There is no such thing as non-lethal shot. You can better their odds but if keeping the target alive is the priority then shooting him is not, or should not at least, be considered as a course of action in the first place.
 
Well, Kat generally (but not always) killed her (or the state's, or her friends') enemies. Them being Good or Bad was generally irrelevant, as opposed to: "Is he needed alive afterwards?"
As for bodyshots as opposed to headshots, the main difference (outside difficulty) is that a men shot in the head is (outside exceptional cases) nearly certainly dead.

The courier would protest but otherwise true.
 
And somebody shot center-mass with one or more 9x19mm rounds is also highly probably dead. Is he needed alive afterward? If so, then don't shoot him.

You shoot someone to prevent them from doing something (such as shooting at someone) or to stop them doing something (such as shooting at someone). In neither case will a minor wound do that and it's highly unlikely that you can inflict a minor wound in the heat of the moment.


Agree on this. Shooting is for killing. Bring him in by chasing him down.

One thing Kat will need to learn about interrogation though: If Plan A is "Beat it out of him", Plan B can't be "just ask nicely"
 
Agree on this. Shooting is for killing. Bring him in by chasing him down.

One thing Kat will need to learn about interrogation though: If Plan A is "Beat it out of him", Plan B can't be "just ask nicely"
Unless Kat trains to ths point of Expert. Then she'll just practice aiming at the kneecaps or testicles.
 
Maybe you should reformulate a little? There are plenty of people who have been shot and are still alive.
I think what is meant here is that, when you shoot, dead is always a very possible outcome...there is no shot that can be counted on to be nonlethal.
 
Maybe you should reformulate a little? There are plenty of people who have been shot and are still alive.
I think what is meant here is that, when you shoot, dead is always a very possible outcome...there is no shot that can be counted on to be nonlethal.
^^This.

As I said you can better their odds of surviving but once you shoot at someone them dying is always on the table and so if you need to keep them alive then don't shoot them. Non-lethal shot is if afterwards they happen to survive, you can't make one.

Not to mention centre mass is the place you aim at to ensure the highest chance of getting a hit not for keeping the target alive so I am thinking the instructor is being an asshole and deliberately teaching her faulty information at that.
 
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Part 50, Chapter 678
Chapter Six Hundred Seventy-Eight


1st September 1948

Seattle, Washington

Summer seemed to vanish in a heartbeat as the first big storm of the autumn arrived. It had gone from the high eighties the day before to the low sixties overnight and Nancy walked across the University’s Quad shivering in her wool coat. It wasn’t because it was particularly cold, just the sudden shift in temperature had put her body into a state of shock. The new had started and Nancy had realized that it was her Senior year, something else that had come as a shock.

Nancy entered the cafeteria sat down at one of the tables and started to open a stack of letters from her friends overseas. One of them had come as a bit of a shock, Friedrich v. Preussen had written to ask for tips on how to be a pin pal among other things. Apparently, he’d met a girl who had been traveling with the Japanese Imperial delegation, he wanted to keep in touch with her. The rest of the letter was a bit scattered, which was in keeping with it being from a ten-year-old. He wrote at length about his dog and playing in the forest after his school lessons. Nancy never had the opportunity to meet him, or any of the other members of the German Royal family in person. Something about the difficulty in securing cooperation between the different Governments in properly vetting her. Nancy hadn’t resented it but that had been a minor disappointment. Her father had yet to get over the visit from Tilo Schultz. Who knew how he would react to this letter.

The next letter was from Gia, she had gotten another article published. This one was a human-interest story involving a brief romance between Grand Duchess Tatianna of Russia and a Cavalry Officer. She’d clipped the article from the paper and enclosed it in the envelop with her letter. Then the letter from Helene followed, Hans had been deployed to South Africa and she was understandably worried. Nancy wondered if she should put a package together like the one she had put together for Kat all those years ago, it was supposedly a great comfort to receive something like that. Kat was worried about her training, it was pass/fail with no real grades, but she was struggling with the social aspect of it. How someone could have a bigger than life public persona while in reality be shy and introverted was a mystery to Nancy.

Finally, there was a letter from Tilo. He was still apologetic about what had happened with her father, but he was starting to get past it. Mostly he was bewildered by the actions of the Japanese Government. They had decorated him for his gallant conduct while fighting against the Japanese. It was a strange thing that had happened, but if it was going to happen to anyone it would be someone like Tilo.


Berlin

It was in the early morning hours and Kat couldn’t sleep. She was screwing everything up and had no idea what to do about it. She didn’t want to bother Doug with her problems, so she let him sleep when she got out of bed and put her robe on. At least Gia was doing well, that article that she had published had been good for her. It had created a link with her mother as a person as opposed to the saintly figure that the Russians venerated, who had sacrificed herself so that her daughter could escape. Gianna had told Kat that she was having a hard time remembering where that figure ended, and the real Tatiana Nikolaevna began.

It also might mean that some good had come of the machinations of Georgy. The Czar had suggested to several young men from up and coming Russian families that they meet Gianna socially without explaining exactly why. These same men had immediately seen her as the sort of girl that one would want to introduce to their mothers. All her protestations aside, Kat had realized that Gia like the attention. It was however, a power play by Georgy. If Gia married into any one of the families of Russia’s new nobility she would have to reveal herself to them as Jehane Thomas-Romanova and that would cement those same families to the fortunes of the Czar in a way that few things could. Kat knew that Gia understood the implications and so far, she had kept all these men at arm’s length. But if any one of them were able to somehow win her heart then the sweet girl that Kat had known might be gone forever. It was a terrible thought.

Padding down the stairs, Kat saw the lights were on in the kitchen. Petia was already up, she tended to wake up in the predawn hours so that she could prepare for the day in peace because the kitchen was a hive of activity during waking hours.

“Good morning, Katja” Petia said when Kat walked in as if there was nothing special about her presence as Kat sat down at the kitchen table, it was the sort of normalcy that she needed at that moment. “Couldn’t sleep?”

“I worried that I’m messing things up, badly” Kat replied.

“You always do this” Petia replied, “Then you muddle through somehow, even if you refuse to acknowledge it afterwards.”

“I’m afraid that my inability to play well with others will really cost me this time.”

“So, once again you are too busy wallowing in self-pity to see all the pieces” Petia said.

“Wait a minute” Kat said indignantly.

“No” Petia said flatly, “As I said, you always do this. Pretend that you’re at the end of your thread when you’ve got the entire world on it.”

Kat sat there in silence.

“Things are not so different between here and home, Katja” Petia said, “Police here might take more care in proving things but at the end of the day they are still the same. It’s very difficult for you to mess this up because of politics.”

“I don’t see what politics has to do with this.”

“Everything” Petia replied, “You are the heroine of this city and it looks good for them to have you, so they can’t give you the boot. I’d say that they will give you crappy jobs until you quit on your own though.”

“That’s not happened” Kat said.

“Give it time” Petia said knowingly.
 
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^^This.

As I said you can better their odds of surviving but once you shoot at someone them dying is always on the table and so if you need to keep them alive then don't shoot them. Non-lethal shot is if afterwards they happen to survive, you can't make one.

Not to mention centre mass is the place you aim at to ensure the highest chance of getting a hit not for keeping the target alive so I am thinking the instructor is being an asshole and deliberately teaching her faulty information at that.

This. Plus something I just remembered about a US Army unit in the catbox - they made such a high proportion of headshots that there was a inquiry into whether they were making the shots in combat or simply shooting their prisoners. Turns out they were just good shots.

There's also the messiness factor: somebody hit center mass will just fall down and bleed, a headshot carries has a higher probability of overpenetration and splashing teeth, eyeballs and brains all over the scene. Really nasty hazmat cleanup.
 
This. Plus something I just remembered about a US Army unit in the catbox - they made such a high proportion of headshots that there was a inquiry into whether they were making the shots in combat or simply shooting their prisoners. Turns out they were just good shots.

There's also the messiness factor: somebody hit center mass will just fall down and bleed, a headshot carries has a higher probability of overpenetration and splashing teeth, eyeballs and brains all over the scene. Really nasty hazmat cleanup.

I suspect that the mess is why the cops don't want Kat making headshots. A dead crook, if the papers get a pic, is just another body--a headshot cam make the tabloids or equivalent go nuts with graphic pics of the exploded head. Even if the body is covered/carried away, there will be residue everwhere.

At this time, I don't think the fragments are considered Hazmat, thought.
 
Part 50, Chapter 679
Chapter Six Hundred Seventy-Nine


5th September 1948

Potsdam

After the embarrassing incident of the prior month, the Empress had been surprisingly sanguine about what had happened. “It’s a risk that comes when you show up unannounced” Kira had said about it. It was extremely rare that she saw people behaving candidly as opposed to the stilted formality that she usually experienced. Despite her present difficulties, Kat still came to give the Empress her weekly briefing even though Kira was well informed already. The truth was that she found the time to be well spent because she also got Kat’s opinions along with the week’s events. It remained how Marcella had said, that it was as close to the opinions of ordinary people as Kira was able to receive.

“Port au Port, Newfoundland” Kat read aloud, “I’ve no idea where that even is. That was where Hurricane Able made landfall a couple days ago, extensive damage reported in the town, the church was destroyed.”

“Your husband is from there?” Kira asked.

“He’s from Canada, which is an extremely big place” Kat said, “I think that Newfoundland is one of the few places I’ve been where he hasn’t. There’s not a whole lot to recommend the portion of it that I saw. I understand that the Airforce Base in Goose Bay is now complete. When I was there eight years ago it was a construction site.”

“How did you end up there?”

“Let’s just say that British Military Intelligence aren’t always the best people to make travel arrangements” Kat replied, “Particularly if their agents can get a laugh over it.”

“That explains how you ended up having a character based on you in that book by the English spy” Kira said with a slight smile. Did everyone know about that?


North Atlantic

There were Atlantic storms and then there was this. They said this was the tailing end of a hurricane, merely a tropical storm at this point but the way that Z35 was getting tossed around was enough to suggest that this was no ordinary storm. The Captain and First Officer were maintaining an air of nonchalance, but they had been in General Quarters since they had been informed of how fast the mercury was dropping in the weatherglass.

Albrecht had the joy of being at his station staring at the computer screen. If he had not spent months aboard the Rhineland this probably would have made him deathly ill. He was learning the joys of being on a Destroyer with the constant damp and movement. At least the radar was showing that the sea around them was clear. The visibility topside was low. That was a blessing because up where the optical director was, the motion was far worse.

After the time spent in Wilhelmshaven taking on provisions, they had departed into the North Atlantic. By that time the crew was having to climb over the crates that contained tins of food that had been crammed into every bit of available deck space below that wasn’t needed for other things. It made it clear as to how long this patrol was expected to be.

It was at the end of the first day that the message for Albrecht had arrived. It was obvious who it was from even if it had no classification beyond who it was addressed to. A long unbroken string of letters and numbers, meaningless gibberish unless it was sent to someone who had worked with Grand Admiral von Schmidt’s super cypher. It had taken several hours of time when he should have been sleeping to modify the auxiliary fire control system to decrypt the message. That was something that probably would have gotten him crucified except that beyond basic programing no one understood what he was doing. Ironically, the First Officer had liked the fact that he had kept himself busy.

The message itself had angered him, the Admiral had personally reassigned him to Z35. He was supposed to keep the Admiral informed if he saw certain things, weapons bound for South Africa in particular. He was also supposed to be keeping eye out for either cash or the sort of contraband that could easily be turned to cash. It was unclear as to what Albrecht was expected to do, a handful of ships on the ocean were needles somewhere in a haystack the size of a Mount Everest. He was supposed to use the tools at hand, innovate and improvise until he found a solution if he had to.


Grunwald, Berlin

The “raid” was happening in the afternoon this year.

Kurt had only intended it to be a one-time thing, but the public had loved it. No sooner had they finished the previous year’s events then talk had started about what to do next year. Now, on the first Sunday of September the 2nd Life Hussar Regiment had been joined by several Companies sent to represent Horse Cavalry units that still existed in the world, the British and Russians being the most numerous. There was also a considerable number of reenactors.

Unlike the previous year, the rout was clearly laid out. The ride through the streets of Berlin would still happen but it was hoped that there would be less of a mess to clean up this year. Kurt looked over the heads of the gathered crowd and caught Gerta’s eye, she was the Grand Dame of the event this year. She was reveling in the limelight of this event, as everyone remembered the role she’d played in inspiring it. They always did like a romantic angle. The plan was that she would see them off and later meet Kurt in the Tiergarten at the other end.

“Boots and saddles” pealed out of a single bugle and it was swiftly taken up by a dozen others. The men began mounting their horses. A few minutes later the signal for forward cantor sounded and the Regiment began to form up. The plan was that everyone would be moving before the charge started. As the Operations Officer of the 2nd Life Hussars, Kurt was in the first ranks as they entered Berlin, the entire rout was lined with spectators. At a surprisingly far distance the signal to bugle sounded CHARGE! and they were off.
 
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Freidrich v. Preussen had written
So she is now in correspondence with two major members of the European Royalty. Both who live in Germany, yeah she is going to the State Department and then the Embassy in Berlin even if they have to kidnap her. Also the FBI and BVD must be going nuts over this.

on the first Sunday of September
Good time for parades we in Holland take the third Tuesday of September. Also the woman who doesn't appreciate a full regiment of Cavalry marching in Huzar dress Uniform, in her honour is not a woman I would be interested in.
 
Part 50, Chapter 680
Chapter Six Hundred Eighty


6th September 1948

Cape Town, South Africa

While Hans was thankful for the sideways move, he just wished that it was to something that he knew something about. In practice overseeing “Training and Education” for the Regiment had meant that he made everyone watch a fifteen-minute film about venereal disease, trench foot or some other topic that had been beaten death before the feature film on Saturday nights. He suspected that he’d become the new Intelligence Officer entirely because of his last name. The result was that he was improvising. He was supposed to come up with information so that the Oberst wasn’t going in blind. But how to go about doing that?

He’d pretended like he knew what he was doing, eventually he just went with something that he knew by going to the railyard. Regardless of differences involved it was very likely he would find someone who he could talk to there.

“What’re you doin’ here, soldier man. You lost?” A large African with coal black skin and scars on his face said in sing-song English. Something about the way he carried himself suggested that he was a brakeman or conductor. He was speaking for a small group of men, Hans was aware of how the police here would have reacted to such men, by breaking them up. Hans saw no reason for that and as a newcomer here he could pretend that he was unaware.

“My father is an Engineer for the Imperial railroad back home” Hans answered, that was just the truth. “I wanted to see what was going on here.”

“For real” The African said, “Steam and steel, as God intended.”

“My father would agree with that” Hans said, “Diesel and Electrification are dirty words around him.”

The African looked at Hans as if he had switched languages mid-sentence. News of those advances that were being proposed for the European Rail lines must not have reached here yet.

“He runs a locomotive on the Berlin-Vladivostok line to the Russian Far East” Hans continued.

That raised a few eyebrows, the longest continuous rail line in the world. It was a big deal to rail crews everywhere.

----------------------------------------------------------------

“After I bought these fellows a few rounds of beer it loosened their tongues a bit” Hans said to the Oberst, “They said that they’ve been hearing rumors that the Boers have a large number of self-loading rifles and so does the African National Congress. It was obvious which of those these men were for.”

“You mean to say that there could be two sides shooting at each other and us caught in the middle?” The Oberst asked.

“That seems to be the direction that we are going in, Sir” Hans replied. Now that Hans had said that aloud it didn’t sound nearly as strange as he thought it would.


Berlin

Ilse was looking through the microscope at the sample of water from the Elbe River. Noted increase in abnormalities in sample E108. She wrote in her notebook. It was a job she had taken with the University, a long-term study on the effects of industrial pollution and human habitation. The others in her class made a point of saying that they were counting the macaroni floating in the rivers. It was what happened when a piece of fecal matter had been floating in the river long enough for a coat of alga on it. After the feces dissolved on its own the alga remained. It looked a lot like the Italian pasta except it was much larger, and green.

What Ilse was discovering, and what she suspected her Professors were wanting to learn more, about was the effect of not only substantial amounts of sewage dumped in the rivers, but the effects of industry. People seemed to think that once the toilet was flushed or something was washed down the drain it just went away. It seemed that was very much not the case. In the Elbe samples they were discovering copious amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous that was likely runoff from agriculture. There were also solvents, dyes, heavy metals like lead or arsenic and wide array of petrochemical compounds. There were still too many unknowns to reach definitive conclusions but there was an increasing number of abnormalities among the microbes to further downstream from the watershed one went and the number of pollutants increased.


Seattle, Washington

It’s our understanding that Miss Jensen is fairly ordinary, her friendship with certain persons has been noted. She recently received a letter from someone who might be the Crown Prince of Germany…

John Aleshire read through the memo. The Jensen girl was back in Seattle after spending the Summer at her parents house in a suburb just south of Seattle. The visit from a person of interest to the US State Department had caused a bit of stir in the Seattle Field Office but when they had seen what Dietrich Schultz was like they realized how foolish that was. John had a challenging time reconciling the man who’d passed through Seattle on his way east as being the son of his original handler, but he apparently was.

Because of his recent promotion to Agent in Charge had put him in charge of a team of Agents who were eager to investigate this matter. John was sure that they would find observing a coed living in a woman’s dormitory a real hardship if he authorized it, which he had no intention of doing. Not only would they stick out like a sore thumb, but he would have to make up a reason for their presence on the University of Washington campus to the administration. It was also not worth the effort because Nancy Jensen had always been perfectly cooperative with the US Government when asked.
 
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I don't know if Nancy would be amused or insulted by being described as "Fairly Ordinary" but she is being very under estimated by the people watching her.
As I was going back and forth reading this timeline I noticed that John Aleshire family name was originally Alscher as in Frau Alscher, so are they distant relatives or just a coincidence?
 
As I was going back and forth reading this timeline I noticed that John Aleshire family name was originally Alscher as in Frau Alscher, so are they distant relatives or just a coincidence?

It's a common last name and one that is easily Anglicized, which was the reason I used it. They are of no relation.
 
Part 51, Chapter 681
Chapter Six Hundred Eighty-One


9th September 1948

Mid-Atlantic Ocean

It was proving to be a difficult passage. South to Africa during a very active hurricane season that was causing them to have to go thousands of kilometers out of their way to avoid the latest named storm. According to the weather reports, there were two of them swirling over the ocean out here with them. The advantage of this was that Albrecht had plenty of time to think about his problem and it was one of the hurricanes that provided a bit of inspiration. It had run across the sea lanes and a couple of ships had been sunk.

Everything that Albrecht had heard about merchantmen suggested that they were creatures of habit. That meant that there were natural choke points, even on the open ocean. If he was going to attempt to smuggle guns in or hard currency out he would just do it on a regularly scheduled ship. On the other hand, someone with a hold full of contraband might be tempted to go off the regular shipping routes, slow or speed up to make sure that they reached port at a time when they thought there was less chance of being observed…

That was when the reality hit him. All of this was something the ships Officers, who were experienced at this sort of thing, would be perfectly aware of. Z35 was a Destroyer, chasing smugglers was one of things it had been built to do. While thinking about this had kept him busy for the last few days, he had very little authority on this ship. It was a clever trap that Admiral von Schmidt had laid for him. Send a message that only he could understand, then watch to see if Albrecht embarrassed himself with a mixture of overzealousness and naivety by exceeding his orders. He was to observe and report back, nothing more.

This also started him wondering. How many times in the past had he been in situations like this and not noticed what von Schmidt was up to?


Berlin

Maria was starting to understand Kat’s occasional exasperation with Gianna. It seemed like Gia loved nothing more than to dance on the edge of discovery of her actual identity and would then step back before too many questions got asked. In this latest round matters had not been helped by the presence of a handful of young men who Czar Georgy thought would be acceptable consorts for his cousin. They were all young, rich and, what Maria suspected was the real deciding factor, not particularly ambitious or smart. Now that she was stepping back again they seemed to have no interest in going away. Gia found them to be a bit of an annoyance, when she wasn’t shamelessly taking advantage of them and their family’s money.

It all showed that Georgy didn’t know Gia at all. Maria knew that she liked ambition and intelligence, two things that would make the sort of person who could win Gia over a potential threat to the Czar.

At the same time Maria had to look at things from the perspective of an Editor and Gia as her employee. Did her personal life and history distract her from her work? So far it hadn’t, but there was always a chance that Gia Strobel could inadvertently become one of the biggest stories in the world because of that. Maria had hidden away copy that she had already prepared in that event, she couldn’t very allow the BT to get scooped even if that meant that Mischner-Strobel family might never forgive her if it came to that. And it would mean that Gia’s career in the newspaper would be over in an instant.

As it was, the story that Gia had taken an incredible risk to get had earned her some plaudits. Maria knew that she would need to keep her from getting too full of herself, so she had sent Gia to the Metro desk and had her assigned to cover Neighborhood Council meetings which were about as exciting as watching paint dry.


Wunsdorf-Zossen

She’d disregarded Hans’ suggestion that she go to her parent’s townhouse. Helene already had a bit of a snobbish reputation among the Officer’s wives and running off to Berlin while the Division was away would be casting that idea in concrete. That was why she came back to her house and did her best to keep up appearances. That didn’t mean that her mother couldn’t come to her and that brought other complications. Käte was very used to being at the top of the heap having been the wife a General who had also been the Commander of an entire Service Branch. Helene realized from the second her mother showed up that she would relegated to Käte’s shadow.

The conversation was starting to make Helene wish she had the wherewithal to do what Kat might do in a situation like this and just leave. The women in the room seemed to have no aspirations beyond their husband’s careers, it was as if life outside of this military base held no interest to them. In the past Helene had tried to talk to them about her professional interests only to have them act like she was speaking a different language. Her mother entered the conversation and blended right in with this crowd, as the conversation turned to talking about wine.

“Here, Helene” Käte said handing her a wine glass, “Tell me what you think?”

She took a sip, it was cloying and sweet, not to her liking at all. It was however, a perfect reflection of this entire event. “It’s fine” Helene replied, it seemed like a safe answer. She thought her mother had better taste in wine, but then she remembered that the wine had always been to her father’s tastes. Was this sweet wine really what her mother was into?
 
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With the United States Presidential election about to start off, I think that with the ticket of Truman-Russell both being IOTL ardent New Dealers will go for things like national heath insurance, a massive transportation investment initiative including subsidies to aircraft companies for jet research, a expanded highway construction program and an upgrade to the national rail system.
There will be other things like more funding for schools, aid to farmers, stronger pro union laws,
As for Civil Rights, this is where things get more complicated, most of the gains the Democrats received in the 1946 midterm election should have been from states in the North, Midwest, Mountain West and the Pacific West and that should have created a patchwork of pro civil rights laws in the various states and for Russell to get on the ticket he must have pledge not to speak out or publicly work against any legislation that advances civil rights and in return he will be promised that he will not be put in the position of casting any tie-breaking votes in the Senate.

For the Republicans, Maybe Dewey will drop his conservative 1944 OTL running mate John W Bricker of Ohio and go with a more progressive Midwesterner who survived the 1946 Midterms.
the Republican Platform should call for a Pro Free Market approach to things like heath care by having tax incentives for employer based heath insurance, larger tax breaks to companies for research and development and lower over all tax rates, there should be a pledge to keep and "strengthen" Social Security and try to convince seniors that any increase of help to younger people will come at their expense.
As for Civil Rights, Dewey knows that he is not getting any support in the South and to split the Democratic vote outside the South he should go all out on being Pro-Civil rights and say that being for Civil Rights is also for being for the Free Market, this may give him a higher share of the black vote and that will appeal to the more conservative voters as well.
 

FBKampfer

Banned
All Albrecht has to do is get the ear of the XO for a moment. "Sir, do you remember that code cipher that was sent to me? I translated it, and it's from Admiral von Schmidt. May I use the radio, sir?"
 
Chapter Six Hundred Seventy-Nine


5th September 1948

.

“Port au Port, Newfoundland” Kat read aloud, “I’ve no idea where that even is. That was where Hurricane Able made landfall a couple days ago, extensive damage reported in the town, the church was destroyed.”

“Your husband is from there?” Kira asked.

“He’s from Canada, which is an extremely big place” Kat said, “I think that Newfoundland is one of the few places I’ve been where he hasn’t. There’s not a whole lot to recommend the portion of it that I saw. I understand that the Airforce Base in Goose Bay is now complete. When I was there eight years ago it was a construction site.”

“How did you end up there?”

“Let’s just say that British Military Intelligence aren’t always the best people to make travel arrangements” Kat replied, “Particularly if their agents can get a laugh over it.”

Is Newfoundland still independent in this tl?

On March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became a province of Canada but retained the Union Jack in legislature, still designating it as the "national" flag. This was later reaffirmed by the Revised Statutes Act of 1952, and the Union Jack remained the official flag of Newfoundland until 1980, when it was replaced by the current provincial flag. (See Province of Newfoundland and Labrador for continued discussion of provincial flags.)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_(island)#European_contact,_colonisation_and_settlement
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