Part The Sixteenth
The Russian Tsardom had been expanding eastward with an unrivaled vigor. The Russian people had been subject to the Mongol hordes in ages past, and everyone from the commoners to the Tsar swore they would never be subjected again. However, they were not exclusively focused on the east. The Tsardom had lost territory in their west to Sweden and Poland, something that could not be abided. Sweden still had not recovered from the Kalmar War and was rife with unrest in her territories. Tsar Alexis declared war in 1637, though there was little conflict for several months, as the Tsar declared war in March, meaning there was relatively little food for armies. Alexis wanted to restore Russia access to the Baltic, and put a distance between Moscow and all possible invaders, necessitating a westward push in parallel to the eastern settlement.

Tsar Alexis I of Russia
Russia was not the only one who wanted to expand at the expense of the Swedes. Christian IV of Denmark-Norway had desires to secure his Scanian holdings by taking territory more inland, and further increase the population of his Kingdoms, which would in turn bolster the size of a potential army. Parallel to the Russo-Swedish war, Christian IV managed to convince his nobles to accept war with Sweden, prompting the Småland War in June of 1637. The Swedes were naturally more concerned with the defense of their homeland than their territories across the Baltic, leading to Denmark-Norway facing much fiercer resistance than the Russians. However, the superior generals had already been deployed to the Russian front and wouldn’t be able to return for weeks, if not months. This meant that while the Danish forces faced many more battles, they were also able to secure their victories. By the time the superior Swedish generals were able to return to the core of the country, the Dano-Norwegians had dug in and taken the forts around southern Småland.

Neither of the parallel wars lasted particularly long and Sweden surrendered to the invaders by November. Russia took Swedish Livonia and a small part of southern Finland. Denmark-Norway took most of their holdings in Småland, as well as parts of Västergötland, which went to the Norwegian crown. The people of these conquests were naturally unrestful, and many took to the colonies to avoid dealing with the central Dano-Norwegian authority. King Christian IV was actually pleased with this, as it allowed a Danicization of the region. This is not to say that the territory was ever culturally danish, but a significant minority did emerge in the decades after.
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A map of the post-war borders after the Smaland War and the parallel Russo-Swedish War

In the far south of Europe, the Ottoman Sultan was planning an invasion of the Safavid Persian Empire. The increased European presence in Asia was inadvertently having a negative impact on the Ottoman economy as it circumvented the need for the Turkish Empire in trade. Granted, Selim II knew full well that was why they had started exploring, but he did not realize just how quickly an impact would be made. Selim had been unsure how to counteract this- they could never really make up the difference through trade, and that left conquest as his only option. But that had questions of its own- where? While perhaps somewhere in India would be the most profitable, as Portugal showed, Lisbon’s navy in the Indian Ocean surpassed anything the Ottomans could reasonably develop. And unfortunately, Portugal would likely back anyone who fought the Turkish, if only out of spite. That left overland conquests- or at least ones where Portugal had no power such as the Black Sea, and three options for victims. The Habsburg Monarchy, Russia, or the Safavids. The Austrians would likely be the easiest, given the problems within their Holy Roman Empire, but the payoff seemed negligible- endless unrest and it would likely start overextending the empire’s western portions. A Black Sea campaign against Russia would probably yield similar results- while the territory would likely be easier to integrate into the Ottoman system, it would be vulnerable to the Cossacks. That left an eastward push into Persia. Mesopotamia was populous and wealthy, and while the Shias that made up the Persian Empire would likely resist the Sunni Ottomans, it would likely still be better than adding yet more christians to the Empire via a conquest in Europe.

Another reason for the campaign was internal. Since the death of Suleiman the Lawgiver (or Magnificent as he was known in the west), the military had been a growing force in imperial politics- a fact aided by the decline of Turkish nobility due to Suleiman and Mustafa I’s centralization policies. A war may not seem like the best way to curtail a militarist faction, but the decline of the nobility meant that they were not in a position to lead the armies themselves and that the most powerful commanders would have to put themselves at risk far from their seats of power. A mutiny would be risky, and the Sultan could clean up the politics of the empire while they were away on campaign. And so, after declaring war in 1637 and sending the generals to far off Persia and Iraq, that is what Selim II did. After the Battle of Lepanto between the Ottomans and a Christian League consisting of Venice, the Papal States, Genoa, and what had been Aragon-Navarre (with minor contributions from Castile), the navy had seen a loss in prestige and influence due to the defeat. While the Ottomans still commanded a powerful navy, it was largely based on their numbers, as naval doctrine had changed in the time since Lepanto. Selim II spent much of his time modernizing the navy, both to strengthen the Ottoman hold on the eastern Mediterranean and so that there was at least another powerful group that could compete with the army and the courts. The Sultan also worked to slowly phase out the Janissary corps of the army- they had served their purpose in the conquests of Anatolia and Greece, but having your army reliant on a few groups of elite soldiers seemed dangerous- and their enslavement to the Sultan seemed likely to lead to coups if another claimant promised them rights or autonomy.

Selim II expanded the training utilized with the Janissaries to all soldiers, professional and otherwise. He also began a process of professionalization in the army- that which wasn’t in the east at least- so that the social mobility that helped many minority families of Christians and Jews remain at least somewhat loyal to the Empire. He and many generals who were loyal to the Sultan created a curriculum to be utilized in military education available to boys fourteen and above. This personal project took many years and drafts, but when it was done, it would prove quite successful. These reforms were not universally accepted or approved of by the established elite, however. Selim found many problems getting the projects implemented in the more distant provinces of the Empire- Egypt and the Barbary Coast were especially problematic. There was a minor revolt against the policies in Alexandria, but this was short-lived. Around this time, Selim became known as Selim ‘The Innovator,’ in accordance with his modernization efforts.

Sultan Selim II
"The Innovator"

The Ottoman-Safavid war would last for some years. Early on, the Persians were able to conquer Baghdad, but a stalemate soon emerged in northern Mesopotamia. Part of the issue were border conflicts with the Austrians that prevented them from committing fully. However, this would not be the case forever, and eventually, the Turks were able to break through. Unfortunately, due to the fact that the army dispatched to the east was not part of Selim's reforms at the time, the war would still ravage the east for over a decade. As it was, when news of the reforms began to reach the generals campaigning in Mesopotamia, many of them began to desert their post to argue with their Sultan. Unfortunately for them, this loss of command led to numerous small defeats, cementing to many the necessity of Selim’s efforts.

A picture of the Ottoman Janissaries, which Selim II worked to phase out

Eastern Europe and Mesopotamia were not the only areas of tension. The emergent rivalry between Portugal and the Dutch Republic was quickly becoming a sore spot throughout western Europe. While on paper the Portuguese had a larger fleet, the Dutch had staunch allies in France, who fielded a larger fleet than Portugal themselves. Portugal’s own ally in Britain certainly possessed a respectable fleet, and King Alexander made no secret that he would be willing to support Portugal, but he had also confided in King John IV that such an action would be grossly unpopular with the nobility, who might cause problems for Britain’s involvement.

As a result of this uncertainty, Portugal put on a face of appeasing the Dutch. However, this was largely limited to Europe and the west coast of Africa. They recognized Dutch trading rights in Angola and as a part of the triangle trade. In the east, however, Portugal frequently sponsored incursions against Fort Holland-Mombassa, and commandeered many Dutch ships, regardless of them having the necessary documentation that allowed trade in Portuguese waters, and similarly spent much of their resources in Malaya working against the Dutch influence in the area. These things were small enough that individually they wouldn’t be cause for war, but they allowed Portugal to work against this rival in the west.

The Dutch, however, were more divided. Many in Holland, the most powerful and wealthy province, wanted war. The way these men saw it, a conflict between the two was inevitable, and it was better to strike at Portugal while they could count on the French, who had many points of contention with the Portuguese themselves. Importantly, most of this group consisted of the Orangists, the faction that advocated for the House of Orange to be raised as Kings of the Netherlands. Others, however, more in the south, were opposed to the war, as they were worried about effectively becoming a French subject. To those on this side of the emergent debate, an alliance with France was just as much about keeping them from conquering the Netherlands as it was about keeping the other German states away from their shores. Thus being too reliant on the French was tantamount to surrendering the nation. Much like how the Orangists dominated the war-faction, this group was made of prominent federalists who favored the republican system. However, these groups were causing tensions within the Organist and Federalist groups themselves, leading to the term Clovist for those who wished for war, and the Olive Branch for the peace-seeking group. The current Stadtholder of Holland (and other provinces), was Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. Naturally, he himself was a Clovist-Orangist, as he was in a strong position to crown himself King if he were able to secure a victory over the country’s foes.

Coat of Arms for the House of Orange-Nassau
France themselves were in a period of prosperity. The colonial governments were loyal and making appropriate shipments of treasure and tax whenever possible, bringing in wealth and goods that made the life of the average peasant longer and healthier. This trend had begun far earlier, but the 1630s were especially notable. As a result of this economic and population boom, there were more for the army and navaries, as well as more traders, more preachers, more of everything. This caused a flourishing of French culture and cuisine, with twists due to the overseas territories- plays about Charlemagne or Jean d’Arc, stories about the Indian Kings who had rivaled Alexander the Great himself like Ashoka or Chandragupta were becoming common; Indian cuisine, while not common, was not unheard of in Paris, with many trading families of other well-off commoners using the spices and methods from abroad. King Louis XIV made it clear to the pro-war faction that he would support them in a defensive conflict but had no interest in supporting the Republic in an outing they started. Just in case, however, he had the governor of the Indian territory get ready for a potential conflict with the Portuguese, wary of being unprepared.

Unfortunately, history would force Louis XIV’s hand. Fort Holland-Mombasa was growing quickly up and down the coast of East Africa, used to supply the territory that made up the Dutch East Indies with slaves for the agricultural business, much like the sugar islands and the other plantation colonies. Visser spent much of his time building forts and naval bases, though like most other European states, was unable to penetrate into inland Africa. As a result of these attempts to catch up to the Portuguese and develop these territories, naval skirmishes were common. Piracy was common enough in this period, and Portugal was not willing to start a war over Visser’s actions. Eventually, however, a diplomat sent to the fort to negotiate peace between the groups was killed, ironically not by the dutch. However, when the official never returned, the Portuguese felt that the Dutch had to be dealt with then and there, and declared war in July of 1638.

King Alexander of Britain quickly joined the conflict against the Dutch. Britain had its own tensions with the small country, as they competed for wealth and power in the North Sea. To add to this, he fully expected the French would come to the aid of Amsterdam and did not want Portugal entirely outclassed. As it was, if France joined in the war, then the British and Portuguese would be outclassed- on paper at least, as the Portuguese had a stronger hold on the Indian Ocean than France or the Dutch.

Britain’s joining with Portugal cemented that Louis XIV would come to the aid of the Dutch Republic. When news reached the Indian subcontinent, Governor Philippe Surat was relieved. The mercenaries and conscripts he had hired had been beginning to get restless. He quickly mounted an assault on the city of Daman. France and Portugal each had numerous cities and ports dotting the west coast of India, but France had generally prepared better for war. Britain had a few as well, but they were largely in the east, meaning it would take time for them to reach the western parts of India where the fighting was. As a result of these factors, the early Indian theater of the War of 1638 would generally be favorable for the French, as the Portuguese had been less prepared for conflict in their cities. However, the long-term viability of these campaigns was questionable, as the Portuguese navy limited the ability to reinforce, and living off the land would be difficult.

In Europe, things were more complicated. The British Nobility resisted the war in every way possible except for defection to the French and Dutch, meaning King Alexander struggled to raise the proper army. The Royal Navy, however, was seeing successes in the Channel. The Dutch navy was powerful, but the command of John Lawson saw the dutch fleets kept away from the shores of Britain. The French Navires Méditerranéenne were able to cause havoc against Portugal’s Moroccan territory, but many of the ships they utilized in the North Atlantic were bogged down in battles with the Portuguese and English off the west coast of France to attack Britain or mainland Portugal. There were very few land battles during this period, as the French and Portuguese were both unable to travel through Hispayna y Secilla, and the French and Dutch certainly couldn’t land in Britain. The few battles that did occur were mainly in northern France and the Dutch Republic, parts of attempted landings from Britain. But King Alexander’s issues raising a proper army meant that these landings were small and ill-prepared, and were repulsed relatively easily.

The American colonies saw conflict as well, though to a lesser degree. The frontiers between Caroline and British North America probably saw the most intensive fighting, and even then it was only a handful over battles throughout the war. While the British colonies had more free men who were able to and willing to fight, Caroline’s use of slavery for infrastructure gave it an advantage in maintaining their armies, as they were able to get men to the regions ever so slightly faster, and the more centralized command via the ennobling of colonial elites allowed for a clearer chain of command. However, the Carolinians were pressed to make sure that the slaves did not revolt against their masters, meaning they could not fully utilize their quality advantage over the British.

In the Caribbean, all powers involved- British, French, Portuguese and Dutch- had profitable islands that losing could severely damage their long term economies. And all four knew it. The French controlled by far the largest island in the basin, as well as holding most of the western portions with the other islands being controlled mainly by the British and Portuguese. The Dutch were largely constrained to the smaller islands in the eastern part of the Caribbean. As a result, the British and Portuguese forces stationed in the archipelago were able to take several of the islands. However, the French forces were too strongly entrenched to easily take the majority of the French Caribbean, with one exception- the Guanahani islands off of Caroline were lightly settled and sparsely defended, and Portugal was able to take them with some effort. The French were generally unable to mount offensives against the British and Portuguese holdings, and many of the Dutch holdings were taken by the British.

Even in the Indian Ocean, where it was thought that Portugal and Britain would be dominant, a stalemate emerged. While Fort Holland-Mombassa was the largest in the Dutch East Africa Company’s possession, it was not the only one. And while the Portuguese and British knew this, they did not know where the other bases were, as they had been acquired rather quickly; the allies felt that it would be a waste of supply to hunt down all the Dutch bases when Fort Holland-Mombassa was certainly the biggest. As a result, the Portuguese spent much of their time trying to capture it, so as to limit the ability of the Dutch to conduct their raids on Portuguese shipments. However, the Dutch were quick to move their shipping to the other forts they had acquired over the last seven years. Thus they were able to spend much of the time in the Indian Ocean continuing the raids and piracy that had caused the war in the first place.

After a few months of combat, King Alexander was seriously running into problems. His inability to deliver a major victory to his nobles meant they were still reluctant to support the war, which limited his ability to deliver a major victory. The war was also starting to have a major impact on the trade and economy of Britain, meaning he had limited funds to keep the war ongoing. Perhaps most dangerously for the long term stability of the realm, his young son Arthur had died, leaving him without a male heir. He had a few options for what to do with this problem at least- he had cousins and two daughters. Wanting to make sure that primogeniture was still the practiced law of the land, he raised his daughter Jane to the position of heir.

The Dutch were similarly having problems. Trade was being cut off, and the peasants were getting resentful. The Stadtholders and merchants in the south still weren’t fully supporting the conflict despite them sending the poor to die, and the fact that the Dutch people didn’t really have a choice in the matter drew ire. This unrest was generally localized in the south, as places like Holland or Utrecht were headed by Frederick Henry, who had spent much of his time pushing for war and convincing the people it would be good for them, and he was powerful enough that he could send mercenaries just as much, if not more, as conscripted peasantry.

This eventually caused a rebellion in the south. These rebels declared themselves Organist in nature, and thus Frederick Henry did little to stop them and ask France to abstain unless they attacked the French directly. These riots were extremely destructive to the local elite but made sure to leave things like local markets or homes undamaged. Over the next few months, most of the leaders in the south finally acquiesced, giving their consent to a crowning of the Prince of Orange. As a result, the majority of the leading figures were now backing the Orangist factions, enabling John Henry to officially crown himself King John I of the Kingdom of The Dutch Lowlands, of the House of Orange.

King Frederick Henry I of The Kingdom of the Dutch Lowlands,
Duke of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel, Prince of Orange

Big thank you to @VixenRaw for that map of Sweden's losses. But huzzah, we have a major war and revolution in The Netherlands, not to mention the Ottomans reforming and doing smart things


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Very good update, it seems that the Dutch and French might come off on top in this war and even if they gain no territory they will at least get some concessions and the necessity for better defending and expand their colonies, also interesting seeing the Russians and Danish teeming up on the Swedes(something we will probably see a lot of) and the reforms the Ottomans made will certainly help them, curious to see if the next sultans will follow the same trend..
Anyways, keep up the excellent work and I eagerly await for the next chapter!
Part The Seventeenth
The War of 1638 had dragged into early 1639, and the stalemates that had defined it were finally starting to wear down. The French had been rather successful in India, taking several of Portugal’s northern cities, almost everything north of Bombay, protected as it was by the rivers and Portuguese and British navies that made an effective siege impossible. Though it was worth noting that the Dutch had been able to take Portugal’s Malacca. news was not entirely pleasant for Paris and Amsterdam, however, as most of the Dutch Caribbean had been taken, and the smaller portions of the French West Indies were also under threat. The Portuguese had finally taken Fort Holland-Mombassa and were able to locate a map of the DOAC’s territory, stretching from the Horn of Africa to the north-eastern tip of Madagascar. They were able to capture some of the southern forts, as they were close to Portuguese territory in East Africa, but up north they were made vulnerable to the hit and run tactics of the Dutch ships, able to commandeer individual ships and wear down the fleets.

The seas off Europe were in flux as well. France dominated the Mediterranean Sea and all that entailed. However, they were unable to take control of the exterior Atlantic, and Portugal was seeing success there. The British held their channel well enough, but the North Sea was much less certain, though the advantage seemed to lie with the British as well. Much to King Alexander’s glee, he was finally able to make a proper landing in the northern part of the Netherlands and had managed to capture some small towns. This won him some leeway with his nobility and was able to get a larger force from them, allowing him an increased ability to wage the war. However, before the British were able to march on Amsterdam, they were intercepted by the French. While the British were able to gain victory over the French forces, they suffered heavy enough losses that they were unable to take the Dutch capital. As a result of the Battle of Alkmaar, most of what little clout King Alexander had with his Peerage vanished, and he was under mounting pressure to make peace.


A battle off of the Dutch coast

As a result of Alkmaar, King Alexander met with a Portuguese delegation. He could not remain in the war anymore, and the two allies needed to both ask to negotiate at once to maintain some power- if Britain left the war, there was nothing stopping the Franco-Dutch coalition from gaining massive naval superiority. King John IV agreed, and the two asked for terms. The subsequent Treaty of Paris (1639) attempted a relatively even parceling of territory based on the major theaters of the war. Portugal would get all of the Dutch Caribbean, while Britain would get the Guanahani islands, as they were far closer to the British territories than any substantive Portuguese holdings. However, Portugal would cede the cities France had taken in India, as well as Malacca; as compensation, however, they would be allowed to keep some of the territory taken from the Dutch south of Fort Holland-Mombassa, such as the Port of Bweni, on an island in the Indian Ocean and the settlement of Zud Swahili. All Britain really lost were some frontier lands between Caroline and BNA, and were forced to pay for damages to the Dutch and French fleets, something also thrust upon Portugal.

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The flag of the NOAC- Netherlands East Africa Company

Despite gaining some reasonably profitable territory, the war was humiliating for Portugal. They’d certainly lost much of their most profitable territories in India, as well as Malacca, where they were forced to admit Dutch supremacy. Regardless, they set about organizing their new territories. They largely clumped the new African lands with their existing colony in East Africa. However, they ran into some issues regarding their new Caribbean islands- the white elites that dominated the archipelago (and indeed, many of the slaves) were all dutch speaking Calvinists, while their new rulers were lusophone Catholics; and while Portugal was generally unbothered by how their territory was settled, the fact remained a very wealthy group could wind up working with the enemy if Lisboa found themselves at war with the Dutch Lowlands again. Even deporting the Dutch would greatly interfere with the administration and profitability of the colonies, as the slaves would need to be taught enough Portuguese to make use of, and could still speak dutch as a way of circumventing the Portuguese masters. In the end, the Portuguese gave the locals a choice- adopt Portuguese as an administrative language and with the slaves, or have the colonial government seize their slave’s children and give them to Portuguese merchants- effectively putting a timer on the wealth of the dutchmen.

Britain was also having problems, but they were more internal. King Alexander’s actions had alienated much of the nobility, even the families that had been appeased by his uncle. The only nobles that he had allied with were, amusingly, the Munster FitzGeralds he had betrothed his daughter into out of fear of their influence. Other nobility, while they didn’t want him gone like they did his predecessor, wanted his power incredibly reduced. Alexander, for his part, was rather ashamed of how the war had gone- countless lives lost for no real gain, However, he was well aware that nobility that exerted too much influence could have similar results. So he was not sure what to do- acquiesce to the House of Lords, or try to retain what power he could?

The war caused shifts for the victors as well. France was now one of the dominant forces of western India via their new cities and ports. This necessitated a naval buildup even beyond restoring the fleet that had been diminished by the war, as well as administrative reforms. Prior to this, French India had been generally administered by one man based out of Surat, which King Louis XIV felt was no longer reasonable. He declared that there would be a new governorship- French Deccan Territory, where the north was French India. The new governorship would be administered from Jaigad and would administer the French territory that fell to the south of Bombay- which was still a Portuguese holding, and thus made sense as a demarcation between the colonies. With the French Deccan went sites like Udupi and Panaji, major ports in the south. The reason for the Europeans being able to hold these territories varied- the Mughals did not care for boats and policing the waters, and often found it easier to let the Europeans deal with it as long as they got taxes and were exempt from tariffs. Other states, like the Deccan sultanates, only let the outsiders hold the territory in exchange for aid defending from the Mughals, and other concessions of that sort.

The Dutch, meanwhile, focused on the Indian Ocean. With Portugal’s losses in India, their share of the spice trade was declining, opening the door for King Frederick Henry to expand his nation’s holdings in the region. While they had lost some territory on the coast of Africa, they’d gained an incredibly wealthy city in Malacca. In addition, they had a friendly nation dominating western india, granting them a good position for trade with the subcontinent. John Visser, still head of the East Africa Company, spent much of his time and resources growing the remainder of the Dutch East Africa into more recognizable towns ala Portuguese Africa via immigration and imported slaves, so as to make them more populated with Dutchmen and Calvinists and less appealing for other Europeans to seize. Holland-Mombassa became the seat of the Company and was known informally as Visserville, with other prominent settlements like Jiweni also arose, about as far inland as was possible for the Europeans of the time.

Further east, conflict was ravaging China. The Ming had failed to crush the rebels and their proclaimed Xi Dynasty. This meant they remained vulnerable to the Qing incursions from the northeast. Tensions were high throughout the entire Celestial Empire, as the high taxes and conscription exacerbated ethnic and cultural tension. Many of the powers in the surrounding area had stakes in the conflict- Portugal needed to protect Macau while Joeson and the Tokugawa Shogunate worried about a potential invasion if one of the more aggressive factions came to rule China, leading to the three supporting the remainder of the Ming. Britain and France, however, were relatively unbothered by the power struggle erupting.

Denmark-Norway was in a similar position to the other powers during this age. They had a lucrative trade with East Asia, operating in the South China Sea, mostly with the Dai Viet and Champa states. The difference, however, was a lack of a prominent colony anywhere in the Pacific or Indian oceans with which to more properly secure this trade. This meant that in a conflict with a nation like Britain or Portugal (likely both), the trade would be highly vulnerable. While expeditions searching for the Northwest Passage would continue in the hope of granting Denmark-Norway easy access to the Pacific- and with it Asia, by this point it was commonly accepted that there was not one easily claimed from The Hudson Bay. There were two reasonable solutions- a supply station on the Cape of Good Hope, or the Southern Cone and the Straits of Magellan. While there were many who favored the Cape, many in the military who were interested in colonial affairs felt that it would risk angering the Portuguese and the Dutch, and while these men were confident victory with either individually would be doable, the risks regarding Britain and France were far more egregious. In June 1639 Claus Daa, an elder statesman of the Danish realm, approached King Christian IV and requested funds for a colony in South America under the apparatus of a ‘Danish Southern Cone Company,’ or DSK.


Claus Daa- the man who petitioned for the Southern Cone Company

The company would work to establish a danish hold in the southernmost portion of the American continents, for a variety of reasons. First and foremost- a means of extensive diplomacy and trade with the Inca for their gold and silver. Secondly, as a means of securing their ability to trade in the Pacific shores of Asia by means of a resupply station for the sailors. Thirdly, the region’s similar climate to Denmark proper meant that as transport technology increased, the possibility of using the area to sustain the Dano-Norwegian population’s rise in recent years.

Christian IV agreed, and the company was sanctioned. The aim of the settlement was Patagonia, and they left early in 1640, allowing the colonists a greater ability to begin agriculture. Bringing with them a force of Danish soldiers to protect them and their territory, when they landed in the northern part of the region, they founded a settlement called Nyt Aarhus. Company rule was harsh towards the natives- while no colonial power could be considered benevolent or good, the DSK was incredibly harsh, and immediately began a policy of violently driving natives away from their tribal lands in order to clear out regions for large farms or plantations. This had the desired effect- people quickly began to immigrate to the area around Nyt Aarhus, bringing with them their wealth and farming knowledge, and many of them purchased slaves from Africa, enabling them to start plantations.

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Danish Southern Cone Company Banner

the colony was established to secure connections to East Asia via the southern cone of South America and to grow cash crops

While slavery brought out the worst in all the colonial powers, the way it did so was not universal, often not even being entirely consistent between individual colonies. In British North America, only a relatively small part of the main colony was suitable for a plantation economy- the areas centered around Port Arthur and the Greater Chesapeake region. Within this area, most plantation owners had calculated it was more profitable to treat the slaves well enough that they could (and would) marry and have children, enabling them to save money importing from Africa, and enabling them to open a slave trade of their own; outside of Greater Chesapeake, slaves were rarer, though not unheard of, and were typically used in ways not unlike a domestic servant in Britain. Caroline had similarly realized it was cheaper to keep the slaves healthy, and had a large internal slave trade, but it had far more slaves than BNA for two reasons- firstly, it had a much better climate for the plantation economies, and they littered the entire Governorship; secondly, many slaves were the property of the government, not individual slavers. These slaves were used for internal developments like infrastructure between cities, construction of buildings, and so on- many of the elder slaves in this category were even used in the bureaucracy running the legislature, or were preachers that had been given to the colony’s clergy; as a rule, these slaves were treated better than the private slaves and were given more education, but this was largely because these tasks were more mentally involved and required more calculations and literacy than the agricultural work. As most of the French Caribbean was administered from Fort Nantes and the various Duchies that France had created, the French system of slavery, often called Esclavage de Brique (Brick Slavery) due to its heavy associations with cottage industry and construction, spread throughout the area. Similarly, the British West Indies and Gihonia operated like Greater Chesapeake, but as slavery was much more common, it was much more pervasive in the culture, with free blacks treated far worse than in Port Arthur. In Canpechia, slavery was a relatively small thing- the area was populous enough that it simply wasn’t necessary, with taxes and gold littered throughout the colony making up the difference. The regions where this wasn’t the case, like around the Grande Rivière, did have a noticeable increase in slavery and plantations than the south, but they were not able to become a major political force, unlike Caroline.


The inland slave trade that was widespread in Caroline

However, by far the worst colonizing force in this regard was Portugal. Their territories took up by far the largest portion of slaves, between 35% and 46% based on a number of estimates. The reason that the import rate was so high was twofold- firstly, Portugal had more territory in Africa than any other European power during this era, meaning they had much more economic power in the slave trade and needed to constantly grow the colony to feed the infamous middle passage. Secondly, while in other colonies it was generally cheaper to keep slaves healthy enough to have children, Lisboa’s constant bringing in of slaves meant that this was not always the case in Brazil, leading to a drastically higher to turnover rate as slaves suffered debilitating injuries with horrendous diseases that their owners didn’t care to treat.

Denmark had relatively few colonies that had any notable slavery, due to their base in the Hudson’s Bay being too cold for cash crops. However, the DSK was eager to catch up with the other powers in this regard. The emergent institution was a mixture of the French and Portuguese in all the worst ways. The slaves were used to build up infrastructure in incredibly abhorrent conditions, and when the projects were done were quickly sold off to the highest bidder. But, much like Portugal, Nyt Aarhus figured that with their relative proximity to Portuguese Africa, they could import at a higher rate than others and not lose too much money comparatively, as more slaves would survive the journey. Combined with the treatment of the natives, this period of early company rule makes up one of the darkest legacies of the Danish Empire.

In the months after the arrival of the Danish within the Incan Empire, there was a fierce debate. There had been some expansion beyond the Andean mountains via conquest and settlement, but news of the Danes was surprising. Some wanted to crush the colony early, while it was vulnerable so they could settle the Atlantic coast, others were unconcerned. The Sapa Inca by now, Tupac Yupanqui, was generally less concerned with the Danes than he was the English and the Portuguese- the Danes were known allies of the French, who had conducted themselves well towards the Inca prior. The Portuguese, however, had tried to conquer the Inca in their time of weakness, something he would not allow again, and the English were strong allies of the Portuguese. Thus, he sent an ambassador to the Danes, hoping to strike a deal.

There were three great lakes between the two groups, and Sapa Inca Tupac wanted to use these to mark the territorial boundaries of the peoples. Everything north of the lakes would belong to the Inca, to do with what they wished, and the south would be a free reign of the DSK. In addition, if the Portuguese or the English got involved in the specified regions against the signatory groups, the other party would come to the aid of the defender. Sven Tømrer, a representative of Claus Daa and Christian IV, was hesitant to sign the treaty as it could lead to a costly war and pushed for trade concessions. The Incan ambassador, for his part, was worried trade concessions would lead to European influence over the Inca court growing to dangerous levels. Negotiations were fierce, and largely conducted in Portuguese and French, as the former was a common trade language, but French was generally the main lingua franca used for any written components. There were some issues in regards to the use of french, as the Inca did not use records such as this, preferring their system of ropes and knots known as quipu, but the Danes had not been involved in south America to have a clear understanding of the Incan system.

Eventually, a treaty was hashed out- the treaty of the HMS Oslo, as most of the negotiation had been done on one of the DSK’s larger ships. The deal was thus- the border between the Danish and the Inca would be shifted to the south, in favor of the Inca, to the latitude of the Sapa Inca Archway, but there would be no mutual assistance obligated by the treaty. The Danish would have priority in any new lease contracts the Inca would make, but there would be no other economic concessions. The Treaty of Ships, as it was known, was a major success for the more diplomatic of the Incan court, who were able to gain influence over the Emperor. After 1640, the Inca were able to develop their own colonial system and expand into the valleys below their mountainous homes, and the expense of the aboriginals to the region.

So goes the path of Empire.
Hey guys! this is a pretty big chapter since you can expect these spheres of influence to matter a fair amount. The lakes involved with the DSK and Inca border are ones like lago Salinas Grander and lago mar chiquita. I also have and announcement to make, I started a youtube channel called Nerddolatry, where I plan to do a bunch of stuff relating to history- real events, alt-history content, and even let's plays. the first video is up right now and covers the beginnings of the Holy Roman Empire. If you guys could check it out, i'd really appreciate it.
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Great update! Both Portugal and England are going to have a tough time recovering from this, France came out like the big winner of the war and seem to be on their way to eat more and more of India (not counting their enlarged navy) and the Dutch seemed to have got some pretty good territories too, looking forward for the next one!
hey, so it occurred to me that I'm not really sure of the numbers for populations ttl, can you guys help me start figuring that out? Like how many people could Christian IV bring into Denmark? How many lived in Scanland around this point, all that stuff? Especially with things like potatoes making the rounds in Europe. I'm not really sure how to go about researching this stuff
Part The Eighteenth
Christian IV and his Queen-Consort Isabella of the houses Oldenburg and Valois respectively, were some of the most capable leadership Denmark-Norway had ever seen. But the pair had few children- their first children were both boys but the younger died in the months following his birth. The first, Frederick, would survive into adulthood. The monarch’s third and fourth children were both girls, and the elder amongst them was Isabella, named for her mother. Isabella was married to the heir of Brandenburg-Prussia, Frederick William von Honzenrollen. However, despite living into adulthood, Frederick would die before taking the throne, having been sent to the Kingdom of the Dutch Lowlands to negotiate a deal during the War of 1639; he died en route due to the British mistakenly believing the vessel to be a dutch warship. The prince was survived by his two infant sons, Christian and Luther.

Recognizing the instability that either of the young princes would cause due to their age, Christian began backing his daughter Isabella. While this measure was controversial in the beginning and many nobility supported the King’s grandsons, the King eventually convinced them that Isabella would be the better choice. The succession was backed by both Brandenburg-Prussia and France, who either stood to gain the Danish throne or a stronger ally in Northern Europe, and Russia leaned toward this camp as well, seeing it as a potential nuisance for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. But there were opponents, naturally. The most prominent were Austria and Sweden. Emperor Maximilian II did not want to see an elector fall into the hands of a Kingdom outside the Empire and Sweden despised the notion of Denmark gaining even more dominance over the Baltic Sea. These two realms signed a deal now known as Prusian Statute. According to this, the two states would back the claim of the would-be Christian V to succeed his grandfather on the King’s death, and they would each take key territories for their own- Luther would become Duke of Holstein within the Holy Roman Empire, and Sweden would reclaim her borderlands.

Christian IV died in 1648, and the nobility followed his wishes and nominated Electress-Consort Isabella as Queen Isabella I of Denmark-Norway. By then, she and Frederick had a son- Prince Henry von Honzenrollen, heir to Denmark, Norway, and now Brandenburg-Prussia. Almost immediately, Austria and Sweden declared her rule as illegitimate, as Chrisitan IV’s grandchildren should come before her in succession and thus they declared war. Of course, everyone really knew that the real reason was that they did not want Denmark to rule over the Prussian territories. France and Brandenburg-Prussia were quick to come to Isabella’s aid. The War of Danish Succession had begun.


Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, Duke of Prussia, and
Prince-Consort of Denmark-Norway

The conflict started with a Swedish invasion of Danish Småland. The Danish forces were generally able to win major battles, but the Swedish majority in these areas were fierce to the Danish soldiers and resisted in every way they could. Chrisitan IV’s conquests of the territory had been accompanied by the construction of forts to properly defend in the event of another war with sweden- and these fortifications did their jobs. However, the resistant citizen meant that Denmark-Norway had been unable to press an offensive.

Denmark-Norwegian and Brandenburg-Prussian navies were wholly dominant over the Baltic Sea, and soon Sweden was entirely cut off from her lands in the Baltic and Finland. This left them unable to support the Austrians in mainland Europe, and Brandenburg-Prussia was able to occupy most of the region with relative ease. While some Prussian forces were in the Swedish Baltic, this was generally a smaller part of the conflict. The areas were already cut off from the mainland due to the blockade and Russian conquests of Livonia.

France was similarly in a very good position against Austria. Their army was one of the most professional in Europe, in part due to both the rise of the navy and because their possessions in India required a more permanent force. As a result, they had been able to mount an invasion of the Austrian Netherlands early in the war and had effectively occupied it. They had also averted much of the quagmire that typically arose when fighting in Lombardy, and were pushing into Tyrol. It looked as though this war would be brief- Austria had threats in both the north and the south bearing down on it and Sweden was hardly in a position to continue the fighting if Austria made peace.

Other European powers, however, were not pleased with the idea of French dominance of the continent growing evermore. King Alexander of Britain tried to get involved, but the Nobility were even more firmly against conflict than they had been in 1639, citing that they had gotten off lucky last time and that if they joined now, an invasion of Britain was the likeliest it had ever been. Hispayna Y Secillia, however, did join the Empire and Sweden, as France was perhaps the biggest danger to the Iberian state. Similarly, in April of 1648, Poland-Lithuania came to their aid due to concerns over Denmark-Norway becoming utterly dominant in the Baltic.

Hispayna Y Secilla was successful early on in their invasion. The French forces were in the Lowlands or Austria. As a result, the Iberian power was able to occupy much of the French territory on the Gulf of Lyon, and the Hispaynan Flota Mediterrània was one of the few navies able to give France’s Navires Méditerranéens pause. However, as time went on and the French were able to draw back from the Netherlands, the Iberians were pushed back, and a stalemate developed around Rosellon.

Poland joining the war was ultimately rather damaging to the country. The blockade greatly hampered Polish trade and food supply, causing unrest in the south and the urban centers. While the Polish did send a force into Silesia to relieve the Austrians, by then the Prussian forces had dug in and many of the Austrians were down south facing the French forces. As a result, the Poles were unable to dislodge Prussia. The Prussians made a small counteroffensive, but they did not chase the Poles too deep into their home country. The Danish landed a small force in West Prussia, and quickly took Gdansk, one of Poland’s biggest ports. The Commonwealth would see some victories, even forcing the Danish out of their occupied territory and holding against minor offensives from Brandenburg. However, things quickly began to spiral out of control.

Earlier in the year, feeling threatened by Catholic encroachment, a Cossack uprising broke out in Ukraine, backed by Russia. Worst of all, seeing the Polish-Lithuanian failures, Russia invaded properly shortly after. By July, the Commonwealth was forced to give up the war to focus on Russia. They ceded West Prussia to Brandenburg-Prussia and made other minor border adjustments, but ultimately did not face many consequences.


A massacre of Polish citizens toward the end of
Khmelnytsky Uprising

Not long after this, the French were able to get a breakthrough in Tyrol and were marching toward Vienna proper. Following this, the Prussian forces also marched south from Silesia. Soon, Austria was forced to ask for peace. Unlike the war of 1639, there would be no exchange of territory for all sides, as there was a decisively victorious side. France would gain most of the Austrian Netherlands and some minor territorial adjustments to better secure Lombardy. Brandenburg would gain some of Lower Silesia, but not the whole of the region. The reason that the Germans were not able to claim the whole territory was in part due to Denmark, ironically enough. Queen Isabella knew that her son Henry would inherit both the constituent Duchies in Brandenburg-Prussia and the two Kingdoms that made up Denmark-Norway, and the Queen did not want Denmark to be pulled too far south. Hispayna would gain some money and a few small towns, but ultimately the war was insignificant to them. And of course, Queen Isabella would be allowed to retain her Danish thrones.

The war would greatly impact the political order of the North Sea. William I of the Dutch Lowlands was terrified of the French and their new power and began reconciling with the British. King Alexander and most of the nobility were generally inclined to back the Dutch, especially as the Danes were now a powerful force at sea and on land. Similarly, Britain entered into a warm relation with Hispayna Y Secillia, seeing them as a useful land-based ally against France. The Dano-Norwegian fleet was much more active in patrolling the North Sea than the Baltic, as they now had a near-monopoly on the latter.

Queen Isabella and Frederick William would prove to be invaluable assets to each other’s reigns. Dano-Norwegian dominance over the Baltic trading order meant that Prussia saw large investment, while Frederick William enabled large scale army reforms of the Kingdom’s army.. Much of Isabella’s reign also saw her working to limit the power of the old nobility. Christian IV’s focus on navy and population growth had helped bring about the growth of a new class of merchants, expedited by their overseas ventures in the Americas and Asia. These men had previously been beholden to the nobility of their respective homes, but as their wealth increased, they began to cry out for certain privileges. They argued that the taxes were too high and the nobility were using their wealth in a way that was damaging to the country. The Queen’s reforms, collectively known as the Tradesman’s Rights or Handelsmandens Rettigheder instituted that only wealth over a certain value (this varied throughout the country based on the wealth of the nearby ports) was eligible to be taxed by the nobility, and that businessmen who employed a certain number of workers on their ships or in their ports were too be compensated when nobility confiscated their goods.

The nobility were strongly against these rights, but they were supported by both the church and the commoners and greatly helped to strengthen Denmark-Norway. The enshrinement of the rights of the middle class and the defense of the Kingdom made the Queen incredibly popular. So much so, in fact, that she was able to nearly entirely sideline the nobility and overturn the elective monarchy to become, in essence, the first absolute monarch of Western Europe. The Tradesman’s Rights enabled further investment in the Danish colonies, strengthening the ports along the Hudson’s Bay and helping Danish Patagonia grow even more quickly than it had otherwise been.

Denmark-Norway was not the only state to be going through a period of centralization during this period. Louis XIV used his own popularity from winning two major wars and the wealth of the growing French power across the planet to minimize the influence of the Estates-General, the highest form of parliament in France. There is some debate as to whether or not this was solely a power grab or not- the Nobility and the Church were historically both very important to the running of France and simultaneously a great issue when the Monarch had a grand vision that was outside the norm. Similarly, Henry II of Hispayna Y Secillia was an absolutist and made great strides in further integration of the various Crowns that made up his realm, each of which had separated legislatures from each other.

There was, however, one major European kingdom where the Monarch was not able to concentrate power- Britain. King Alexander did not have the popularity or wealth to force the nobility and Parliament into subservience. He still had tremendous power over the army and legal system, but such control was useless without Parliament's ability to levy taxes on his side. His daughter Jane was more popular with the realm, but even she was not exactly the favorite of any major fiefdom in Britain beyond that of her husband, the Duke of Munster. As a result of these problems, King Alexander’s reputation is that of a King with potential who was restrained by unsupportive nobility who effectively stripped him of political power.

King Alexander was reported to enter into a depression during this time and wrote extensively about the difficulty of Kingship. King Arthur had tried his best to prepare him for the role, but there are records of the King telling his daughter in writing, ‘I find I am inadequate to be even an inadequate prince, let alone a King.’ Within a few years, he had abdicated to his daughter Jane and retired to a monastery. Eventually, however, the king’s mental health declined yet further, and he died in 1652 by poisoning. The timing compared to his depression has led to fierce debate, and many historians argue that he committed suicide, while others still believe it was a nobleman’s agent, whose employer was still angry about Alexander’s rule.

Queen Jane was immediately faced with issues with her nobility. They resented her for being the child of King Alexander and for being a woman. However, she would soon prove a powerful monarch in her own right and was able to create a cult of personality within the nobility and the merchant class. This enabled her to pass several reforms to protect the traders and to help professionalize the army. However, she was not an absolutist and did not try to circumvent Parliament. She knew full well there was only so much of that before one would wind up with a Civil War on their hands. Queen Jane’s son, James Gerald-Munster, was about ten and showed promise, already shrewdly making close friends with other noble children, so that they would be more willing to follow him than their families had been his Grandfather.

Across the world, China was still in crisis. The Ming had finally fallen and the rump remnants dotted the south. The Xi and the Shun both had large territories in the west, and the Qing were the major forces of the northeast. However, due in part to near-constant border conflicts and minor battles with the Joseon, who had modernized somewhat with the aid of the French, as well as revolt from the Han Chinese and along the Manchu frontiers in the north, the Qing were unable to bring the full force to bear. Xi and Shun were in a fierce rivalry with each other, not helped by the fact that neither controlled Beijing by that point, meaning both faced legitimacy issues. The corruption and military infighting that had driven the Ming to this point had not abated and they were still ripping themselves apart in the south.

As the Fall of the Ming dragged on into the 1650s, none of the powers were able to oust the others and claim all china. As a result, the wars simply came to an end, not by the submission of one emperor to another, but by simple exhaustion of the major parties involved. The Qing were powerful but Japanese, Joseon, and French interference made a proper final push impossible, lest their Manchurian home be threatened. The Ming had fallen even deeper into disarray, and the Xi had gained effective control of the western part of their withering territory. A Ming general, Koxinga, had attempted to mount an offensive into the Qing territories and seen reasonable success, but ultimately had been called back to crush an uprising.


A map of China before the XI annexed the southwest from the Ming

As a result of the Chinese situation, a new opportunity presented itself to Portugal. The Portuguese had leased the city of Macau for a long time by then, but had not made major inroads into China proper. But as the Ming further and further fell and failed to hold their territory, many cities became worried about violence and revolt, and so cities along the mouth of the pearl river were contacted the governor of the Portuguese holding, João de Sousa Pereira, who offered these cities aid in exchange for tribute. Faced with little real choice as the Ming were clearly unable to hold on, they accepted. While Portugal had been in seeming decline after the Kongo-Portuguese War and the War of 1639, they still had a respectable navy for their size and had already been the chief maritime order in the South China Sea as the Ming had lost hold of the north and had needed to pull back from the southern coasts. When King John IV heard of this, now known as the Pearl River Affair, he expressed sympathy for the Chinese and congratulated Sousa Pereira by designating him Governor of the Pearl River Territory.

A few weeks later, this led to a crisis with the Southern Ming, who demanded the territory be returned. But Sousa Pereira had already received reinforcements from Portuguese Bombay and was able to force the Ming back. Shortly after, the Chinese were forced to acknowledge Portugal’s territory. They could neither afford to try to force the Europeans out when they had more pressing matters nor did they have the physical means. While the Chinese were on similar levels to Portugal when it came to gunpowder, they were seriously outclassed by the Portuguese warships; similarly, they had become so decentralized and pressured by revolts, they could not raise the army needed to force Lisbon out of China.

By 1653, the final phases of the Ming collapse were complete. The Xi held everything up to Hainan and a bit beyond, bordering the Portuguese Pearl River, and more warlords had erupted out of the Ming. The Shao dynasty had been declared from Shaoxing had had quickly seized the far east of China, now holding the territory surrounding the city of Nanjing and the mouth of the Yangtze down to Fuzhou. Between Portugal and the Shao, another force had coalesced under the Nan. The Qing invasion of China had effectively stalled, as the Shun were much more effective combatants than they had been in prior years, and were able to resist the Qing better.

The silver trade was affected in a very interesting way. The Qing were the more populated of the Chinese states, but their anger at France for strengthening their enemies meant they were less than interested in trade with Canpechia. In contrast, however, France enjoyed strong trade relations with the Shao and the Nan. Portugal’s control of the Pearl River meant that they were more able to trade with the Xi and Shun, which were more inland than the other claimants to the Mandate of Heaven, but the Nan was highly aggressive toward them, and overtly wanted to claim the territory. Japan lost most of their trade for similar reasons to the Qing and French tensions and retreated further into isolation than they already had been. The biggest beneficiary of the Ming collapse was probably Britain or the Dutch Lowlands, as the former could trade with most of the Chinese realms, and the latter had quickly claimed Formosa from their bases in the East Indies while enjoying a similar trade position to the British. As a whole, however, the silver trade entered a period of relative decline, as the emergent states had higher priorities than luxury metals for coinage. It was still vital to both the coastal Chinese and European economies, but the claimants of the Middle Kingdom were trying to curb its influence.

Europeans were rather interested in Chinese acquisitions, but there were more limiting factors. When the Europeans had arrived for trade, India had been in a period of flux, with declining states and a clear rising power That gave them a niche, wherein they could step in and make deals using defense against the Mughals. When they reached China however, the Middle Kingdom had been able to project a powerful and stable situation, ambivalent to the whims of the western traders. While in recent years that fact had obviously come crashing down, the Europeans had found a good the Chinese did want- hence the silver trade. It had come to the point where the inflation of silver is a commonly accepted fact in the fall of the Ming. However, with the fall of the Ming, the successor states had inherited a large supply of silver, and as most of them were led by former peasants, they were not interested in the silver trade, as it had proved ruinous to their lives prior to the collapse and the emergence of their states. This meant that with some exceptions, such as the French relation to the Nan, there was no clear inroad into these new Chinese polities.

Four years later, tensions flared up in the Mughal Empire. The Emperor had fallen ill, and his sons rebelled when their elder brother took up the regency. The third son, Aurangzeb led his troops personally to face his older brother, and while he did defeat Dara Shikoh, he was killed by a stray bullet. The Governor of Gujarat and one of the Princes himself, Murad Bakhsh, found himself with a very difficult position- if he moved to stake his claims, his territory would be vulnerable to the French, but if he failed to do so he would lose so much power. Ultimately, he made a deal with the governors of French India and the French Deccan, wherein he would give them some more inland territory if they helped him take power, to which they agreed. Most of Aurangzeb’s army had defected to Dara when their commander and preferred prince was killed, and as such he was quickly able to depose his brother based in Bengal.


Dara Shikoh, Prince and future ruler of the Mughal Empire

Ultimately, Murad and Dara would come to an agreement, as neither wanted to destroy the empire for the throne. Murad was able to keep his position in Gujarat, but this would bring consequences of its own. The French argued that they had been promised land if Murad was in power by the end of the conflict and that because he still held his governorship, they were owed territory. Shah Jahan, who had recovered from his illness and was a firm opponent of the Europeans, argued that treaties made during the rebellion were illegitimate and that Murad was lucky he still had anything. This caused tensions between the French and Mughals, but the French backed down before things got dangerous- they certainly had a lot of money in Western India, but they only held slivers of the coast and barely anything inland. There was no question who would win between them and the united Mughals. However, the succession conflict showed the cracks in the Mughal Empire, and the European powers looked on hungrily.
More war! hooray! I'm not gonna lie, I had the idea of Danish Prussia and I loved the idea so much I needed an excuse for it. Plus I hadn't been messing with European borders enough and wanted to really change that. As for the China thing, i didn't want to have it be too similar to OTL, so having a divided China seemed a reasonable thing. Hopefully i set it up well enough.
Good chapter! Good for the Danes and Prussians getting together and more powerful and richer and considering their alliance with the French and Russians they're in a cozy position of not being a good target, the Russians seems to be getting their things together and conquering key territories in Europe, the French are getting even more powerful with them almost getting the whole of the Austrian Netherlands and some territory in Lombardy their increased presence in India means more money and more focus on colonizing and I wonder what new territory they could conquer (maybe south africa?), poor Edward his country got more decentralized and he didn't win any wars at lease his daughter and grandson show promise at least, I'm also interested on what's going on with the Japanese..
Anyways, loved the update and I eagerly look forward for the next one!
Good chapter! Good for the Danes and Prussians getting together and more powerful and richer and considering their alliance with the French and Russians they're in a cozy position of not being a good target, the Russians seems to be getting their things together and conquering key territories in Europe, the French are getting even more powerful with them almost getting the whole of the Austrian Netherlands and some territory in Lombardy their increased presence in India means more money and more focus on colonizing and I wonder what new territory they could conquer (maybe south africa?), poor Edward his country got more decentralized and he didn't win any wars at lease his daughter and grandson show promise at least, I'm also interested on what's going on with the Japanese..
Anyways, loved the update and I eagerly look forward for the next one!
Not gonna lie, I have no idea what to do with Japan. them going insular wasn't an inevitability, but I've generally held a 'goes the same general path unless I overtly mess with it' philosophy when it comes to writing ttl. Just an aside, britain's king wasn't Edward, but Alexander. scotland had quite a few of them so it seemed a reasonable name
Not gonna lie, I have no idea what to do with Japan. them going insular wasn't an inevitability, but I've generally held a 'goes the same general path unless I overtly mess with it' philosophy when it comes to writing ttl.
I mean, Japan was already a fairly insular place prior to the Tokugawa. But they always had and maintained connections with mainland Asia, particularly China and Korea.
I mean, Japan was already a fairly insular place prior to the Tokugawa. But they always had and maintained connections with mainland Asia, particularly China and Korea.
Yeah it seems all three sortta kept to themselves, especially after the decline of the Ming.

I'm curious, what do you guys think of the situation in china? That's probably the most unique situation in the tl as a whole and I have some ideas for it
Yeah it seems all three sortta kept to themselves, especially after the decline of the Ming.

I'm curious, what do you guys think of the situation in china? That's probably the most unique situation in the tl as a whole and I have some ideas for it
Well the old adage "divided we fall" comes to mind with Portugal already taking advantage of the situation like the French in India, expect to see the Danes, Dutch, British and French taking advantage of this situation, with these foreigners coming in like they onw the place it wouldn't be unreasonable to think whoever might want to unify China do so under the guise of "expelling the barbarians" as a call card for all the territories.