Interlude - 1475 French Family Tree
Family Tree 1475 (incomplete)

The Kingdom of England
The Royal House of Plantagenet, of the Yorkist branch, descended from Richard, Duke of York.

Richard, Duke of York (1411-1460) m. Cecily Neville (1415-present), had issue

1. Lady Anne of York (1439-present) m. a). Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter (1430-1461) b). Charles, Duke of Burgundy (1431-present), had issue
1a). Lady Anne Holland (1461-present)
2b). Philippe, Count of Charlie’s (1463-present)
3b). Lady Isabella of Burgundy (1465-present)
4b). Miscarriage (1467)
5b). Lady Marie of Burgundy (1468-present)
6b). Magdalena of Burgundy (1472-present)

2. King Edward IV of England (1442-present) m. a). Queen Magdalene of England(1443-1469) b). Eleanor of Naples (1450-present), extramarital: b). Elizabeth Woodville, Countess of Winchester (1437-presents c). Eleanor Woodville, Countess of Worcester (1452-1469) d). Lady Elizabeth Lucy (14??-present), had issue
1a). Miscarriage (1462)
2a). Prince Edward (1462-1463)
3a). Princess Magdalene of England (1463-present) m King Louis XII of France (1462-present)
4a). Lionel, Prince of Wales (1464-present) m.Princess Charlotte of France (1468-present)
5a). Misscariage (65)
6a). Miscarriage (1466)
7a). Princess Margarita of England (1468-present)
8a). Richard, Duke of ... (1469-present)
9b) Elanor of England (1471-present)
10b Edmund of England (1473)
11b Edmund Duke of Monmouth (1474-present)
12b Anne of England (1475-present)

1b). Lady Elizabeth Fitzroy (1463-present)
2b). George Fitzroy, Duke of Bedford (1465-present)
3b). Lady Jacquetta Fitzroy (1465-present)
4b). Lady Anne Fitzroy (1467-present)
5b). Lady Joanne Fitzroy (1468-present)
1c). Lady Mary Woodville (1468-present)
1d). Arthur Fitzroy (1464-present)
2c). Eleanor Fitzroy (1469-1471)
3c). Matilda Fitzroy (1469-present)
4c). Joan Fitzroy (1469-present)
6b) Marian Fitzroy (1471-present)

3. Edmund, Duke of York (1442-present) m. Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond (1443-1467) m. Marie of Burgundy (1457-present), had issue
1a Richard of York (1462-present)
2a Lady Joan of York (1464-present)
3b Edmund of York (1472-present)
4b Mary of York (1474-present)

4. Lady Elizabeth of York (1444-present) m. a). John de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk (1442-1461) b). Duke Francis II of Brittany (1433-1468), had issue
1b). John, Count of Montfort (1461-present) betrothed to Princess Marie of France (1465-present)
2b). Lady Elizabeth of Brittany (1464-present)
3b). Arthur of Brittany (1467-present)

5. Lady Margaret of York (1446-present) m. a). King Henry IV of Castile (1425-1463) b). King Alfonso V of Portugal (1432-1467), had issue c). Ferdinand Duke of Braganza
1b). Infanta Margarita of Portugal (1467-present)
2b). King Duarte II of Portugal (1468-present)
3c). Ferdinand (1472-present)
4c). Maria (1475)

6. George Duke of Clarence (1449-1473) m. Isabel Neville (1451-1474), had issue
1. Lady Margaret of Clarence (1468-present)
2. Lady Anne of Clarence (1470-present)
3. George of Clarence (1472-present) *might be the son of Henry Tudor

7. Richard of York (1452-present)*

8. Cecily of York (1461-1471)

9. Joan of York (1461-present) m James III of Scotland (1451-present)

Neville sisters
Isabel Neville (1451-1474) m. George of Clarance (1449-1473) Henry Tudor(1457-1474)
*see issue above
4b Margret Tudor (1474-present)

Anne Neville(1456-present) m. (Adolph of Guelders 1438-present)
1. Margret of Guelders (1472-present)
2. Elanor of Guelders (1473-present)
3. Stillborn boy (1475-present)

The Kingdom of France

The Royal House of Capet, of the Valois branch, descended from Charles, Duke of Valois.

King Louis XI of France (1423-1471) a). Margaret of Scotland (1424-1445) b). (1443-1483) c). Catherine of Bourbon (1442-1468), had issue
1b). Princess Anne of France (1461-present) betrothed to Nicholas of Valois-Anjou, heir to Lorraine (1448-present)
2b). King Louis XII of France (1462-present) m. Princess Magdalene of England (1463-present)
3b). Miscarriage (1464)
4c). Princess Marie of France (1465-present) betrothed Jean Duke of Brittany (
5c). Prince Charles, Duke of Valois (1466-present) betrothed to Anne of Orleans (
6c). Prince Henri, Duke of Orleans* (1467-present)
7c). Princess Charlotte of France (1468-present) m. Prince Lionel of England
8c). Princess Catherine of France (1468-present) betrothed to Duke Phillipe of Burgundy

The House of Valois, of the Anjou-Maine branch, descended from Charles of Maine, Duke of Anjou.

Duke Charles IV of Anjou (1414-1468) a). Cobella Ruffo (??-1442) b). Isabelle of Luxembourg (??-present), had issue
1b). Jean Louis Marin (1440-1440)
1c). Louise of Anjou, married Jacques d'Armagnac (1433-present)
2c). Charles V of Anjou (1446-present) m. Bona of Savoy
1. Charles of Anjou (1472-present)
2. Isabelle of Anjou (1475-present)

The House of Valois, of the Anjou-Lorraine Branch, descended from René, King of Naples.

King-Duke-Count René of Anjou (1409-1467) married a). Isabella of Lorraine (1400-1453) b). Jeanne de Laval (1433-present), had issue
1a). Jean, Duke of Lorraine (1424-present) married a). Marie of Bourbon (1428-1448) b). (Margaret of Bourbon (1438-present, had issue)
1a). Nicholas of Lorraine (1448-present) married Anne of France
2b). Louis of Lorraine (1468-present)
3b). Catherine of Loraine (1472-present)
4b). Louise of Loraine (1475-present)

2a) Yolande, Countess of Vaudémont (1428-present) married Frederick of Vaudemont, had issue

3a) Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England (1430-present) married a). Henry VI (1421-1462) b). Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury (1428-present)
1a). Edward of Westminster (1453-1461)
2b). Richard Neville (1462-present)
3b). Elizabeth Neville (1465-present)

Crown of Castille and Léon/Crown of Aragon

The House of Trastámara, of the Castillian Branch, descended from Henry III.

Juan II of Castille (1405-1454), married a). Maria of Aragon (1403-1445) b). (Isabella of Portugal (1428-present), had issue.
1a). Enrique IV of Castille (1425-1463) married a). Blanche of Navarre* (1424-1464) b). Joan of Portugal (1439-1462) c). Margaret of York (1446-present), had issue.
1b). Juana of Trastámara (1462-present).
2b). Isabel of Trastámara (1451-present) married Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-present)
3b). Alfonso XII of Castille (1453-present)m Juana of Aragon (1455-1472)
1a.Maria of Castile (1471-present)
2a.stillborn son 1472
3b.Catilina of Castile (1475-present)

The House of Trastámara, of the Aragonese branch, descended from Ferdinand I.

Joan II of Aragon (1398-present) married a). Blanche of Navarre (1387-1441) b) Juana Enriquez (1425-1468), had issue.
1a). Carlos of Navarre, Prince of Viana (1421-1461) married Agnes of Cleves (1422-1446)
2a). Blanca of Navarre (1424-1464) married Henry IV of Castille (1425-1463)
3a). Leonor of Navarre (1426-present) married Gaston IV of Foix (1422-present), had issue.
4b). Ferran of Aragon (1452-present) married Isabella of Castille (1451-present)
5b). Juana of Aragon (1455-1472) married Alfonso XII of Castile (1453-Present)
1: Maria of Castile (1471-present)
2: stillborn son 1472

Kingdom of Cyprus
Queen Charlotte of Lusingion m. Louis of Savoy
1 Sybille of Savoy (1470-present)
2. Anne of Savoy (1473-present)
3. James of Savoy (1473-present)

Duchy of Savoy
Louis of Savoy m. Anne of Lusigiaon (note, these two had so many kids I am excluding those that died young)

1: Amadeus IX m. Yollande of Valois

2.Anne(1455-1475) m. Fredrico Gonzaga Marquis of Mantua (1441-present) (had issue)
3. Charles (1456-1471)
4. Maria (1460-present)
5. Louise (1461-present)
6. Philbert (1465-present)
7. Bernard (1467)
8. Charles (1468-present)
9. Yollande (1470-present)

2: Louis m. Charlotte of Lusingian Queen of Cyprus. Had issue, see House of Valois

3: Philip m. Catherine of Coriano
1: Philip of Savoy (1474-present)

4:Marguerite m. Peter II, Count of Saint-Pol

5: Janus m. Helene of Luxembourg

6: Charlotte m. King Louis xi of France. (had issue)

7: Agnes m. François d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville

8: Jean Louis Bishop of Geneva.

9: Maria m. Peter Duke of Bourbon-Berry
1. Louis of Bourbon (1472-present)
2. Margret of Bourbon (1475-present)

10: Bona m. Charles V of Anjou (had issue)

11: Jaques (1450-present) m. Elizibeth Maria Sforza(1455-present)
  1. Jaques of Savoy (1473-present)
  2. Marie of Savoy (1475-present)
12: Francois Bishop of Auch

Duchy of Milan
Galezzo Maria Sforza(1444-present) m. Marie of Orleans(1457-present)
1.Valentian Sforza (1472)
2. Gian Galeazzo Sforza (1473-present)
3. Luigi Sforza (1475-present)

Ludovico Sforza

Ipollita Maria Sforza m. Aflonso Prince of Naples

Elizibeth Maria Sforza(1455-present) m. Jaques of Savoy (1450-present)
  1. Jaques of Savoy (1473-present)
  2. Marie of Savoy (1475-present)

Marquisate of Mantua
Fredrico Gonzaga (1441-present) married a) Margret of Bavaria (1442-1479) b) Anne of Savoy (1455-1475)
1a: Clara (1464-present)
2a: Francesco (1466-present)
3a: Sigismondo (1469-present)
4a: Elisabetta (1471-present)
5a: Maddelena (1472-present)
6a: Giovani (1474-present)
7b: Anna (1475-present)

Ercole d’Este m. Beatrice of Naples


Casimir iv m. Elizabeth of Austria
  1. Vladislaus
  2. Hedwig
  3. Casimir
  4. Jan Olbrecht
  5. Alexander
  6. Sophie
  7. Sigismund
  8. Frederick

House of Hapsburg
Kaiser Friederich iii(1415-present) m. Elanor of Portugal (1434-1467)

1. Archduke Maximilian von Hapsburg (1459-present) m. Emma of Burgundy (1459-present)

2. Archduchess Knudigrde von Hapsburg (1465-present)
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Chapter 110 - Probblems at the French Court
December 1478- April 1479
Christmas sees Anne Holand visit Burgundy with her husband, baby son, and the unborn child growing in her womb. Anne of York yearns to see her long lost daughter again, and uses the visit to remind her son of his family ties to England. It is the first time brother and sister have met, though they have corresponded. Alas Philip has come to dislike her, feeling, accurately, that her constant stern reminders about family loyalty are his mother speaking through her.

Ironically he gets along much better with his brother-in-law Arthur Fitzroy. The young man has the look of the young Edward iv and the charm of his late mother. The two youths are both fascinated by chivalric pageantry. Anne for her part, while deploring Arthur's bastard origins and how his mother had broken the heart of poor Queen Magdalene, appreciated how he loves her daughter and grandson.

The young Duchess of Essex's feelings are more complex. Oh, she cares for him and knows there are many ways a husband can be worse, I mean just look at how the King treated all of his women before Queen Elanor, but to the serious dutiful Anne, Arthur comes off as too boisterous, brash, and informal. He is also much too lusty for her tastes, even if he makes her the sole object of his affection. His father has had to threaten to take control of his finances, lest he spend his inheritance on jewels, dresses, and tourneys to impress his young wife. Anne, who does much of the actual running of the Duchy, refers to her husband as "my first child", a term that conveys both affection, and even love, but also a healthy dose of contempt and exasperation.

The evening of drinking and reminiscing about the past and planning for the future brings out unexpected emotions in the Duchess of Burgundy. Weeping and pleading for forgiveness she hugs her eldest daughter rightly, who gently returns the hug but whispers that this all is quite improper. She then hugs her grandson and tells him that he is so very big and handsome, and pats the small swell of Anne's belly, declaring that she will soon have a beutiful granddaughter. Arthur joins the love bomb and plants a kiss on his duchess's cheek. Her cheeks blush bright red. This is all too much. Philip is just embarrassed but Princess Catherine loves the romance. She looks to Philip and dreams of the day when he will kiss her like that.

The couple will stay in Burgundy until their child is born, to Anne of York's delight.

Their child is a daughter, named Anne after both her mother and grandmother.

Alas, it is not all happy families. Events conspire to turn this visit into one of heated political debate.

That winter the Duke and Duchess of Guelders take their children ice skating. To their horror, their eldest, little Margret to Guelders, takes a tumble and falls into the freezing water. Ignoring the danger the Duke flings himself into the water and manages to get his child to safety. Unfortunately, he himself contracts a chill.

Despite the treatments of his doctors and the love and prayers of Anne Neville and her children, he passes. Anne is catatonic with grief. The stress of her husband's fall had caused her to miscarry the child she carried, another son.

The Duchy of Guelders is left in the hands of young Margret, who for the rest of her life, will carry the guilt of having gained her state by causing her father's death. The Courts of Europe scramble to provide suiters for the heiress.

King Edward writes letters all but calling the poor widowed Anne a traitor if she gives her daughter to anyone other than his second son Richard.

The King of France wants to wed Elanor to his youngest brother Henri, Duke of Orleans.

Emperor Frederick offers his grandson Ernst.

Duke Philip's family yells at him to choose the English. His friends want him to support the Duke of Orleans, by force if necessary. Young Arthur though sees it from his perspective. On their last night in Gelderland, he talks about his problems with the young Arthur Fitzroy. Philip will later realize he had already made up his mind. He only needed to unburden his conscience.

Italy January-May 1479
The situation in Italy becomes heated. King Ferante, fresh off his victory against the Turks, is wary of Sforza's plans for dominance in the North of Italy. The King forms a league together with the Pope, Florence, Mantua, Ferrara-Modena, and Venice, to restore the borders of Italy as of the treaty of Lodi. The league is justified on the grounds that the Sforza are acting as French proxies, preparing the ground for a French descent on Italy. Ironically they create the very t thing they intend to prevent, as Anne and Ludovico agree to back an Anjou claimant to Naples in exchange for protection from Venice, Naples, and the others.

March-May 1479 Central Europe
The year opens with a mad dash by Maxmilian towards Budda. Large parts of Hungary are overrun. Some nobles welcome the young Hapsburg, eager to throw off the yoke of the "lowborn" Corvinus. But the Hapsburgs face an enemy far worse that the Black Army. Money, or lack thereof. To keep his soldiers employed Maximilian has no choice but to let them pillage the country. This turns the people against him and his armies face revolt. With his supply lines harried and the Black Army marching on Vienna itself, Maximilian has no choice but to break off his march.

Both he and Corvinus are reluctant to fight a battle, fearing that one defeat will send the whole House of Cards they build their kingdoms upon tumbling down. In the end young Maximilian performs comparatively well, managing to hold on to his gains from the previous campaign season.

The Hapsburgs receive help from an unexpected ally. Bayazid has defeated his brother Cem, who has fled to the Mamelukes of Egypt. Needing a quick success to legitimize his rule, the new Sultan demands Corvinus give him Bosnia back or face war. This odd alignment leads to a furious row between Maximilian and his father. The Archduke declares that he would rather become a monk than fight alongside the Turk against a fellow Christian Prince. Kaiser Fredrick points out that this whole war is being waged to gain an electorate so that Maximilian can be better secured on the Imperial throne. He is more than welcome to become a monk. Little Ernst will no doubt prove to be much less of a hassle for his poor old grandfather. Angry and dejected, Maximilian takes comfort in the arms of his Emma.

May -July 1479
Despite King Louis's best efforts both Elizabeth and Magdalene are distraught. The fight had left them both lying on the ground and in tears. The things that were said were horrible, and impossible to take back. Things that each will remember for the rest of their lives.

After Elizabeth had apologized and begged for her sister's forgiveness, Magdalene had mockingly pretended to show pity on her sister "You will die here alone in this convent like your mother did. Alone and forgotten by the King, mourned by none, and known by all as the favorite mare of France. The Duke of Bourbon, The Count of Vaudmont, The Dukes of Brittany and Burgundy, even my own loving husband. So many men have mounted you. It is a wonder you are able to walk at all."

Weeping the orphaned Fitzroy accused Magdalene of being cruel, fringed, and inhuman. "It is no wonder King Louis needed me to warm his bed. With you by his side he is like to freeze to death. Our father loved my mother. He only did his duty with yours. It is the same here. At least I shall go to my grave knowing Louis chose me, where you were forced upon him like some curse."

The beautiful Venus spends her time at the convent, her beauty veiled and in constant prayer for her own soul and the safety of her child. She of all people knows how hard it can be to be a bastard child. When she cries herself to sleep at night, she cradles her belly whispering to the child within that she is sorry. So so sorry.

Magdalene is devastated. Her husband and sister who she had both loved, who she had been so kind to, who had both held her and told her they were to be her faithful friends forever had betrayed her. Despite her initial protests, which include spitting in the King's face, she is grateful to have gone into confinement early. To act the part of the dutiful wife as her mother did, to smile and wave as her husband dishonors their precious nights together, dishonor the child she is willing to die to bring into the world, that would be impossible.

Louis makes numerous attempts to earn her forgiveness, writing letter after letter apologizing for the affair. Magdalene's replies are formal. She had loved him as deeply and as truly as any lady loved her knight but if he wanted her to play the part fine. She would write to him as a dutiful formal Queen but there would be no more warmth no more love, none of the sweet flirtations of their earlier correspondence. They were man and wife. Nothing more.

As her time nears Elizabeth recalls the last miserable days of her mother, how she worked so hard to put up a brave face to her children, promising them their father would return. But Elizabeth had seen her weeping, begging God to return her lover to her. She remembers the final words on Elizabeth Woodville's lips. "Why? Why do you hate me Eddy?"

Queen Magdalene's last few months are made easier by the presence of her sister-in-law the Duchess Anne of Loraine. The Duchess has no time for her brother's excuses, and angrily reproaches him for his conduct. Still, when the King breaks down and cries, she holds him. "You may be a cad and a lecher but you will always be my little brother."

Despite the anxiety, one would expect from two young mothers whose own mothers perished in childbirth, both girls have easy deliveries.

After the birth, Queen Magdalene is finally forced to admit the King to see his child. Louis is instantly bessoten by little Marie and shows genuine care and concern for Magdalene. It is all too much for the Queen who breaks down in tears. She forgives Louis. She loves him and knows he loves her and her daughter. And it all hurts so much. Of course, she conveys none of this to her husband. He will need to work to regain her trust.

At the end of the visit, she asks her ladies to take the baby and leave her alone, the King following along eager to spend more time with his little girl. Queen Magdalene spends the rest of the day staring out her window, alone and in contemplation. Her heart had been kind and tender, the type that bruises easily and takes a long time to heal.

Obviously, the royal visit and sumptuous baptism are not options for Elizabeth and little Agnes. Elizabeth doesn't know how to feel about this. Her reason for preferring secrecy was to protect the feelings and reputation of her sister Magdalene, the Queen already knows, and while she was willing to put aside her own desire for recognition for her sister's sake, now that she holds her daughter in her arms, it becomes easier to imagine doing things for Agnes that she cannot do for herself.

She loves Louis. But he is the King. And Elizabeth cannot help but wonder how different her life would have been if her father had had the option to deny her very existence and consign his bastards to a foundling hospital to be forgotten about. No. Elizabeth will never let her daughter be forgotten like that.

She insists on nursing her child herself and utterly devotes herself to her daughter's care. "I am the only one she has." The two bond as they spend their days together, often Elizabeth will take long walks in the Convent gardens with Agnes in her arms and feel the warm kiss of the wind on her skin, like God and his angels, her mother amongst them, were comforting her, telling her to take heart in her struggle. "I am sorry little one I was wrong. He is watching out for you just as I am."

August 1479
Louis decides that pawning Elizabeth off on the young Duke of Bourbon is not an option. Renee of Vaudmont is an option but he suspects what is going on. Elizabeth's disappearance is the gossip of the court. Louis sends her a list of suiters, mostly old men of moderate rank, the only ones willing to take her in her "fallen" state, and implicitly, the only men willing to play cuckold to the King. Elizabeth writes to Louis that she will not marry anyone until Agnes is either acknowledged or given lands to derive income from. She also adds that, if she is ever to return to his bed, she will require her daughter to be publically acknowledged, and a written agreement that any future children will be provided for. And to think, men take mistresses to relieve stress. The madness. It makes him almost wish he were celibate. Almost.

Duke Philip of Burgundy writes that he dearly loves the King and his sister and will continue to serve him loyally. But the interests of Burgundy, and the honor of his fore fathers, compel his course of action. Burgundian troops occupy the Duchy of Guelders for the "protection of the state and of the Duke's family." Anne Neville is too broken to object and the majority of the nobles are already on the Burgundian payroll. It isn't even an occupation.

A few elements of the commons object but most welcome the commercial opportunities that come with a union with Flanders and the rest of the Burgundian Netherlands. The fact that the titular Burgundy is lost makes the union even more attractive since they wouldn't have to spend money to defend distant lands.

A council of Nobles and Burghers totally not on Duke Philip's payroll present a petition for him to wed Duchess Elanor and "secure the state and our happiness." Philip feigns shock and laments that he is already betrothed. They beg him until at last, he reluctantly declares that though he loves Princess Catherine, he will wed Margret of Gelderland for reasons of state. It is a true statement amidst a sea of lies.

A weeping Catherine is sent packing across the border. Philip feels awful but it had to be done. He will not pass up the opportunity of a lifetime to keep a girl from crying.

When his mother once again reproaches him he announces that he has had it. She had years to get to know Catherine but treated her coldly. He is the Duke of Burgundy and she can either get used to the way things are going to be around here or get on the first boat to England. Later Philip will regret speaking this way to his own mother. But right now he is not in the mood for dissent or nagging.

Philip offers to betroth his sister Isabel to Duke Henri so that he and Louis can still be brothers. However, he also sends a letter to his Uncle offering to betroth his other sister Marie to King Edward's second son Richard. Philip may love the French and view the English as a nuisance, but more than any of his predecessors he is a Dutch prince and intends to pursue his interests as such.

Louis has no choice but to comply. He has other problems to deal with. In North Africa, the natives have not proven nearly as enthusiastic for French rule as he had believed. Uprisings drive his garrisons back to a few coastal strongholds which are then besieged. Meanwhile, the King is also under pressure to act in Castile. Navarre is preparing for war, supported by elements of the French nobility, while Portugal and Aragon each offer to defend Maria, though, of course, they have their own agenda. Portugal further strengthens its hand when King Edward of England, eager to prove he is still a force to be reckoned with, publically states that he will defend Maria's throne, provided she wed his nephew, the King of Portugal.

The Lorainers have suddenly become much more active in pushing their claim to Aragon. This is of course at the instigation of Louis's own sister Anne. "My son will be a King. You have the pick, Aragon or Naples", she writes to him. Of course Bona of Savoy chimes in that her branch of the Anjou has a much better claim to both Naples and Aragon. At this point the King longs for the sweet embrace of death. But instead he will pass the time with his baby daughter, who is fortunate enough to lack all these terrible cares that weigh on him.

The King is told by his confessors that all these setbacks are punishments for his sins. And he agrees. But what can he do? He prays for that he does not turn out to be a King like Edward of England, nearly dragged to ruin by his insatiable lusts. He embarks his troops for Algiers, planning to settle all other issues on his return. That is if he returns at all.

Adolf Duke of Gelderland

Anne of Fitzroy (Daughter of George Firzroy and Anne Holland)
Miscarriage for Anne Neville and Adolf of Guelders

Philip of Burgundy to Margret of Guelders.
Isabel of Burgundy to Duke Henri of Orleans
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