Summer of Nations (1848 Victorious)

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by Generalissimo Maximus, Jul 29, 2018.

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  1. Threadmarks: Australasian Absolutism

    Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    Australasian Absolutism

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    Australasian Recruitment poster during the first global war

    Taken from "A history of Australasia" by Professor May Williams (Westralian Publishing, 2018)

    In the aftermath of the Eureka Rebellion, many efforts were made by members of the newly "imported" British Aristocracy to reinforce a British identity in Australasian society, especially by Queen Victoria herself. While the British government had always held sway over Australasian affairs, this sudden relocation had cemented its place as sole authority in Australasia. Land and titles were granted to members of the British aristocracy and to a lesser extent those in the top rung of pre-exile Australasian society and cultural phenomenon soon followed, including the erection of countless manors in the British country style across the rugged Australasian islands. A massive cultural initiative soon followed; Union Jacks and pictures of the Queen were handed out to schoolchildren and the populace in general was encouraged to see Australasia not as it's own state, but merely as an integral part of the British constituent nations, solidified in the 1853 Acts of Union between Australasia and Great Britain.

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    The "Six star ensign" was for a long time emblematic of the Australasian identity: Six starst to represent the British nations of Englad, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. While not an offical symbol, it was widely used and continues to be so in some British-Australasian circles.

    While the cultural grip on Australasia remained somewhat tenuous, the threat of an external enemy and the vast powers of the monarchy served to keep the apparatus of state together. Republican activists were quickly and regularly arrested by the Royal Constabulary, a security organization under direct authority from the monarch to "preserve the peace" with a wide-ranging array of legal power to act as judge and jury, if not executioner. Republicanism was painted as barbarian and tribalistic and its supporters as dim-witted and a common feature of propaganda was to equate anti-monarchist and democratic forces with the "savages" of the Australasian colonies, ironically uniting the twin groups against a common enemy in much the same manner as the monarchists.

    Another enemy that was repeatedly blamed was Germany, now the dominant land power in Europe and a naval power only really challenged by Russia and France. The primary fear was a German encroachment onto the Australasian sphere of influence in the souther hemisphere, a fear that proved itself warranted as Germany colonized large parts of Africa alongside other Republican powers and even expanded into New Guniea in a devastating blow to Australasian prestige. These fears provided perfect arguments for a concentration of power in the hands of the Monarchy and Military who proceeded to rule Australasia and its colonies in a proto-labryist fashion, creating a southern empire that would last until the end of the first global war and the Westralian revolution, finally bringing down the repressive political climate of the monarchy and allowing the Australasian peoples to discover their own national identity, ushering in a new era for the region.
     
    Last edited: Oct 19, 2018
  2. Threadmarks: Like the one thing that'll happen in South America in this TL

    Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    The Venezuelan invasion of Guyana was a one-year war between the British Colony of Guyana and the Republic of Venezuela.

    Details
    The war consisted of only a few skirmishes and battle outside of the capital of Georgetown were the only major battle of the war was fought during the storming of the city in late 1856. The war was started primarily because of the significant weakening of the British Empire as a consequence of the Great European Revolution and the longstanding territorial claims of Venezuela in the area. It was also seen as an opportunity for the Venezuelan head of state Julian Castro to cement his position in the politically unstable country and prevent the liberals from gaining ground in the wake of the revolutions abroad.

    The British force consisted of only 450 men and a small number of conscripted locals, who nevertheless held out for three months of continued siege and blockade in the hopes of gaining Australasian reinforcements, reinforcements which never arrived. The surrender of the colony prompted an increased interest by the British Empire in the
    Southern Hemisphere and the formulation of the subsequent Victorian Doctrine of maintaining a British sphere of influence in the southern hemisphere in general, leading to direct conflict with regional powers like The Empire of Brazil, Argentina and the Boer Confederation due to their several interventions in South America and Africa.

    See also
    • Venezuelan Province of Guyana (1856-2008)
    • History of the Guyana Confederation
     
  3. Threadmarks: 1861

    Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    1861
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    Map of the World 1861

    From "A history of Australasia" by Professor May Williams (Westralian Publishing, 2018)


    One of the defining moments of early Australasian political doctrine was the now well-know British intervention in Patagonia to support the self-declared monarchy under Orélie-Antoine I and his "Kingdom of Arucanía and Patagonia". The eccentric frenchman had gathere the local mapuche tribes in a loose confederation under his (percieved) authority and appealed to France for recognition. What he did not expect however, was a British-Australasian offer of recognition in exchange for Arucanían recognition of Australasia as the sole legitimate government of the United Kingdom and the creation of British naval bases in the area. In exchange the British would "Help protect the sovereignty of the Kingdom and the status of its Monarch" against the encroaching powers of Chile and Argentina. This along with a small British delegation to Brazil lobbying it to recognize the nation solified its position as a tangible nation in South America and the influx of British activity in the country would help it on its way to modernization with acess to Australasian materials and expertise.

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    Ensign of British Patagonia, the collective administration of Australasian Military bases in the Kingdom.

    Australasia had thus secured a foothold on the American continent to maintain some amount of influence in the area, actively competing to keep the Mosquito coast and various Carribean Protectorates under British control. This was aided by a secret agreement with the Brazilian Empire outlining spheres of influence in South America and allowing British Ships full acess to Brazilian ports and vice versa. In addition, the British colonial authorities began the process of regaining its colonial elsewere, establishing a colony on the east African coast and claiming large parts of Papua New Guniea, now also claimed by German and Dutch colonial missions. This would remain the foremost issue in the minds of Australasian strategists for the entirety of the "Twilight of the British Empire" as the period of the United Kingdom in exile is often called. To counter the encroanchment of Republicanism across all continents, the three southern monarchies of Aurcanía, Brazil and the UK would swear to upohold peace and stability in the southern hemisphere, but the only real accomplishment of this alliance was the Canberra conference that attempted to arbitrate and balance the regional claims of South American nations before its effective dissolution following the Brazilian revolution.

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    Map of Arucanía and Patagonia following the British intervention in 1861.

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    Orélie-Antoine I, first King of Araucanía and Patagonia.
     
    Last edited: Oct 26, 2018
  4. Nivek Resident Videogame Expert

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    What happened after 2008? and why not trinidad island too?
     
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  5. Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    Brazilian and Venezuelan Guyana unify and form the Guyana confederation in 2008, but Trinidad island is still contemplating a referendum.
     
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  6. Nivek Resident Videogame Expert

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    that make no sense...brazil? they conquered the other two? still make no sense, that would be venezuelan by now after 150 years, plus literaly other things? so trinidad is still british?.
     
  7. Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    Dutch Suriname (including french guyana) was incorporated into Brazil as a special autonomous region in the late 20th century that was granted independence in 2008 and parts of Venezuelan Guyana with an indo/afro-Guyanese majority were allowed to join later that sane year following a referendum on their side of the border.
     
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  8. Christory Well-Known Member

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    Just found this timeline, I already love it. So many mäps...

    Also a great concept too
     
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  9. Mikeduke324 Nintendo Fan and Ametur Vexillologist

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    Looks interesting. I’m wondering if that purple blob is Deseret with different borders than the OTL proposal.
     
  10. Tangle Well-Known Member

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    The Federalized Republic of Howard's Landing
    I mean, she's only up to 1861. I dunno if you usually have every last element of a timeline done before you post it, but....
     
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  11. Christory Well-Known Member

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    Deseret's borders seem to be migrating... why?

    Also, is Marxism going to make an appearance in this timeline?

    Also, is anyone going to try to settle Antarctica? (Patagonia or Australasia, perhaps?)

    Also, China seems to be having some issues...
     
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  12. Alienspacebats Dēmokratía is people's will

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    you do know they're there could be other socialist theorist could take off
     
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  13. Threadmarks: A Nation Divided Against Itself

    Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    (Play for full effect: www.youtube.com/watch?v=JPlQS1pzHdA )

    Video Transcript: "A house divided against itself" (US department of Education, 1934)


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    [The scene opens on an image of the American flag waving in the wind as the narrator speaks.]

    NARRATOR: "Life, liberty and the pursit of happiness. These are the principles of our great nations founding. We gained these rights by force of arms, against the tyrant King George and none have taken it from us since. Not the Mexicans with their Imperial ambitions, the tyrannical Kings of Australasia, or the Russian Tsars ruling from Europe to Alaska."

    [The scene cuts to soldiers marching, a Confederate flag waving in their midst.]

    NARRATOR: "These rights have come at a price. No time more clearly then during what we today call the civil war. A time when brother fought brother, state against state, nation against nation. After the election of President Lincoln in 1861, the states of the South Seceded, afraid Lincoln would act tyrant like the kings of old and deprive them of their liberty."

    [The scene now depicts a number of slaves in a cotton field]

    NARRATOR: "But the right they were protecting was one that deprived others of theirs. The so called 'peculiar institution' of slavery. The southerners viewed the superiority of the white race as the natural order of things and thusly they thought they could treat their fellow man as property."

    [Cut to a picture of Abraham Lincoln]

    LINCOLN: "As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this, to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."

    [The picture cuts to a map of the United states, with many states below the Mason-Dixon line coloured black, with the notable exception of Texas and the Northern States coloured white]

    NARRATOR: "Binding together against the Union, the states of the south united against the Union in the Confederate States of America, determined to retain slavery by force of arms. After the Confederate army laid siege to Fort Caswell in North Carolina April 13th, war was officially declared and both sides began amassing armies for the coming war."

    [As the narrator speaks, the picture cuts to Confederate artillery firing at a fort flying the union flag before cutting to Union troops marching.]

    NARRATOR: "One state however, was willing to negotiate. Despite bordering the Confederate States to the east and with no link to the Union but the savage wild west, Texas under President Sam Houston seceded separately from the Confederacy, sending an envoy to US congress. Compellingly comparing the secession of the Lone Star state to the European Revolutions against tyranny in 1848, the Texans just barely gained acceptance from congress on the conditions that they abolish slavery according to the european model, help the Union war effort and allow the Union to use their forts and harbours for military purposes. In what would become know as the 'three points compromise', Texas was granted independence and the Lone Star Flag was once more raised high across the state."

    [The picture cuts to the same US Flag flying, but this time it slowly fades into the Lone Star Texan Flag and cutting to troops from the CSA, Union and Texas marching and shooting]

    NARRATOR: "The war lasted five long, bloody years, pitting families and states against each other in a brutal struggle for freedom."

    [A Union and Confederate soldier run towardst each other and bang their rifles together before devolving into a clearly pre-coreographed fight]

    NARRATOR: It was only with the decisive Union victory at Dillsburg that the tide firmly turned in the Unions favor and a series of military campaigns drove the Confederacy back across the Potomac river and finally forced the Confederate army under General E. Lee to surrender April 12 1865, thus bringing an end to the war."

    [The picture cuts to a line of African-Americans standing in line to vote on election day]

    NARRATOR: "Today, black people across our great nation enjoy our rights and liberties like any other citizens of our great nation, thanks to the brace sacrifice of Union soldiers across America. For as the constitution says: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness'."

    [End. Credits roll to tune of American Anthem.]
     
  14. Stretch The One Who Has Seen Too Much

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    How much of the above is OTL? Just that I don't really know much about the Civil War except that the Union won in our world.
     
  15. Ostdeutscher 8i

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    If you Need some Quotes from patriotic German Songs from this Time Look at the YT-Channel Dr.Ludwig
     
  16. Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    It's about the same, the locations are just a bit shifted. The war starts in Caswell instead of Sumpter and the Confederate army reach just north of gettysburg into dillsburg before being defeated.
     
  17. Threadmarks: First Great Eastern War

    Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    First Great Eastern War

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    Battle for the provincial capital of Ruizhou
    "Great Eastern Wars": Western intervention in Chinese affairs by Hao Ning (Bejing University, 2019)

    The third and youngest son of a poor Hakka family, the life of Hong Xiuquan was seemingly not destined for anything in particular and he would not leave any decisive mark on the history of the world. Born to Hong Jingyang, a farmer and elected headman and Madam Wang, Hong came in contact with Christianity during his early adulthood from christian missionaries, particularly those from Australasia and began preaching to his local community after a mental breakdown around 1837. He claimed to have received visions from what he would later describe as the Christian God and Jesus himself, giving him the mission of spreading christianity throughout China. From these visions he came to the conclusion that he himself was the direct cousin of God and after some time travelling founded a religious community in southern China.

    After amassing a large following of around 2,000 people, the Quing government intervened in an attempted dispersal of the group, but met a strong backlash and were forced to retreat after a brutal engagement. Seeing this as his call from God, Hong declared a "Chinese Heavenly Kingdom" with the explicit intent of reforming or outright replacing contemporary Chinese society with one more influenced by the christian beliefs of him and his small circle of close followers. Emulating the Australasian principle of absolute monarchy by divine right, Hong instituted a repressive theocracy in areas under his control, complete with an infamous "inquisition" granted essetially free reign to root out all beliefs seen as heretical. The war would go on to be one of the most brutal civil wars in east asian history, with horror stories comparable to those coming from Revolutionary Thailand almost two hundred years later.

    All of these facts were not lost on the Australasian political upper class, now horrified at this monster ostensibly of their own making. At home this was painted as an attempt by the backwards Chinese to emulate good christian values which had "predictably" backfired horribly and only added more fuel to the rampant fear of all nonwhite asian peoples that had already ravaged society for decades. In part to preserve their somewhat fragile partner in the region and partly due to moral public outcry, the Australasian government would send several officers to train Quing Chinese units in western strategy and tactics to create special "western regiments" that would come to make up the backbone of the Quing dynasty's military might until the end of their reign.

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    Chinese soldiers of a "Western Regiment", this one in particular led by American adventurer Fredrick Ward.
    This eventually culminated in the deployment of regular Australasian units to aid the Quing cause, proving particularly effective in pitched battle against Taiping forces, often taking casualties in the tens while routing entire units of battle-hardened Taiping veterans. This can like many other colonial engagements be chalked up primarily to western advancements in battle tactics and military technology that their opponent lacked.

    As the last remnants of the Taiping dissolved into bandit armies and with the capture and execution of Hong, it was clear this victory had come with a clear price for the Quing. Australasian business was essentially granted free reign in prevously Australasian-held areas of southern China and would establish a direct trade link between the two empires from where goods worth millions of pounds were transported every year, with the now tax-free tea shipments making up over 30% of yearly traffic on this route alone. The maintenance of this link with China would become one of the primary drivers of Australasian foreign policy up until the kingdoms dissolution and the far-reaching concessions of the Quing would come to lay the groundwork for later political instability across the country.

    While contemporary politicians and intellectuals in the west claimed conflict of such a cruel and bloody nature was fundamentally "Oriental" and could never happen in the west, the tides of history would go on to prove otherwise...
     
    Last edited: Apr 22, 2019
  18. Threadmarks: Second Wave Colonialism

    Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    Second Wave Colonialism
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    Colonial officers visiting a village in Australasian East Africa

    A history of subjugation: Colonial peoples during the 19th century and forward (Cairo Publishing, 2001)

    European colonial holdings had existed since around 1840, but it was only with as the century was slowly drawing to a close that interest in overseas colonies truly began. On a sunny day in June 1860 the crew of the H.M.S. Indisputable hoisted the Union Jack on a small beach in eastern africa, signifying the first true return to the continent since the exile and truly starting the race to conquer the african coast. To gain their own foothold in Africa Germany quickly claimed and colonized the west saharan coast and made plans to seize territory in the mediterranean. Finding their former countrymen the Boers uncooperative in their colonial efforts, the Dutch opted to settle "new" land in Southwest Africa, whilst England and France merely expanded their holdings.

    Even American nations joined the colonial fervor and several groups of missionaries set up small trading posts on the west coast near other European colonies. These were ostensibly free territories following the Republican model, but in reality were mostly protectorates ruled by a small American ruling class, be they black or white. New Deseret became especially infamous as a near-theocracy run by missionaries from Deseret that threatened their Texan neighbors serveral times, straining relations back home somewhat.

    Those affected by this most were of course the native African population, who either saw themselves driven out of their homes and towards the interor, were outright massacred or forced into conditions close to slavery whilst working for the white invaders. Notably, the Zulu confederacy would remain the only native-run state free from foreign invasion as the rest of the continent fell under the sway of colonial powers. This can both be attributed to their own relative modernization and effective use of captured european weaponry as well as their Boer neighbors who provided them vital experience fighting european forces, leading to the defeat of the Australasian colonization force at the 1895 battle of Empangeni.

    A place where Australasia had more sucess in their colonization project was Oceania, which Australasia would come to dominate until its collapse. Despite their near uncontensted control, the German Republic with the help of Dutch forces laid claim to northern Papua in the spring of 1859, sending shockwaves through Australasian society. The Dutch saw this a way to stem Australasian conquest and potential agression towards their colonies and to give them a guaranteed colonial ally against the Australasians in the form of Germany. While it dissuaded Australasian moves towards the Dutch East Indies, it only fueled their expansion westward, seizing most of Melanesia and setting up puppet states in Hawaii and Polynesia to prevent similar encroachment from Republican forces from America. The treatment of the natives on these islands varied based on a number of factors. Fiji managed to maintain some autonomy within the Australasian nation whilst the Austalasian attempted to depopulate many of the smaller islands with limited sucess. All in all, these colonial tensions would ultimately be one of the key factors in determining both the participants and winners in the several century-defining wars that awaited across the threshold of the year 1900...
     
  19. Threadmarks: Liberties New and Old

    Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    The sun had just began its path downward through the sky, lighting the dense foliage in a strange olive colour as Sergeant Noah Hernandez and his group made their way through the underbrush. The men had been searching for an escaped convict since dawn. Like most of them, their target was what they called a "runner", someone who had broken their contract with one of the families that ran the local plantations and it was the job of him and his band to find them. What happened was of course not their concern, they pay was reliable and always very good.

    "Hey Noah, someone's up ahead."

    The Sergant was quickly snapped out of his train of thought as the group hunkered down into the dense vegetation, eyeing the strange figures up ahead. The men wore sturdy brown, grey and green clothes not unlike those worn by hunters, save for a pair of small yellow patches on their arms. Among them was the escapee, talking to them in a bewildered manner.

    "Looks like we found em'."

    Noah carefully stood back up and held his rifle downwards as he approached the strangers, the runner growing agitated as all attention was suddenly drawn to him.

    "Howdy there fellas, never seen you lot around here before so I guess you're from somewhere down the coast. Now, you folks have someone we'd like to-"

    He was cut short as a rifle cracked, sending a bullet straight in between his eyes. Things only escalated and the small clearing was soon covered in smoke as the brief battle ended in the favour of the strangers, with Noah's body being dragged back the way they came by his comerades, bullets still occasionally whizzing through the disorienting landscape.

    Liberties New and Old

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    A history of subjugation: Colonial peoples during the 19th century and forward (Cairo Publishing, 2001)

    Chapter 5: The Three Brothers

    Following the brutal American Civil War and the subsequent initation of reconstruction in the south was a major impetus for three different independently funded colonization efforts by American governments. The first of these was the The American Colonization Society, an organization founded to repatriate slaves to their percieved ancestral homeland in the form of the colony of Liberia which would go on to accept many immigrant in the years following its founding. In what could perhaps be considered irony, the very slaveowners that had for so long tormented and opressed the population now immigrating to Africa followed them back home with the founding of the Second Republic of Fredonia, initially a government-sponsored Texan colonization effort that soon came to encompass many former slaveowners and its defenders from the now defeated Confederacy like the charismatic John Wilkes Booth who would be the first elected governor of the New colony, relying on an exploitative system of african-worked plantations that was slavery in all but name.

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    Flag of the Second Republic of Fredonia
    The third group of emigrant was suprisingly Mormon Missionaries who founded a small mission on the African coast in late 1866 which would soon grow into a fully realized colonial venture sponsored by the Deseret government, simply named New Deseret by the local Anlgo population. The colony later came to be compared more to religious orders like the baltic Teutonic and Livonian knights than a nation-state or colonial subject, often taking in escapees from Fredonia and later other colonies to wage war against "heathens" in the interior, eventually expanding their hold on the country via a series of fortified villages running through the interior. This fervent expansionism and acceptance of runaway plantation workers planted the lingering animosity between Fredonia and New Deseret that would not go away even after their borders became physically separated by Scandinavian Africa. Throughout its entire history New Deseret never truly secularized despite immense outside pressure to do so, retaining many element more reminiscent of a totalitarian theocracy than a true democratic Republic.

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    Flag of New Deseret
    Whilst often referred to as "the three brothers", the three colonies did in fact have little in common beyond their distincly American parentage and its subseqent cultural influx, but the narrative of the three as bastions of American ideals in a sea of European colonial powers tightly wound together by their shared parentage has not begun to fade in the popular consciousness until recently as a more nuaced view of history becomes commonplace even in many pieces of contemporary media, helped along especially by the increasing influx of anticolonial perspectives following the lifting of the "Radio Curtain" between the CSR and its allies and the West just 25 years ago...
     
  20. Threadmarks: 1870

    Generalissimo Maximus Timelines are just excuses to make flags

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    1870
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    Map of the world in 1870
    Excerpt from Chapter 3, "A modern political history of the isles" by Thomas Scott[1].(2010, London Publishing)

    (...)Ironically, it would be the exile of the Monarchist government that would allow the head Chartists of the time to return home and to some extent reassume control of their political movement, their previous exile granting them a certain status of martyrdom for the cause back home. By 1870 a firm political order had been established with Chartism as the new guiding star in both England and Wales, albeit with significant competition from more conservative parties like the old Whigs (renamed Party of England to avoid monarchist undertones) and various other forces. Finding their country now divided, the English William Jones decied to part ways with his Welsh comerades Zephaniah Williams and John Frost geographically, but the three remained steadfast friends throughout their lives and Jones was even made a honorary citizen of the Welsh Republic in his later years.

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    William Jones, President of England 1858-1877
    Under the leadership of Jones and the Chartists the People's Charter after which the movement was named was implemented in full:
    1. A vote for every man twenty-one years of age, of sound mind, and not undergoing punishment for a crime.
    2. The secret ballot to protect the elector in the exercise of his vote.
    3. No property qualification for Members of Parliament in order to allow the constituencies to return the man of their choice.
    4. Payment of Members, enabling tradesmen, working men, or other persons of modest means to leave or interrupt their livelihood to attend to the interests of the nation.
    5. Equal constituencies, securing the same amount of representation for the same number of electors, instead of allowing less populous constituencies to have as much or more weight than larger ones.
    6. Annual Parliamentary elections, thus presenting the most effectual check to bribery and intimidation, since no purse could buy a constituency under a system of universal manhood suffrage in each twelve-month period.
    In addition, several social reforms like an early pension system and shorter work hours were implemented for industrial workers, but the agenda was also criticized by many radical contemporaries; women were not granted sufferage and English imperial ambitions continued despite the Chartists being ostensibly left-leaning.


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    John Frost, President of Wales 1857-1880

    Under the leadership of John Frost, Wales implemented much the same policies as the Chartists of England but over time grew distant from its counterpart. Among the more radical policies adopted by Welsh Chartism was a major revitalization of the Welsh and Cornish languages via the funding of schools in both Wales and England in addition to the nationalization of a numer of key industries like mining, coal and rail for both the sake of bettering conditions and as a way to safeguard the national Welsh interest. Welsh Chartism thus grew into a more uniquely nationalist force and consequently did not attract the same number of adherents as the more "mainstream" Chartism espoused in England and to some extent France.

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    Tricolour of the Welsh Republic, accuratly symbolizing the outgrowth of Welsh Chartism

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    William Ewart Gladstone, President of the Republic of Scotland 1850-1875

    In contrast to Wales and England, Scotland was less radical politically and the Liberals enjoyed great electoral success up until the turbulent years of the First Global War, perhaps personified best by President William Gladstone. Born in Liverpool to Scottish parents, Gladstone was like many upper-class Scots more British than most of his electorate and even maintained cordial relations with the Australasian exile government, especially by his promotion of free trade and fiscally liberal policies. Like in Wales, he put an end to the campaigns to anglicize the nation but did not actively committ government resources to the cause like in Wales or Brittany and to some extent helped bridge social divides between Low- and Highlanders. Folding to the pressure of a growing Scottish Chartist movement he also supported general male suffrage and secret ballot voting near the end of his career in 1873.

    This era of political stability came to an end as the old political guard died away, their loss only further exacerbated by the worldwide political shakeups in the wake of the 1910's, but their social impact would last far into the future. As the year rolled over to 1900 Wales, England and Scotland now stood proudly as independent nationalistic Republics in the vein of France and any lingering unionism died with the Global wars. The Isles would never again be united by military conquest but only by the consent of the governed.


    [1]Perhaps most well known for his diverging history fiction work "Thousand Week Empire"
     
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