The Cold-Hearted Swot

  1. Who's the oldest living constituent monarch in the Isles?
  2. Is the Baltic still ruled by the House of Tudor considering the many queen regnants that have reigned in the centuries after Queen Christina’s death in 1689?
  3. Have any Hellenic royals participated in the Olympics?
  4. Are there any branches of the House of Orange that reside in the Principality of Orange outside of the princely family?
  5. Do any of the Holy Roman-German Electorates have secundogenitures within them?
  6. What happened to the Electorates of Mainz and Trier after the Sixty-Six Years War?
  7. Who is the longest living spouse of a Columbian High Lord?
  8. How many new monarchs began their reigns in 2022?
  9. What is the most watched royal funeral?
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Who's the oldest living constituent monarch in the Isles?
As of 2030, the oldest constituent monarch within the Isles is The Right Reverend Alfred (V) FitzPrince, Bishop of Durham, Palatine Bishop and Count of Durham and Sadberge (colloquially called “Prince-Bishop of Durham”); who is 97 and still kicking
Is the Baltic still ruled by the House of Tudor considering the many queen regnants that have reigned in the centuries after Queen Christina’s death in 1689?
Surprisingly, yes, although there have been some interesting turns in relation to it over the generations, and there were some gaps on the tenure of House Tudor.

The how behind this fact starts with Kristina’s great-granddaughter, Viktoria, the first female king after her, who married a son of the FitzTudors of Westmoreland, Albert (regnal name Johan), and had with him many sons*; resulting on the Swedish House of Tudor being a part of the agnatic line of the Tudors instead of the cognatic main line of Elizabeth I.
Following that, the fact that Sweden and the Baltics followed male-preference primogeniture (now absolute primogeniture) resulted on the royal line stopping being Tudor in the second generation of the female kings of the 18th century (the Viktoria and Johan’s great-granddaughter) while various branches remained through the lines of the couple’s younger sons.
After the 18th century, Tudor returned to being the royal family with another female king in the 19th century (whose successor oversaw the official creation of the United Kingdom of the Baltic), who married a princeling of Fulda, whose own dynasty, due to some dynastic shenanigans involving Fulda following English forms of succession, changed from a cognatic to an illegitimate-agnatic branch of the House of Tudor.

After that, the Baltic Royal Family remained Tudor due to some of the changes in the house and succession laws favoring a more “insular” approach to marriage, which resulted on members of the family marrying mainly members of the Baltic nobility or their own cousins from other branches of the family; the current Queen of the Baltic, Ingeborg II, for example, is married to a cousin from the Dukes of Östergotland, while her late father (younger brother of her predecessor, Ulrika) married the Duchess of Uppsala.

*how their marriage came to be is on itself a complicated story, involving: the groom’s family being considered a de facto part of the extended Royal Family due to Henry IX’s actions, and him being “made” an official member of said Royal Family in the vein of Maria Amelia Tudor; and the bride’s dynasty going to great pains in the effort of defanging their nobility (to the point of the Swedish monarchy of the 17th century being one of the closest equivalents ITTL to the France of Louis XIV in terms of royal power and authority).
Have any Hellenic royals participated in the Olympics?
Yes, and in fact have done so frequently over the years, including in the first modern games, when the 1857 Olympics at Olympia saw the games being opened by the King of Morea and competed on by three of his sons, including his heir and successor, as well as his wife and two of their daughters.

The current Hellenic monarch, Augusta, herself attended three Winter Games to compete on figure skating, leaving her second attendance with a silver, and her third with a bronze
Are there any branches of the House of Orange that reside in the Principality of Orange outside of the princely family?
Yes, as of 2030 four branches of the House of Orange officially reside in the principality, which ironically don’t include the actual princely family, which isn’t considered a branch of the house (since the principality is once more in personal union with the Netherlands – though even when it isn’t Orange is de facto an exclave of them anyways – the “princely family” is basically the heir presumptive/apparent of the Stadtholder of the Netherlands and their family, who mainly reside in the Chateau and Citadel of the Princes); they are:

- Orange de Lévis, whose seat is Château de l’Hers (or Lers), they are the only one of the four to be a legitimate branch, and even after feudalism was officially ended on Orange in the ‘80s they still receive a good part of their revenue from the toll rights of their seat, which is one of the principality’s main toll stations along the Rhone – the branch is also directly responsible for Lers being a part of Orange, as they held it as a fief inherited through marriage before territorial exchanges in the 18th century saw it become a part of the principality
- Orange de Montbrison, who take their name from Montbrison-sur-Lez, the larger (but still small, not even appearing in many maps) one of the principality’s two exclaves – located within the Dauphine – which they in the past ruled as feudal lords
- Orange de Derboux, who reside at and in the past held as feudal lords the smaller of the principality’s exclaves, Derboux, a small and rural piece of land within the Holy See’s territory, with the branch being seated at its only existing settlement
- and the Orange d’Allemand, who ruled as the feudal lords of Suzette and Châteauneuf de Redortier and still reside at Château Redortier

Interestingly, just besides Orange, in the Holy See/Avignon, there is another branch of the family, the House of Orange d’Ancezune, an illegitimate line of the family who entered through marriage into the Papal Nobility, being the Dukes of Caderousse
Do any of the Holy Roman-German Electorates have secundogenitures within them?
Oh, plenty! In fact, of the nine Electorates, only Hanover, Swabia, Cologne and Pappenheim lack them.

The Palatinate has quite a few of them, some having the right to sit on the Council of Princes in the Reichstag (being the result of the independent territories of collateral lines being "re-annexed" by the Electorate and “converted” into secundogenitures) and some lacking it and remaining a part of the Electorate in the eyes of imperial law (being secundogenitures created by Electors Palatine for their younger sons with the objective of not fragmenting/relinquishing territory)

Saxony has been so proficient in the creation of secundogenitures that in modern times the Electorate is de facto a federation of smaller states that all answer to the Elector, as they are not considered actual states of the empire even if they are seen as being of the same rank as any minor member of the HR-GE. This somewhat confusing situation has resulted on the colloquial addition of “Saxon” at the start when referring to said secundogeniture states, such as the “Saxon Principality of Querfurt”

Brandenburg has had quite the number of them over the years, although in modern times they are mostly titular (in great part due to secundogenitures from the later 17th century onwards being more akin to noble estates or small fiefdoms than actual autonomous states), with the most famous example of them, Brandenburg-Küstrin, nowadays being a member-state of the Empire

Franconia has only one secundogeniture, created for the first Elector’s second son and basically comprising the third of the electorate’s territory made from the corpse of the Prince-Bishopric of Wurzburg

And Bavaria is a mixture of things, possessing five “main” secundogenitures, Ingolstadt, Straubing, Mühldorf, Rattenberg and Werdenfels, which were established in the late 17th century and possess a large degree of autonomy; and various “minor” secundogenitures that are much akin to those of Brandenburg, being in size similar to large noble estates and neither autonomous or of much importance
What happened to the Electorates of Mainz and Trier after the Sixty-Six Years War?
Unlike Cologne who was made hereditary, the other two were simply “unmade”, with the three pre-war “Spiritual Electors” mirroring the possible fates of the ecclesiastical states of the HRE. Trier had most of its territory acquired by the Hapsburgs (while its seat in the Electoral College was later symbolically transferred to the Electors of Hanover when they were created), while Mainz was cut-up and dismantled, both through being annexed by its neighbors or made into small new states
Who is the longest living spouse of a Columbian High Lord?
That is a funny question actually, because the actual longest-lived consort isn’t either of the ones that are well-known for their sheer longevity – in part due to a mix of becoming a recluse after entering widowhood and said spouse not having a long reign – so there is some confusion on the matter.

The actual longest-living consort was Prince Axel Kristiernsson Oxenstiern af Timmerön-Chrysseborg, husband of Kristina II of Newden, Viceroy from 1883 to 1890, who outlived his wife by decades, dying at 111 years and 18 days in the 1950s. the two more “well-known” cases are:

- High Duchess Gunhildr “Ice Mane” of Valhalla (1807-1910), who was just as long-lived as her husband, Gorm III, outlasting him by nearly 6 years while already being 3 years older from the start, dying at the age of 102.
- and Francine of (Piedmont) Sasparilla-Pisgah, who although ‘only’ living to 98, still outlived her husband, Bracken I of Piedmont, by a span longer than twice his entire lifetime, and during it de facto ruled the Piedmont through the reigns of her son, grandson, great-grandson, and great-great-grandson, both directly as a Regent or indirectly by influencing her offspring
- part of the reason she was so successful in that was that Francine was both an expert manipulator and, ironically, a bit unorthodox by the standards of her time (at least among nobility/royalty), being heavily involved with the upbringing of her children and, when they followed more traditional ways of child-rearing, their own; resulting on a good part of her power over Piedmont coming from the fact that the Grand Viceroys both “couldn’t” go against and directly sought her counsel​

As a side-note, the oldest spouse of a Columbian High Lord at time of becoming so (either by marrying a current HL or by their spouse’s ascension to the position) was Antonia von Lohr Langston, who was 87 when she finally married Benedict III of Avalon, 72 at the time, after decades as his semi-official mistress
How many new monarchs began their reigns in 2022?
A lot of them actually, even without counting subnational monarchs* there were over 30 new monarchs that year. They include:
- the (in)famous Empress of Louisiana, Euphemia, in May, with her ‘deposal’ of her nephew
- said nephew, with his father’s assassination in January
- the Queen of the United Mediterranean, with her father’s death in July
- the King of Livonia, with his father’s deposal by his great-grandmother in March
- the Queen of Karaman, with her brother’s death in November
- the King of Burgundy, with his father’s abdication at New Years’ Eve
- the King of the Strait (AKA Detroit), with his father’s death in in May
- the Queen of New Granada, with her grandfather’s death in December
- the *Sovereign* of Hawaii, with his father’s death in August
- and a week later his sister, as Vice-Sovereign, with the stepping-down of their mother
- the Pope, elected after a 5-days-long Conclave following his predecessor’s abdication in June
- the King of Santiago, with the declaration of his father’s death in absentia in April
- the Domnitor of Wallachia, with his grand-uncle’s death in November
- the new Domnitor’s father was still alive, but had many years before renounced his inheritance rights
- the Prince of Urgell, with his father’s death in September
- the Queen of Karaman, with her coup d’état against her husband in September
- and the Grand Duke of Hanau, with his mother’s death in October

*although if we did we could also include many others like:
- Michael Luther III Lovecraft of Providence, who became Count Palatine in May of that year
- Maria Kosnyetsya II, who became Krovkory of the Kullyspelm in June
- or the Elector of Saxony, whose father died in April
What is the most watched royal funeral?
The funeral of the Prince and Princess of Wales, and their children, in 18th June 2018, which is estimated to have been watched by over 2.5 billion people worldwide and is one of the biggest televised events in history

Did Margaret II of Scotland abdicate after her husband's death?
Yes, but not immediately, doing so about five months after his death.
Margaret II’s abdication on itself is a bit of an interesting event, as she actually made her official stepping-down a part of Duncan III’s coronation ceremony, symbolically passing the throne from her and Robert to their son (the couple were a tad too fond of theatrics, and did something similar during their own coronation)

Now going on a tangent from the answering above, I'd like to stop here and profusely apologize to anyone reading the thread for a rather big, and insane, mix-up I made in relation to Mary, Queen of Scots, and her status on the TL; such a glaring one I'm embarassed it took me so long to notice it.
As some of you may notice/remember, until now I've been acting as if Margeret II of Scotland was a ITTL Mary, Queen of Scots, who changed her regnal name at some point... the problem is that that is completely against what I created on the TL, and sincerely can't even understand how I messed it up so badly.
Originally, I admit, I did have the idea of Mary and Margaret being the same individual early on; but after a while developing the TL I changed it so they were completely different individuals. And then when I actually started posting things about the TL, I managed to forget that I had done so, and since I had Mary as Margaret II for so long during the TL's early stages, my brain immediately went forwards with her still being so instead of remembering that I A) had changed it, and B) showed that fact on the family tree I made!
So... sorry for the mix-up, Mary, Queen of Scots, remained with such name ITTL and Margaret II is simply her great-granddaughter
Do you plan on make infoboxes for the Scottish Monarchs from the POD up to Margaret III?
I admittedly wasn't until you asked, so, here they are:
The Kings and Queens of Scotland
From Mary I to Duncan III

The second female monarch of Scotland, and the first to rule independently, Mary I, commonly referred to as simply, Mary Queen of Scots even ITTL, was mostly the same during her reign, which also went a similar route to OTL. At her inheritance of the Throne of Scotland, she was one of the youngest monarchs to ascend to a throne, being only six days-old when her father, James V, died.
Betrothed at a young age to the future Francis II of France, Mary was sent to live in her fiancée's homeland at the age of 5, and would spend the next thirteen years there, only returning to Scotland in 1561 following Francis' death of a middle ear infection.
A Roman Catholic, Mary was, to the surprise of many, highly accepting of the Protestant ascension within Scotland during her reign, and seems to have been a proponent for religious tolerance, believing that the maintenance of royal power and authority superseded religious disputes. In that regard, Mary is normally seen in a good light, having a privy council that was mostly protestant, and often acting against the main Catholic leaders within the country, but also championing for the loosening of religious restrictions, most noticeable in the granting of permission to celebrate of Mass privately in 1567.
After five years bachelor, Mary finally married again, this time to Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, in 1565. While a sound match in some regards, as Henry was Mary's first cousin and the person with the best claim to the Scottish Throne after herself, it was received with much protest by many, both in Scotland and outside of it (as Lord Darnley was technically an English subject). Even Mary's chief advisor, the half-brother the Earl of Moray, was against the union, and only convinced after over a fortnight of talks and screaming matches.
While ultimately (and fortunately) accepted by the Scottish, the marriage that followed was neither a long nor a happy one, rapidly growing strained as Darnley grew ambitious and arrogant, demanding to be made his wife co-monarch, to which Mary refused, further damaging their relationship. This downward spiral culminated in March 9th, 1566, when Darnley conspired to have the queen's private secretary and close friend, David Rizzio, murdered in front of her at a dinner party. Horrified and distressed, Mary entered pre-term labor from the shock, and spent nearly two days in a prolonged labor that nearly killed both her and her sons, and had permanent ill effects on her health.
This event shocked and outraged Scottish society of the time, and was then compounded by Mary, half-mad in grief and anger, openly accusing Darnley of attempting to murder her and their sons in a bid to the throne after she denied him the Crown Matrimonial. The event resulted in Darnley's arrest for treason, with him being incarcerated in Edinburgh Castle for the remainder of his life; which ended only some months later in January, 1567, when he was found dead in his quarters under mysterious circumstances.
Mary herself didn't outlive her sorry excuse of a husband by much, as she died only a few months later, while returning from visiting her sons in Stirling Castle; many believe it to have been an assassination, although another common theory is that she had a fatal aneurysm.

The longest-reigning monarch in Scottish history, and the third consecutive one to have ascended to the throne as an infant, James VI was only 1 when his mother, Mary I, died unexpectedly while returning to Edinburgh from a visit to him and his brother. As an infant, and then a child, James was for the first 15 years of his reign under the regency of his maternal half-uncle, the Earl Moray, whom James grew to see as a surrogate father.
James' reign is mainly marked by his struggles against the Scottish aristocracy, which are seen as having started with the Ruthven Raid in 1582, when the Earl of Gowie and his allies imprisoned the young king and for some months took control of the Scottish government. His moves in curbing the power of his nobles are often remembered for often how underhanded, if not malicious, they could manage to be, and it is believed that more than once James used outright murder and assassination to get rid of "unwieldy" vassals.
An interesting effect, however, of James' moves to curb the power of the nobility was his rapprochement with the Highland Clans (in special of the Northwest), whose continued autonomy he saw as an acceptable price for them supporting his subjugation of the Lowlands under royal power. This wasn't, however, without its hurdles, and the king is believed to have been rather generous in dealing murders to more vocally opposed chiefs and lords (probably including his cousin, the Earl of Orkney).
Outside Scotland's internal affairs, which also saw a greater subjugation of the Kirk to the Crown, James also sought to strengthen its ties to the rest of the Isles, something that was in part caused by his brother's marriage, as the two were closer and James' ended-up developing a surprising friendship with his sister-in-law.
An interesting, but rarely mentioned, aspect of his life and reign is James' interests in the occult and the supernatural, as well as witchcraft, born from visiting Denmark for his marriage. Even publishing a book on the subject, Demonologuie, in 1597, James was ironically a skeptic of witchcraft in general, even while being a strong believer of other supernatural or mythical matters, and in 1599 banned the Malleus Maleficarum from Scotland.
Although successful, James' reign, later on, was marred by the complicated question of succession, as by 1620 his seniormost heir was the Prince of Wales, due to the childless death and disinheriting of his sons (and the laws of succession's exclusion of his daughters), and at the time a union with England and Ireland was not seen in a good light by the Scottish. This was only resolved with the Treaty of Fotheringhay, where the then Prince of Wales abandoned his claim and passed it to his eldest younger brother, Robert, who also happened to be James's son-in-law.
Ruling for a total of 57 years, James VI died at the age of 59 in December of 1625, shortly after suffering a stroke; he was at the time staying at Dunnottar Castle, which he had bought from the Earls Marischal in 1611.

Succeeding their father and father-in-law respectively, Margaret II and Robert IV were the first and only reigning couple of Scotland, with Robert IV inheriting the throne from his uncle, James VI, and less than a month later having her made queen regnant, with the two being crowned as co-monarchs together at the end of that month.
Although a vivacious and energetic couple, the two actually ruled over one of the most peaceful times Scotland had had in generations, seeing a growth in population and wealth, a lull in its internal affairs following the oft-tumultuous reigns of James and Mary, and a neutral and faraway stance on the chaos embroiling the European mainland.
It was also during their reign that Scotland truly ventured into colonization in the New World, using its newfound prosperity to the establishment of the Colony of Darien in Central America, which somehow faced and survived just about all possible dangers and difficulties for a colony on the region, and the settlement of New Scotland in the North, which while claimed under James VI had been barely above a couple of fishing outposts by the end of his reign.
The rather prosperous and calm situation of Scotland at the time, however, also proved to be a fertile bed for the growth of art and culture, with the mid-17th century being seen as something of a Golden Age for Scottish literature, music, and art, just as James VI's had been for Scottish theater.
A deeply loving couple, even with Robert having a number of mistresses and bastards, the two were often said to not work as well alone as they did together; as such, when Robert died of gout in 1645, Margaret II only remained on the throne for a few more months, abdicating at their son's coronation. She did live some for some 30-odd years more, being known as a common fixture of her granddaughter's court, and her Regent when necessary.

The only son and eldest child of Margaret II and Robert IV, Duncan III succeeded his parents to the throne at the age of 33, and died on it at the age of 39, being the briefest of the monarchs of House Stewart, at 6 years and 209 days at the longest.
Living as Heir to the Throne over twice as long as he sat on it, Duncan is often seen as more well-known for his *lively* personal life than for his actual reign, being commonly remembered for his philandery, in special as a widower, and for his literary accomplishments, being a poet and musician of considerable talent.
As king, Duncan is mostly remembered for his work outside of Europe, where he mostly went with the momentum of his parent's reign, as during his time he placed a greater emphasis into the expansion and entrenchment of Scotland's colonial possessions in the New World; unlike his predecessors, however, he did so through other ways than simply "bringing more colonists and settlers", and instead attempted to do so just as much through diplomacy. Because of that, he is often seen as how Darien even managed to keep existing, establishing pacts and alliances with local peoples to give the colony a steadier basis, and for how Scotland managed to gain a foothold and control on Arcadia, with many of its southern Fiefdoms being a direct result of his deals with the region's native polities and de facto independent colonies.
Also confronted with the matter of succession like his grandfather, unlike James VI, Duncan found success in changing the laws of succession to the Scottish Throne, and as such was succeeded directly by his eldest daughter, Margaret III

[1] Bishop John Lesley, a confidant of the Queen, said she was born on the 7th, while John Knox, who was present, and Mary herself, claimed it was on the 8th, which was the feast day of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary
[2] While originally buried at Holyrood Abbey (where her father also resides), Mary had expressed the desire to be buried at Iona Abbey, where many of Scotland's ancient monarchs were laid to rest; this wish was finally fulfilled in 1617 by her son
[3] IOTL known as John de Critz, although he held the post of Serjeant Painter in England, the ties between the English and Scottish monarchs resulted on him also often being commissioned by James VI for portraiture
[4] The illegitimate half-brother and advisor to Mary, Queen of Scots, much like OTL he became the Regent for his half-nephew, James VI, but unlike OTL he was never assassinated (in great part due to Mary dying instead of being deposed), and remained on the position until James was declared of age in 1582
[5] While it is commonly declared that her reign started on December 5th itself, Margaret II wasn't officially Queen regnant of Scotland until the 1st of January, as that was the time it took for the proceedings recognizing her as such to be completed
[6] similarly to above, while it isn't rare for people to believe that Duncan III's reign started upon the death of Robert IV in March, as Margaret II herself treated her time between it and August as a sort of placeholder-reign, but it only officially started when she abdicated to him at his coronation


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  1. Who's the youngest living constituent monarch in the Isles?
  2. Are the five most recent Kings of Tuscany also the same five that aren't descended from Cosimo III?
  3. Has Spain ever had a jure uxoris king?
  4. Is the County Palatine of Neuburg still in a personal union with the Duchy of Julich and Berg?
  5. Who's the oldest living consort of a Columbian High Lord?
  6. Do any of the Columbian High Lordships besides Piedmont have secundogenitures within them?
  7. How many new monarchs began their reigns in 1980?
Who's the youngest living constituent monarch in the Isles?
The current ruler of Desmond, who at 7 is both the youngest and most recently ascended of them (as of 2031), having succeeded his older half-brother in November of 2030
Are the five most recent Kings of Tuscany also the same five that aren't descended from Cosimo III?
No. The 5 not descended from Francesco II (Cosimo is his brother whose children were adopted) were 2 the result of usurpation/civil war and the other 3 are the result of the French Empire installing them there.

That’s why Francesco’s descendants make all rulers of Tuscan Guiana, since either it remained “loyal” to them during times of usurpation or, in the case of the French installation, they pulled a House of Braganza
Has Spain ever had a jure uxoris king?
Besides the one from IOTL, Philip the Handsome of Castile?
Just joking.

Even if we exclude times after the most recent breakup of Spain, there have been 3 kings jure uxoris
Is the County Palatine of Neuburg still in a personal union with the Duchy of Julich and Berg?
No, but that’s because the dukes sold Neuburg in the 19th century and have only kept the title and nominal secundogeniture
Who's the oldest living consort of a Columbian High Lord?
The Dowager Consort of the Lenape, Louis of Minisik, who’s 82
Do any of the Columbian High Lordships besides Piedmont have secundogenitures within them?
Both Worchester and Valhalla have secundogeniture’s amidst their domains, and Maryland, Gonglfaen and Vandalia have what amounts to de facto/unofficial secundogenitures
How many new monarchs began their reigns in 1980?
Nearly too many to count.

1980 was a particularly active year in regards to successions and inheritances, with at least one occurring basically every other day, with it in total having 208 new monarchs

Although admittedly the petty monarchs of the HR-GE and Columbia were extremely “helpful” with the numbers, as they had 63 and 29 of them respectively
Ah, ok. That's quite a big age-gap.
A bit of an extreme one, yes, the half-brother ended-up being more of a father to him than anything else.

Why it is such a big one has a somewhat simple answer: the best description I can give to their father is “less dickish Walder Frey”.

Although how there wasn’t a sibling somewhere in between that age gap to inherit…
now that’s a interesting story
  1. What's the oldest intact French royal dukedom?
  2. Do any of the monarchs that reside within the HR-GE have Asian ancestry?
  3. Are there any branches of the House of Hanover in the Americas besides the Vandalian one?
  4. Have any Columbian High Lords opened the Olympics?
  5. How many new Columbian monarchs began their reigns in 1938?
What's the oldest intact French royal dukedom?
that is a surprisingly difficult question to answer, actually, due to a wide variety of twists and turns; theoretically the oldest one would probably be the Duchy of Berry, since it has long-since disjointed from the throne of Navarre due to clashing inheritances. But said duchy of Berry has now become a wholly Navarrese title, as France stopped recognizing it during the Empire's time
officially the oldest male-line-only royal dukedom of France is actually, ironically enough, that of Duke of Bourbon, which is also the oldest royal dukedom recognized by France, having been established for Louis XIII's fifth son, Louis Antoine (while his fourth's son, Henri Philippe, had his title become extinct two generations later)
Do any of the monarchs that reside within the HR-GE have Asian ancestry?
If we're speaking of recent asian ancestry, a few of them do, although, ironically enough, almost all cases are through Russia of all places, as a considerable number of Russian princely houses are directly descended from the khans of Central Asia and Siberia, and quite a few of them have also intermarried with their peers and kinsmen farther into east asia and mongolia as well.
a few monarchs of the HR-GE can also claim middle-eastern ancestry as well, due to the unnexpected marriage between a main Mecklenburger duke and a disgraced Hashemite princess in the 40s

if we discount those, there are also a few of them descended from Juliana of the United Provinces, as 2 of her daughters married princes of the Empire (the Prince of Salm-Salm and the Duke of Brunswick-Calenberg) and their own children also married mostly among their ranks; ironically enough this ended-up causing a few more asian brides/grooms to the royalty of the HR-GE, as over the years Juliana's daughters and their children traveled back to China to visit, and ended-up returning with distant relatives or new friends accompanying them back to Europe.
Because of this, the current Elector of Hanover is actually a fourth Korean and an eight chinese
Are there any branches of the House of Hanover in the Americas besides the Vandalian one?
none that aren't at least descended from the Vandalian Hanovers, no
Have any Columbian High Lords opened the Olympics?
Yes! of the 5 Olympic games that have been hosted in Columbia, 4 of them have been opened by their host cities' High Lords, most recently with Horik II of Valhalla opening the 1983 Winter Olympics at Timbuctoo (equivalent of OTL Lake Placid) and Theophania of Worchester opening the 1977 Summer Olympics at Worchester itself
the most recent olympic games in Columbia were the 1997 Summer Olympics at Palm Beach
How many new Columbian monarchs began their reigns in 1938?
ironically enough for the 100-years anniversary of Columbia, not many of them actually, with only 3 changes in monarchs occuring in that year, being them:
- Gorlois II of Cape Fear, who succeded his father, Vincent Cador, in the 1st of February, following the man's death in a sailing accident
- Hope I of Saybrook, who succeded her uncle, John VI, in the 20th of August, following his murder
- and Johan Adolf of Blackater, who succeded his mother, Anna, in the 3rd of September, following her conversion to Catholicism and entrance into a convent in Sicily
  1. Who’s the longest-reigning British constituent monarch that is living?
  2. What’s the youngest Danish royal cadet duchy?
  3. Did Belgium had jure uxoris kings after Renard I?
  4. When did the last living German Elector that reigned during the Great War die?
  5. Is Worchester still ruled by the House of Oldenburg?
The Cold-Hearted Swot
or... What if Edward VI had lived twice as long


A Foreword
Hi, to some people this TL might already be known, and for them my only declaration is that I've finally decided to make a thread for this thing instead of holding it on the Infoboxes, Alternate Monarchs/Lineages and Maps threads, and that they'll notice that I have done some updating and revisioning of some aspects of the TL itself (which I am grateful to @Kellan Sullivan for, we may have started in a rather rocky situation but I'm truly floored and immensely grateful for your help in not only revising the genealogy of the earlier generations but in a major way reviving the TL for me).
And for those curious about the name, it comes from a line on the threat "List of Monarchs III" that I started with the same premise as this TL back in July 2020, with credit going to (I think) @Premier Taylerov for adding the name to it (which got lodged into my brain as a perfect one for this TL)

Finally, for those who have no idea what's this, "The Cold-Hearted Swot" is a TL that I sort-of-started in the middle of July, 2020, with a bundle of infoboxes without any writing on them, and that I posted about through the later half of that year.

The Premise

Although a compelling argument can be most certainly made that the POD was a while before that, the specific premise of this TL is that Edward VI (the eponymous "Cold-Hearted Swot"), instead of dying at age 15 in 1553 from what was probably tuberculosis*, lived until the ripe old age of 31 as a sickly man, marrying Jane Grey and having children who continued, through a way or another, the Tudor Dynasty, resulting on a completely changed world by the timeline's present.
For those wondering, the date that is used as the "present" for this timeline is January 1st, 2031, (or a full decade later than the date used in the original)

*For the context of the TL, Edward VI contracted tuberculosis (often called "consumption" even in modern times ITTL) in 1553 after fighting a bout of both measles and smallpox the year before which weakened him to the point of being incapable of fighting the disease (other theories I have seen say he died of acute bronchopneumonia, which that led to lung abscess, septicemia and kidney failure, or that he was poisoned), with the idea here being that, through sheer dumb luck (and possibly a lack of poisoning in an attempt to hasten death), his immune system, instead of giving in, shouldered on for the good part of two decades.
and now, The Cold Hearted Swot himself, Edward the Sixth
View attachment 706537

Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 16 July 1569) was King of England and Ireland[1] from 28 January 1547 until his death in 1569, being crowned on 20 February 1547 at the age of nine. Edward was the son of Henry VIII by his third wife, Jane Seymour, being his only surviving legitimate son, and England and Ireland's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. He is held by most Brittanic Churches as one of the "Royal Saints of the Isles", being traditionally commemorated on 30 January.

Born to his father after decades of Henry VIII hungering for a male heir, although his mother only lived for a week following her son's christening, Edward VI was at birth and on his early years a remarkably healthy and strong child, although with a generally poor eyesight and surviving a bout of malaria at age four. Although remembered in modern times as sickly all his life, Edward only came to be so in 1553 when, after having contracted measles and smallpox the year before, he became ill with consumption and nearly died during a year-long war against the disease, and, although recovering, Edward VI was permanently affected by the illness, being often bedridden during the second half of his life.

A child when he ascended to the throne, a regency council was supposed to govern the realm from 1547 until Edward's majority in 1553, being first led by the king's maternal uncle, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (1547-1549), and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick (later made Duke of Northumberland in 1551), but Edward VI's drawn-out fight with consumption through what was supposed to be the regency's last year meant that it was de facto extended until the beginnings of 1555.
Although the regency years are often remembered for their economic problems and social and religious unrest, which erupted into riot and rebellion in 1549, as well as by an expensive war with Scotland (which saw the loss of Boulogne-Sur-Mer for England and a total withdrawal from Scotland), and are characterized by scheming and power-grabbing by regents and councilmembers, modern historians now prefer to take a more moderate approach to those years, seeing them as instead being divided by the disastrous "Somerset Protectorate" while Northumberland's tenure is often seen as being, while not prosperous, a general return to normalcy and peace.

The Northumberland Regency was, though, in a way marred by not only Edward VI's near death but by two scandals involving the personal lives of both the Royal Family and Northumberland's. The first was when the king's middle sister, then simply "The Lady Elizabeth", gave birth in middle 1552 to a son – named Edward in his uncle's honor – and, when asked who had fathered her "bastard", revealed that the child was, in fact, born in wedlock, and that she had eloped[2] with Lord Robert Dudley, Northumberland's fifth son.
Although the scandal resulted on the couple's temporary banishment to Ireland, Northumberland himself survived it relatively unscathed (Edward recognized the duke's lack of involvement, and would soon-enough himself forgive his sister and brother-in-law for the entire affair), and after that the next one came only in 1554, when, still bedridden but relatively safe from death, Edward VI married his paternal first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, heiress suo jure of the Dukedom of Suffolk.[3]
Now, if the marriage was simply that, a scandal would most certainly not have happened, and, instead, the scandal came from the fact that not only Edward VI himself was betrothed to a French princess[4], which would result on a minor "staring contested" between them and England, but Jane herself was also betrothed, in this case to Northumberland's second-youngest son, Guilford, who, as a companion and friend of the king, was actually one of the witnesses of the marriage, performed by Thomas Cranmer.
Many historians believe that Edward himself had long been in love with his cousin, with whom he had been in some level of friendship since childhood, and that those feelings had been equally requited by Jane, but that until his near-death experience the king had resigned himself to never act upon them due to their obligations as king and heiress, with his brush with death causing Edward to decide on following on his father's footsteps and marry the woman he desired to be with.
When compared to Henry VIII and his own marital life, though, Edward VI had a much happier and successful one, with him and Jane remaining together until his death and having six children, five of whom survived to adulthood. His only known extramarital affair, had with Lady Lettice Knollys[5] from late 1560 to early 1564, was in a major part sprouted from the fact that the birth of the future Henry IX in 1560 nearly killed the queen and caused Edward to refrain from bedding her for the following few years, with Lettice herself being only chosen as a mistress due to her being one of the queen's closest ladies-in-waiting, one of her friends, and almost uncomfortably outspoken of her fervent loyalty to her.

Although of a fascination over the military arts, in that area Edward VI focused inward, and invested in the development of England’s defenses instead of in entering foreign endeavors or satiating foreign ambitions, believing them to have too great of a chance of being either disastrous or pyrrhic to even try, and while his father founded the Royal Navy and his wife and children made it a true strength, he is credited with fortifying the shores of England from outside invasions.
Edward VI also has as part of his legacy the defenses of the Pale of Calais, who, ironically, he was not quiet about considering an economic burden so great that it often outshined any kind of economic advantage it granted England, with many believing that the main reason behind his investment in the pale’s defense was the fact that Edward VI hoped to make it less of a nuisance to protect by making it a greater nuisance to even attack. Although much of the Pale’s fortifications were destroyed by the Conquest in 1884, their ruins and the memories of the Last Siege of Calais serve as a permanent reminder of Edward VI’s work there.

In Ireland Edward VI’s reign is mainly remembered for the actions of his sister, Elizabeth, who, even before her “pardon” in September of 1553, decided to make herself into a diplomat and middle-man between her brother and the various de facto independent lords and princes of Ireland, using her unique sort of Tudor charisma to ingrain herself among the local aristocracy, establishing a foundation to the true entrance of the remaining uncontrolled parts of the island into the Kingdom of Ireland later in the 16th century. Although it was only many years after his death, Elizabeth became Edward’s de facto deputy in Dublin by the end of the 1550s, and would work with him also in expanding Protestantism through Ireland, which was still firmly of a Catholic majority.

And it is on the area of religion that Edward VI is most remembered for, as he not only was the first of England and Ireland’s monarchs to be raised a true Protestant, but it was he who reigned over the real turn of England to Protestantism. Under Henry VIII, the Church of England, while severed from Rome, had never renounced Catholic doctrine or ceremony, with it being under Edward VI that it transformed into a recognizably protestant body.
Interestingly, though, while many of those reforms were established early into Edward’s reign, in special during the Duke of Somerset’s protectorate, it was during the course of the following two decades that those reforms settled in with the population, gained new companions, or were changed in part due to the King’s own changing views on religion.
Edward VI himself was a rather unrelenting individual in relation to religion, and, while he did take some interestingly compensatory turns, in relation to desecrated or destroyed religious buildings and institution, Edward VI is still remembered for his dedication to stamping out Catholicism in England, which saw the Brother’s Revolt and Burning of East Anglia in the 1560s.
In Cornwall and Wales Edward also used of propaganda and indoctrination in his attempts to sway the local populations to Protestantism, although many also credit his wife with the idea, and as part of that endeavor he commissioned official translations of the Bible, and later the Book of Common Prayer, to Cornish and Welsh.
In Ireland, as mentioned before, Edward VI, is remembered for his work with his sister in spreading the reformation, often serving as the monetary backer for her efforts in doing so, taking from the royal coffers and estates to fund the translation, printing and spreading of the bible in Irish Gaelic.

Outside of his conjugal life and religion, Edward VI’s personal life and relationships is a matter that is often misrepresented and debated. Unlike what is often believed, Edward VI was a relatively gregarious individual most of the time, being known in special for being, even after 1553, a surprisingly charming and endearing individual, being marked by having an almost incredibly ease to make friends, even if he was known for having only a few with whom he was truly close.
Among his friendships, though, Edward VI’s most famous and remembered one is that which he had with Barnaby Fitzpatrick, 2nd Baron Upper Ossory. Childhood companions, the two shared a deep attachment for their entire lives, with Edward freely admitting as an adult that the bond he had with Barnaby was only comparable to the one he had with his wife.
Especially in Edward’s later years, Barnaby was one of the few people who made him actually seem pleased with or enjoy things, and as he became frailer and bedridden the two would often spend entire days and night in the king’s quarters playing cards, joking around, doing governmental work, or even simply spending time together.

Within his family, Edward was known for having a deep admiration for his father, whom he lost early in life, and an complicated relationship with his sisters, whom he grew-up close to and was openly caring but whom he often bashed heads and personalities with.
As a child it is often said that Edward VI had a species of rivalry with his sister Elizabeth, with whom he often felt the need to “match” in the matter of his own education and learning, and as adults the two often involved themselves in matches of wit and planning as a way to stack-up on eachother. During Edward VI’s early reign, the two are also remembered for having a period of a great estrangement between them, caused in great part by the events surrounding Lord Thomas Seymour, and it was only following her scandal and his convalescence that their relationship recovered.

With his sister Mary, Edward’s relationship was even more complex and tumultuous at times, as he grew up seeing her, in a way, as a surrogate mother, and while often times priggish in his opinions about her religion, going as far as (mainly during the early 1550s) threatening Mary with retaliatory actions on the matter, as he grew older Edward strangely came to resign himself to never truly acting, and with time not even really commenting, on his sister’s religious position, while Mary herself chose to over time not think about the gigantic elephant in the room between them.
To many the point that showed (or possibly motivated) that development was in 1555, when Lady Mary, then 39, became pregnant out of wedlock[6]. Although silent when he heard the news, the king answered them a few weeks later (some weeks of tense uncertainty among both his court and whatever parts of Europe had already heard of the situation) by personally riding to visiting his sister. No-one really knows what the two were thinking or what they spoke, but the meeting between them at Hunsdon House ended with Mary moving back to court, and a few months later Edward gave her a dukedom[7].
While Mary returned to living away from court later on, and would only periodically return to visit, the two siblings remained relatively close until her death in 1561.

Sickly from 1553 until the end of his life, Edward VI died at the age of 31 in July 16th, 1569, from what was probably him finally giving in to consumption after their many years together. Outlived by all but one of his children, Edward VI was succeeded by his only surviving son, the nine-years-old Henry IX.
Jane Grey would outlive her husband by 35 years, dying in the early years of the 17th century, and would serve as Queen Regent to their son and then sit on the Regency Council for their grandson, and live to see their daughter, and eldest child, become England (and Ireland)’s first Queen Regnant.

[1] the matter of the titles of the monarch of Ireland was a contentious one during Edward VI's adult reign (as well as at least parts of those of his children), as although officially “King of Ireland”, the nature of the title as a very recent one resulted on various vassals (both nominal or not) referring to the monarch as “Lord of Ireland” during their dealings and diplomacy with his deputies, although by the end of the 16th century the title “King/Queen of Ireland” had become the sole one being used
[2] Elizabeth (and, when ordered by her, Robert) never revealed the exact date of the elopement, and only said that it was after her 18th birthday and early enough that her son was conceived in holy matrimony
[3] Jane was the first woman in the Peerage of England to inherit a dukedom on her own right, the story of how that happened begging with Lady Frances Brandon, Jane's mother and the eldest daughter and surviving child of Princess Mary, younger sister of Henry VIII, and Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk (of the second creation), who, when her half-brothers, the 2nd and 3rd dukes, died in 1551 (only hours form each-other), became the seniormost descendant of the 1st duke even if his title became extinct.
Now, as Lady Frances was of royal descent and her husband, Lord Henry Grey, a high-ranking peer, having inherited the Marquessate of Dorset from his father in 1530 as its 3rd Marquess, and a member of Edward VI’s regency council, it was decided to make said husband the first Duke of Suffolk of a third creation through Frances’ personal right to the title, with Henry Grey being granted the title on October 11th, 1551, at the same ceremony where John Dudley was made the “1st Duke of Northumberland”.
Although the couple was relatively young (both Henry and Frances being in their mid-30s), they lacked any surviving sons and had seen a relatively long between the births of their three daughters, resulting on the decision for Henry’s letters patent to establish that, should he died without male heirs, the title would be inherited by his eldest daughter, Jane, although the title of “Marquess of Dorset” would not be included in her “theoretical” inheritance as it had no , having instead Henry’s younger brother, John, as its presumptive heir.
Interestingly, this single stipulation, creating a semi-salic succession to the dukedom, resulted on, in the following years and decades, the gradual normalization of new peerages being created already semi-salic, which culminated on a royal act retroactively making all hereditary titles semi-salic in inheritance
Although Jane’s parents weren’t old and continued trying to have children, she in the end inherited her father’s dukedom only a few months after becoming Queen, when her father died in an accident while hunting with the royal couple (causing Jane to forswear any kind of hunting and even most outdoors physical activities).
Frances, now a widow, remarried a few years later to her Master of the Horse, Adrian Stokes, and had with him some happy and rather fruitful 20 years together
[4] the future Queen consort Isabella of Spain
[5] by her first marriage the Countess of Essex, by birth Lady Lettice had the strange status of both being and not-being King Edward VI's cousin, as her mother, Catherine Carey, was the niece of Queen Anne Boleyn through her sister, Mary Boleyn, and as such Lettice was by blood the first cousin once removed of his sister Elizabeth. A relatively-considerable number of modern historians believe that Catherine Carey was actually a biological child of Henry VIII, as she was born around the time her mother was Henry's mistress, if those historians are correct, then Lettice was Edward’s biological half-niece
[6] At some point in late 1555 or early 1556, Lady Mary had some species of emotional breakdown, which she later told was due to a mix of an epiphany over her own life and anguish/jealousy over her own wishes for a family in light of the at the time recent birth of her brother’s eldest daughter, and ended-up getting, as some would say, “plastered” before bedding one of her servants
[7] the Dukedom of Buckingham is often considered probably the English peerage with the most unusual laws in regards to its inheritance, as, due to the boy’s birth out of wedlock, Edward VI established the dukedom’s remainder as being “to the heirs of the 1st Duke’s body by any means begotten”, meaning that, unlike any other English peerage, the dukedom is passable through both legitimate and illegitimate lines
Who’s the longest-reigning British constituent monarch that is living?
although Alfred (V) FitzPrince nearly claims that title, at a total of 50 years and 338 days (as of December 31st, 2030), the longest-reigning British constituent monarch that is still living is Cathbarr III O'Donnel, who at the age of 75 has been the King of Tyrconnel for the past 51 years
What’s the youngest Danish royal cadet duchy?
Interestingly (or ironically, I'm not sure), much like IOTL the Danish Royal Family didn't really create royal duchies unless they related to Schleswig-Holstein, with the breakup of the Danish Empire being in part directly credited to them going back on this and giving duchies to younger sons (and even then, specifically tying said duchies to outside of the "core" of the country)
because of this, the only true "royal duchy" that exists in Denmark is that of "Duke of Lolland", which is a title directly tied to the heir to the throne and relatively recent

the closest thing to it that Denmark does have, however, is that ever since the near-end of the 19th century, male grandsons of a Danish monarch, upon their marriage, receive a countship, whose title, in accordance with Danish law, is inherited by all of their legitimate descendants
in that regard, the youngest royal cadet is that of Prince Ulrich, Lensgreve (Count) of Gerlef, the Danish monarch's first cousin/brother-in-law, whose marriage in 2027 resulted in its' creation
Did Belgium had jure uxoris kings after Renard I?
Yes! Not often but it did happen every time Belgium had a reigning queen (as they ended-up adopting the same custom as Portugal, where a reigning queen's husband becomes king jure uxoris upon their first child); as such, we have had a total of 4 kings jure uxoris of Belgium:
- Louis I, the husband of Maria Agnes III (early 18th century, granddaughter of Maximilian IV)
- Maximilian VI, the first husband of Maria Theresa (19th century, daughter of Renard III)
- Albert, the second husband of Maria Theresa
and - Alphonse III, the husband of Amelie (20th century, granddaughter of Alphonse II)
When did the last living German Elector that reigned during the Great War die?
the last one to kick the bucket, so to say, was Walburga II, Electress of Hanover, who reigned during the entire course of the Great War and died in 1959
Is Worchester still ruled by the House of Oldenburg?
No, by 2030 its' ruling family is actually a branch of the House of Pendragon, due to one of the younger sons of Empress Morgause marrying the Vicereine of Worchester in the 1900s (them being in fact the grandparents of Vicereine Theophania)
Yes! Not often but it did happen every time Belgium had a reigning queen (as they ended-up adopting the same custom as Portugal, where a reigning queen's husband becomes king jure uxoris upon their first child); as such, we have had a total of 4 kings jure uxoris of Belgium:
- Louis I, the husband of Maria Agnes III (early 18th century, granddaughter of Maximilian IV)
- Maximilian VI, the first husband of Maria Theresa (19th century, daughter of Renard III)
- Albert, the second husband of Maria Theresa
and - Alphonse III, the husband of Amelie (20th century, granddaughter of Alphonse II)
What about the Belgian kings jure uxoris before Renard I?

Also, were there any other countries besides Belgium that adopted Portugal’s customs regarding kings jure uxoris?
A Streamlined Family Tree of the House of Habsburg, through the 16th and 17th centuries
The Descent of the House of Habsburg
From the sons of Joana the Mad and Philip the Handsome, to the end of the 17th century

the Ancient and Austrian coats of arms of the dynasty, as Counts of Habsburg and then Dukes of Austria and Styria
Juana I “La Loca”, Queen of the Spains (b.1479:d.1555) m. Philip “The Handsome”, jure uxoris King of Castile (b.1478:d.1506)
1) Eleanor of Austria (b.1498:d.1558) m. Manuel of Portugal (b.1469:d.1521) later married King Francis I of France (without issue)
-See Infanta Maria of Portugal, Duchess of Viseu, second wife of King Philip II of Spain
2) Charles V & I, Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Spains (and more) (b.1500:d.1558) m. Isabella of Portugal (b.1503:d.1539)
-1) Philip II & I, King of the Spains, Duke of Milan and Imperial Vicar of Italy (and more) (b.1527:d.1598)
-By Infanta Maria Manuela of Portugal (b.1527:d.1545), his double first cousin
--1) Carlos II, King of the Spains (and more) (b.1545:d.1601) m. Isabella of France (b.1545:d.1568)
---1) Philip III, King of the Spains (and more) (b.1562:d.1625)
----1) Philip IV, King of the Spains (and more) (b.1590:d.1655)
-----1) Philip, Prince of Asturias and Girona (b.1617:d.1653)
-----By Maria Gabriella of Naples (b.1619:d.1641), his cousin, then heiress to Naples and Sicily
-----By Maria Anna of Inner Austria (b.1628:d.1699), his cousin, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand III
------1) Carlos III, King of the Spains (and more) (b.1644:d.1704)
-------1) Ferdinand VI, King of the Spains (and more) (b.1659)
--------Married thrice (his second being to Elizabeth Farnese of Parma), through his second he continued the royal line of Spain,
--------and is as such ancestor of all modern Iberian monarchs (although it is through the third that his male line continues
-------2) Infante Juan Carlos, 1st Duke of Pamplona (b.1659:d.1697)
--------Married to Princess Blanche of Navarre, appears on the line of the Tudors, had offspring
-------3) Infanta Maria of Spain, Queen consort of Navarre (b.1661:d.1718)
--------Married to the future Antoine II of Navarre, appears on the line of the Tudors, had offspring
-------4) Eight other surviving daughters
--------Of them, Maria Anna and Maria Helena entered religious orders, Maria Julia married the Duke of Savoy, Maria Carmen
--------married the Elector of Bavaria, and Marias Eugenia, Victoria, Catharina and Juana married their cousins across the sea
----2) Infante Manuel of Spain, 5th Count of Chinchón (b.1593:d.1661)
----m. Élisabeth de La Trémoille (b.1601:d.1664), sister-in-law of the 1st Duke of Richmond
-----Married to a French noblewoman (although her mother was a Princess of Nassau) who had to convert to Roman Catholicism
-----for it to go through, they were the forefathers of the House of Austria-Vallabriga (whose members include the Dukes of
-----Burgos and the Dukes of Alba) as well as ancestors of the Royal House of Cyprus
----3) Infante Carlos of Spain, Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria della Scala and Archbishop of Toledo (b.1597:d.1639)
----4) Infante Juan of Spain, Viceroy of Peru (b.1601:d.1659)
-----The first legitimate Hapsburg to be sent as a viceroy to the New World, some generations later his descendants would
-----become the Peruvian Royal Family and "co-found" the Argentinian Royal Family
----5) See Maria Antonia, wife of Albert II, Lord of the Netherlands
----6) See Maria Anna of Spain, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III
---2) Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain (b.1564:d.1597)
---Married to Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, together they had eight surviving children
---3) See Infanta Isabella Eugenia of Spain, wife of Albert I, Lord of the Netherlands
---4) See Infante Carlos of Spain, Viceroy of Valencia, married to his half-aunt, Infanta Maria
---5) Infanta Maria Inez of Spain (b.1568:d.1620), a nun since the age of 15
----Mother of the Duchess Maria of Braganza (b.1583:d.1634), canonized as a saint in 1734 for her responsibility in the peaceful
----catechization and inoculation of the Cambeba Civilization of the Amazon, who recognized her a such since the 1630s
-By Infanta Maria of Portugal, Duchess of Viseu (b.1521:d.1579), his paternal first cousin and maternal half-aunt
--1) Ferdinando IV, King of Naples and Sicily (and some others) (b.1557:d.1631)
---1) Philip II, King of Naples and Sicily (and some others) (b.1582:d.1627)
----1) Ferdinando V, King of Naples and Sicily (and some others) (b.1600:d.1657)
-----1) Infanta Maria Gabriella, Princess of Asturias (b.1619:d.1641)
------The first wife of Philip, Prince of Asturias (1617-1653), died childless following her fifth miscarriage
-----2) Joanna IV, Queen of Naples and Sicily (and some others) (b.1622:d.1671)
------See the Milanese Branch for her marriage and offspring
--2) Philip II, Duke of Milan and Imperial Vicar of Italy (b.1558:d.1625)
---1) Philip III, Duke of Milan and Imperial Vicar of Italy (b.1589:d.1625) m. Marie Élisabeth of France (b.1594:d.1629)
----1) Philip IV, Duke of Milan and Imperial Vicar of Italy (b.1614:d.1660) married his cousin, Queen Joanna IV of Naples
-----1) Charles V, King of Naples and Sicily, Duke of Milan and “King of Italy” (b.1640:d.1698)
------Inheriting the combined realms of his parents, he would officially establish the Habsburg "Kingdom of Italy" that they had de facto
------founded, formally with his crowning in Milan with the Iron Crown of Lombardy; said kingdom would last some 3 centuries
-----2) Infanta Josepha of Milan and Naples (b.1656:d.1721)
------Married in 1671 to the future King Philip IV of Navarre, the marriage was childless
-----3) Some other surviving children
----2) Infante Francisco of Milan, Teutonic Bailiwick of the Adige and in the Mountains (b.1618:d.1681)
-----A member of the Teutonic Order, although a religious knight, he still had a total of 15 recognized bastards by his
-----various mistresses, who married the nobility of the land (most of his daughters, who numbered 9, had as their dowry their
-----lineage) or into the ruling families of Northern Italy:
-----1*) Francisco Carlo d'Austria, Teutonic Bailiwick of the Adige and in the Mountains, Duke of Trent (b.1634:d.1705)
------"Inheriting" the position from his father in 1655, he was responsible for making the Tyrol switch sides in the Great War, and
------gained the secularized Bishopric of Trent as his payment from the Maximillians, establishing the House of Trent, agnatically a
------branch of the Hapsburgs
-----4*) Juan Marco d'Austria (b.1639:d.1664) m. Giovanna I Ludivosi, Princess of Piombino (b.1647:d.1699)
------Having children, they are the ancestors of all Princes of Piombino (of the House of Austria Ludivosi) that followed, as well as
------of the modern Princes of Elba
-----5*) Maria Elisabetta d'Austria (b.1640:d.1662) m. Ercole I Malatesta, Lord of Rimini (b.1642?d.1700)
------Childless, the marriage ended with Maria Elisabetta's death from the pox
-----8*) Giulietta d'Austria (b.1646:d.1739) m. Alessandro II Pico, Duke of Mirandola (b.1647:d.1691)
------Producing offspring, they are the ancestors of the modern Dukes of Mirandola
-----10*) Rafael d'Austria (b.1649:d.1695) m. m. Marguerita I Doria-Babilano, 20th Princess of Oneglia (b.1652:d.1700)
------Producing offspring, they are the ancestors of the modern Princes of Oneglia and of the Princes of Torriglia
-----15*) Constanza d'Austria (b.1668:d.1695) m. Annibale IV Bentivoglio, Duke of Bologna (b.1660:d.1721)
------Producing only daughters before Constanza's death giving birth to their only son; said son, Annibale V, was the last
------Bentivoglio ruler of Bologna, and their state was inherited by his nephew the Duke of Ferrara
---2) Twelve legitimate children (including three sons) of whom one disappeared at sea and five who entered the Church
--3) Infante Diego of Spain, Viceroy of Murcia and 1st Duke of Granada (b.1563:d.1612)
---Viceroy of Murcia from 1590 until 1608, Diego married in his youth a cousin from the Austrian Hapsburgs, with whom he had a
---single daughter, who later married King Philip IV of the Spains, before she died from a fever. With his lifelong mistress, Maria
---Antonia Castillo (a morisco descendant of the Nasrid dynasty, to whom he forged purity of blood certificates), he had children
---who lived to become the ancestors of the royal families of Andalusia/Granada, Isabella-Oran, Mauretania and Ifriquía
--4) Infanta Maria of Spain, 1st Duchess of Burgos (b.1569:d.1649) m. Infante Carlos of Spain, Viceroy of Valencia (b.1567:d.1642)
---The marriage was childless and ended upon Carlos’ death in 1642; in 1630 they adopted one of his morganatic nephews, Don
---Juan Marco de Austria y Vallabriga, as their own, with him inheriting the Duchy upon Maria’s death
-Recognized Illegitimate Offspring (born from mistresses and lovers)
--1) Don Pedro of Austria, 1st Prince of Veracruz (b.1549:d.1612)
---Sent to New Spain in the 1570s in what was a de facto exile following his involvement on the Pastries Plot, he and his five wives
---had a total of 24 children, whose descendants mostly rule the Central American Isthmus or are part of the wider nobility of
--2) Don Juan of Austria, 1st Duke of Cartagena de Indias (b.1580:d.1664)
---Sent to New Granada in 1595 to serve as its Governor General, he held the position for over 30 years before retiring and
---building a cozy palace for himself in Cartagena, periodically traveling back to visit relatives. Married twice (firstly to an
---Aragonese noblewoman and later, in the Americas, to a great-granddaughter of the last ruler of the Muisca People), he was
---responsible for buying the entirety of Lake Guatavita for her, and is with them the ancestor of the modern rulers of New
---Granada, Colombia and Quito
--3) Don Antonio of Austria, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller (b.1584:d.1677)
-2*) Margaret of Austria (b.1522:d.1586), illegitimate daughter with Johanna Maria van der Gheynst
-m. Alessandro "il Moro" de' Medic, Duke of Florence (b.1510:d.1537)
--The marriage was childless, due to Alessandro's assassination less than a year into it
-m. Ottavio I Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (b.1524:d.1586)
--Having two sons together (of whom one survived) their great-great-grandson was Ranuccio II, who appears on the line of the Tudors
-3) See Maria the Bloody, Lady of the Netherlands and wife of Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian II
-4) See Joanna of Austria, Hereditary Princess of Portugal by marriage and mother of King Sebastian I
-5*) John of Austria (b.1547:d.1578), illegitimate son with Barbara Blomberg born in Regensburg
--1* ) Maria Ana of Austria, Abbess of Santa Maria la Real de las Huelgas (b.1569:d.1629)
--2* ) Juana of Austria (b.1573:d.1630) m. Francisco Branciforte, Prince of Pietraperzia (b.1575:d.1622)
---Having one surviving daughter together, the Family of the Colonna e Branciforte d'Austria (whose head holds the title of Prince of
---Pietraperzia and duke of Tagliacozzo) are their seniormost descendants (although they have over 20 other titled branches)
--3* ) Juan of Austria, Viceroy of New Spain (b.1574:d.1599) m. Doña Maria Francisca de Moctezuma (b.1574:d.1635)
---Raised by his paternal half-uncle, in 1593 he crossed the Atlantic to the New World to serve as his Viceroy to New Spain. He
---held the position for 5 years before traveling back to the Spains with his family, after receiving news of Philip II's impending
---death, dying from malaria only weeks later. His wife and children moved back to New Spain following that (with his heart and
---preserved entrails), and his sons are the earliest (Hapsburg) ancestors of over two thirds of the branches of the Hapsburgs in the
---New World, including their seniormost branch, the Mexican Hapsburgs
3) Isabella of Austria (b.1501:d.1526) m. Christian II, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (b.1419:d.1559)
-1) Dorothea of Denmark (b.1520:d.1580) m. Frederick II, Elector Palatine (b.1482:d.1556)
-2) Christina of Denmark (b.1522:d.1558) m. Francis II of Milan(a) m. Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (b.1517:d.1545)
--1) Charles III, Duke of Lorraine and Bar (b.1543:d.1608)
---Continued the House of Lorraine, and is an ancestor to Charles VI of Lorraine (who appears on the line of the Tudors)
--2) Renata of Lorraine (b.1544:d.1602) m. Frederick II, King of Denmark-Norway (b.1534:d.1588)
---Had ten children, including King Christian IV of Denmark-Norway and Queen Augusta of Scots from the lines of the Tudors
--3) Dorothea of Lorraine (b.1545:d.1621) m. Eric II, Duke of Brunswick-Calenberg (b.1528:d.1584) m. a French nobleman
---1) Eric III, Duke of Brunswick-Calenberg (b.1578:d.1620)
----Ancestor of the following Dukes of Brunswick-Calenberg, much reduced in territory due to the Great War
4) Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (and more) (b.1503:d.1564) m. Anne of Bohemia and Hungary (b.1503:d.1547)
-1) Maximillian II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia and Lord of the Netherlands (b.1527:d.1599)
-Married his first cousin, Maria "the Bloody" of Austria, Lady of the Netherlands, Holy Roman Empress (b.1528:d.1603)
--1) Archduke Rudolph of Austria, King of the Romans (b.1552:d.1582) m. Sibylle of Julich-Cleves-Berg (b.1557:d.1627)
---Marked by Rudolph’s lack of interest on his wife and his early death, the marriage was childless
--2) Matthias I, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia (b.1557:d.1618) m. Anna of Sweden (b.1568:d.1625)
---1) Maximillian III, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia (b.1585:d.1625)
----1) Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia (b.1613:d.1670)
----Married to the Princess Louise Charlotte of Brandenburg (b.1617:d.1676)
-----1) Maximillian IV, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia (b.1640:d.1684)
-----Married Archduchess Maria Carlotta of Further Austria (b.1640:d.1666)
------1) Maximilian V, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia (b.1660:d.1705)
-------Married to Sophie Charlotte of the Palatinate (1662-1729), although loving the union was childless
------2) Matthias II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia (b.1665:d.1730)
-------Marrie twice during his life, Matthias had five surviving children, including his successor, the Holy Roman Emperor Otto V,
-------and Sigismund II, the first Hapsburg Grand Prince of Transylvania/King of Siebenbürgen
------3) The Electress of Brandenburg and the Queens of Poland-Lithuania and the Netherlands
-----2) Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria, Princess of Wales (b.1652:d.1685)
------Married to the heir to the British thrones, she was the grandmother of King Henry XI & I
-----3) Other children
--2) Archduke Franz of Austria, Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg (b.1591:d.1631)
---The first and only protestant Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, he died in the overturing years of the Great War
--3) Other children
--3) Albert I, Lord of the Netherlands (b.1559:d.1621) m. Infanta Maria Eugenia of Spain, daughter of Carlos II (b.1566:d.1630)
---1) Albert II, Lord of the Netherlands (b.1601:d.1640) m. Maria Antonia of Spain (b.1603:d.1633)
----1) Maximillian III, Lord of the Netherlands (b.1630:d.1644)
----2) Maria II Agnes, Lady of the Netherlands and Queen of the United Provinces (b.1630:d.1700)
-----Rising from Lady of the Netherlands to Queen in the United Provinces in the aftermath of the Great War, married and had
-----offspring with the Prince Richard of Wales, a British prince who was made her co-monarch under the name of “Renard”
----3) Archduchess Maria Antonia (b.1633:d.1648)
-2) Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria and Imperial Count of Tyrol (b.1529:d.1595)
-By Philippine Welser, Margravine of Burgau, Countess of Oberhohenberg (b.1527:d.1580), married morganatically in 1557
--1) Margrave Andrew of Burgau, Bishop of Constance and Brixen, Cardinal of Santa Maria Nuova (b.1558:d.1600)
---1*) Hans-Georg I, Prince and Count of Vaduz (b.1583:d.1629)
----Buying the County of Vaduz from his father-in-law, the Count of Sulz, in 1607, in 1621 he managed to gain the title of Prince of
----Vaduz (although he didn't lose the Countship), which would be given imperial immediacy later in the century. He is ancestor of
----all subsequent Prince-Count of Vaduz all the way to modernity
---2*) Frau Susanna Degli Abizzi (b.1584:d.1658) m. Hildebrand III, Prince-Bishop and Valais (b.1605:d.1662)
----Unmarried for years, in 1630 she married the then 25-years-old Prince-Bishop of Valais (nicknamed "the Bloodletter" due to his
----actions in the Hymn War), a Calvinist and 20 years her junior, and is the ancestress to all rulers of Valais since
--2) Karl of Austria, Margrave of Burgau (b.1560:d.1618) m. Sibylle of Cleves, Dowager Queen of the Romans (b.1557:d.1627)
---1*) Anna Elisabeth de Ferrero, Baroness of Hohenberg (b.1588:d.1621)
----Marrying a maternal cousin of her's, the Marquis della Marmora, in 1607, he died 4 years into their marriage, which was childless
---2*) Karl de Ferrero, Baron of Hohenberg (b.1591:d.1631)
----Marrying twice and having surviving children, his sons established the Stotzingen and Breiningen branches of the Barons of Hohenberg
---3* ) Ferdinand de Ferrero (b.1592:d.1625) m. Katharina I von Reischach-Zimmern, nominal Princess-Abbess of Zürich (b.1589:d.1644)
----Having a surviving daughter shortly after his death during an ambush by marauders while traveling to Bern, they are the
----ancestors to the nominal Princess-Abbesses of Zürich, who haven't reigned over their "territory" since 1524
--3) Philip of Austria, Margrave of Burgau (b.1562:d.1623) m. Sophia of Fürstenberg-Stühlingen (b.1571:d.1638)
---Producing offspring, they are the ancestors of the Margraves of Burgau and of the Prince-Bishops of Constance
--4) Margravine Maria of Burgau (b.1562:d.1623) m. Itsván IX. Illésházy, Palatine of Hungary (b.1541:d.1609)
---1) Countess Zsofia Illésházy (b.1585:d.1651) m. Janos V. Wass, Prince Wass of Rusovce (b.1588?d.1620)
----Marrying the head of the Wass Family of Pressburg (illegitimate descendants of Louis II of Hungary), she was responsible for
----her husband's tenure as Palatine of Hungary in the 1610s and the two of them continued the House of Wass, who remains to
----this day one of the main noble families of the land and one of the Palatine Houses of Hungary
---2) Miklós VIII. Illésházy, Palatine of Hungary, Prince Illesháza (b.1587:d.1633)
----Marrying Countess Orsolya Nadasdy (the middle daughter of Erzsébet Báthory), he gave continuation to the House of
----Illésházy's most important branch, who remains to this day one of the main noble families of the land and one of the Palatine
----Houses of Hungary
---3) Countess Magdolna Illésházy (b.1590:d.1629) m. Miklós IX. Esterházy, Prince of Esterházy of Galanta (b.1583:d.1645)
----Marrying her paternal cousin, who served as Palatine of Hungary shortly after her brother, they are the ancestors of the main
----branches of the House of Esterházy, to this day one of the main noble families of the land and one of the Palatine Houses of
-By Maria Gonzaga (b.1566:d.1621), his niece and the accidental founder of the Marian Church, married in 1582
--1) Archduchess Anna of Austria (b.1584:d.1649) a nun, the active founder of the Marian Church
--2) Ferdinand III, Archduke of Further Austria (b.1585:d.1618)
---1)Maximillian I, Archduke of Further Austria (b.1615:d.1672) m. Renée of France (b.1619:d.1650)
----1) Anna of Further Austria, who married her cousin, Louis XIV of France, and continued the French royal line
----2) Ferdinand III, Archduke of Further Austria and Imperial Count of Tyrol (b.1638:d.1685)
-----Married dynastically thrice, he established the inheritance laws that existed in Further Austria between the 17th and 19th
-----centuries when he divided his domains between his firstborn son from each marriage, which over time resulted on the
-----modern division of Further Austria in 10 Archduchies and the Imperial County of Tyrol
----3) See Maria Carlotta of Further Austria, wife of Maximillian IV and mother of Maximillian V and Matthias II
----4) See Archduchess Eleonore of Further Austria, wife of Leopold I of Inner Austria
----5) Archduke Matthias of Further Austria (b.1649:d.1660)
-----Married morganatically to Countess Maria Antonia of Khevenhüller-Hochosterwitz, he is the ancestor to the House of Austria-
-----Khevenhüller, in modern times known as being Margraves of Karlstadt, Princes of Schellenberg and Prince-Counts of
-3) Karl II Franz, Archduke of Inner Austria (b.1540:d.1590) m. Maria Anna of Bavaria (b.1551:d.1608)
--1) Anne of Inner Austria (b.1573:d.1598) m. Sigismund IV, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (b.1571:d.1632)
---1) Sigismund, Crown Prince of Poland and Lithuania (b.1590:d.1618)
---2) Anna I, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (b.1592:d.1661)
----Married in 1611 to Prince Wladyslaw of Sweden (then nominal Duke of Estonia), she inherited the thrones of Poland and
----Lithuania with him upon the death of her father in 1632, being at the time the last of the Hohenzollerns of Poland-Lithuania
----outside of the elderly Princess Hedwig (1569-1640) and of the Bishop of Poznan (1580-1645). Appearing on the line of the Tudors,
----they established the Polish-Lithuanian House of Vasa together
---3) Other children, all of whom died young or childless in their youth
--2) Ferdinand III, Archduke of Inner Austria, Holy Roman Emperor (b.1578:d.1627) m. Maria Anna of Bavaria (b.1574:d.1616)
---1) Ferdinand IV, Holy Roman Emperor (b.1608:d.1657) m. Maria Anna of Spain (b.1606:d.1646)
----1) See Maria Anna of Inner Austria, Princess of Asturias and mother of Carlos III of Spain
----2) Ferdinand V, Holy Roman Emperor (b.1633:d.1661) m. Infanta Beatrice of Spain (b.1638:d.1683)
-----Landless and childless at the time of his death, Beatrice was later remarried to Charles V of Milan and Naples
----3) Leopold I, Archduke of Inner Austria (b.1642:d.1703) m. Infanta Eleonore of Further Austria (b1645:d.1719)
-----Having surviving offspring, they are the ancestors of the Hapsburg-Belmont branch of the dynasty
----4) Maria Carlotta of Inner Austria (b.1644:d.1685) m. Francesco II, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b.1641:d.1690)
-----Having surviving offspring, they appear on the line of the Tudors
-4) Other children
5) Maria of Austria (b.1505:d.1558) m. Louis II, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia (b.1506:d.1526)
-Childless due to Louis’ young age upon death, Maria served as Governor of the Netherlands to her brother from 1531 to 1555
6) Catherine of Austria (b.1507:d.1578) m. John III, King of Portugal and the Algarves (b.1502:d.1557)
-1) See Maria Manuela of Portugal, Princess of Asturias, first wife of Philip II of Spain and mother of Carlos II
-2) John Manuel, Hereditary Prince of Portugal (b.1537:d.1554) m. Joanna of Austria (b.1535:d.1573)
--Parents of King Sebastian I of Portugal, himself the great-grandfather of Manuel II, who appears on the upper line
What about the Belgian kings jure uxoris before Renard I?
there wasn't any before him, actually, as although her having a regnal number could imply otherwise, Maria Agnes II (or, as she was known then, Maria II Agnes) was the founder of the Belgian kingdom; the closest thing, you could say, for a jure uxoris ruler of Belgium/The Netherlands beforehand would be sort-of Maximilian II, as part of why Philip II passed the Netherlands to him was his marriage to Maria the Bloody (AKA, Maria I of the Netherlands/Belgium), but that's going into technicalities
Although Maria was the one actively ruling the Netherlands, which were de facto hers more than they were her husband's
Also, were there any other countries besides Belgium that adopted Portugal’s customs regarding kings jure uxoris?
well, besides most countries descended from Portugal's colonial Empire (such as Brazil), a considerable number of Hispanic countries also tend to follow, if not the same, then similar customs (although, ironically enough, the same can't be said for Iberian countries, or countries once part of the Spanish monarchy in Europe; of them, I think only Navarre, Andalusia and Corsica consistently have the practice)
in the Americas, the practice is quite common actually, with at least half of all the countries in the south and central thirds of the continent practicing it in some form (a notable exception is actually Mexico, where shenanigans have meant that, in the rare case of a female monarch, they do like in Poland and have a female Emperor)
besides them, there are also countries that developed the practice, or similar, independently, such as:
- Poland, where the nominally-elective nature of things, and the practice of Female Kings, resulted on the few cases of a female monarch seeing the royal couple both have the title of "King"
in contrast, Sweden/the Baltics vehemently refuses to have such practice, even though it also has the practice of female kings​
- Livonia, due to the Romanov Sister Reigns
- Bulgaria is a bit of a conundrum, as "king" is the title for the consort of the female monarch more because the country is a Tsardom
- Quebec is an interesting case, as it technically started with a "jure mariti" queen* instead of a jure uxoris king, due to both the country's first independent king being a hopeless romantic and his wife also being a very hands-on supporter on Quebecois independence
- and the Michigan/Lakelander states also technically started with a "jure mariti" queen, due to the first king of an united Michigan also being a hopeless romantic and his descendants keeping the practice
* what I mean by "jure mariti queen" is that, unlike a queen consort, said queen is recognized as being a nominal co-monarch of her husband, and, much like a king jure uxoris also has the right to use regnal numbers
  1. Is Constance the first Transylvanian monarch to be from the House of Varcolac?
  2. When was the longest break in the personal union between the Netherlands and the Principality of Orange?
  3. Was Saxe-Merseburg merged into Saxony after 1756?