The Gallic League

Okay, here goes (deep breath)...

The Celts were linked by trade, a common language, similar beliefs, and similar social structure. Their military knowledge was at the very least on par with the rest of the world – they had knowledge of iron long swords, chariots, cavalry, javelins, armor, shields, etc. (even if some chose to go naked into battle). Though, their fervor in battle tended to override any sense of discipline during a fight they were more than capable of using tactics. However, they never created a unified front against their problems or enemies and were eventually picked apart and scattered. What if they had stepped beyond the social/economic cohesion and had came together politically/militarily?


1200BC-400BC: The Celtic tribes are culturally linked by social structure and trade.

700BC-400BC: Dramatic shifts in population and an increase in local tribal warfare start to break up the uniformity.

500BC: After several mild winters and cool summers the climate shifts and becomes much warmer.

400BC: Leading a confederation of tribes, mostly from the Boii, is a warrior by the name of Brennus (though his actual name is lost to history). Brennus’ army marches into the Po valley, taking Etruscan cities and villages. In a desperate attempt to stave off the wave of marauders the Etruscans request help from a city-state in the south, a people calling themselves Romans. They were a people of at least some repute as they were the ones the Etruscans went to in their time of need. Rome didn’t send a military force, instead mediators arrived. Brennus approached with caution but welcomed them. During the course of the negotiations an argument broke out and one of the Romans killed a tribal leader. Worried about the military power of the Romans, Brennus was able to convince his fellow leaders to agree to retribution only against the family of the assassins. An emissary was sent to Rome to ask for just this thing but it was rebuffed. Instead of handing over the wrongdoers the Roman leaders promoted them to lead an army.

390BC-374BC: Brennus’ War.

390BC-387BC: Brennus moves his army south, meeting the Roman legions outside Allia. The might of the Boii army and the military forethought of their general defeated the Romans. In the confusion that followed in the wake of the retreating Roman forces, Veii fell to the Boii assault followed by the siege of Rome itself.

386BC: According to a letter written by Brennus’ son (by the same name), put to paper 10 years after the fall of Rome, Brennus (the elder) was offered a large sum of gold in return for the withdraw of his forces. Brennus (the elder), however, found something much more valuable than a few chests of trinkets. He saw in Rome and the Etruscan city-states that had already been conquered and/or pillaged what his own people could aspire to become. Even if militarily these southmen hadn’t yet put up much of a resistance their organization and discipline was not to be overlooked. He admitted to his son that he feared the allure of wealth would be too much for his undisciplined war machine and they would lose all they had accomplished. So he declined the bribe, told his warriors that they were offered wine instead, and in the ensuing rage the last of Rome’s defenses fell. Brennus gave the population of the city to his warriors but took the lives of the ruling class for his own. He beheaded any that declined to answer his questions.

386BC-380BC: During this time Brennus incorporated the Roman military discipline into his own army – though it was very difficult and some even returned north rather than subdue their frenzy. He also learned about the Latin League, the model our own leadership is based.

382BC: Brennus sent north a trusted warrior captain, by the name of Brawyn, with a contingent of Roman scholars, nobles and a letter outlining the vision he had for his people.

379BC-375BC: The spring saw Brennus reemerge with his army. He learned about the League but he also learned that it was contingent mainly on the will of the Romans. Without that will Brennus saw a fractured and warlike people much like his own. This is something he understood, something he knew how to defeat. His plan had three parts; he sent war parties south, they would be used to disrupt the day-to-day lives and communications between the city-states. He then sent emissaries to the embattled people of Syracuse (in their recent history they had beaten back advances from their own people as well as an empire across the sea and would make good allies). His third front was his attack on the Umbrians.

Several skirmish were fought along the upper Tiber but the real battle came when Brennus crossed the Apennines. At Sentinum in 378BC Brennus came upon the main Umbrian army, it was supplemented by smaller contingents of Latins, Sabians, and Samenites. As Brennus’ army moved into engage the Umbrians the Latins, Sabians, and Samenites moved from concealed positions into the flanks and rear of Brennus’ force. At the height of the battle, when all resources were engaged, Brennus gave the signal for his own surprise. Riding in from their own hidden position were Brennus’ cavalry (3 units, equaling 2500; one unit of 500 javelins, one unit of 1000 mounted archers, one unit of 1000 armed with long swords). It was a major defeat for the Umbrians, and a loss of manpower that the other League members would soon regret.

During the continued war in Italia Brawyn rode north, first stopping in the new heartland of the Po valley. From there she traveled over the Alps and for the next few year delivered the news of Brennus’ War. The letter she carried with her laid out the plans for a unified peoples and the captives in tow brought proof it could be done. For a year she traveled, some joined her to offer there support but most waited for word of when and where this meeting of the tribes would take place. During Imbloc of 380BC (February, March, April) word was sent that Alesia would act as the gathering point. Less than half of the tribes Brawyn visited the year before attended. Chiefs, warriors, and Druids gathered but little was accomplished during the month the delegates spoke. However the following year the number of representatives attending doubled and Brawyn was able to supply them with news of Brennus’ victory over the Umbrians (there is a story of entire villages suddenly proclaiming they were blood relatives of Brennus once word reached them of his conquests).

It was probably the emissary from Syracuse that most surprised Brennus once messengers finally reached him during his march down the coast. Brennus’ decree that “all the lands within the sea shall be yours†was welcomed by Dionysius I, though modern scholars feel it was the 1000 warriors sent to aid in Syracuse’ fight for dominance that made more of an impact on the King. Dionysius declined to send military aid to Brennus but promised to dispatch ambassadors to his fellow Hellenists to speak on Brennus’ behalf.

376BC: Eager for news from Brawyn, Brennus grew impatient and sent an army of envoys to Alesia for word on the gathering. Having seen how fast word traveled between Rome and his moving army by using fresh messengers and horses from town to town Brennus established a series of weigh stations between Alesia and his army. As most of the adult population in the area was either now enslaved or on the warpath Brennus filled the envoy corps with every able bodied youth who was not of age to carry a sword into battle. By the end of Samhain (January), a rough course of roads had been cut and the weigh stations were in place.

376BC-370BC: Syracuse begins its war for dominance (the warriors supplied by Brennus making up the front lines). This event renews the conflict with Carthage. Though battles at sea were inconclusive, the two attempts to fight on land were totally in Syracuse’ favor. At their defeat in 374BC Carthage contented themselves with securing their assets on Sardinia and taking over all of Corsica. The remainder of the war was fought with the remaining city-states on the island that hadn’t yet fallen to Dionysius I. Though victorious, both Dionysius I and his son (who ruled after) were tyrants and faced several rebellions during the years they ruled.

375BC: Just ten days after the New Year (November) Brennus assembled his forces outside the city of Tarentum. All other major cities had either fallen by force or by mediation. The leaders of Tarentum did not come out to decide the fate of their city - and indeed, the rest of Italia. They remained held up behind their defenses. Brennus, eager to return to Alisia to be granted that which was most obviously his to claim – the title of High King – gave into his impatient and kicked his steed into full gallop. During the course of the battle, an arrow struck Brennus through the throat – he died instantly. His body was brought back to his tent, where his wife, Medb, and his son (who had been living in Rome since its fall) had been waiting to witness the final battle. Smeared in his father’s blood Brennus (the younger) stepped before his father’s military council and promised to finish the fight that had begun. After seven months of siege and battle Tarentum fell – Brennus burned it to the ground, killing every last warm blooded body within the walls to make sure he beheaded the one who had killed his father. After the battle, Brennus saw what he had done and wept. He vowed never to allow such carnage to befall these lands again.

During the annual Gathering news had reached the delegates that Brennus (elder) was marching towards Tarentum. Living in the glory of our Empire we all like to bask in the wise decision of the Oghma to settle their differences and build on their commonality but in truth, looking back at the period, it was probably the thought of Brennus returning from years of war with a battle hardened army that solidified their wills. At the festival signaling the start of Beltane (May) the tribal representatives agreed to the mutual protection and cooperation of all their people. This did not include Celtibiria or Breton as few tribes from these areas bothered to attend any of the Gatherings over the last 5 years (which made the collective tribes very happy since even if the few representatives of those lands had agreed to join the League it would not have been a consensus of the territorial leader in those areas).

374BC: Brennus (younger) stationed half the army in the area around Rome to keep the peace (Brennus placed Brawyn, as she had proven very loyal to his father, in charge of the occupational force). With the rest he marched north for Alesia to present himself to the Gathering. At the Gathering, now calling themselves the Oghma, Brennus decreed that it was not his intent to be anything but at the service of his people. “I am a warrior, my life is with my sword and shield – they are both raised in the defense of all those who seek it.†He proposed two measures; 1) keep the army stationed in and around Rome at the ready (he planned on disbanding the rest of his army in the north, that would give him a voice in every tribe in the League), and 2) to grant the city-states now under their control a voice in the council. The Oghma agreed to keep the warriors in Rome active and pledged the necessary food and supplies for such an effort, but they rejected Brennus’ plea for equal treatment for the conquered.

Brennus turned out to be an avid writer, he considered himself a poet and historian (and it is to his merit that we owe much of what we know of this time – especially given that our scholars of this time traditionally passed knowledge by word of mouth). He returned to Rome where he filled over a hundred volumes on everything from his daily meals, to his dealings with the locals, to the training he put his warriors through. He extended the weigh station line the length of the peninsula and was determined to prove to those his father had conquered that his people were more than marauders and barbarians.

The Italia that Brennus presided over as war chief was a shadow of its former self. 16 years of war and the steady exodus that redistributed the people of Italia in the land of the Greeks, Egypt, and Persia severely depopulated the area (in fact the area would continue to be sparsely populated until the end of the century). Brennus strongly encouraged interaction between the indigenous tribes and what the people of Rome called his “migrating horde†– though, for every well-mannered conversation he overheard he was given news about two street brawls.

374BC-368BC: Despite the victory over Tarentum for the next 6 years Brennus had to march his army up and down the peninsula putting down minor revolts – usually in the form of non-payment of tribute.

368BC: A harsh winter brought roving bands over the Rhine. Suebi, Marcomanni, Cimbri, Teutones crossed the northern border in search of new lands and food. The Oghma sent for Brennus fearing that the stories they were hearing from outlying villages about the raiders were simply the start of a full on migration into Gallic territory. The war chief set out for the Rhine with just 10,000 warriors (fully half cavalry). He set up camp at Kelheim and by the end of Imbolc (April) the warriors sent to serve under him doubled his ranks. He ignored an edict and a visitation from several Oghma delegates to attack immediately and held camp until the start of Lughnasa (August).

368BC-361BC: Accompanying Brennus on the journey to pacify the region was a young man by the name of Eogan (he was the grandson of Brawyn). Brawyn had complained the boy had picked up too many bad habits (among others being fat and lazy) in traveling the conquered territories – Brennus writes that he liked the youth and for his own safety brought the young man with him on the campaign. Brennus (most likely in jest) thought that if the youth stayed in the south and continued his disregard for the sword in full view of his grandmother that she would kill him.

Brennus campaigned first against the Suebi on his march up the Rhine – so uneventful was this march that the only entry in Brennus’ journals is a paragraph describing a creek where he stopped to bathe. It was when he started his march down the Elbe that his army was put under constant attack. His journals point out a period of three weeks where they were hit by nightly raids. It seems that even the stout war chief had his fill of battle, Scholars like to point out that by the end of the campaign as he made his way down the Oder pacifying the Marcomanni he no longer listed his engagements in great detail but only the numbers of dead. In an ironic twist of fate, Brennus, like his father, fell victim to an assassin’s arrow.

Ever the historian, Brennus dictated a deathbed letter. He gave his support for Eogan, and noted that both the boy’s father and grandmother (both trusted warriors of renown) would second the motion. He advised his war council that Eogan would serve the army well as war chief and as a voice in the Oghma.

360BC: The letter, though enough to quiet most of the ambitions, was not enough to quell all of them. Oorf, with the backing of only a 1000 warriors broke from the main army vowing never to follow the will of any boy. He set off to gather the support of those who were about to full under the yoke of the Gallic League. However, what was boiling up to be the start of a civil war within the ranks of the fledgling state ended with just a simmer. While hunting for local tribes to support him in his rise to power, Oorf was ambushed in the thick forests. The remaining Marcomanni, thinking Oorf’s force was some type of trap surrounded and slaughtered them. This, as it turned out, was the final stork in bringing the territory to bear. As the Marcomanni were engaged with Oorf’s warriors, Eogan ordered the army to attack.

360BC-336BC: Eogan left the army in the hands of a capable warrior by the name of Tyr and returned to Alesia to report to the Oghma. The Oghma were not pleased to see him. They had not been given word that he would be taking over the army and were fearful of the precedent this event may set. Nor were they happy about not receiving word from the front on how the campaign was going. It wasn’t said then but we know now that during a Gathering the previous year discussions had gotten so heated that several tribes threatened to leave the League unless they were made aware on how their warriors were doing in the north. However, Eogan was able to quell a minor rebellion, finish putting down the roving tribes, and had the backing of the army; so, they were willing to accept his position as war chief.

It came as no surprise to anyone in his family when Eogan did little with the army (due mainly to Tyr, the army was swiftly dispersed and resettled in the new territory). Eogan remained in Alesia were he was present every time the Oghma met. He persuaded the Oghma to build more roads so they could establish more weigh stations and enhance trade. He also spoke openly about setting up several nemetons specifically to the god Teutates (a war god). It was his hope that these “sacred fight rings†would be a place where mock battles could be fought to temper the bloodlust that overcame the tribesman from time to time. He also encouraged the Oghma to ask the tribes to move from their fortified hills. It is said that he personally oversaw the construction of 38 new villages and was responsible for issuing orders for a further 180 other building projects (ranging from building bridges, schools, nemetons, and repair work on some of the existing buildings in Italia) – one wonders how much more he could have accomplished if he didn’t have to gain Oghma approval for each of his projects. One of the first things he’s credited with doing upon his return to Alesia was to ship Italian scholars, Druids, and Bards to the newly acquired territories to teach (the most important of which was the latest agricultural advances) and spread stories of the League’s greatness. These are just an example of his building initiatives that more than warranted him the title of “The Great Builderâ€. Eogan enjoyed food and drink and in his later years completely disregarded the fitness laws of our people. Overweight and in poor health he died peacefully in his sleep in the winter of 336BC but left word that he supported his son, Breoga, to be the next war chief.

336BC-323BC: Breoga shared none of his father’s interest in books, engineering, or politics. He favored the sword in arguments and resented the “pacifying of his ancestral spirit†over the past 30 years. Other than the active army camps in Italia many of the warriors had returned to their lands. In light of the peace of the past 3 decades there was even talk within the Oghma to disband the Italia camps. Breoga wouldn’t stand for this and contemplated ways to convince the Oghma of the need to keep and possibly expand the standing army.

Word reached Breoga of the plight of the Greek peoples. Under the rule of a great war chief named Philip they had managed to gain some independence from the Persians. Under Philip’s son Alexander the Greeks were now poised to become the dominant power in the region. Breoga sent word to this Alexander that he supported his efforts to claim back his ancestral lands and offered the Gallic army to his cause. Alexander sent word back that they should meet. Breoga was given permission from the Oghma to meet with this Alexander.

During the winter of 335 a meeting was set to take place at Shipka Pass. Alexander, with a large contingent of warriors, and Breoga with an equally large cohort, traveled to the arranged rendezvous - they said nothing to each other for several minutes, the only sound was the clink of metal as the warriors on the opposing sides waited for the command to strike. Eventually Alexander broke the silence and asked Breoga what the Celts feared most. Breoga’s response would go down in history, “we fear nothing but that the heavens might fall on our heads.†There was another minute of silence and then Alexander began to laugh, followed closely by his second, a man by the name of Ptolemy. Breoga didn’t join but did accept a seat within Alexander’s tent. Breoga, not being the scholar his father was, wrote nothing of this exchange, and sadly, the only word on these proceeding was a book written by the warrior Ptolemy years later. In his book he states that Alexander was taken by Breoga and that right away he saw the man as a friend.

Though Breoga pledged all the armies of the Gallic League the Oghma would not support that promise. Few of the tribal representatives saw reason to offer the lives of their own people in a foreign war but appreciated the friendship the war chief had forged with the Greek (during the last 3 decades many of the tribes had prospered under the peace and prosperity). Though they would not promote the formation and training of a new army they would not stop anyone from wanting to follow Breoga. In all, Breoga was only able to gather 12000 to his cause – the lore of battle was not enough to make most go against the wishes of the Oghma. Breoga joined up with Alexander’s army in time to face Darius III at Issus (333BC) and then joined in the march that conquered Egypt and Syria though didn’t aide in the assault on Persepolis at the behest of Alexander (who apparently felt this was something only his Greeks should do in retribution for the destruction of one of their great cities 150 years earlier). Small rebel armies began to threaten what Alexander had thus far accomplished and he asked Breoga and his Gallic army to put an end to these troublemakers. This would be the last time Breoga set eyes on Alexander.

In the political chaos that followed Alexander’s death several generals maneuvered for a position to control the vast empire that had been forged (so said in the name of Alexander’s family). Ptolemy was one of these generals, he had fought along side Breoga on several occasions and it is said that a great respect had grown between the two men. So it was no shock to anyone when Breoga supported Ptolemy’s claim to a portion of Alexander’s empire (Ptolemy departed for Egypt soon after the death of his leader with Alexander’s body), nor was it a surprise to see Ptolemy supporting Breoga’s claim to some of the territory for his warriors. What did come as a surprise was the dagger that Antigonus slipped into Breoga’s gut to show his disagreement with Breoga’s claim.

Antigonus wasn’t the only one within Alexander’s ranks that voiced decent against any barbaric claim to their former leader’s lands (especially since Breoga claimed the right to Macedonia). Nearly all of Alexander’s generals were against the claim – but as forces were drawn up to finish off the last of Breoga’s army rifts formed in the commanding ranks. None of Alexander’s generals felt Antigonus should be the supreme leader and the remaining members of Alexander’s family (whom the generals theoretically fought and served as satrap for) assumed they had authority to command.

323BC-300BC: Though the civil war that erupted between the factions was primarily settled during the first few months’ fighting it dragged on in minor battles for the next 2 decades.

323BC-322BC: In the wake of Breoga’s murder his army, as described by survivors, went berserk. 7000 Gallic warriors killed everything in sight as they fought from their camp in Babylon. They sent word by way of riders to the Oghma but had no way to know if such news would reach the homeland. Their only course of action was to fight their way back to the League. Leaderless they only got as far as Thapsacus before being defeated by the semi combined forces of Philip Arrhidaeus and Antigonus (on two separate days of fighting – first defeated by Philip and than retreating in to Antigonus’ army the following day). The remains of the Gallic army retreated into the desert.

It was at Thapsacus that the civil war was more or less settled. Though Ptolemy wasn’t present at the meeting he writes that within a day and a night the remains of the “royal family†were put to death (most information passed on to him by slaves formally in service to Antigonus). Antigonus, promising to uphold Olympias’ authority (Alexander’s mother) helped her poison Philip. Antigonus in return murdered Olympias as she slept that night (this, in effect, let the genie out of the bottle – over the next few months, all of Alexander’s relations were subject to assignation). Antigonus (portraying the murder death as a barbarian plot) took control of Philip’s army. In the following month’s he was able to defeat several minor generals, an army sent by Cassander, and join forces with Lysimachus.

323BC-312BC: Breoga’s murder was the event that launched the Gallic League into the Macedonian War. Being so far outside the communication lines the weigh stations riders took almost two months to get the message of Breoga’s murder to the Oghma. The outrage was immediate. Within two days the tribal leaders promoted one of their own to war chief. Bebinn was a respected orator of the Oghma and a trusted influential warrior hailing from the Nori. In a month’s time all of Gaul had risen up to avenge Breoga (all except the conquered peoples of Italia, they weren’t allowed to carry weapons let alone join the army).

Almost a year to the day of the Oghma receiving word of Breoga’s murder Bebinn led an army of 100,000 down the Adriatic conquering the Illyrians along the way. At Epidamnos she spilt her army, sending half through the mountains to Macedonia while she led the other half into the Greek heartland. They met with little resistance, in fact Bebinn was surprised at how similar the people in the outlying villages and towns were to her own. Her first major victory came at Callium, the city was burnt to the ground after two days of fighting. Next she marched on Heracleia and another victory. As she besieged Delphi Bebinn dispatched 10,000 warriors to harry the cities further south.

The northern army, under the leadership of a warrior named Bran, as with Bebinn, met with little resistance with the smaller towns and villages, but by the end Lughnasa (October) came upon Anigonus’ army. The armies formed up near Mezek. Though the armies were evenly matched it was the Gallic chariots that won the day. Even when Bran’s lines were broken by the hoplite phalanx his cavalry was able to fight a rearguard action enabling Bran to ferry his forces with his chariots back a mile and reform his lines. When the Gallic army advanced anew, the cavalry disengaged, feigned retreat, and came at the enemy from behind. When it was apparent that the battle would not be won by Antigonus, many of the Thracian cohorts switched sides (though Lysimachus’ managed to maintain the loyalty of the units directly under his command). Antigonus was barely able to flee with a few thousand men.

By 318BC the major cities in Greece were under Bebinn’s control (or were of no threat – especially after Cassander’s capture and death) and she marched with the bulk of her army north to rejoin Bran at Byzantium. A letter awaited her there; it was from Ptolemy whose armies sought control of Egypt. He, as Breoga had pledged to Alexander, proclaimed that he too joined in the Celts campaign to avenge Breoga. Ptolemy’s army would strike from the south and occupy Antigonus in palestine and Syria. The dawn of Beltane (May) 318BC as everyone in the Gallic League was celebrating, Bebinn opened the floodgates and 85,000 warriors poured into Anatolia. Simultaneously with this assault was the sea invasion of Cyprus and the coast of Asia Minor (The Oghma had sent a request to Agathocles of Syracuse for ships and warriors – few warriors but many ships were sent). Those who surrendered were enslaved, those who didn’t were beheaded.

In 312BC on the high dry central plateau near the city of Pessinus in a war that started with a betrayal it was fitting that it would also end the same way. The remnants of Antigonus’ army gave up their general to Bebinn rather than face the renowned wrath of her forces. The lands Anigonus claimed were divided between the Gallic League and our ally Ptolemy. The League was granted the lands of Thrace, Macedonia, Greece, and Anatolia. Ptolemy held on to the lands of the Tigris and Euphrates, Egypt, and Syria. For his help in the war Agathocles was granted Crete and Cypress (as we were honor bound to grant per Brennus’ pledge in 378).

312BC-300BC: Though the war had ended, several engagements were still fought in the following years. Most of these battles were between Seleucus and Ptolemy (with the aide of some of Bebinn’s army). For the most part the League members were concerned about seeding their new lands with their own people.

312BC: Ptolemy, feeling secure in his position – especially after the marriage to Alexander’s sister Cleopatra (I) – was proclaimed Ptolemy Soter, King of Egypt (312BC-290BC). Cleopatra, however, would not rule long as Queen of the Nile – in 308BC she was murdered by Seleucid’s spies.

310BC: Throughout the Macedonian War there was a battle being fought at home that would shape the future leadership. The tenuous collaboration of the tribes that had been solidifying over the past 50 years began to fracture. The rancorous tribes could be more or less arranged into one of three groups: the “Urbansâ€, the “Spearsâ€, and the “Majority†(so named because the core of this group were 12 of the oldest druids whose collective age was older than the rest of the Oghma put together).

The Urbans used Breoga’s death as proof that the Gallic League should not be involving themselves with issues outside their own territory. They called for the army to be disbanded.

The Spears felt the current system of one war chief was dangerous. When word reached them that Breoga had been killed, they all thought for sure the next news to reach them would be the breakup of the army into war parties each with their own war chief and all fighting for control. To avoid this outcome, the Spears called for the appointment of several war chiefs – with each member of this group electing themselves for the positions.

The Majority saw the danger in what could have happened when Breoga was murdered but saw a different answer to this problem. To the Majority, disbanding the army was not an option and nor did they see the wisdom in what the Spears proposed. To the druids of the Majority, the issue was balance in finding a way to grant power without becoming powerless. To them the answer was in how the League tribes had rallied around Bebinn when she was named war chief.

Ultimately, it was the Majority’s opinion that held sway and upon Bebinn’s return to Alesia, much to her surprise, she was crowned High Queen of the Gallic League (310-287). She declined the honor twice before taking it upon the third request. She established the standards by which the High Queen/King and the Oghma would operate for the next 150 years. Before her reign, the war chief had been more at the discretion of the Oghma but under her tenure as High Queen the war chief(s) answered directly to the crown. She also regulated the meeting times of the Oghma. Where as before, the majority of the representatives only routinely met around the New Year and some time during the three months of Beltane, Bebinn established the annual meeting times at each of the four seasonal celebrations. As Queen, she was able to conduct foreign policy (treaty, trade, war), appoint war chiefs, and levy taxes/tribute in conquered territories (all rulings could be vetoed by 2/3 of the Oghma). The Oghma was in charge of all domestic issues: peaceful migration of tribes that refuse or were unable to settle in the lands they already occupied, decide on the use of available resources, air and deal with grievances (though their rulings were subject to the High Queen/Kings veto). One of her first acts as High Queen was to formally sign treaties with both the Kingdom of Syracuse and the newly reformed Egyptian Empire.

300BC: Lysimachus, stranded in Asia Minor with his wife (Arsione I), daughter (Arsione II), and a small band of guards – and unable to rally any of what remained of his and Antigonus’ army – sought shelter with Seleucus. Arsione II is married to Seleucus but less than a year into the marriage, Arsoine I implements her daughter and husband in a plot to murder and overthrow Seleucus. Both are put to death and Arsoine II weds Seleucus.
Here's a map of things c.400BC. It shows the area with the most cultural cohesion in pink (off red?). It also shows the area of Roman control (deep red), Etruscans (gray), Persia (dark blue), and Carthage (light pink?).

This is c.370. The Gallic League in that off red color, the tribes associated but not part of the League in light gray, Philip's conquests in light-blue (?), Persia in dark blue, the Kingdom of Syracuse in dark red, and Carthage in that pick color.

And finally, things c.300BC. The Gallic League in the off red, Carthage in the light pink, the Egyptian Empire (Ptolemy) in the light blue, Seleucid Empire in dark blue, the Kingdom of Syracuse in the dark red, and the non-League celts in the light gray.

Sorry if I labeled the colors wrong - I'm a bit color blind and I have a crap computer with a limited pallet.
i like this one, i had thought of doing the same POD once before. This is very well researched it seems like and entirely, in my limited opinion, plausible. i hope you continue on with this.
I think the TL is interesting, although a bit implausible. I wrote a similar TL. I posted it on SHWI. It's interesting that the two share many similarities which we probably arrived at independently, in that a Celtic Rome would choose to conquer Italy, for example. However, I doubt that there would be entanglements with Alexander the Great. You propose the Celts an amazing degree of success in conquering Italy -- all in 60 years! Also, you make Brennus sound as if he's quite the international diplomat to be sending envoys to Syracuse so early. The Celts, let's face it, were pretty ineffectual when it came to these kinds of international machinations.

In my TL, a Gallic dynasty does take over Rome, and ends up subduing nearly all of Italy within a hundred years or so. However, the constant wars and the alienation of the native Italian nations, combined with inexperienced celtic administrators results in a general revolt that throws off the Celtic yoke within about 150 years. What's changed is that the Celts set a cultural seed of great kingship and overlordship that challenges their pety tribal system, allowing widespear Celtic kingdoms throughout Europe by 100 BC against the backdrop of a feeble Roman Republic.
I'm glad my TL seems to be making a hit :D . Don't worry, I've got it in my head to try and run this through to the present date.

RE:Adamanteus: From what I was able to dig up on Brennus (which wasn't really much), he seems to have been a pretty good tactician though somewhat impatient. I played on both - he would have heard about Syracuse during his conquest and he was smart enough to know that two are better than one in a fight. As for the envoys to Alexander that actually happened, Alexander and a large group of Celtic tribes did meet - Alexander wanted to show off so they wouldn't think about attacking his rear while he was in Asia Minor.
Though much of this century was kept preoccupied by the First, Second, and Third Punic Wars there were still a few things outside the political that deserve mention.

Religiously the landscape had not changed – in fact it would remain a solid blanket of polytheism for the next three hundred years. It wasn’t until the conquest of Italia and later the Hellenistic world that there was even the development of cults to specific gods within our own pantheon.

During the third century pants made a steady incursion down along the Italian peninsula. It is interesting to note that it was much longer for that particular form of dress or anything Gallic to infiltrate the Greek lands. They would forever remain distinctly Greek. However, the same cannot be said for the cultural influence in the opposite direction. Greek art and architecture will seep into the Gallic League, although, this will not become fully evident until the start of second century BC.

Trade would see a steady increase as peace and the construction of roads within the Gallic League continued to expand. However, there would not be much of jump in the import or export of goods (though, there was one commodity that became sought after – the Greeks had stories and epics unheard of among a people who revered the gifts of the bard).

310BC-298BC: Bebinn oversaw the construction of several fortified camps along the shared border in Anatolia, outside Delphi, and along the Danube, as well as extending the weigh station line down through the eastern conquered territories. Though she had no direct hand in the settling of the area she did make sure that wherever a new village was built there was a group of her warriors and their families willing to make a home out of the same place.

As part of an effort to subdue the worry among some of the Oghma, after the construction of the forts, Bebinn disbanded most of the army that had been formed to fight in the Macedonian War.

It is easy to see what prompted the High Queen’s next project. The League had enemies, and although the Oghma was correct in thinking that every man, woman, and youth capable of carrying a weapon was a warrior they did neglect one thing. Fervor and battle-lust were enough to fight a war but not enough to win one.

297BC: Upon her return to the heartland Bebinn ordered the construction of a war academy and chose Kelheim as the site (which already had a sizeable warrior population from when the area had been originally pacified). Construction was interrupted twice and not completed until after the High Queen’s death.

In the same year, Carthage began its plans for reasserting their power in the Mediterranean. We know they first looked to Egypt, but the aged Ptolemy Soter’s friendship with our own people caused them to seek other potential allies (not to mention that his armies were busy consolidating their gains during the recent war). Their far-reaching trade routes brought them other options. They knew that any attempt to retake Sicily would be complicated by Gallic intervention. So, they made overtures to the Dacian Kings – they managed to gain the support of three powerful tribal leaders, offering each his weight in gold for their loyalty.

295BC-290BC: The Dacian War.

295BC-293BC: The Dacian army poured over the Carpathians and reached the Tisza River before the League could stop their onslaught. They attacked in three prongs, the first two swung north into the heart of the Boii lands, while the third crossed the Tisza and headed up the Drava. At first, the villages and towns people fled before the horde but halted at the Danube and sent word to Alesia. Help would not reach the refugees defending the Danube in time. They were mostly wiped out when the center Dacian column turned down the Danube and the southern force headed north, striking for Pannonia.

When word reached Bebinn in Alesia she didn’t wait for the Oghma to assemble and instead immediately set out for Kelheim with her closest advisors. At Alesia, Bebinn appointed two war chiefs – Aldhelm and Osfrid – she sent out Aldhelm with the small army stationed in the fortified town (mostly infantry) and kept Osfrid to train a second army. It wasn’t until the start of the New Year in 294 that the first actual battle was fought on the Pannonia plains. The battle was a draw – though the League had the superior army the Dacians outnumbered them 3 to 1. The Gallic army pushed the Dacians from Pannonia but had insufficient numbers to pursue. Through 294 into 293 there was a stalemate in the southern campaign. The northern Dacian force moved through Boii lands – meeting resistance from the local tribes as each village became an armed camp.

294BC-279BC: The First Punic War

294BC: The Carthage fleet of 144 ships clashes with the Syracusian squadron of only 30 ships off of Malta – Syracuse lost every ship, Carthage lost 5. 20 of Carthage’s ships are sent towards Crete and Cypress to engage in piracy while the bulk of the fleet makes for Sicily.

293BC: Imbolc brought Osfrid and the second army out of training and into the field. They moved quickly down the weigh station roads and battled the Dacians twice – the Dacian forces still outnumbered us but the Gallic mounted archers and cavalry far outmatched anything the enemy could field. Eventually, in full retreat, the remains of the northern enemy army met up with the southern force and fled back over the Danube.

292BC-287BC: The Carthage fleet, though losing 40 ships, eventually defeated the Syracuse armada (all remaining ships in the east are held down in a cat and mouse game with the Carthage pirates) and Carthage is able to land its army. Segesta falls in the first year, two years after that Selinius, and late in the year in 289 Carthage puts Syracuse under siege.

292BC-290BC: Bebinn refused to allow the treacherous Dacians to escape and so ordered the two war chiefs to pursue. For the next two years they fought over a hundred small battles in and around the Carpathians before finally capturing the remaining Dacian Leaders (the League learned from interrogation who had paid the Dacians to go to war). Aldhelm remained to see to the continued retribution but Osfrid was recalled and ordered to a new front.

290BC: Ptolemy Soter dies, his son, Ptolemy II Philadelphus (290-246) succeeds him.

289BC: Fishing ships help to ferry a 1000 warriors from the Italia coast to Corsica in hopes of drawing some of Carthage’s army away from Sicily. Osfrid leads the rest of the Gallic army south to make camp and gather their forces before making a crossing from Italia to Sicily through Rhegium.

287BC: High Queen Bebinn dies. Bebinn’s daughter, Glaistig, a familiar face with both the Oghma and the warriors, is crowned High Queen of the Gallic League (287-285).

Glaistig rides to Rome with the Egyptian ambassador that had been stationed in Alesia. Using his ship they make for Eqypt – they were stopped once by a Carthage galleon, but not wanting to pick a fight with Egypt, the Ambassador’s vessel was aloud on its way. Although the new Egyptian King welcomed Glaistig with open arms the trip was in vain as Ptolemy II refused to lend military support to Syracuse (which he saw as a rival for trade dominance in the Mediterranean and who not-so-secretly was envious of Syracuse laying claim to Cyprus). Glaistig returned home empty handed.

286BC-285BC: Several attempts were made by Carthage to land an army in Italia but these efforts merely amounted to keeping the Gallic League from formulating an effective offense. However, High Queen Glaistig, having failed at diplomacy, hastened to prove her worth in battle. Syracuse had no war ships to spare and the League at this time had no fleet to speak of so every fishing barge was commandeered in order to make the crossing from Rhegium.

Carthage had laid in wait for this moment and struck with ferocity almost matching that of a Gallic warrior. Less than half of the League warriors made it to the Sicilian beaches (depending on the authors of this time anywhere between 7000 and 9000) – both High Queen Glaistig and war chief Osfrid were of those lost in the Strait of Messina, renamed soon after in memory of the High Queen.

The army that had made it to Sicily was enough to relieve the siege on Syracuse. For the next year and half, the army in Corsica, Sicily, and the few hundred warriors that managed a night landing on Sardinia were left with little support from the League. The Oghma would not authorize another sea attack with Carthage so firmly in control of the Mediterranean (not that there were any ships to use anyway).

284BC-282BC: The war was mostly punctuated by small Gallic/Syracuse victories on the three islands, followed by Carthage re-supplying its forces and a major victory in their favor.

284BC: Lirinn, son of Glaistig, was a youth in the army punishing the Dacians. He commanded a cavalry unit and was respected by his warriors and war chief Aldhelm. When he finally learned of his mother’s death, he rode with his cavalry to Alesia where he demanded his birthright.

The representatives of the Oghma were not impressed by the Lirinn’s claim. However, they feared the fallout from the clans if the war continued to go badly, and since he had no way to fight a war he couldn’t get to, they welcomed the possible scapegoat. He was crowned High King Lirinn of the Gallic League (284-222) in Aibrean (April) of 284.

Two months into his reign, frustrated by not being able to get to the battle, Lirinn jumped upon the first bit of good news. A Roman carpenter visiting Campania came upon a beached Carthaginan vessel (such things were not unheard of given the on going war). Later that night he boasted in an inn that he could build a better boat. The Gallic warriors present sent this news via the weigh station to Alesia. By the end of IuiI (July) Lirinn had arrived in Rome demanding to meet this carpenter.

282BC: Construction on Lirinn’s ships was slow and it was actually Syracuse that turned the tide of the war. Syracuse’s eastern fleet ended the threat the Carthage pirates posed. Much of Carthage’s fleet patrolled the Italia coast keeping the Gallic League from attempting any major crossing. This left many of their supply ships under guarded or completely vulnerable. The eastern fleet struck at one of these cargo fleets, sending 4 ships to the bottom and capturing 11 others. The captain, a man by the name of Aeneas, received a grand welcome in Syracuse by King Thrasybulus II.

He was ordered not to engage Carthage’s fleet in open battle but to continue to pillage their supply lines. This pulled many of Carthage ships from the Italia coast and allowed for the final completion of the first three Gallic vessels. They were launched with little fanfare as Lirinn wanted to keep the launching a secret.

281BC: Seleucus I dies, Antiochus I succeeds to the throne (281-261). His first act is to build several military settlements to defend against the nomads making incursions into the Empire.

281BC-279BC: Aeneas’ war of attrition with the Carthage supply lines, as well as the fresh warriors the League was able to ferry to the three islands, began to grind the Carthaginian war machine to a halt. In 279, when all of Carthage’s forces were expelled from Corsica, the Council of Elders felt the war had become far too expensive and sued for peace.

The Kingdom of Syracuse gained back the island of Malta as well as Corsica and Sardinia. The Gallic League gained a large sum of gold, and all of Carthage’s war ships. The only remaining islands within Carthage’s control were the Balearics.

278BC: The utter defeat and further lose of territory caused a series of revolts in what remained of Carthage’s Empire, eventually the Council of Elders was overthrown by Hanno II – who crowned himself King.

Lirinn wasn’t content with the confiscated armada. He resettled a number of the Venetii (long known for their sturdy fishing ships) in Massalia. The combined efforts of the Venetii, carpenters and engineers from the conquered territories, and Syrecusian and Egyptian advisors helped produce the first Gallic Fleet (by 272 a first rate ship yard had been constructed).

Thrasybulus II of Syracuse is murdered by Hieron II who assumes the throne (278-215).

276BC: The war academy that Bebinn had commissioned was finally completed. Lirinn was impressed by the facilities and commissioned two others to be built in order to maintain the fighting readiness of the League (one was to be built in Rome, the other at Mezek - both completed in 270).

At the Beltane gathering of 276, Lirinn convinced the Oghma the need for a larger standing army. He proposed that starting at the age of 16 all children would have to attend one of the academies and then serve as an active warrior for one year after training (those not already serving or who have served as weigh station riders or studying the druidic ways were exempt). Any person staying in the army longer then a year would be granted a stipend to be paid to the warrior’s family as recompense for losing an able body during the harvest. This would take effect once the other two war academies were completed and he planned on paying for it all with the restitutions paid by Carthage and the tribute collected from the conquered territories. The Oghma agreed, as long as in peace the number of active warriors didn’t exceed 100,000 (though, peace time estimates of this era placed the army never much over 75,000 – most of which were stationed in the border forts along the Danube, the rest were more or less evenly distributed in Kelhaim, Rome, and Mezek).

273BC: Ptolemy II asserts Egyptian authority among the Nubian Kings.

270BC: Trying to make up for the humiliating loses during the First Punic War, Carthage redoubles its efforts in Celtiberia. They begin to mine heavily, extracting more iron, silver, and gold in the next four years than in the previous 10. They also press their border north, enslaving the local tribes, which sets off a series of skirmishes.

268BC: The shattered Dacian tribes are brought to order under a single king, a warrior by the name of Oroles (268-226).

264BC-259BC: The Second Punic War.

264BC: Carthage had already subjugated many of the tribes south of the Ebro but their efforts were halted by the Celtiberi. Hanno II arrives in the spring 264 with an army of 12000 at his disposal.

Hanno II was unaware that the leaders of the Celtiberi and the Lusitani had sent a plea to the Gallic League for help. The Oghma and the High King unanimously agreed to send an army to face off against Carthage once again.

263BC: Lirinn crossed the Pyrenees (his original cavalry unit close at his side – now calling themselves his Algiz [pronounced all-yeese, meaning protectors]) with 20,000 troops and began taking fishing villages along the Mediterranean coast. He marched as far as the Ebro and made camp. He met with local tribal leaders but most importantly with the leaders of the Celtiberi and the Lusitani. While the Celtiberi and the rest of the tribes would join in the main assault the Lusitani would conduct a guerilla war behind the enemy’s lines.

262BC-260BC: Lirinn finally faced Hanno II on his march down the coast to take Cartagena. Hanno II had gotten some further help from Carthage bringing his army strength to 20,000. With the Celtiberi and various other tribes, Lirinn’s army had grown to about 35,000. Lirinn relied heavily on his cavalry and chariots but they we’re well matched by Hanno’s bowmen. However, it was Lirinn’s superior numbers that carried the battle and Hanno II was forced to retreat back behind stone walls.

Lirinn didn’t send his whole force to Cartagena, he dispatched 10,000 to set siege and with the rest headed west to meet up with the Lusitani. Near Toletum the High King fought a small contingent of Carthage soldiers; the battle was left mostly to the non-Gallic cohorts.

261BC: Antiochus I dies, leaving the Empire to his son Antiochus II (261-246), who begins a heavy military draft in response to unrest within the Empire.

In 260BC a curious letter reached Lirinn. King Hieron II of Syracuse had pledged his support to the Gallic League and launched an armada to claim the Balearic Islands. At the time, the High King did not realize the luck that had befallen him. Carthage was about to use those islands to send troops behind Lirinn’s army.

259BC: With much of the peninsula under Gallic control, Cartagena under siege, and Lirinn marching towards the city with more forces, Hanno II surrendered.

Lirinn demanded their unconditional surrender and received it. Carthage would have to give up their treasury, disband its entire army, and the League would retain all the lands that they had conquered. Due much to the influence of the Celtiberi most of the peninsula joined the Gallic League (the Lusitani being the only major exception). For his part, King Hieron II would take the Balearic Islands.

Carthage was left with their holdings in North Africa, though they would try unsuccessfully to expand their control down along the Atlantic coast. Hanno II would, however, successfully avoid two assignation attempts.

250BC: Bactria asserts its independents and breaks from the Seleucid Empire.

246BC: Antiochus II is killed battling the Bactrians, he is succeeded by Seleucus II (246-225).

Despite the military settlement of Antiochia to guard against incursions, Seleucus II loses a large swath of his empire around the Caspian Sea to the Parni (with the help of the Satrap Andragoras – several raids are even sent over the border into Egyptian and League territory but nothing comes of it). The area would not be brought back under Seluecid control until the end of the century.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus dies and his son, Ptolemy III Euergetes I, is crowned king (246-222) – like his father before him the ceremony takes place in Alexandria.

Ptolemy III inherited the largest army in the world, at the time, over 200,000 soldiers (many of which are the ancestors of the displaced refuges from the conquest of Italia and Greece – few, if any, actual Egyptians served in the army), as well as several border problems.

242BC-238BC: Ptolemy III begins to war on the Nubian kingdoms.

241BC: Persepolis (the Seleucid capital) is put under siege by the Parthians - it is finally lifted after 7 months.

240BC: A famine starts in Egypt, which isn’t as epidemic as it could have been because Syracuse agrees to sell large amounts of grain. In order to replenish the coffers, Ptolemy opened up a second war with the lame Carthaginian Empire.

Carthage begins to rearm in response to the Egyptian invasion, which breaks the treaty with the Gallic League. Lirinn - who swore his soul would never rest until Carthage was no more – gladly sends his son, Fenrir, the armada, and the warriors stationed around Rome to North Africa.

240BC-238BC: The Third Punic War.

In short, the war was a slaughter.

In the end, the Gallic League claimed Carthage and everything west of the city, Egypt claimed everything east of the former capital.

238BC: Ptolemy III returns to Alexandria where he celebrates the successful conclusion of both wars. He lavishes the city with gifts, buildings, and games. His attention on Alexandria to the exclusion of all other Egyptian cities – including the former capital of Memphis – brings many merchants, scholars, and citizens to the King’s court.

He dismisses their complaints and orders an increase in the garrisons in every major city along the Nile.

237BC: Lirinn visits North Africa. Fenrir, serving as war chief in the conquered territory, hails his father with a grand parade down the main streets of Carthage and presented him with a dozen chained nobles – each was later beheaded. It was reported that Lirinn war very disappointed to hear that Hanno II was found dead by his own hand when the city was taken.

Lirinn stayed in North Africa for the next two years helping Fenrir settle the warriors. For the first time in their history, Lirinn found that there were few who wanted to take the land offered to them, and had to order warriors to remain.

234BC: Lirinn (with his Algiz) and Fenrir begin their tour of the Gallic League.

Lirinn received several letters from various Oghma representatives during his touring years denouncing the act as glory seeking. The sum of the letters can best be said in what Orous of the Nervii wrote, “The land is governed by a Council not by one man.â€

Persepolis is again attacked by the Parthans but the assault is uncoordinated and they are driven off. Yearly raids on the city and surrounding area will continue for the next 5 years.

226BC: King Oroles of Dacia dies. Rhemaxos, an ambitions warrior, takes the throne (226-198). He faces several revolts due to his strict autocratic leadership and constant raids by the nomadic tribes, but still managed to extend the borders of his kingdom along the Cheusthie Sea (Cheusthie means “inner†in this case, inland sea [the Black Sea]).

225BC: Antiochus III – also known as the Antiochus the Great (225-187) – murders his entire family, including the ruling monarch, in a coup that brought him to power. He reconquered Parthia (217), Bactria (205), and extended the Empire into the Kabul Valley battling King Sophagasenus’ forces (198).

222BC: Lirinn and Fenrir would never finish their tour. In Mean Fomhair (September), they arrived at Mezek to view the war academy that had been built there only to find a surprise, a nearly completed marble temple dedicated to Teutates.

The architect (whose name has not survived history) was a native of the land. He and others had been taken by the simple yet reverent nemeton and the ritualistic sword play that took place there on occasion. After securing permission from the garrison chief for a workforce and contacting the local merchants for supplies, they began construction in 232. When they heard about Lirinn’s tour of the League they had hoped to have the building completed by his arrival (the temple would not be completed until 220).

Lirinn would not see the building completed. He died in his sleep before leaving Mezek. Fenrir was proclaimed High King by the Algiz.

Also in this year, Ptolemy III Euergetes I died – hated and feared by his people. His son, Ptolemy IV Philopator (222-205) would succeed him - his reign would be marked by great indulgence and violence.

221BC: After seeing his father to Kelhaim, where he was cremated, Fenrir journeyed to Alesia to make his coronation official (221-209). His first act was to commission the construction of similar temples like he saw at Mezek – one would be built in Kelhaim and another in Carthage.

219BC: Fenrir was awed by the desert landscape and returned to North Africa, spending the majority of his reign living in Carthage.

218BC: Under Ptolemy III the Nubians were increasingly put under tighter and tighter control. Ptolemy IV continued this process, going so far as to send a caravan south to claim several of the Nubian King’s daughters and wives as his own. The caravan never left the area and Nubia rose in revolt.

215BC: Hieron II dies, his son, Hieronymos takes over the throne of Syracuse (215-145).

213BC: Ptolemy IV ends his war with the Nubians. Upon his return to Alexandria, though, two minor revolts broke out, one in Thebes, the other in Memphis. For the next several years he is faced with periodic pockets of revolts throughout his Empire – if there had been any type of coordination on the part of this resistance it could have spelled an earlier doom for the King.

209BC: The Oghma demands that Fenrir return and join the Council. Many of the representatives were angry; technically part of the Oghma, Fenrir had never returned for any of the gatherings.

Fenrir returns to the Oghma during their New Year Gathering – leaving his 3 year old son and wife in Carthage. In the ensuing arguments he was challenged by a young representative, a Teutonic named Hygelac. Fenrir adjourned the gathering and he and Hygelac met at the Temple of Teutates. To the amazement of hundreds of onlookers the two clashed swords – for twenty minutes they exchange blows before a fatal wound was received.

Fenrir died instantly, pierced through the heart.

Hygelac claimed the crown by right of the sword – the Alzig had other ideas. They charged Hygelac but several members of the Council intervened. Before the Alzig could kill everyone in the temple Hygelac stepped forward. To satisfy their honor he would allow each of them one cut from their knives – he asked only that if he survived that they accept him as the new High King. He received 22 slashes over his arms, legs, and back.

Two weeks later, Hygelac was proclaimed High King of the Gallic League (209-175). The Algiz were asked to stay on to continue serving the High King, most, however, retired to Carthage (with Fenrir’s cremated remains) – honor bound to accept Hygelac as High King but not liking it.

207BC: The Kingdom of Syracuse mourns the passing of one of their greatest minds. Archimedes, whose mathematical formulas, water screw, and work in hydrostatics, will forever leave a mark on the world.

205BC: Ptolemy IV Philopator licentious lifestyle catches up with him, he dies seething with disease. He left his 5 year old son to take on the throne. Regents rule in place of Ptolemy V Epiphanes (205-180) until the age of 13.

Syracuse launches the largest war galleon to date, dubbed the Syracuse. This massive vessel held two hundred rowers and 150 soldiers. It will become the standard fleet ship for Syracuse for nearly 50 years.
Thanks to a friend who thought my previous maps were a little too monochramatic here's the time line c.200BC

well i like it. i've kicked the idea around of messin w/ the celts when they went and sacked rome but never had the balls to do it...
In the recent map, Britian is colored a different shade. Is there a reason behind this?

I was wondering if you could clarify what is happening to the regions outside from Italy- are they at peace? war?

And from what you have written, I've noticed that you have taken the POV of a later date and a person from the Gallic League. Could you give us more hints on when or where this person is writing?

Otherwise: I like the tone and the little bits of personality you put into the TL. It makes a good read and entertaining.
I think the great Celtic empire (well, confederacy) built up too fast, but it's still very good.

Then of course, the Celts of Gaul were (briefly) united by Vercintorix (sp?) to fighr Caesar, so perhaps given a "Great Man," greater things than one thought possible can happen.
G.Bone: Ah, sorry about that. Britian is what I call a non-associated Celtic tribe. Though they share culturally with the League they have remained separate from the mainland - their history (more or less) hasn’t changed from OTL. People and events outside of the area’s I’ve mentioned thus far have gone along the same as in the OTL. The Han will be coming to power soon in China. The migration from Scandinavia and the steppes has been curbed and what remains of it is being funneled down the Vistula, where the tribes are picked off or assimilated by the other Goths/Scythians/Dacians. Africa has more or less been going along as in OTL, though, I’m thinking about doing something with the Axumites. Ah, my POV, thank you for noticing - I wasn’t sure how well it would go over. He’s a historian from the modern era (c.2000AD).

MattQuinn: “I think the great Celtic empire (well, confederacy) built up too fast, but it's still very good. Then of course, the Celts of Gaul were (briefly) united by Vercintorix (sp?) to fighr Caesar, so perhaps given a "Great Man," greater things than one thought possible can happen.â€

More or less what I was thinking. They already had all the pieces in place to be an empire, they just never had an event, person, or facility to keep them working together. In the OTL, by the time they collectively joined forces to face their foes it was too late - Rome and migrations had broken up all their unity.

I hope to have the next up date in a day or so

Thanks for reading...and remember - keep watching the skies.

The 2nd century BC would see our first civil, though many historians are reluctant to call it that. It is agreed upon, however, that it is the first internal conflict where neither of the opposing armies came into contact with each other.

Towards the end of the century and into the next we do see a shift from clan based farms to larger villas (to barrow the term from the Italians) owned by small families or even by one person.

The disturbance of war would not deter trade within the League, and it is the conflict that the Kingdom of Syracuse faces that actually increases our exports (though the increase is mainly limited to wood).

The best of the century, I think, can be summed up in a quote from Fenrir II Gadorn, “I found a League built of mud and sticks, I leave a League supported by stone and marble.â€

205BC-200BC: Regent Tlepolemus artfully suppresses several revolts throughout the Egyptian Empire (it is said that he was a soft spoken man who used words first, money second, and the sword last).

198BC: The Dacian king Rhemaxos dies, his son Dicomes (after defeating his uncle in a fight) becomes the next ruler (198-185).

198BC-187BC: Antiochus III battles along the Indus River and Kabul Valley against King Sophagasenus’ forces (the war would drag on for many years without much gain or loss).

197BC: At the age of 13 Ptolemy V Epihanes is crowned king of Egypt – two ceremonies are conducted, one in Alexandria the other in Memphis.

Hieronymos, King of Syracuse, sends an exploratory force to the northern coast of the Cheusthie Sea (the area we know today as Sarmatia). As well as several abandoned cities they find a people with a curious assortment of customs similar to their own. The Sarmatians, a people influenced by not only the Greeks, the nomadic Scytians, the Goths, but also an early Gallic people who were called the Tauri, would be forced into becoming allies with the Kingdom of Syracuse in the coming years.

195BC: Hieronymos would send another expedition, this one with 750 colonists, to Sarmatia – they establish Neos Syracuse – and begin to trade heavily with the indigenous people.

194BC-193BC: Dicomes launches an attack on the Sarmatians. Greatly outnumbered, the Sarmatians avoid engaging Dicomes in open battle and fight a guerilla war. After a few weeks they turn to Neos Syracuse for help. However, before a decision can be reached Dicomes stages a preemptive strike on the city, capturing it in a single night.

Hieronymos responds by sending 10 of his ships (most of the same design as the Syracuse) into the Cheusthie Sea. They burn every village and town along the coast – Dicomes withdraws his army back over his border.

193BC: Kelge, one of only a few druids amongst several shamans whom acted as caretakers for the Temple of Teutates at Mezek, led a raiding party of about 200 over the Danube into Dacia. It is unclear whether this action had any affect on the war or if it was simply the fact that Hieronymos had landed 2000 soldiers in Sarmatian that ended the hostilities. (Kelge’s father had also been a caretaker for the temple. As a child, Kelge had witnessed the duel between Fenrir I and Hygelac. It was probably this moment that defined the rest of Kelge’s life. As was rare for the time he devoted most of his attention and studies to only two subjects, Teutates and warfare. In 193 he was in his twenties and a novice working at the temple – specifically he oversaw the ritual battles. Traders and ambassadors brought news of the war Syracuse fought with the Dacians and rumors of a people called the Sarmatians. Kelge found their similarities to his own people compelling, and the fact that the High King had remained neutral on the matter, disgraceful. So, during Lughnasa of 193 he launched his own raid over the border in solidarity with his brothers/sisters the Sarmatians.)

Ptolemy V is married to Cleopatra (II) (she is the daughter of a Syrian nobleman named Athanasios). They have three children, Ptolemy Philometor, Ptolemy Euergetes, and Cleopatra III.

191BC: Neos Syracuse is rebuilt and six months later the city Hieronymosia is also founded.

190BC: Ptolemy V opens the army enlistment to all Egyptians (this goes a long way to smoothing relations with the indigenous Egyptians who had been kept from the army until now).

189BC-180BC: Ptolemy V decides to make war on the Berber nomads who have been raiding the west and southwest.

187BC: Antiochus III dies fighting in the east, his son, Seleucus IV Philopator, takes control of the Seleucid Empire (187-146). He quickly makes peace along the Indus River – the area is far too unstable for victory to be completely possible. His ambition is more focused on regaining the lands that were rightfully his – those which were lost to the Gallic League and Egypt.

185BC: Dicomes is murdered by his cousin who is later murdered by Dicomes’ sons, Rholes and Moskon (twins). Rholes assumes the throne (185-172).

185BC-179BC: Seleucus IV declares war on Egypt. His forces cross into Syria surprising the garrisons along the border in a night attack. Before the gates could be closed for the night, there was a rampaging army roaming the streets of Nineveh. For much of the year most of Syria was systematically lost to Seleucus IV.

Egypt sends an emissary to the Gallic League. Perhaps if relations between the Oghma and the High King had been warmer the outcome may have been different. Though, it was up to the High King to declare war, his decision could be overruled by 2/3 of the Oghma. Hygelac foresaw this and presented the decision at a Gathering. It merely divided the Council down the same age-old lines on whether or not to subject Gallic lives in a foreign war. Eventually it is decided that the League will remain neutral during the conflict (worried that the decision would be perceived as weak Hygelac did send additional warriors to the shared border).

184BC: An army raised at Damascus, by Athanasios, was able to fight to a draw a Seleucid force of 12000 along the banks of the Euphrates. This blunted Seleucus IV plans for conquest and it wasn’t until the end of the year (184) that he was able to advance once again. By this time however Ptolemy V had been able to redirect some of his armies, fighting the Berbers, to the north.

For the next three years Seleucid and Egyptian forces would clash. Battles would be fought at Issus, Baghdad, Damascus (twice), to name but a few – Ptolemy would never be able to gain enough of an advantage to take the war onto Seleucid soil.

180BC: The war tipped fully into Seleucus IV favor over the course of a week in the spring of 180BC. Ptolemy V died of unknown causes. His son, Ptolemy VI Philometor, though only 10, was crowned King of Egypt in Memphis (180-145). For the next 4 years Cleopatra II would serve as regent for her son. She became known to the common people as the “Mother of Egypt†– she greatly encouraged mingling between rich and poor, native Egyptian and the ruling classes. To the nobles, especially those in Alexandria, she was a scourge on their way of life.

Though a domestic goddess, Cleopatra II was not a general. Although, as long as her father, Athanasios, fought on in Syria there was little to fear (he had been fronting the supplies and funding for much of the war thus far). It is a cruel twist of fate that he would die a week to the day after the King. The power struggle Cleopatra II faced with the rest of the court Ministers caused several miscommunications to be sent to the army. The result was that by 179 Egypt had lost everything north of the Sinai.

179BC: Kelge founds the Order of Teutates in Mezek. Its original charter was to establish standards for the ritual battles throughout the League and to keep alive the fighting spirit of the ancestors.

Cleopatra II offered peace to Seleucus IV, who, along with all conquered lands and a war indemnity, accepted.

All that remained of Egypt in the Palestine/Syria region were a few enclaves of resistance – the major ones of note were Damascus (which would finally fall in 175), Trye (which would fall in 174), and Jerusalem (which would hold out for 11 years and finally fall in 168 –whereupon would begin a 10 year cycle of persecution of the Jews for their 11 year hold out).

175BC: Hygelac’s dies of an undetermined illness, his reign was uneventful. His claim to the throne was understood and accepted but not welcomed. Consequently, he did little and acquiesced to the Oghma on many decisions. His daughter, Bebinn II becomes the next High Queen (175-164).

Fenrir’s son, a boy by the same name, grew up in and around Greater Carthage (everything between Cirta and Carthage, as suppose to Lesser Carthage which is everything east of Cirta). His mother was a slave his father had been taken with and took to his bed. Upon Fenrir’s death, (out of love or fear) she took her own life. Fenrir II was raised instead by an elderly druid by the name Dyfid (the evidence is purely conjectural but there are certain scholars who believe Dyfid was originally from the lands of the Venetii and came to Grater Carthage based on visions he had). When Dyfid had a dream (so it is written) about Hygelac’s death he encouraged Fenrir to seek out his birthright.

Fenrir’s arrival at Alesia is well documented. He rode a white stallion, his Algiz were dressed in dark leather armor and riding brown or black horses. He carried two axes instead of a shield and sword (as seen in the many statues and carvings depicting him). The Oghma may have been impressed but they would not allow Bebinn II to meet with Fenrir. They must have felt that one such event as brought Hygelac to the throne was enough for a generation. Besides, he was unproven in battle, raised in a conquered territory, and flanked by a dozen armed men. They sent him away.

Fenrir returned to Carthage through Celtaberia – though there is no record, he did meet with several tribal leaders before continuing home. Considering the events that were to occur next can there be any wonder what was discussed.

174BC-164BC: The First Seleucid War.

174BC: With the remains of the Egyptian Empire in Palestine/Syria firmly under siege Seleucus IV turns his attention on the Gallic League.

Using surprise to his advantage, Seleucus IV attacks in three prongs. Using captured ships he sends 2000 soldiers down along the Anatolian coast – well beyond the fortified camps guarding the border.

Even as fast as the weigh station riders travel news still did not arrive in Alesia soon enough to stop the invasion. A week after word reached Alesia about the attacks they learned that the garrisons along the border had depleted their numbers in order to fight the enemy that had gotten behind their lines. As expected, the decision played into Seleucus’ plans – a week after the border guards had abandoned their posts he attacked.

In this same year, Ptolemy VI came of age and took full command of the Egyptian Empire. He married his sister, Cleopatra III, the following year (which was suggested by their mother to placate the Alexandrians who had become resentful. Not only had the army been opened up to the native population and the crowning ceremony held in Memphis, but they also feared that the King would marry a non-Greek. Since Cleopatra II had no intention of aligning her family with any in Alexandria and marriage to an Egyptian would probably cause a revolt, she took the next politically viable option). They had two children, Ptolemy Neos Philopator and Cleopatra.

Ptolemy Euergetes demands to rule jointly with his brother and sister. His request is denied, whereupon he leaves Memphis for Alexandria. He’s given a warm welcome in Alexandria and, after the death of his mother, is elected King of Egypt (174-164) – though his reign doesn’t reach much beyond the city of Alexandria.

172BC: In Imbolc Fenrir crossed the Mediterranean with twelve ships (each carrying a hundred warriors). He landed in Rhegium and immediately started rallying locals to his cause (as yet, all conquered territories were not represented in the Oghma - even if much of the population by now were of Gual descent. Though left more or less alone, if you don’t count the bi-yearly tribute, all non-Guals were remanded to second class citizens).

He left the south and moved north, the army stationed in and around Rome, though having received word on Fenrir, would not be able to stop him. Fenrir left the south in near rebellion which the army in Rome had to deal with before facing Fenrir.

Fenrir arrived in Alesia in Aibrean (April) but there was no Oghma there to meet him. Unsure of what Fenrir’s intentions were, and the split that occurred when Celtaberia voiced their support for Fenrir, the representatives of the Oghma had decided not to return for any further Gatherings until Bebinn II could be recalled to deal with the situation (many of them went as far as to ready their own people for war).

Fenrir would not remain in Alesia for long. Word reached the city via the weigh stations that Rholes of Dacia had invaded Boii lands once again (Seleucid IV had united with the Dacians in his war against the League).

Unfortunately, the first engagement would be our only true victory. Fenrir’s army of about 1500 (all cavalry) met the leading force of the Dacian army – among them was Rholes. During the course of the battle Fenrir is unhorsed and cut off from the Algiz that had been guarding him. Weaponless, the cavalry leader stood his ground against a charging foe – who dropped dead at his feet after being shot with twelve arrows, it was later discovered that the body was that of Rholes (as recorded by Kelge – who had fired one of the arrows that took down the Dacian King). Moskon, Rholes’ twin brother, would become the next Dacian King (172-102).

In Mean Fomhair (September) of 172 Ptolemy VII Euergetes II found himself quickly becoming a frustrated ruler. His one attempt to overthrow his brother and sister was a complete failure – to add insult to the defeat his brother’s army wasn’t even given orders to follow Ptolemy VII retreating army back to Alexandria.

171BC-170BC: Ptolemy VII Euergetes II would next attempt to annex the island of Cyprus. However, his fleet was no match for Syracuse and lost all but three of the war ships sent on the errand.

During the year long skirmish, Seleucus IV takes advantage of the distraction and lands his own army on Cyprus. With tensions in Sarmatia still high and not being able to match the strength of arms the Seleucid Empire could field Hieronymos settled for a small indemnity. It is a dishonor he and the rest of the Kingdom of Syracuse would never forgive Egypt for allowing.

Having failed at expansion, Ptolemy VII would direct his anger inward on the city becoming the “Ruthless tyrant of Alexandriaâ€.

170BC-164BC: The Greek Revolt.

170BC: The Greek cities of Athens, Delphi, and Thebes revolted against the Gallic League. They are able to field an army of 6000 in the first year – a second army of 2000 was supplied by Corinth the following year. During their rebellion, they would burn every weigh station for twenty miles of the cities and kill every rider they came upon (this barbarous and heinous act severely disrupted communications for some time).

Due to the rebellious cities, Bebinn II had to split her army, keeping half to fight Seleucus IV and the rest she sent to put down the uprising.

168BC: By Samhain, all but the coast of Anatolia is lost to Seleucus IV – at this point the war had become purely defensive.

The Greek revolt dissolved after the defeat of their army at Thermopylae. Athens, though, would hold out for the next 4 years.

164BC: Fenrir is finally able to win a decisive battle against Moskon, though losses were heavy for Fenrir’s army, Moskon offers peace.

High Queen Bebinn II, riding from the victory over Athens to her armies in Anatolia, dies when her horse throws her.

When news of Bebinn’s death reached Fenrir he immediately sent a message to Seleucus IV asking for peace. The war had been very expensive for Seleucus, not only had he bribed the Dacians into joining him but he had also fostered the Greek revolt. Now, with both those distractions at an end, and the unrest in Italia in hand, Fenrir stood in a position to possibly take back all that had been lost. So, Seleucus took Fenrir’s offer of peace – all territory lost to the Seleucid Empire would remain under their control.

In Meitheamh (June) of 164 the citizens of Alexandria revolt against Ptolemy VII – the defining moment came when word reached the population that he had raped and murdered his 10 year old daughter.

His brother, Ptolemy VI (who has ruled the rest of Egypt since 180BC) jumped at the chance to bring Alexandria peacefully back into the fold – the garrison (4000 soldiers) sent to occupy the city was welcomed by the citizenry.

163BC: As part of the New Years celebration (November) Fenrir II is crowned High King of the Gallic League. He will become known as Fenrir Gadron (Iron Fisted) (163-149).

His first task was to recall the Oghma. He toured the League for the next three years gaining a pledge of loyalty from Oghma representatives whom remained in hiding (several times at the point of a sword).

160BC: When Fenrir II Gadron returned to Alesia he had the loyalty of the League but only recalled 9 of the estimated 150 representatives. The 9 were all high ranking druids and would make up a new High Council which would remain in Alesia year round (Kelge is named as 1 of these 9). The other representatives would meet annually for a month at the beginning of Samhain during the New Year celebration.

For his drastic reshuffling of the hierarchy, Fenrir II Gadron would have to deal with growing unrest within the League (and in the Greek lands, which because of their revolt would keep their status as a conquered territory). However, with the backing of Lesser and Greater Carthage, Celtaberia, the citizens of Italia, and the army, the rumble of discontent never flared up into outright revolt. It also helped that he kept the populous occupied with building projects. In Beltane, construction started on his Grand Bath in Carthage, as well as several other smaller baths throughout the League. He also put up half the expense of several temples – two were dedicated to and on the scale of the Temple of Teutates in Mezek (a third and fourth were dedicated to the Father god Dagda and his daughter Brigit in Kelheim) but most were of varying size and patronage.

159BC: At the age of about 60 Kelge writes his book, The Way of the Sword (although, many of my readers would probably know it better by the title it has come down through history with, The Book of Kel). In which he describes his studies on war, fighting, dueling, and the forging of weapons. It was a hereto then a taboo practice for any druid (of any rank let alone one of Kelge’s importance) to put any knowledge in writing. Though, since the conquest of Italia and the formation of the League writing had been becoming more and more prevalent, one can still only imagine the stir this must have caused in the Druidic community.

In this same year, the displaced Gallic populations that now existed under the control of the Seleucid Empire begin their strategic raids on the surrounding countryside. For the next ten years they will continue to strike at Seleucid towns, never gathering in sufficient numbers for Seleucus IV army to battle. Even though the epicenter for these raids, the city of Pessinus, had been ransacked and set fire two on several occasions, the raids continued. Over the years, Seleucus, would slowly grant Pessinus and the other heavily Gallic towns varying levels of autonomy.

149BC: Fenrir dies, his son, Bowdyn is crowned the new High King of the Gallic League (149-120). Bowdyn was a successful war chief, having fought with his father against the Dacians during the Seleucid War (also serving as a raid captain in strikes over the border). Bowdyn would prove to be a much kinder High King. Fenrir II had taken over hearing many cases that would normally be handled by the local druids (his judgments were often harsh and cruel). Bowdyn would return many cases to the druids, though, he devoted a certain amount of time to hearing cases that the locals were unwilling or unable to try. He would have 5 children – 4 girls named after the four winds and a son – and eventually would place his offspring in positions of great authority.

146BC: Eager for the crown, Antiochus IV Eupator (146-142) poisoned his father and took command of the Seleucid Empire. Antiochus IV was as ruthless as his grand-father. His aggression towards everyone (particularly Jews and foreigners [meaning most merchants, traders, and the Celts still living within his borders]) completely destabilized the Empire both socially and economically.

145BC: Ptolemy VI Philometor dies – he was a beloved ruler of his people. He named his son, Ptolemy VIII Neo Philopater (145-101) as his successor but the child was only 5 at the time of his father’s death. His mother, Cleopatra III, would serve as Regent for the next 10 years.

Hieronymos of Syracuse dies. He leaves 16 children, unable to choose any one offspring to rule the Kingdom he grants 10 of them Mayorships in a city of their choosing, to the remaining 6 he entrusts the Kingdom. Hieron III governs Corsica, Alexander governs Balearics, Pontus Sardinia, Balasi Crete, Kratos Sarmatia, Thadalus Malta, and to Pancratius Sicily.

144BC: After a long and contributing life, Kelge dies. Bowdyn orders a three day festival to celebrate the druid.

142BC: Fearing civil war, Antiochus IV is murdered by his Ministers - leaving the 10 year old Alexander II Balas to rule the Empire (142-90).

Alexander II would not rule alone, Demetrius (the leader of the Ministers) held sway over every decision and edict the young King made. He and the rest of the Ministers, for the rest of Alexander’s life, would stroke the embers of every ego driven desire.

140BC: Jerusalem and several other smaller Jewish settlements rose up against the Seleucid Empire. The rebellion is put down within the year and new laws are passed to ensure the steady decline of the rebels and their religion (among the new laws: No more than 6 Hebrews are aloud to congregate in any one location at any given time. No other synagogues will be allowed to be built and it is forbidden to repair any existing temples).

137BC: In the summer of 137, tensions were high and patience was low within the Oghma (Fenrir II had taken much of their authority, with him dead they expected his son to return that authority). Bowdyn came up with an idea to mitigate the last of the unrest without losing anything his father had gained. He appointed his 4 daughters to the positions of Vates – a title that had largely fallen out of practice - and sent them to conduct a circuit court through the League (each was given a region, they would travel around that region returning to Alesia every 6 months to report and receive word on any new developments within the League). The Oghma would still make the trip to Alesia upon the New Year for a Gathering and during the rest of the year would be able to have a hand in the League government (without having to make the long trip) through the High King’s Vates.

133BC: Ptolemy VIII marries his sister, Cleopatra IV. They have 3 children, Alexander, Ptolemy, and Cleopatra.

The growing tension between the governors of the Kingdom of Syracuse explodes into civil war. In the spring of 133 a merchant vessel sailing from Crete and bound for the Balearics is sunk “accidentally†by a war galleon flying Pancratius’ banner. War erupts, though it is mainly fought between Pancratius, Balasi, and Pontus. The other siblings, sometimes supporting one brother, sometimes another, and sometimes all three at once, periodically throw their weight into the conflict. Kratos, being so far removed from the epicenter, and Thadalus of Malta, who has no navy to speak of, remain neutral during the civil war (133-130).

130BC: The Syracusian Civil War is brought to an end in the winter of 130 – just two weeks before the New Year. Hieron III of Corsica dies, in his will he grants his island to the Gallic League (presumably to keep it from being torn apart by the war). Bowdyn had no interest in the island or being drawn into the conflict so mediators are sent to Syracuse. It is decided that the remaining siblings will form a council and rule jointly from Syracuse – together they will appoint someone (not of their bloodline) to be crowned king upon the death of the last member of the council.

128BC: As a gesture of unity, the new High Council of Syracuse founds a new colony in Sarmatia – in accordance with what it represented the city was named Anti-Bellum.

120BC: Bowdyn dies, his son, Brennus III, is crowned High King of the Gallic League (even though both previous Brennus’ were never crowned High King they are still accepted as having been the first and second leaders of the Gallic League).

118BC: Ptolemy VIII rules jointly with his son Alexander (118-80).

116BC: In a quick succession of deaths (some of them questionable), Thadalus of Syracuse finds himself the sole member of the ruling Council – he appoints Theodosios (the commander of the navy) as King (116-90). After the ceremony, Thadalus retires to Malta where he dies in his sleep two years later. King Theodosios’ first act was to change the direction of the navy. Instead of the behemoth war galleon that had become the primary ship of the fleet, which were expensive to build and man, he decided to begin construction on quicker more maneuverable ships.

Alexander II of Egypt declares war on the Seluecid Empire, both he and his father would lead an army. Alexander II marches his out over the desert, completely circumnavigating Alexander II Balas’ forward forces, while Ptolemy VIII heads north liberating former Egyptian cities along the Mediterranean.

As Ptolemy VIII approaches Jerusalem the inhabitants rise up against their Seleucid rulers. The city is taken without much of a battle and throngs of Jews rush to swell the Egyptian ranks. Ptolemy VIII, whose chief goal is Damascus, dispatches his new Jewish recruits to other cities to incite them to riot ahead of his army.

Within a month’s time Alexander II Balas’s army is fighting a hundred small revolts, a siege of Damascus, and the sudden emergence of an army out of the desert striking for Babylon.

115BC-113BC: The Second Seleucid War.

115BC: Brennus III declares war on the Seleucid Empire and joins the Egyptians in their efforts to take back lands lost at the beginning of the century.

113BC: The Seleucid Empire by this time had been pushed back beyond Pessinus and had lost most of Syria (though they had held the line at the Euphrates). The Ministers who oversaw every thing in Alexander II Balas life force him to sign a peace treaty with Egypt and the League. It draws the new borders where the armies stand at the time of the signing, gave Cyprus to Egypt (who in return is asked by Brennus III to pay a small sum to the Kingdom of Syracuse for the island that used to be theirs), and grants both a large indemnity to be paid over the next 10 years.

110BC: Three years after the war the area that had been occupied by the Seleucid Empire was still tumultuous. In an effort to create some stability in the area Alexander II of Egypt proposed a bold plan. For their efforts during the occupation and their help in the war to reclaim the territory Alexander II of Egypt would create the Kingdom of Judea (all lands between Judea and Galilee) upon his death. Initially this caused trouble within the great houses – as well as at home - especially from those in Galilee who saw no reason why the kingdom couldn’t be named after them and some voices of decent wanting sovereignty now. Eventually terms for the unification of the territory are made and Jerusalem is named as the future Capital. Alexander II is applauded by Brennus III for this expression of faith and acceptance of the Jews (the High King was eager for a reason to return to normal diplomatic relations with the Egyptians. Even though the League and Egypt had just come off of fighting a war together, relations between the Egyptians and we had been at an all time low. The Oghma did not approve of the carnal interaction between brother and sister that the ruling family in Egypt seemed to flaunt without regard).

103BC: The Seleucid’s finish paying off their war debt. The heavy taxation the Ministers were forced to impose have left a sour taste in the mouth of the people and there is talk of change throughout the Empire. Fearing the inevitable, the Ministers begin a plot to blame Alexander II Balas for the situation and overthrow him. Word reaches the King about this and in a stroke of self preservation he bites the hands that have fed him for all his life. He rounds up all his Ministers and puts them to death. But this would not solve all of his problems – there was still unrest in the Empire and Alexander was not a trained administrator. The concessions and deals he would have to make over the coming years would prove to be both foolish and deadly.

101BC: Ptolemy VIII Neos Philopator dies. His son, Alexander II who had been ruling jointly since 118 now wore the crown alone.