The Co-Prosperity Sphere

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: After 1900' started by CountofDooku, Aug 5, 2017.

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  1. CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

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    Hope you dear readers like it so far. ^^
     
  2. skarosianlifeform Well-Known Member

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    Would Imperial France accept easily a retreat to Morocco (or Mauritania ? ) so easily, as while France values Algeria much more than West Africa, losing so much colonial territory is a hard pill to swallow.

    Well I certainly do (no surprise there).
     
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  3. CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

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    Most likely not, but when the Germans and Spanish do so they would most likely have no other choice (or would have to face the Allies alone) here clearly is the stuff for inter Axis Central Powers tension in such a plan.
     
  4. skarosianlifeform Well-Known Member

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    Indeed. ACP "victory" where Germany gets LOTS of territory/vassals in the East (plus Denmark, Norway and Low Countries), and A-H, Neo-Ottomans and even Finland gain territory, but France and Italy actually lose the bulk of their empires, that will definitely have a sour taste. And of course the internal legitimacy of Imperial France and Fascist Italy to their population would be devastated. Fascism built its legitimacy on redressing the "mutilated victory", and losing Italian Africa is even worse than just not getting enough. Then, for Imperial France, it's a unelected monarchic government (in a country with a strong democratic and republican tradition) instituted by the Germans after a humiliating defeat, so it has to show results and avoid major defeats. Especially with Free France (holding Equatorial French Africa, Madagascar, and various other overseas territories) being a democratic and believable alternative.

    Germany should also pay attention to Africa in long-term calculations (even if it's a sideshow for Germans), and to avoid losing the peace.

    Let's assume the worst scenario for ACP : France loses all colonies except Algeria (others go to Japan, Spain and Italy as war booty or are now part of Free France). Italy loses Italian East Africa.
    Whether the current governments hold on power or not, both countries will feel cheated. Then, Imperial Russia is a potential rival (at medium term) of Germany (as no, Germany won't be able to keep direct control over Russia forever), and Britain will keep contesting German hegemony in Europe while trying to recruit European underdogs against the current hegemon.

    So, if Germany screws up the peace treaty, this might end with Britain somehow recruiting Russia, France and Italy in a resurrected Entente. So the n°1 goal of Germany (a secure and hegemonic position in Europe and on German direct borders) would be lost even if imperialistic ambitions in the East are satisfied.

    It's (apparently) not in the cards of this TL's future, but still Germany should avoid screwing over her main allies in the peace treaty. Or do it as a clearly temporary measure at worst, and as soon as the USA crumble, use the might of the combined ACP to force Britain (and her puppet Free France) to give back "stolen" African territory. As while Africa is a sideshow to Berlin (and Vienna) it also keeps Paris and Rome happy in the alliance and busy (ie.
    out of their hair in Balkans and the East).
     
  5. Anhtuan Well-Known Member

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    The Japanese population in Cali at 1940 is 127,000, wide high but the total population in Cali is 6mil and after the war is 10mil(something something read long long time ago). Why not use them to other Japan’s colonies, if they’re willing. They will be treated more decent and have better Japanese education rather than English.
     
  6. CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

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    Believe me a victorious Japanese Empire will clearly focuss on them sooner then later.... ;D
     
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  7. Threadmarks: Chapter 571: Japanese Colonists and Settlers – Population Pressure and Emiration Part 2: The Second Wave from the beginning of the Co-Prosperity Sphere till the Second Great War

    CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

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    Chapter 571: Japanese Colonists and Settlers – Population Pressure and Emiration Part 2: The Second Wave from the beginning of the Co-Prosperity Sphere till the Second Great War
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    The next step in Japanese colonisation and settlement inside their own controlled/ dominated area or Empire (the Co-Prosperity Sphere) begann, when they were able to convinced the Chinese Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek to signed the He-Umezu Agreement to demilitarize the northern Chinese Provinces of Hebei, Shanxi, Pingyuan and Shandong besides the Mengjiang Region of Suiyuan. However a secret arrangement between the Japanese and Yan Xishan had other plans in mind, as they allied their forces and overtook the region. The Japanese gained a new puppet state and vassal in Yankoku, as well as continue their carve up of China, that they had started in Manchuria. Majorly populated by Han Chinese, the Japanese and Yan Xishan, also known as Father Yan by his people, portrayed them as descendants of the ancient chinese state of Yan, with Peking (Beijing) as his new imperial capital. Unitl the oubreak of the Second Great War the Japanese would have settled up to 320,000 Japanese colonists in Yankoku, that had a overall population of 84,950,000 people. A number that would rise to nearly 1,000,000 by the End of the Second Great War.

    Their split up and takeover of China continued when the Guangxi Clique Civil War broke out and presented another opportunity for Japan, leading to the involvement of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the victory of the pro-japanese, pro-Co-Prosperity Sphere faction. They transformed the Guangxi Clique into Taikoku, the newest member state of the Co-Prosperity Sphere. Part of this support and protection came for a price, as Taikoku had to give Kainan (Hainan) to the Japanese Empire as a territory in exchange. In what remained of the Taikoku territory, nearly 500,000 of the 46,723,000 citizens were Japanese by the time the Second Great War started. On Japanese annexed Kainan or Hainan however the around 1,800,000 to 2,000,000 citizens faced a hard time, as the Japanese Empire tried to assimilate and majorly Japanize the whole island similar to Formosa/ Taiwan before. They tried to assimilate the local minorities of Li, Miao and Zhuang into the Japanese culture and spread Shintoism and Buddhism on the island to break the Han Chinese majority on the island for a Japanese one. Many Han Chinese were even shipped to mainland Taikoku to make room for Japanese settlers and colonists, whose numbers rose to 500,000 before the Second Great War. This gave rise to the Communists hiding in Hainan ever since the Nationalist Chinese raids against the Communists in the 1920s and 1930s. Communists and Li natives fought a guerillia campaign against this Japanese plans that would lead to a third of the population being killed or deportet, led by Feng Baiju who formed them into the Hainan Independent Column militia.
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    When Wang Jingwei rebelled with parts of the Nationalist Government in Shanghai against Chiang's Nanjing faction, the Japanese and their Co-Prosperity Sphere quickly supported him and took control of the Coastal Regions of Republical China, pushing inland and forming the National Han Chinese Coprospist State (also known as the Imperial Centralized Republic of China or ICRC, the Han Empire, the Han Republic, Hankoku, Centralized China, the new or reborn Chinese Empire, Republic of China, or Imperial China). However only 280,000 Japanese settled there at first mainly in coastal or river regions as only this parts were under full government control and fairly secure for this settlers and colonists. Until the beginning of the Second Great War their numbers would rise to nearly 500,000 (470,000) and then nearly a million Japanese until the end of the war. At the same time the newly formed member states of the Co-Prosperity Sphere, the Yikoku (or Yijiang, the former Yunnan Clique), as well as the Tibetan Empire (just like Mengjiang) did not attrackt as many Japanese settlers as those regions were of hars terrain and climate, lacked ressources, industry, infrastructure and sometimes even proper cities in a Japanese sence.

    Only in their then newest member state, the Empire of Siam/ Thailand, with it's 15,000,000 citizens, where the Japanese hoped to succeed the Chinese traders in the South-East Asian region, their numbers remained relatively low for the duration of the Second Great War, but would increase afterwards, when Japan was ecnomically and military dominating the entire region and the Japanese government actually promoted settlement of their citizens as colonists in this regions. The same was true for the newly liberated Co-Prosperity Sphere member states of former French Indochina, were Laos (population 1,300,000), Cambodia (population 1,803,000) and Vietnam (population: 21,268,000). While the Japanese tried to settle there too (mainly to prevent Siam/ Thailand or Vietnam from becomng a regional power to dominate the area instead of themselves) they failed to do so in significent numbers before the outbreak of the Second Great War. The Japanese tried to counter a potential Siamese/ Thai and Vietnamese dominance in the region by supporting the Cambodian and Laotian independence from both other major Co-Prosperity Sphere member states of the area.
     
    Last edited: May 6, 2019
  8. skarosianlifeform Well-Known Member

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    Nice to see that the Japanese Empire (while less outright evil and stupid than IOTL) is still nasty (at least, as nasty as any colonial empire of this era was).
     
  9. Threadmarks: Chapter 572: The Crusader's Cross

    CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

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    Chapter 572: The Crusader's Cross
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    During the Eastern Crusade, Major General Friedrich Schulz was part of the German Central Army Group (Heeresgruppe Mitte). Before he had fought in France and was now leading the Army Group Don (Heeresgruppe Don) since June 1942. His forces were part of the surrounding move by the German Central Army Group and Southern Army Group (Heeresgruppe Süd) that cut off the Soviet Union Red Army in Georgia from the rest of their forces. Shortly aftet this they helped in repelling the major Red Army counter attack, during wich Major General Schulz's Tank Corps (Panzerkorps) encircled and destroyed five Red Army tank spearheads in his area of operation. Major General Schulz's forceshowever did not participate in the final destruction of the encircled Soviet Red Army in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, as the Great Caucasus Mountains remained a barrier between their northern position and this southern encircled enemy troops. Because of this Major General Schulz remained in the northern Caucasus region, where his tank forces could freely operate. With the eastern frontline coming to a halt during the Winter of 1942, Major General Friedrich's now renamed Army Group Volga (Armeegruppe Wolga) was split into frontline forces and reserve forces, to have a backup in chase the Red Army would break trought the front, or inflict to much causualities on them. This partly streched out the Axis Central Powers frontline forces, but the majority of the southern front during the Eastern Crusade was not hold by the German Empire, but by the Austrian-Hungarians, Neo-Ottomans, Romanian, Georgian, Azerbaijan and partly even Armenian forces. In the southern Caucasus region, the Axis Central Powers relied on local ehnic militia, while in the northern part they majorly used their army reserves, the German Order forces, and even police, guards and militia, sometimes recruited out of the local White Ruthenian and Ukrainian population or other ethnic minorities. The front was supported by the 28. Kaiserliche Jäger Division, that would come under Major General Schulz's command the next year. At the end of that year Friedrich Schulz would be promoted to the Commanding General of the III. Panzerkorps (Third Tank Corps) and the LIX. Army Corps (LIX. Armeekorps) during 1943 until 1944, when he was promoted to General of the Infantry (General der Infantr) and got the command of the XXXXVI. Panzerkoprs (26th Tank Corps) too.

    During this time Major General Friedrich Schulz used parts of his reserve tank force to be used against local Communist guerrillas, criminal bandits and uprisings as a supporting corps for regular guard, police and militia forces, knowing that often this people lacked the heavy equipment to deal with heavy armored vehicles or even tanks properly. This support forced many of the uprising groups in the northen Caucasus region to retread to more swampy regions, to the big forests or even into mountainous areas, where the heavily armored vehicles had a hard time to maneuver or overall follow them quickly. Because this however the Germans used smaller, quick response groups of motorized, mechanized and armored Infantry or Tank units that were small, but spead behind the frontlines to respond to uprisings or enemy pushes against their front all over the place. This quick respond forces were often partnered with smaller groups of Axis Central Powers fighters and sometimes even a few bombers (up to a dozend ones), to support their own force and give them air support. Since the rebells had nothing to counter even these few flying Axis Central Powers units, this strategy allowed them to dominate the skies behind the frontline and quickly overpower the rebells in most situations, were this guerrillas had no place to cover or hide themselves from being viewed or outright attacked from above. Thanks to this problem, the Red Army and even the Allies tried to help the rebells counter this German invented Axis Central Powers tactic and strategy, by paradropping anti-aircraft guns (either smaller ones or larger ones in parts) that they could then use surprisingly against the Axis Central Powers airplanes. Sometimes they surprised the German and Axis Central Powers air forces at first and even shot down a few fighters and three bombers, before the German Commanders like Major General Friedrich Schulz adapted to it and changed the strategy and tactic of their anti-guerrilla forces.
     
  10. CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

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    Oh it will get worse in the Pacifis/ South-east Asia when we get to Celebes/ Timor/ New Guinea, were they outright try to Japanize the areas by bringing more Japanese to settle there then native tribes and people live in those areas overall...

    Clearly many of TTL future conflict of ideology, culture and religion is allready hinted and more of this will come.
     
    Last edited: May 6, 2019
  11. Threadmarks: Chapter 573: Lessons Learned at Midway and Niugini: the Japanese Fighters and Bombers

    CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

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    Chapter 573: Lessons Learned at Midway and Niugini: the Japanese Fighters and Bombers
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    One of the lessons learned at Midway and New Guinea was that the huge losses in carriers made support for the Imperial Japanese Navy from nearby airbases on land even more important. Land based cathapults to launch bigger airplanes even from smaller airfields were one part of the solution. Another one was the idea to use more propeller engines to increase the speed and maximum range of their fighters and bombers. This lead to the Nakajima Ki-49 B Dai Donryu (大中島 キ-49 呑龍) "Great Storm Dragon" a four-engine version of the original Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu (中島 キ-49 呑龍). However because of the required task to operate unescorted, with heavy defensive armament and armor, it remained restricted it to a small bomb load, of initially 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). It was one of the first Japanese aircraft fitted with a retractable tailwheel and known to the Allies during the Second Great War by the reporting name "Linda", while the original was known as "Helen". The same was true for it's successors, the two-engine Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryū (飛龍, "Flying Dragon"; Allied reporting name "Peggy") and the four-engine superior Mitsubishi Ki-67 Dai Hiryū (大中飛龍, "Great Flying Dragon"; Allied reporting name "Marge") model. The Army know them as Type 4 Heavy Bomber (四式重爆撃機), while the Navy knew it as "P2M" and "Q2M". They could carry up to 1,070 kg or 2,358 lb and were designated as "heavy" bomber according to Japanese standards, but compared with the United States B-25 medium bomber, who could carry 2,721 kg or 6,000 lb as a payload they were rather light medium bombers at best. This meant that they could use the Type 93 torpedo (490 kg pr 1080.27 lb used mainly by Japanese Submarines, also known as "Long Lance" or Sanso gyorai 酸素魚雷, lit. "oxygen torpedo"), as well as the Type 95 torpedo who had a smaller mod 1(405 kg or 893 lb) and a larger mod 2 (550 kg (1,210 lb) warhead, shorter range and a smaller diameter then the Type 93, but still three times the range of the American Mark 14 at the same speed and was the fastes torpedo in common use of any navy during the time. Most standart Helen and Peggy could carry one or two of these topedos in their normal design, up to four when they had less heavier armor. The Linda and Marge mewanwhile could carry four, six or even eight of those, depending on their armor and specifivations to carry additional ones under their wings (between eight or ten). These torpedos were used against single ships, or even a small fleet with mutlbile targets.
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    Later versions used the self-sealing fuel tank thanks to layers of rubber a technology shared with the Germans. Many of this heavily armored and armed bombers were used against the Soviet Union's Red Army in siberia, while the more light armored and long ranged variations were mainly used in the Pacific Ocean and partly the Indian Ocean. Thanks to the heavy armor and the self-sealing fuel tanks, they were one of the most damage-resistant aircraft the Japanese used during the war. They were build by Kawasaki and Mitsubishi, who'se four Ha-104 18-cylinder radial engine allowed for a excellent rate of climb, maneuverability in dives, and agility, traits that would ultimately lead to the Mitsubishi Ki-109 heavy fighter, armed with a 75mm Type 88 anti-aircraft cannon. About 1,534 (including prototypes) of the were build, mainly by Mitsubishi (only 675 were build by Kawasaki). The bomber had a crew of up to eight people, but the four-engine variations had sometimes uo to twelve or sixteen people (leaving nearly no space for any of them) in one crew to allow for a rotating shift so that no crew member would get to tired during long operations. Because the torpedos often had to be let loose short above sea level, the bigger bobmer variants were a easy target for many american anti-aircraft guns, leading to many of these bombers still relying on their massive armor, speed and quick climbing ability. Others meanwhile tried to use few, regular armor and larger range together with scouts to surprise the Allied ships in great distances far away from their island bases. Flying low to not get detected from Allied radar so easily soon became common, as did coming directly from the sun, or even implement small aluminium pieces to fake targets on the enemy radar (a idea also used by the British, the United States and the Germans independently). Later some Japanese bombers would rather use rockets, missiles (many thanks to shared German echnology or own new inventions) or the crewed Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka to assault Allied ships from a even further range, without risking the bombers by coming to close.
     
  12. Threadmarks: Chapter 574: Gotenburg

    CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

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    Chapter 574: Gotenburg
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    In former Sevastopol, now called "Theoderichshafen" (in reference and honor to Theoderic the Great and the fact that the Crimea had been home to Germanic Goths until the 18th or 19th century) or Theodoro in short, the German Gothic Order of the Ukraine had it's new headquarters in the so called Gotenburg (Gothic Castle): Similar to the Teutonic Order in the Baltics and the Burgundian Order along the western German border to France, the Gothic Order in the Ukraine ruled the Crimean Province (known as Gothia Peninsula and Procvince to them) authonomos. They could do so because of King Basil the Embroidered (Ukrainian: Василь Вишиваний, translit. Vasyl Vyshyvani, known as King E.K.S. Vasyl I. Vyshyvanyi von Habsburg), the former Archduke Wilhelm Franz of Austria/ Wilhelm Franz von Habsburg-Lothringen, who granted them those rights and the province. The original 60,000 of the 1.1 million German inhabitants (between 0,4 and 20,7 percent of the overall population) of Crimea were deportet by Stalin to Central Asia at the outbreak of the Eastern Crusade and not all would later come back. Under Grand Master Alfred Frauenfeld the Gothic Order protected the native Russians, Crimean Tatar, Tatar and Ukrainian citizens of the peninsula. Grand Master Frauenfeld planned to return the original german inhabitants and even increase german settlement from Austria-Hungary and Germany to the peninsula. The Gothic Order even used Crimean Tatars (18,225) in their police force and militia battalions for the peninsula and even had many Tatar, Ukrainians and even Russians serve in this force beside Gothic Germans. The main reason for this was that the Gothic Order allowed the Crimean Russians to continue to freely live in the peninsula like their ancestors, knowing full well that they feared being expelled to the Russian Empire in a population for Ukrainians without their Order.
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    The same was true for many Tatar and Crimean Tatars who saw the Gothic Order as a protector of their independence and settlement on the peninsula. Many Ukrainians meanwhile served the majorly German Order since it granted them the same rights as the rest, had liberated and now protected the Crimean Peninsula from the Soviet Union and it's Red Army and because Crimean/ Gothic Germans had lived here with them for nearly a century. Other cities and tows with former German majority, like Nowyjgorod (Neustadt or new city) were renamed to more german sounding names (often direct translation of their original meaning). The Gothic Order itself under Grand Master Alfred Frauenfeld heavily fortified thw whole peninsula with bunkers, fortifications and trenches against a possible Red Army counter-attack on the Gothia Province/ Peninsula. This also included military airfields for the German, Austrian-Hungarian or Ukrainian Army and Navy fighters and bombers during the Eastern Crusade. This included cities and towns like Simferopol (now Alarichburg), Karasubasar (now Kurheim), Eupatoria (now Stammvater), Feodosia (now Theodoria), Kertsch (now Gegenufer), as well as the Jewish regions of Fraidorf (now Freidorf), Dschankoi (now Neustadt) and Bjuk (now Burgstadt). The Gothic German Airforce (later the Gothic German Airline, or Gotendeutsche Luftfahrt Fluggesellschaft) that flew directly between Austria-Hungary, the German Empire, the United Baltic Duchy, the Ukrainian Kingdom and Gothia Peninsula originated here in 1941 and was at first of purely military use. It would however turn into a more civil airline after the Second Great War had ended and would become one of the major airlines in the overall Kingdom of Ukrainia and Southeast Europe.
     
  13. CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

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    Tomorrow; Greater Azerbaijan as well as Guadalcanal; The Battle for Henderson Field
     
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  14. Threadmarks: Chapter 575: First Battle of Henderson Field

    CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

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    Chapter 575: First Battle of Henderson Field
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    After the Sea Battle of Savo Island, also known to the Americans as Battle of Cape Esperance, or Second Battle of Savo Island (as well as the heavy bombing of Handerson Field) the Japanese had reinforced their troops on Guadalcanal and prepared for a major offensive to take Henderson Field and drive the Americans off from the islands. The Japanese attack started with a problem, as the attack had was to be delayed on 24 September 1942, bu the massage dit noch reach Nakaguma, who started the attack as originally planned on 23 September., without the rest of the Japanese forces supporting him because of this. Two battalions o Nakaguma's 4th Infantry Regiment and eighteen tanks of the 1st Independent Tank Company launched a attack on the U.S. Marine defenses on the Matanikau who oposed them with 40 howitzer and four battallions of Marines. While infliting light causalities on the Marines Nakaguma's attack was stopped and the majority of the attacking tanks (sixteen) were dstroyed. As a response to this, the American 2nd battallion, 7th Marines under Lieutenant Colonel Herman H. Henneken launched a counterattack on 24 September, but as Oka' force was sighted coming from the south, Hanneken's foces were placed on the southern ridge of the inland flank to potect it. However a gap remained between their left (east) flank and the main defense line. The redeployment of Hanneken's battalion left 700 soldiers of the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines under Lieutenant Colonel Chesty Puller alone to hold a line of 2,500 yd or 2,300 m on the southern perimater east of Lunga River. When the Marines finally spottet Maruyama's forces approaching them it was to late to rearrange their own defensive positions.
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    On 24 Sepember the left and right flank of Maruyama's forces attacked the Americans using their heavy cannons, medium artillery and mortar numbers to support their assault. The Japanese were exhausted from the long march trought the jungle, but Shoji's right wing (1st Battalion and 230th Infantry Regiment) still assaulted the american positions with all but one battalion making contact with the enemy, but were at first unable to break the American lines. Somehow Maruyama's staff then reported to Hyakutake that Shoji's soldiers had overrun Henderson Field, leading to Hyakutake informing Rabaul about it. At the same time Nasu's left wing battalions ha just reched the Marines defences, attacking them on 25 September, but they were stopped by heavy barbed wire in front ot the American line and hit havily by American machine guns, mortar and artillery fire that killed most of the attcking company. West of this the 9th Company of Nasu's 3rd Battalion charged right into the American lines and Marine machine gun fire an artillery led by Sergeant John Basilone killed most of them. Puller realized that a major Japanese attack was starting and requested reinforcements, lading to the reserves (3rd Battalion, 164th Infantry, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Robert Hall) to be send to his line and the Army National Guard troops were in position before the next day. Colonel Masajiro Furimiya, the commander of the 29th Infantry attacked with two companies from his 3rd Battalion plus his headquarters staff, before dawn. Man of his foces died during the assault but aroun 100 mnagd to break trought the American defense line and established pcket of 150 yd/ 40 m in width and 100 yd 90 m in dept in the senter of Pulle's line. Furimiya's 2nd Battalion joined this attack but was pushed back into the jngle, prepaing for another attack at night. The Americans meanwhile dealt with the Japanese who had managed to brak trought their lines, killing 104 of them, leading to a bit more of 300 Japanese killed during this first assault. Hyakutake then got the message of the captured airfield, but three hours later h declared that th results of the attack remained yet unknown.
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    The result of this was that the Japanese 8th Fleet who had task units ready to support the Army's attacks on Guadalcanal received the massage early on 24th October and send her units into action. Light cruiser Sendai and Naka with six destroyers who patrolled west of Guadalcanal to interdict any Allied ships approaching the island now headed to support the Japanese land forces, followed by a Second Assault Unit with the light cruiser Yura and Izuzu as well as ten destroyers approached Guadalcanal to attack any Allied shipson the island's north and east coast, as well as to provide gunfire for Hyakutake's forces on land. When the First Assault Unit arrived at Lunga Point it chased away two older American destroyers (Zane and Trever) who ere delivering supplies to what remained of Handerson Field. The Japanese destroyers then sighted and sank the American tugboats Seminole and patrol boat YP-284, before bombarding the American positions around Lunga Point. The Marine shore gun hit and damaged the destroyer Akatsui and the Japanese ships retreated while continuing to fire on the American positions. The Second Assault Unit arrived trought the Indispensable Strait and shelled the American defences, causing some damage.
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    The Combined Pacific Defenxe Fleet's carriers Hosho and Soryu then supported the assault with the help of 82 Japanese bombers and fighters attacking Henderson Field and the American defense lines in six waves troughtout the day without any major American opposition. The few american CAF fighters who managed to start on the nearly destroyed Henderson Field were wuickly shot down, while the Marine anti-aircraft guns shot down hree Japanese planes and one bomber. The Japanese air attacks caused medium damage on the American defenses and Henderson Field and continued air, naval and artillery attacks throughout the day, forcing the Marines to dugout foxholes and shelters everywhere. Through the whole day on 25th September the Americans tried to repair their defences, trying to close previous gaps between their forces. The division reserve of the 3rd Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment was placed directly behind Hall's and Puller's positions. At the same time Maruyama's reserve force, the 16th Infantry Regiment attacked in the early morning of the 26th September. The American Marines defendet their position with rifle, machine gun, mortar and artillery fire, running out of ammunition in some places, still a few groups of Nasu's man broke trought the American lines, even if Nasu himself and Colonel Toshiro Hiroyasu died during the attack. Colonel Furimiya led those men, but was hunted down by the Americans over the next few days. Oka's man also assaulted the Marine defenses all along the ridge, hitting the already damaged and exhausted American lines under Hanneken's battalion. The Americans tried to defend themselves most attackign Japanese, but their machine gunners were nearly all killed or injured while doing so. Oka's 3rd Battalion, 4th Infantry succeeded in taking the ridge, forcing the Americans to retreat.
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    Major Odell M. Conoley, Hanneken's battalion executive officer gathered some men (17 total) to counterattack, joined by elements of Hanneken's Company G, Company C, and a few unwounded survivors from Company F before the Japanese could consolidate their captured position. Under heavy fighting the Marines managed to repell the Japanese under some causualitied, losing 23 soldiers and having 53 wounded compared to overall 98 dead Japanese on the ridge and around 200 more in front of it. Maruyama's soldiers recovered some wounded from near the American lines in the cover of the night of 26 to 27thh September and withdrew deeper into the jungle for now. The Americans then burried or burned the remains of the 1,500 men (stretching for a half mile) from Maruyama as quickly as possible. Maruyama's left wing was then ordered to head south of Lunga perimeter, while the right wing was old to head for Koli Point east of it. The left wing who had run out of food a few days before started to eat the fallen or those wanting to retreat on 27 September. They were however unable to continue to fight for now and the Battle for Handerson Field could not be continued. The unit of Shoji reached their positions south and east of Lunga perimeter and encamped, being decimated by battle deaths, combat injuries, malnutrition, and tropical diseases, making them completely incapable for any further offensive actions and fights for now.
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    The Japanese were unwilling to give up Guadalcanal and had realised that the American defenses had been severely weakened and destroyed during this battle. As a result the Japanese Army immediately planned to move the rest of the 38th Division along with the 51st Infantry Division to Guadalcanal for a further offensive on Henderson Field on October 1942. In the meantime the remaining American defenses were again bombed by Japanese airplanes and ships (who still controlled the sea around Guadalcanal by night and since the destruction of Henderson Field even by day again). This cover was used by the Japanese to cover their convoy of transport ships to deliver the 38th's troops and heavy equipment. This forced the Americans to intercept them, leading to the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal from 12 to 15th October 1942. While a tactical American victory, the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal would be a strategical victory for the Japanese, allwoing them to transport the majority of the remainder of the 38th Division (nearly 7,000 fresh, battle hardened soldiers) to Guadalcanal. After bringing this significant additional forces to the island and realising that they now had the air superiority in the region again, the Japanese prepared for a second assault on Henderson Field, before the Americans could carry out their own counter offensive (the planned assault across the Matanikau River to break the western Japanese flank and pressure was delayed because of theiir causualities and heavily destroyed positions at Lunga Point during this battle). During the First Battle of Henderson Field the Japanese had lost around 2,200 to 3,000 soldiers and a few airplanes, while the Americans had lost between 123 to 173 soldiers, a tugboat, a patrol boat and most of their remaining aircraft. This next land, naval and air assault on Henderson Field (Second Battle of Henderson Field) on 20 to 26th October would lead to the Japanese capture of Hednerson Field (by then not suited for further use anymore) and the overall American retread east, marking the major turning point in the Battle of Guadalcanal.
     
    Last edited: May 9, 2019
  15. Threadmarks: Chapter 576: Greater Azerbaijan

    CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

    Joined:
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    Location:
    Empire of Amra
    Chapter 576: Greater Azerbaijan
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    In Northwest Persia the Axis Central Powers (mainly the Neo-Ottomans) had captured the region despite the Persian's officially neutrality in the Second Great War. Similar to the First Great War, this allowed the Neo-Ottomans and Germans to flank the Red Army in the Caucasus region from the South. At the same time their positioning there also allowed to flank or threaten the Allied powers in the Middle East (mainly Iraq). As the majority of this region was not populated by Persians, but by Azerbaijani and Kurds. As Reza Shah had previously banned the Azerbaijani language in schools, in theatrical performances, religious ceremonies, as well as in the publication of books. This meant that the local population was quit supporting of the invaders who were allied with now pro-Axis Central Powers allied Azerbaijan and the Neo-Ottoman propaganda supporting their anger against Azerbaijan to get them on their side. This meant that nearly fifteen to twenty percent of the Persian population was at least somewhat in support of the Neo-Ottomans and the Axis Central Powers, even when some Azerbaijani were arrested or killed by the Turks and Germans as Communists supporters. The Neo-Ottomans then quickly annexed the Kurdish region and deported the Kurds outside of their settlement zone, either into the desert, or further north (northern Caucasus) or south (Arabian Peninsula) once the war would be won by the Axis Central Powers. The Azerbaijani regions of Persia meanwhile were given to Azerbaijan, the Turkish vassal and puppet so that they would adminstrate and control the region, freeing Turkis Army forces for the Red Army in the north and the Allies in the South.
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    The Azerbaijani gladly accepted this idea, as it allowed them to form a national monarchist nation state that was nearly two times as big as before and positioned them as a medium regional power in the Caucasus region, even if they still heavily relied on the Neo-Ottomans. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary supported this idea too, mainly because the Baku oil was majorly important to them and the overall Axis Cental Powers, so they hoped this would give the Azerbaijan state more independence from the Neo-Ottomans and bring them more directly into their own sphere of influence. Many of the pro-Axis Central Power Azerbaijani forces now administrating and guarding the area were former parts of the Azerbaijani Red Army and government who had switched sides. Naturally the Germans as well as the Neo-Ottomans did not directly trust these Azerbaijani too far, even if political socialists, communists and political comissars had been carefully removed from their ranks until now. This meant that both the Germans and the Turks still had to leave at least a few of their forces (mainly guard troops, police and militia) behind to have a backup plan, should the Azerbaijan armed forces switch side during his conflict once again. German Army Commanders in the area even had orders to disarm and arrest their fellow Azerbaijani soldiers should there be any signs of them planning on betraying the Axis Central Powers.
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  16. CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

    Joined:
    Oct 16, 2016
    Location:
    Empire of Amra
    Around 4-5 or 5-6 Guadalcanal (and a few Malaita ones) Chapters till 1943 when the island will be taken by the Japanese for good. I'll try to make it a slow advance and just Japanwank it in one chapter. ;D
     
    Last edited: May 9, 2019
  17. Jaenera Targaryen Dragonrider

    Joined:
    Aug 15, 2015
    Guadalcanal is shaping up as the Verdun of the Pacific.
     
  18. CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

    Joined:
    Oct 16, 2016
    Location:
    Empire of Amra
    In some way it is, but New Guinea will be just as important. Also we will see some US Victories here and in Africa/ Europe before the war is over.
     
  19. Threadmarks: Chapter 577: Third and Fourth Battles of Savo Island – Part 1

    CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

    Joined:
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    Chapter 577: Third and Fourth Battles of Savo Island – Part 1
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    The Third and Fourth Battles of Savo Island (known by the Americans as the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal or the Battle of the Solomons, as the Third Battle of the Solomon Sea -第三次ソロモン海戦 Dai-san-ji Soromon Kaisen) on 12–15 October 1942. Before the Japanese had failed to retake Henderson Field, losing around 6,000 soldiers under Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi while trying. Before trying again the Japanese delivered additional 15,000 more soldiers mostly from the Army's 2nd Infantry Divison between 20 to 26 September. The Imperial Japanese Army then planned their next attack when further reinforcements from the 38thd Infantry Divison (7,000 soldiers) with ammunition, food and more heavy equipment would arrive from Rabaul, while the American defenses were still devastated by the Japanese warships, artillery, mortars, fighters and bombers, who dominated the area after destroying Henderson Field andmost Allied fighters and bomers there before. Admiral Yamamoto then ordered the Combined Pacific Defenxe Fleet's carrier Hosho together with 4 battleships, 12 heavy cruisers, 8 light cruisers, 24 destroyers and 11 transports to reach Guadalcanal safely. Yamamoto knew that the Allies had problems resupply Guadalcanal because of the Japanese Naval and Air dominance now and he intended to use this to his advantage. Allied intelligence learned about the Japanese preparations and plans and knew they had to act, sending Task Force 67 (TF 67, a large reinforcement and re-supply convoy, split into two groups and commanded by Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner) to Guadalcanal on 11 October. The supply ships were protected by two task groups (commanded by Rear Admirals Daniel J. Callaghan and Norman Scott) and the very few remaining aircraft from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal. The transport ships were attacked several times on 11 and 12 October near Guadalcanal by Japanese aircraft based at Buin, Bougainville, Malaita, while they were in the Solomons, but some were unloaded without serious damage. Abe's warship force assembled 70 nmi (or 81 mi; 130 km) north of Indispensable Strait and proceeded towards Guadalcanal on 12 November with an estimated arrival time for the warships of early morning of 13 October.
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    A U.S. never spotted the approach of the Japanese ships (as they lacked the reconnaissance planes from Henderson Field after the last attacks) and passed no warning to the Allied command. Thus Turner continued to land his troops and supply from their ships at Guadalcanal to depart by the early evening of 12 October at first. Callaghan was a few days senior to the more experienced Scott, and therefore was placed in overall command later when the Battle started. During their approach to Guadalcanal, the Japanese force passed through a large and intense rain squall which, along with a complex formation plus some confusing orders from Abe, split the formation into several groups. At about 01:25 on 13 November, in near-complete darkness due to the bad weather and dark moon, the ships of the Imperial Japanese force entered the sound between Savo Island and Guadalcanal and prepared to bombard Henderson Field again with the special ammunition loaded for the purpose. The ships arrived from an unexpected direction, coming not down the slot but from the west side of Savo Island, thus entering the sound from the northwest rather than the north. Unlike their American counterparts, the Japanese sailors had drilled and practiced night fighting extensively, conducting frequent live-fire night gunnery drills and exercises. This experience would be telling in not only the pending encounter, but in several other fleet actions off Guadalcanal in the months to come. Several of the U.S. ships only now detected the approaching Japanese on radar, beginning at about 01:24, but had trouble communicating the information to Callaghan due to problems with radio equipment, lack of discipline regarding communications procedures, and general inexperience in operating as a cohesive naval unit. Messages were sent and received but did not reach the commander in time to be processed and used. With his limited understanding of the new technology, Admiral Callaghan wasted further time trying to reconcile the range and bearing information reported by radar with his limited sight picture, to no avail. The radar operator was reporting on vessels that were not in sight, while Callaghan was trying to coordinate the battle visually, from the bridge. (Post battle analysis of this and other early surface actions would lead directly to the introduction of modern CICs early in 1943.)
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    Only now U.S. force steamed in a single column towards the Japanese, with destroyers in the lead and rear of the column, and the cruisers in the center. Five ships had the new, far-superior SG radar, but Callaghan's deployment put none of them in the forward part of the column, nor did he choose one for his flagship. Callaghan did not issue a battle plan to his ship commanders while moving towards battle. Now the Japanese also spotted the American Fleet on their radar. Several minutes after initial radar contact the two forces sighted each other, at about the same time, but both Abe and Callaghan hesitated ordering their ships into action. Abe was apparently surprised by the proximity of the U.S. Ships, who were directly guarding his target Henderson Field from his perspective, and with decks stacked with San Shiki special bombardment (anti-aircraft shells, rather than armor penetrating) munitions, was momentarily uncertain if he should withdraw to give his battleships time to rearm, or continue onward. He decided to continue onward. Callaghan apparently intended to attempt to cross the T of the Japanese, but confused by the incomplete information he was receiving, plus the fact that the Japanese formation consisted of several scattered groups, he gave several confusing orders on ship movements, and delayed too long in acting. The U.S. ship formation began to fall apart, apparently further delaying Callaghan's order to commence firing as he first tried to ascertain and align his ships' positions. Meanwhile, the two forces' formations (only one third away from Henderson Field between ao Island and Guadalcnal) began to overlap as individual ship commanders on both sides anxiously awaited permission to open fire.
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    At 01:48, Akatsuki and Hiei turned on large searchlights and illuminated Atlanta only 3,000 yd (2,700 m) away, almost point-blank range for the battleship's main guns. Several ships on both sides spontaneously began firing, and the formations of the two adversaries quickly disintegrated. Realizing that his force was almost surrounded by Japanese ships, Callaghan issued the confusing order, "Odd ships fire to starboard, even ships fire to port", though no pre-battle planning had assigned any such identity numbers to reference, and the ships were no longer in coherent formation. Most of the remaining U.S. ships then opened fire, although several had to quickly change their targets to attempt to comply with Callaghan's order. As the ships from the two sides intermingled, they battled each other in an utterly confused and chaotic short-range mêlée in which superior Japanese optic sights and well-practiced night battle drill proved deadly effective. An officer on Monssen likened it afterwards to "a barroom brawl after the lights had been shot out". At least six of the U.S. ships—including Laffey, O'Bannon, Atlanta, San Francisco, Portland, and Helena—fired at Akatsuki, which drew attention to herself with her illuminated searchlight. The Japanese destroyer was hit repeatedly and blew up and sank within a few minutes. Perhaps because it was the lead cruiser in the U.S. formation, Atlanta was the target of fire and torpedoes from several Japanese ships—including Nagara, Inazuma, and Ikazuchi—in addition to Akatsuki. The gunfire caused heavy damage to Atlanta, and a type 93 torpedo strike cut all of her engineering power. The disabled cruiser drifted into the line of fire of San Francisco, which accidentally fired on her, causing even greater damage. Admiral Scott and many of the bridge crew were killed. Without power and unable to fire her guns, Atlanta drifted out of control and out of the battle as the Japanese ships passed her by. The lead U.S. destroyer, Cushing, was also caught in a crossfire between several Japanese destroyers and Nagara. She too was hit heavily and stopped dead in the water.
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    Hiei, with her nine lit searchlights, huge size, and course taking her directly through the U.S. formation, became the focus of gunfire from many of the U.S. ships. USS Laffey (DD-459) passed so close to Hiei that they missed colliding by 20 ft (6 m). Hiei was unable to depress her main or secondary batteries low enough to hit Laffey, but Laffey was able to rake the Japanese battleship with 5 in (127.0 mm) shells and machine gun fire, causing heavy damage to the superstructure and bridge, wounding Admiral Abe and killing his chief of staff. Abe was thus limited in his ability to direct his ships for the rest of the battle. Sterett and O'Bannon likewise fired several salvos into Hiei's superstructure from close range, and one or two torpedoes into her hull, causing further damage before both destroyers escaped into the darkness. Unable to fire her main or secondary batteries at the three destroyers causing her so much trouble, Hiei instead concentrated on San Francisco, which was passing by only 2,500 yd (2,300 m) away. Along with Kirishima, Inazuma, and Ikazuchi, the four ships made repeated hits on San Francisco, disabling her steering control and killing Admiral Callaghan, Captain Cassin Young, and most of the bridge staff. The first few salvos from Hiei and Kirishima consisted of the special fragmentation bombardment shells, which reduced damage to the interior of San Francisco and may have saved her from being sunk outright. Not expecting a ship-to-ship confrontation, it took the crews of the two Japanese battleships several minutes to switch to armor-piercing ammunition, and San Francisco, almost helpless to defend herself, managed to momentarily sail clear of the melee. She had landed at least one shell in Hiei's steering gear room during the exchange, flooding it with water, shorting out her power steering generators, and severely inhibiting Hiei's steering capability. Helena followed San Francisco to try to protect her from further harm.
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    Two of the U.S. destroyers met a sudden demise. Either Nagara or the destroyers Teruzuki and Yukikaze came upon the drifting Cushing and pounded her with gunfire, knocking out all of her systems. Unable to fight back, Cushing's crew abandoned ship. Cushing sank several hours later. Laffey, having escaped from her engagement with Hiei, encountered Asagumo, Murasame, Samidare, and, perhaps, Teruzuki. The Japanese destroyers pounded Laffey with gunfire and then hit her with a torpedo which broke her keel. A few minutes later fires reached her ammunition magazines and she blew up and sank. Portland ,after helping sink Akatsuki, was hit by a torpedo from Inazuma or Ikazuchi, causing heavy damage to her stern and forcing her to steer in a circle. After completing her first loop, she was able to fire four salvos at Hiei but otherwise took little further part in the battle. Yūdachi and Amatsukaze independently charged the rear five ships of the U.S. formation. Two torpedoes from Amatsukaze hit Barton, immediately sinking her with heavy loss of life. Amatsukaze turned back north and later also hit Juneau with a torpedo while the cruiser was exchanging fire with Yūdachi, stopping her dead in the water, breaking her keel, and knocking out most of her systems. Juneau then turned east and slowly crept out of the battle area. Monssen avoided the wreck of Barton and steamed onward looking for targets. She was noticed by Asagumo, Murasame, and Samidare who had just finished blasting Laffey. They smothered Monssen with gunfire, damaging her severely and forcing the crew to abandon ship. The ship sank some time later. Amatsukaze approached San Francisco with the intention of finishing her off. While concentrating on San Francisco, Amatsukaze did not notice the approach of Helena, which fired several full broadsides at Amatsukaze from close range and knocked her out of the action. The heavily damaged Amatsukaze escaped under cover of a smoke screen while Helena was distracted by an attack by Asagumo, Murasame, and Samidare. Aaron Ward and Sterett, independently searching for targets, both sighted Yūdachi, which appeared unaware of the approach of the two U.S. Destroyers. Both U.S. ships hit Yūdachi simultaneously with gunfire and torpedoes, heavily damaging the destroyer and forcing her crew to abandon ship. The ship did not sink right away, however. Continuing on her way, Sterett was suddenly ambushed by Teruzuki, heavily damaged, and forced to withdraw from the battle area to the east. Aaron Ward wound up in a one-on-one duel with Kirishima, which the destroyer lost with heavy damage. She also tried to retire from the battle area to the east but soon stopped dead in the water because the engines were damaged and could only be saved after the Battle.
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    Although perhaps unclear to Abe right then, the way was now clear for him to bombard Henderson Field and finish off the U.S. naval forces in the area, thus allowing many American troops and supplies to be landed safely on Guadalcanal. At this moment Abe was unsure if he should abandon his misson and depart the area. Much of the special bombardment ammunition had been expended in the battle. However the American positions were already heavily damaged by then and this assault could be the last blow to finish them off. Since there were nearly no CAF around anymore, there was no danger posed by them. His own injuries and the deaths of some of his staff from battle action however may have affected Abe's judgement. He was at that moment unsure as to how many of his or the U.S. ships were still combat-capable because of communication problems with the damaged Hiei. Furthermore, his own ships were scattered and would have taken some time to reassemble for a coordinated resumption of the mission to attack Henderson Field and the remnants of the U.S. warship force. Abe then ordered his damaged ships to retread, while the mostly undmaged ones should pick up survivors (as well as the crippled Japanese ships Hiei, Yūdachi, and Amatsukaze, while finishong of the American ones; Portland, Atlanta, and Aaron Ward) and bomb the Allied Positions afterwards before joining his forces in a overall retirement northwards after this. Believing to have driven off the at 03:00 on 13 October, Admiral Yamamoto greenlighted the planned landings of the transports.
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    On their way back the Japanese were then attacked by Navy TBFs and Douglas SBD Dauntless dive-bombers from Wasp, which had departed Nouméa on 11 October, and Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers of the United States Army Air Forces' 11th Bombardment Group from Espiritu Santo. Abe and his staff transferred to Yukikaze at 08:15. Kirishima was ordered by Abe to take Hiei under tow, escorted by Nagara and its destroyers, but the attempt was cancelled because of the threat of submarine attack and Hiei's increasing unseaworthiness. After sustaining more damage from air attacks, Hiei sank northwest of Savo Island, after being scuttled by her remaining crew, in the late evening of 13 November. San Francisco, and Sterett were eventually moving away to make their way to rear-area ports for repairs. Sterett, however, sank near Guadalcanal at 20:00 on 13 October. Departing from the Solomon Islands area with Helena and O'Bannon later that day, Juneau was torpedoed and sunk by Japanese submarine I-26 and I-42. Juneau's 100+ survivors (out of a total complement of 697) were left to fend for themselves in the open ocean for eight days before rescue aircraft belatedly arrived. While awaiting rescue, all but ten of Juneau's crew had died from their injuries, the elements, or shark attacks. The dead included the five Sullivan brothers.
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    Abe's decision to continue the assault with the remainin ships, as he had superior numers earned the Japanese the strategic victory as the American positions were now nearly all destroyed, Henderson Feld completel out of use and the Japanese transports could safely approache Guadalcanal with their precious cargo. While the Japanese had lost an opportunity to eliminate the U.S. naval forces in the area by continue their attack, a result which would have taken even the comparatively resource-rich U.S. some time to recover from. Reportedly furious, Admiral Yamamoto relieved Abe of command until he would have fully rcovered. In reality Yamamoto was also very angry over the loss of one of his battleships (Hiei) than he was over the failure to completely destroy the U.S. force. Shortly before noon, Yamamoto ordered Vice Admiral Nobutake Kondō, commanding the Second Fleet at Truk, to form a new bombardment unit around Kirishima and attack Henderson Field on the night of 14–15 October while covering the Japanese transports unloading. The total U.S. losses in the battle were 1,439 dead. The Japanese suffered between 550 and 800 dead. The Although their reinforcement effort to Guadalcanal was delayed a few hours, the Japanese did not give up trying to complete the original mission, albeit nearly a day later than originally planned. On the morning of 13 October, Tanaka and the 11 transports resumed their journey toward Guadalcanal. A Japanese force of cruisers and destroyers from the 8th Fleet (based primarily at Rabaul and originally assigned to cover the unloading of the transports on the afternoon/ evening of 13 October) was given the mission to escord them and further heavily bomb the American positions. The battleship Kirishima, after abandoning its rescue effort of Hiei on the morning of 13 October, steamed north between Santa Isabel and Malaita Islands with her accompanying warships to rendezvous with Kondo's Second Fleet, inbound from Truk, to form the new bombardment unit.
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    The 8th Fleet cruiser force, under the command of Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa, included eight heavy cruisers, four light cruisers and twelve destroyers. Mikawa's force was able to slip into the Guadalcanal area uncontested, the battered U.S. naval force having withdrawn. Four of them, under the command of Shōji Nishimura, bombarded Henderson Field while the rest of Mikawa's force cruised around Savo Island, guarding against any U.S. surface attack (which in the event did not occur). The 35-minute bombardment caused further damage to various defensive positions of the American defense, putting most of the remaining onesout of working condition for the upcoming Japanese land assault. The cruiser force ended the bombardment around 02:30 on 14 November and cleared the area for now to head towards Rabaul on a course south of the New Georgia island group.
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    At daybreak, aircraft from the Wasp, stationed 200 nmi (230 mi; 370 km) south of Guadalcanal, began their attacks, first on Mikawa's force heading away from Guadalcanal, and then on the transport force heading towards the island. The attacks on Mikawa's force sank Kinugasa, killing 511 of her crew, and damaged Maya, forcing her to return to Japan for repairs. Repeated air attacks on the transport force overwhelmed the land-based escorting Japanese fighter aircraft, sank two more of the transports and forced the Japanese to send more CAS from the carrier Hosho to defend the transports, while staring scoutplanes to look out for a possible American carrier, support/ light/ escort carrier or seaplane tenders. Survivors from the transports were rescued by the convoy's escorting destroyers and continued to head for Guadalcanal. A total of 180 rmy troops were reported to have perished. The remaining transports and destroyers continued towards Guadalcanal after nightfall of 14 October, but stopped west of Guadalcanal to await the outcome of a warship surface action developing nearby before continuing. Kondo's ad hoc force rendezvoused at Ontong Java on the evening of 13 October. The U.S. submarine Trout stalked them but was unable to attack Kirishima during refueling.
     
    Last edited: May 15, 2019
  20. Anhtuan Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jun 8, 2018
    I can’t stop amazing how good this timeline is, and how in the name of science you can write so many details in just one single day?
     
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