Venetians got a little extra supplies to face the Ottomans again and set sail in the night. With the use of the night and the morning mist, the Venetians had a slight advantage as they could hit the Ottoman Navy harder. As the Venetians lost their advantage in Otranto, the Venetian fleet left the area back to Venice. The Venetians lost at the end 2 Ship of the Line sinking, 1 Ship of the Line captured, 3 frigates sinking and 2 frigates captured. The Venetians left back for Venice. The Ottoman Admiral Aksakal Mustafa Pasha succumbed to his wounds, aged 79. The veteran from the Great Turkish War died after arriving in Vlore where he was buried. The Ottoman Navy secured the blockade but the battle results were everything but good. The Ottomans lost one frigate sinking and four ships were badly damaged that they had to be brought to Vlore to be repaired. Returning to Istanbul was not possible. Had the Ottoman crew realized Aksakal Mustafa Pasha was mortally wounded, they may have lost their morale giving the Venetians their much needed victory. The defeat had cost Venice important ships and no revenue for replacements.

29 September 1752 - Explosion of the Corfu armory - Corfu, Ionian Islands, Republic of Venice
The Ottoman Artillery hit the city rather than the walls. The fortification was too strong to waste ammunition on it, thus it was decided to destroy the towers and bring the morale of the locals down to force the garrison to surrender. On the day of 26 September 1752, the Venetian armory was hit within the fortification, causing the death of 1,200 of the 3,000 men within the fortress and 4,000 of the locals in town. The front towers were overpowered amid the chaos and the Ottomans secured the Southern walls by nightfall. The Venetian garrison retreated back to the centre of the city while a small force remained to hold the walls which the Ottoman troops did not enter yet. The city fell completely by morning. The Ottomans lost 10,977 men while the Venetians lost all of their 3000 men with only 97 being alive at the end to end up as captives, sent to Anatolia.
The Ottoman Military was however, tasked to keep the Ionian Islands intact as much as allowed and offer the populace a relatively extended freedom. All the property of the locals are protected by Sultans order, there would be no enslavement of locals and the local rules would continue to exist for the next five years until the Ottoman Government would formulate new laws for the region. The situation was followed by a Greek riot the next few days as some of the military refused to obey orders and tried to pillage a church. About 890 Greeks died during the riot as well as 65 Ottoman soldiers. The Ottoman Army executed another 25 soldiers for disobeying orders. The situation eased over time. The Ottoman Firman was to be upheld. It was now time to await the Venetian decision.

20 November 1752 - Fall of Zara - Zara, Dalmatia, Republic of Venice
The Venetians had lost Knin already and the Ottoman Army had overrun most of Dalmatia. Coastal settlements remained untouched until the fall of Corfu and the arrival of the Ottoman Navy near Zara. The city surrendered on 15 November 1752 and the last settlement of Dalmatia had fallen. The Ottomans had interest in annexing the Coast but it was a secondary option. But as the local elite were open to discuss their future, Ali Pasha offered, with the Sultans permission, to create a new Principality with no Venetian or Ottoman troops in the Principality under a joint Ottoman-Venetian Protectorate. Zara was spared a looting by the Ottoman Army. However, the Serbian Orthodox hinterland was subjected to looting and enslavement if resisting the Ottomans. The worst atrocities happened to the Slavs of Dalmatia. The local Italians were treated as potential partners for the future. Ali Pasha had to manoeuvre diplomatically to avoid Spain, Austria or even France to come to aid to Venice. A last order had come from Istanbul and it was decided to let Venice keep the region as an extended autonomous principality, rather than strip everything the Venetians had.

13 February 1753 - Venetian Envoy for peace - Ayvalik, Anatolia, Ottoman Empire
The Venetians had given up the fight considering there was no chance of ever recovering the areas militarily and no European Nation willing to intervene in favor of Venice. The Venetian Senate knew for sure that even if Austria intervened, they would demand Dalmatia for themselves. The Senate sent an envoy and tried to secure the best deal available for themselves. The Ottoman representatives led by Mehmed Ragip Pasha made the following demands and offers:
  1. Venice will cede the Ionian Islands, Preveza and Kotor to the Ottoman Empire
  2. Venice will turn Dalmatia into an autonomous Republic with their own government as their vassal and under Ottoman Protection
  3. Venice will demilitarize Dalmatia
  4. Venice will pay the Ottoman Empire 10,000,000 Akce over 20 years with an extension of 2 years for the last payment. The extension is followed by an immediate payment of the last remaining war reparation
  5. Venice can demand Ottoman aid against foreign threats on Venetian territory for the next 50 years
  6. Venice has exclusive trade rights over any other nation in the Ionian Islands and Dalmatia
  7. The Knights of St. John are no longer allowed to have any military presence in Venice
  8. Venice and the Ottoman Empire agree to cease any hostilities

Venice became an unofficial protectorate of the Ottoman Empire. There was no military presence of the Ottomans in Venice, nor was Venice paying extra revenue to the Ottoman Empire apart from war reparations. Mahmud I saw this as a secure way for war against Austria. Mahmud was convinced that the future was not certain unless Austria was driven away from the Banate, Croatia and Transylvania. Ali Pasha did not believe in any return of the former Hungarian territories though a new buffer in Transylvania under a Hohenzollern, Bourbon or even from the own Phanariots could help a diversion of Austria and Russia. Ali Pasha points out to the Sultan that Russia is getting stronger every year and a coalition of Austria and Russia will become too much for the Ottoman Empire to handle in the future if there are no measures taken. During the first best war of Russia and Austria in Europe, the Ottoman Empire had to enter a new war, regardless of the heavy casualties it may face.

24 March 1753 - Habsburg response to the treaty - Vienna, Austria, Holy Roman Empire
Empress Maria Theresia and her husband Emperor Francis were uncertain about the peace treaty. The Ottomans gained the Ionian Islands, though abstained from annexing Dalmatia. Maria Theresa hoped to take advantage of the situation and annex Dalmatia with consent of Venice. The Prussian threat and the possibility of a joint Franco-Ottoman Invasion prevented such attempts. The Ottoman Military was not viewed with much fear. It had been long since the Ottoman Armies were too strong to face on the open fields and the Janissary Elite Troops were all but disciplined. If Russia entered the war, the Ottomans would not really stand a chance, was the usual belief in Vienna. The events of 1739 were ignored and seen as failure of their own commanders rather than actual Ottoman success. Maria Theresia was still focussed on Silesia, hoping to reconquer the area from Frederick II. A new war with the Ottomans was not optional unless Russia were to participate in it and the Austrians still needed troops against the French. Help from the United Kingdom would not aid the Austrian Cause much on the mainland either.

2 April 1753 - Ottoman Military overhaul - İstanbul, Thrace, Ottoman Empire
Ever since the last Venetian-Ottoman War, the Janissary Corps saw a decrease in numbers and new conscripts. Ali Pasha enforced new edicts that prevented men over the age of 25 to enter the Janissary Corps. The Janissary Corps declined from 80,000 men in 1751 to 65,000 in 1753 and was expected to decline to 50,000 by next year. Ali Pasha’s reorganization to have 10 Tumens of 5,000 men each and the formation of a cavalry force within the Corps created some unnerving situations. It became as such that Ali Pasha was removed as Grand Vizier and replaced by Seyyid Abdullah Pasha, while the plans still continued. Every Janissary who refused to participate in military drills, perform new formation, using new weapons would be thrown out without warning. Sari Mustafa Aga was brought as Janissary Aga as he was seen as the closest to Ali Pasha to execute the plans. There were new barracks opened for several regions and new laws on the Corps added to ensure the Janissaries return to their disciplined status. The rules were as followed:
1. Janissary Duties
  1. Men who join the Janissary Corps are Muslim or have to become Muslim
  2. Men who join the Janissary Corps after the new order are obligated to follow the new rules. The new rules apply partly to older members
  3. Janissaries can only join between the ages of 8 and 21
  4. Janissaries cannot marry until the age of 40
  5. Janissaries cannot leave their barracks for homes until marriage
  6. Janissaries are obligated to retire from the age of 60
  7. Janissaries stay in the area of operation of their regiments
  1. Janissary Rights
  1. Janissaries get a retirement sum of 2,000 Akce when they retire at the age of 60
  2. Janissaries get a retirement sum of 500 Akce when they retire from the age of 55 or older
  3. Janissaries can retire from the age of 55
  4. Janissaries can introduce their sons from the age 8 until the age of 12 into the Janissary Corps
  1. Janissary Corps organization
  1. The Janissary Corps has a size of 50,000 men and can only increase or decrease by Imperial order
  2. The Janissary Corps has one Commander (Janissary Aga) appointed by the Sultan or Grand Vizier
  3. The Janissary Corps has his own council for internal situations
  4. The Janissary council is formed by the Janissary Aga with consent of the Sultan or Grand Vizier
  5. The Janissary Corps have 10 Tumens of 5,000 men each Tumen
  6. The Tumens have 5 Birlik (regiments) of 1,000 men each Birlik
  7. The Birlik has 20 Ocak (battalions) of 50 men each Ocak
  1. Janissary Corps area of organization
  1. I. Tumen is based in Bosnia
  2. II. Tumen is based in Macedonia
  3. III. Tumen is based in Aleppo
  4. IV. Tumen is based in Erzurum
  5. V. Tumen is based in Cairo
  6. VI. Tumen is based in Baghdad
  7. VII. Tumen is based in İstanbul
  8. VIII. Tumen is based in İzmir
  9. IX. Tumen is based in Tunis
  10. X. Tumen is based in Algiers

The I. Tumen is formed of the Janissaries from largely Slavic descent, from Bosnia and Belgrade eyalet. It is an infantry division and has their main base in Sarajevo. The II. Tumen is largely Albanian and is also infantry based. The II. Tumen has their main base in Selanik. The III. Tumen is almost entirely Circassian and has their main base in Aleppo. It serves as an infantry unit. The IV. Tumen is based in Erzurum and is mostly Turkmen. It serves as a cavalry unit and is based in the town of Erzurum. The V. Tumen is based in Cairo and is almost entirely Egyptian Arab, mostly from the existing Janissaries. It is an infantry unit. The VI. Tumen is mostly Kurdish and serves as a Cavalry unit. It is seated in Baghdad. The VII. Tumen is seated in Istanbul and considered as the most important Tumen as it is primarily tasked to protect the capital. It is an infantry division and consists mostly of Bulgarian Muslims. The VIII. Tumen is based in Izmir and consists mostly of Sub-Saharan slaves who were recruited in the army some years ago, it serves as an infantry division. The IX. Tumen is mostly Greek Muslim and is based in Tunis as an infantry division. The last X. Tumen is mostly of Kuloglu (assimilated non-Maghrebi) or Berber origin. It is an infantry division and is based in Algiers. With 40,000 Elite Infantry and 10,000 Elite Cavalry, the Janissary Corps is hoped to regain their once lost strength in battles.
This is however not enforced yet. It is expected to be ready by 1754. The Dey of Algiers as well as the Prince of Tunis and the Prince of Tripoli have the right to use these brigades if mandate is given and solely to secure their provinces. Some, however, see the reorganized Janissary Divisions as a means to end local autonomy, like the Mamluk rule in Baghdad. This became a real threat when the Baghdad Mamluks failed to defend Basra against the Zand Forces in 1753.
The Sipahi Corps were expected to face reorganization as well within this decade but plans for such reorganization were not decided yet. Due to the large size of the Sipahi Corps it was harder to enforce this.

Fall of Basra - 19 April 1753 - Basra, Mamluk Iraq, Ottoman Empire
The Zand Shah Karim Khan brought an army of 30,000 from Shiraz to Basra and sacked the city. Over 4,000 people died and all of the Ottoman Garrison was killed. The Zand forces lost 800 men while the Ottomans lost 500. The Zand forces had the objective to raid all of the area between Basra and Najaf to draw the Ottoman attention. With the fall of Basra on 13 March 1753, the Mamluks of Baghdad were shocked. They brought an army down South with 40,000 men, hoping to catch the Zand forces but failed to find them. The Zand forces left Ottoman Iraq only a week ago and devastated the South. The Mamluk report to İstanbul angered Sultan Mahmud who demaded changes in Baghdad. With the VI. Janissary Tumen accompanied the new governor Husameddin Pasha, a new governor was to be appointed and have a joint rule like in Egypt. Husameddin Pasha had the order to reorganize the three Mamluk Vilayets in order to integrate the provinces to the Empire in the near future. Not only to stop the Zand forces to harass the Ottomans but also to stop the activities of Twelver Shias from Najaf and Karbala.
The Mamluks would reconquer Basra not too long afterwards but they were unable to stage attacks further in Persia to retaliate. The Centralisation attempts by Sultan Mahmud in Baghdad created a rift between the Baghdad Mamluks and the Ottoman Authorities. The VI. Tumen and the future recruitment of regular infantry would eventually form the Eastern Backwater of the Empire as a respectable province. But time and money were needed. And a punitive attack on the Zands as well.
 
Let’s move on from the Old timeline, and not bring up old wounds. This is new timeline, and we should let the author write what they want too.

I do have another question for @Osman Aga, about the situation in Iran; What happen to Ahmad Shah and the Durrani Empire in Afghanistan?
Ahmad Shah is in Afghanistan, he will be mentioned later in the 1750s as he also will play a crucial role in the development of the Mughals in the second half of the 18th century. No active conflict between the Safavids and Durrani for the moment.
 
The points 2-5 were considered as crucial and necessary. Ali Pasha’s hostile Anti-Spanish projects were to oust the Spanish from North Africa as much as possible and militarize North Africa. To get the Spanish out of North Africa and cut off from the Eastern Mediterranean requires a strong fleet which the Ottoman Navy is not.
Go for it Ali Pasha, the weakest become spain the better
 
Go for it Ali Pasha, the weakest become spain the better
But, loosen the pressure too much and you may give Morocco enough breathing room to prove troublesome in Algiers- the Sultan of Morocco is no more of a friend to the Ottoman Sultan than the King of Spain.
 
But, loosen the pressure too much and you may give Morocco enough breathing room to prove troublesome in Algiers- the Sultan of Morocco is no more of a friend to the Ottoman Sultan than the King of Spain.
Depends a lot of things, Still Algiers/ifruqyia is other thing all together, just goes full force against spain.
 
But, loosen the pressure too much and you may give Morocco enough breathing room to prove troublesome in Algiers- the Sultan of Morocco is no more of a friend to the Ottoman Sultan than the King of Spain.
But Spain can project power far into the Aegean. Morocco is a threat to Western Algiers. Which is the bigger threat? Morocco has to reorganize before it is an active threat.
 
Depends a lot of things, Still Algiers/ifruqyia is other thing all together, just goes full force against spain.
Full force seems unlikely considering the threats up north. But the bright side is... Spain has more enemies like the British, Dutch and the Portuguese... even the Moroccans
 
Mahmud I (1753-1754: Phanariots and the Safavid Victory) New
The Phanariots of İstanbul - 25 June 1753 - İstanbul, Anatolia, Ottoman Empire
The Phanariots were the Greek Elites, largely living in Istanbul. They were often Princes of Moldova and Wallachia. They were also appointed as ambassadors to Europe. They have been great subjects to the Sultan although loyalty was somewhat questionable, especially since the start of the century. However, the Phanariots were also a Middle Class of the Ottoman Empire, a small class yet enough to bring Western Europe closer to Istanbul. The idea of stock markets and shares was alive and well in among the Phanariots but no steps were taken to set a stock market in the capital as the Ottoman Sultans at the time showed no interest in it. Mahmud I was one of the Sultans showing lack of interest in opening an Ottoman Stock Market although some of the princes, like Mehmed, Mustafa and Bayezid were positive about it. They were more open to the idea of letting the Christians of the Capital set up their new projects resembling the West. The old Mahmud was more influenced by the clergy close to him than his own nephews. His younger Brother Osman showed even less interest than his brother. The Phanariots use their close ties to the Palace to influence the Grand Vizier as well as Mahmud to let the Phanariots do their things. With no Sultan accepting this plan, it cannot be set up. Some merchant class of the Phanariots however were keen on starting to grow in the Empire and dominate domestic trade. There was no guarantee that all the investments of a trade organisation would be protected and no law about the rights of the investors either. When this situation was presented to the Grand Vizier he directed them to the Patriarch of Constantinople, as the Greek Orthodox Church dealt with these issues among Christians. Regardless, the opening of a Trade Company was prevented due to the lack of Ottoman Law on Trade Companies. The opening of the first Ottoman Stock Market failed as well. The Phanariots however, dominated the domestic trade in the upcoming decades.

Khorramabad Campaign - 5 September 1753 - Khorramabad
The Zand forces besieged Khorramabad after the fall to Safavid forces in 1752. Khorramabad was a base against Mamluk Iraq for the Zands. The fall of the town meant that the Safavids now had the entire border with the Ottoman Empire and were preparing to surround Shiraz. Karim Khan prepared his army of 45,000 to besiege the town and another 55,000 men to camp North East of the settlement to prevent any Safavid relief. The Safavids had 8,000 men in Khorramabad. The Safavid Army location was unknown. The Garrison under Fathali Abbas Agha had to hold out. The Zands waited for the artillery attack for at least a week. The Zands placed their artillery on the gate trenches South of Khorramabad. Fathali Abbas was to defend the town as long as possible, until relief forces arrived, if they arrived at all.
In the meantime a Safavid Army of 75,000 men left with 40,000 regular Infantry, cavalry forces of 25,000 and 10,000 irregulars. The Zand Forces of 55,000 was numerically and qualitatively inferior to the Safavid Forces. It was also no surprise that the Zand forces had only one option and held the defenses that led to Khorramabad. The Infantry led the offense against the 15,000 irregulars in the trenches. The Zand irregular infantry were hardly a match against the regulars of the Safavid Army. That is where the Zand Cavalry moved in to support the irregulars in the trenches. As much as they came to support from hitting distance, the Safavid Artillery offered enough support for the Zand Cavalry to fail to relieve the trenches. The Zand forces lost 17,000 men of their 55,000 men, all fleeing to the Forces in Khorramabad. With the remaining 83,000 men, the Zands had to face the Safavid forces of 69,000 men and the Garrison of Khorramabad. With the initial attempts to break through the lines failing, the Zands lost another 19,000 men. Whatever forces remained either fled West to the land of the Kurds or surrendered. Mohammed Hasan Qajar estimated about 25,000 soldiers fled of the remaining 64,000 and 39,000 soldiers were captives of war. The Safavid victory in the Khorramabad Campaign not only ended the Zand hopes to reconquer Western Persia, but it also resulted in the odds of any Zand attacks on Ottoman territory. The Safavids would move further South to Khuzestan and try to force out Karim Khan from Shiraz, hoping to secure Central Persia.
 
Mahmud I (1754: The Austro-Turkish War threat) New
The Viennese Envoy - 4 February 1754 - Sabac, Belgrade Eyalet, Ottoman Empire
Vienna was nostalgic about their past gains in the Balkans. The Venetian Defeat resulted in an appointed Principality over Dalmatia. A Prince from a wealthy Venetian Family came to rule Dalmatia. This did not work out as desired and the Prince left Dalmatia soon afterwards. The Ottomans let the Republic of Ragusa takeover the entire former Venetian Province. Venice had a little chance but to object. The exclusive trade rights were still upheld and the Venetian Senate remained silent. Vienna however saw this as a breach of the peace between Venice and the Ottoman Empire. Vienna’s ambition was to force a war and annex Dalmatia and Belgrade, maybe Ragusa and Bosnia as well. Vienna already sent a complaint to Istanbul that the peace treaty was breached and the Ottomans should appoint a new Prince for Dalmatia. Austria hoped to bring a Hungarian or a pro-Austrian Italian as prince of Dalmatia. Last resort option would have been the Prince-Bishop of Montenegro but that would alienate the local Catholics from Vienna. Sultan Mahmud refused immediately. Grand Vizier Seyyid Abdullah Pasha gave no concession. His predecessor Ali Pasha instructed him to not make unreasonable demands but not to give in either. Seyyid Abdullah Pasha offered to negotiate in Sabac over the Dalmatia issue. Ali Pasha left for Sabac himself to lead the negotiations.

Austrian Envoy: “A Good Day to you Ali Pasha… I did not expect to see you.”

Ali Pasha: “The Sultan wanted me here in Sabac, so here I am herr Jozef”

Austrian Envoy: “Well yes… We both know why we are here so let us start. My Empress is unhappy about the breach of the peace treaty with Venice. She wishes that the Republic of Ragusa retreated from the former Venetian area and a new Prince chosen by the Sultan as the Prince of Dalmatia. To make sure the rights of the population of Dalmatia is not breached, my Empress offered a few candidates that are fit for this role. Due to the breach of the treaty, the Empress no longer considers the free option by Sultan Mahmud as optional. The Habsburg candidates must be considered.”

Ali Pasha: “Herr Jozef, the demands your Empress made are unacceptable. The Principality will be abolished and the Republic of Ragusa will keep the area as a vassal of the Sublime Ottoman State. The rights of the Population can and will be guaranteed regardless.”

Austrian Envoy: “Ali Pasha, you don’t seem to understand the issue here. The Empress is not going to accept any offer because all other options are to Empress Maria Theresia a reason for war.”

Ali Pasha: “Herr Jozef, Sultan Mahmud has not backed off from war almost 20 years ago, he will not back off from threats again. The situation of Dalmatia is no concern of Empress Maria Theresia and if the Empress is willing to declare war over it then we will await that declaration of war.”

Austrian Envoy: “Ali Pasha, Dalmatia does concern us. Any threat on Austrian borders concern Vienna, and if that threat is not solved it will be dealt with, with or without war. Sultan Mahmud got away easy last war, this time it will not be easy for the Ottoman Sultan.”

Ali Pasha: “Herr Jozef, if the Sultan did not demand me to behave like a real diplomat I would have thrown you into the dungeons for talking like this. I have personally led with half an army against the Duke of Saxony. I am still fit to face the battlefields and by Allah's grace I wilI. In the event of war I will be on the front, where will you be? Sipping coffee in Vienna preparing to negotiate the truce.

As I said, the only offer the Sultan is willing to make is not annexing Dalmatia. If your empress is not pleased with the offer then our armies will face each other in the battlefields soon.”


Austrian Envoy: “So it is then. I will stay in Sabac for three more days. I will wait for a change of mind. If there is none then I will return to Vienna. I hope for you that you are as certain of victory in the battlefields as you are now, Ali Pasha”

The Austrian Envoy did stay for three more days in Sabac but left without Ali Pasha changing his mind. The Envoy knew that the only option left for Vienna was war. Empress Maria Theresia would try to start new negotiations again in late 1754 and early 1755. When all of that failed, the Austrians would prepare for war. It was unnerving as the Prussians were also closing in for war with the Austrians. The Court in Vienna was not pleased with the alliance with the British. Vienna hoped their last attempt would be France. If the French can be drifted away to Vienna from Berlin and Istanbul, the Austrians are much more secure. When the Dutch got the sense of Austria allying with France, they declared to London that they would fight the Austrians and the French and did desire to gain parts of the Lowlands. Europe was once again reforming the alliances. With Louis XV allying Austria against Prussia and the Dutch, the British suddenly became much more important in Istanbul. The sultan, Mahmud I, died not too long afterwards and his brother continued his policy. Unlike his brother Mahmud, Osman did believe in reconquering Hungary. Ali Pasha was wiser and knew that it was for the best to create a buffer with Austria. To keep them out of the Balkans, or far away from the Russians. Ali Pasha returned from Sabac and the Sultan declared him as Serdar of Belgrade. Ali Pasha knew he had to fight in battles and made preparations. His first desire was to stall the Austrians when they returned, as he expected them to return. Vienna wanted to make sure Prussia did not declare war at the same time. Ali Pasha wanted to complete his reorganization of the Janissary Corps within the year and start to move units of the Sekban Corps into the Balkans. The Sekban units got different ranks and the Military declaration of Sultan Mahmud decided which rank stood higher, as the rank system between the Janissary Corps and the Sekban Corps was different. For both States, it was a countdown to war.

The failed harvest of the Tatars - 25 May 1754 - Aqtiyar, Crimea, Crimean Khanate
Qirim Giray was displeased as the raid for Russia failed. The Tatars got 12,000 Slaves in one year. The Crimean Khan was unsure whether raiding Russia had any benefit at all. The costs are high, the number of slaves are low and the Ottomans had a new source of slaves: Circassia. It was at this point that the Crimean Khan decided that the Khanate had to change. The Khanate had 1 million people and 0.2 million were already Christians, free or slaves. The population did not grow more than 100k since 1700 and the manpower source is not increasing much either while the Russian firepower is growing higher. Qirim Giray hoped to drive his border more to the North and start using Tatar Hordes to settle down, by force if necessary. A new Crimean Force had to be created, closely resembling the Ottoman Sekban Units and more Muslims had to migrate to the Khanate. Qirim Giray had already formed the Qirim Harbiye, a military school led by former Ottoman Officers who were sent from being educated by Prussian officers from Manisa. The Harbiye trained officers for the new army as well as training regular soldiers. Qirim Khan created a force of 12,000 infantry men and 3,000 heavy cavalry as his personal soldiers. These soldiers were still busy training and being formed into real fighting forces. The lion share of the Crimean Forces were still light cavalry, about 100,000 light cavalry troops fit for war. The last failure of the harvest in the Ukraine resulted in the deaths of 1,500 Tatars while fighting the Russians and the Cossacks. Qirim Giray faces much hostility in his plan to transform the Crimean Khanate into a New State rather than a small horde that only survives by raiding. His first success was the passing of the Ottoman areas in the Crimea to the Crimean Khanate. This happened in the treaty of Aqtiyar in 1754, just before the death of Mahmud I. The later sultan would pass the area around Azov and Budjak to the Crimean Khanate. With this annexation, the Crimean Khanate was now in control over the entire Northern coast of the Black Sea. The last desire of Qirim Giray was Ottoman Troops moving North to fight the Russians in the Ukraine as well in case of war. The Russians failed to annex the Crimea in 1737, but they will not let go a second attempt.

The urbanisation of the Ottoman Empire - 2 November 1754 - Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire experienced a growth in urbanisation. The Ottomans did not have the growth because of industrialization which the British were experiencing at the moment. The Ottoman growth in urban life was due to the poverty in rural areas. Especially Anatolia where Turkmen Nomads had no option but to settle down in villages to fight starvation and then move to the big cities yet again. The city of Istanbul grew from 500k in 1700 to 800k in 1750 and was 810 in 1754 as more new settlers arrived from Anatolia. Selanik grew from 50k to 75k between 1700 and 1750, İzmir from 75k to 90k in the same period, Bursa from 50k to 70k, Sofia from 40k to 60k and Baghdad from 100k to 150k. Nomads settled down, more slaves from the Caucasus and Subsaharan Africa arriving to the cities, as well as career soldiers settling down from the rural lands. The Grand Vizier observed this situation and informed the Sultan about the situation in Anatolia and Western Balkans. If the population grows further in the cities then the unhappiness of former peasants can lead to a new uprising. The Grand Vizier hoped to settle the Nomads down in Anatolia and or move them elsewhere if necessary, promoting new peasants and securing the food production of the Empire. A shortage of food will lead to a new rebellion. Highly undesirable when war is looming and the army needs to be focused. The Sultans past Mahmud I would promote Nomads to settle down by granting land to them or settle them in areas like Macedonia.
 
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did the rulers of tunis and tripoli actually use the title of prince? Never knew that.

Also Phanariots just a word to describe greeks who work for the ottomans or are they related to each other?
 
did the rulers of tunis and tripoli actually use the title of prince? Never knew that.

Also Phanariots just a word to describe greeks who work for the ottomans or are they related to each other?
English term, makes it easier. Might change it though.

The Greek elite of Istanbul. Wealthy families who trace their lines to East Roman era.
 
did the rulers of tunis and tripoli actually use the title of prince? Never knew that.

Also Phanariots just a word to describe greeks who work for the ottomans or are they related to each other?
English term, makes it easier. Might change it though.

The Greek elite of Istanbul. Wealthy families who trace their lines to East Roman era.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phanariots Seems They could push Rum/greek to be more integrated, even if not convert.
 
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