Stonewall Jackson's Way: An Alternate Confederacy Timeline

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Stonewall Jackson's Way: An Alternate Confederacy Timeline

I have read this forum for roughly the past year, enjoying the timelines creating by its users, but
never creating an account. I have also had this timeline in the works for the past year roughly, and now I believe it is at a stage were it is ready to be brought into the public eye. With an idea ready, I created my account, and hopeful I will be able to post the next part of this timeline at least every Sunday. Without further adieu, here is "Stonewall Jackson's Way".

*Please note that anything that happens in this timeline is not necessarily the author's desire for should have happened in actual history. This is merely an look it what possibly could have happened, not what necessarily should have happened.
 
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It would have been prutty cool to see the confederacy be able to conqour the gulf of mexico and make the gulf what the Mediterranean was to Rome
 
It would have been prutty cool to see the confederacy be able to conqour the gulf of mexico and make the gulf what the Mediterranean was to Rome
1. The Gulf of Mexico has never, and I'll venture here to say will never, hold the same level of importance as the Mediterranean.
2. A large reason for the Mediterranean impact on Rome was the fact that it fostered much faster travel, only a very small portion of the empire was particularly far from the Mediterranean, and that part was an island anyway. Meanwhile, the vast majority of the Confederacy, even in a timeline where they conquer Mexico and Central America, would either be more mid-Atlantic, Pacific, or inland oriented than gulf-oriented.
3. Even if they won the war in stunning fashion, taking 10-1 casualties and sparing the south from 99% of the economic destruction it faced IOTL, the South would still not have the population, industry, or economy to remotely compete with the United States, and likely be eclipsed or destroyed within 50 years.
4. France and Austria already involved in Mexico and most imperialist European powers would likely turn harshly against the Confederacy in the instance that they were to get involved. The Union, who supported Juarez, would also likely use it as an excuse to destroy the Confederacy.
5. States within the Confederacy chafed against the rule of Richmond IOTL, and likely would do so far more when the immediate threat of destruction would be gone. If any state were to secede from the Confederacy, most likely Georgia or South Carolina, then they would be heavily funded and armed by the Union.

The most that the Confederacy could've hoped for, having gained independence, would be a lucky stream of competent leaders managing to prevent the country's collapse at the hand of international and internal pressure, and stop the economy from completely imploding. Slavery is eventually abolished in the 1890s or so, and the country slowly industrializes, losing relevance and getting eclipsed by the United States, but not so badly that the Union decides to launch an invasion. It becomes like a somewhat richer, smaller Brazil- an upper mid-tier power with a diverse population, enormous wealth inequality, and political corruption. In fact, I would hardly be surprised if the Confederacy and Brazil were allied in such a timeline, in a bid to prevent the US from totally dominating the Americas and solidify trade relations. Coffee for tobacco, cotton for sugar. That type of thing. Enough of my diatribe, I just find the subject to be interesting. This isn't my thread, anyway.
 
Chapter One: Lee's Greatest Victory Part One
Chapter One: Lee's Greatest Victory Part One

A cropping of the famous painting, The Gods Amongst Generals, which is currently hanging in the Confederate White House. The painting depicts General Lee riding with his senior subordinates Generals Thomas, Jackson, Longstreet, A.P. Hill, D.H. Hill, and Stuart, while speaking with General Jackson.
Despite it not being Lee's most important or decisive victory, Chancellorsville is still referred to by historians as his greatest victory due it being the battle in which he faced his greatest numerical disadvantage in terms of soldiers. It would also set into motion the chain of events that would ultimately lead to Confederate independence. The stage was set for the battle in the aftermath of Battle of Fredericksburg, and the subsequent Mud March, which brought Union morale to an all time low. Seeing the need for change, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln would accept General Ambrose Burnside's offer to resign from the command of the Army of the Potomac on January 26, 1863. Burnside's replacement would Major General Joseph Hooker.

Major General Joseph Hooker, Commander of the Army of the Potomac​
Hooker had first risen to prominence serving as a division commander at the Battle of Williamsburg during the Peninsula Campaign, where he earned his nickname "Fighting Joe Hooker" through a clerical error. Rising through the ranks, and serving with some distinction, Hooker would serve as commander of Burnside's Center Grand Division during the Battle of Fredericksburg. Following that debacle, Hooker would be one several officer who connived to get Burnside relieved of command, with the hope he would receive Burnside's role as commander of Army of the Potomac. With Burnside's resignation, Hooker would assume that role, and promptly start working on reforming the army, including improving rations, changes to camp sanitation, hospital reforms, an improved furlough system, better drills, and more officer training, all of which improved the morale of his men. He also consolidated the army's cavalry units into one corps, at the head of which he placed General George Stoneman.

General George Stoneman, 1st commander of the Cavalry Corps, AotP​
Unfortunately for Hooker, many of the senior officers of the Army of the Potomac had left the army following Fredericksburg, leaving him many posts to fill. Hooker would abandon Burnside's grand divisions system, and return to the traditional corps system. The commanders of the I, II, and XII Corps remained the same from Fredericksburg, while the open posts for command of the III, V, VI, and XI Corps were filled by Generals Daniel E. Sickles, George G. Meade, John Sedgwick, and Oliver O. Howard respectfully. With his army reformed, Hooker began his movements against Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.

From left to right: Daniel Sickles, George Meade, John Sedgwick, and Oliver Howard.​
After several plans, Hooker finally settled on one involving double envelopment. Stoneman and the cavalry corps would launch a deep raid into Virginia, hoping to draw Lee’s attention to themselves. Meanwhile, the V, XI, XII, and two divisions of the II under Henry W. Slocum would stealthily cross the Rappahannock River, and attack Lee from the West, meanwhile the I and VI under John Sedgwick would cross the Rappahannock and seize Fredericksburg, which would threaten the Confederate right. All the while, the Confederates would be distracted by Hooker’s remaining forces, the III and the II’s remaining division. Hooker planned that this maneuver would force Lee to either retreat, at which point he would vigorously pursued, or attack the Army of the Potomac on ground unfavorable to himself.

Hooker's plan for his campaign
Hooker could not have decided to strike at a more opportune time. Lee had dispatched two divisions from his I Corps, Longstreet's and Pender's, under the command James Longstreet, to face the threat the Union IX Corps was creating on the Virginia peninsula, and to test James Longstreet at independent command. This left him with only six infantry divisions and his Cavalry Corps to face off against Hooker's advances. Hooker set his plan into motion, and at first, it went off unabated, with Lee completely unaware of what was happening. Lee only became aware of the threat when the movements of the enemy were detected J.E.B. Stuart and his Cavalry Corps. Realizing the peril he was in, Lee had to devise a plan quickly.

James Ewell Brown "J.E.B." Stuart, commander of the Cavalry Corps, AoNV
Lee would violate one of war's basic principles, never divide your force in the face of a superior enemy, with his strategy. Lee would leave I Corps commander General George H. Thomas and his division under Richard Anderson to defend Fredericksburg, while he and and II Corps commander, Stonewall Jackson maneuvered with the rest of the army to try and drive the force under Hooker and Slocum back. With his plan decided on, Lee would move the planned forces out of Fredericksburg, and start marching towards the Union forces under Hooker.

The three senior CSA officers at the Chancellorsville battle: Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, and George H. Thomas
The Battle of Chancellorsville would begin on March 1, 1863 with Lee's and Hooker's main forces colliding in their movements. Initially, the Confederacy was able to force the Union back, but they managed to regroup, and regain their lost ground. Despite their offensive success, Hooker would put on stop to the movements, as he hoped for a defensive battle, and feared an offensive one might bring about another Fredericksburg. He also believed that their maneuvers were sufficient enough to force Lee to make an offensive action, which was Hooker's goal. When Hooker's subordinates were informed of Hooker's orders to halt, several were incensed, but the orders were followed, and the day's fighting came to an end with the Union forces digging in to their position.
Lee and Jackson would discuss the next day's actions in the now famous scene of the two of them sitting on two boxes. Jackson assumed the Union forces would withdraw, while Lee's belief was that Hooker had invested too much into the action to withdraw now. It was decided that if Hooker was still in position the next day, the Confederates would attack. The plan for attack was developed when Stuart's cavalry brought the information that the Union right flank, the XI Corps under Oliver Howard, was in the air with no cavalry guarding it, as they were all raiding deep into Virginia, leaving it vulnerable to a flanking movement. To successfully reach this flank, Lee would have to march his entire force across the Union front without them noticing. Luckily for Lee, a newly constructed road through the forest which would shield his movements from the Union lines was identified by Jackson's cartographer, Jedediah Hotchkiss. With this determined, Lee ordered Jackson to move his command across the whole Union front using the road, and to attack the exposed Union flank. With this order, Jackson set off into the most risky maneuver of the war.

A painting of the famous meeting between Lee and Jackson​
 
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I like it... so far, it's just what happened IOTL, but based on the name of the thread, I assume rather than dying, he survives. Can't wait to see how that unfolds. Nice detail as well
 
I always enjoy a good CSA timeline and so far this seems to hold some promising potential. I await the next update but needless to say I will keep an eye on this moving forward.
 
Chapter Two: Lee's Greatest Victory Part Two
Chapter Two: Lee's Greatest Victory Part Two

Jackson's Flank Attack by Daniel Troiani, one of the most prolific modern day U.S. Civil War painters
With his orders in place, Jackson would begin the risky march. Against all odds, Jackson would manage to march across the whole Union front on the road Hotchkiss discovered without the Union army moving in to destroy his vulnerable marching column. Despite his success in the maneuver, the plan of Lee and Jackson nearly ended in disaster. From the first day of battle, Hooker had realized that Lee was not leaving a large portion of his troops defending Fredericksburg, and was instead moving the great majority of them against the column under himself and Slocum. With this in mind, Hooker decided to reduce the force threatening Fredericksburg to only the VI Corps, and to bring John F. Reynolds and his I Corps to his column to guard and anchor the Union right on the Rapidan River. If this was to happen, the Union's right flank would no longer be vulnerable, forcing Jackson either attack a well fortified position, or to retread his steps across the whole Union front again, but this time in daylight.

General John F. Reynolds, I Corps commander

Luckily for Jackson, due to miscommunications and misunderstandings, Reynolds and his corps would not be able to reach the Union line in time to guard the Union right, which remained in the air by the time Jackson had his men ready for the attack. Observations of the XI Corps found them resting and unprepared for actions, despite orders from General Hooker, who had began suspecting an attack on his right, to post picketts and to be ready for action. At 5:30 P.M., Jackson's attack was ready. The divisions of D.H. Hill and Raleigh Colston would lead the attack, with A.P. Hill's division behind them in support. With everything ready, Jackson ordered the attack, and his men charged out of the woods and into the Union flank. The XI Corps was completely unprepared for the attack, and already having poor morale since they disliked their commander, Oliver O. Howard, and having never before tasted victory, they dissolved into a complete rout.


An image from the 1884 book, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, which was a joint effort between Northern and Southern officers, depicting the rout of the XI Corps
News of the rout would reach Hooker's headquarters at the Chancellor House when mobs of routing XI Corps reached there. Hooker would mount his horse, and try and bring order out of the panic to no avail. By the end of the second day of the battle, Jackson and the men under his command his pushed roughly 1.25 miles, but his command his disorganized following the chaotic attack, and the rest of the Union line still held. The battle came to a stop by nightfall, and both sides tried to reorganize and prepare for the next day. Jackson favored continuing the attack on the Union line despite the coming of nightfall with the hopes of keeping the Union line confused. According to the post-war memoirs of two of his staff, Alexander "Sandie" Pendleton and Henry Kyd Douglas, Jackson planned on personally going out to survey the Union lines to decide if a night attack was possible, but decided not to when Raleigh Colston, a division commander and one of Jackson's favorite and most trusted generals, rode up and reminded him of the advice General Thomas had given him before departing with Lee, "Don't risk your life and get yourself killed, Jackson, I might need you and your command if it gets too hot on my line." Colston would volunteer to do the scouting, and Jackson, after some debate, allowed him to do so. Many say this decision saved Jackson from wounding or possibly even death, as on his way to the Confederate lines, Colston and his staff would be mistaken from Union cavalry and fired upon by 18th North Carolina Infantry under Major John D. Barry, with Colston being fatally wounded.

Brigadier General Raleigh Colston: 1825-1863

With Colston's death, Jackson decided not to launch an night attack, and to wait until morning to continue operations. Jackson would send for General Robert E. Rodes, a brigade commander with a reputation for aggression and a capable officer, from D.H. Hill's corps and assign him to lead Colston's division for the battle. The third day of battle would find several new developments. First, the VI Corps under John Sedgwick, supported with a II Corps division under John Gibbon, would finally begin an attack against Marye's Heights, which Generals George Thomas and Richard Anderson held with only one division. Despite this, they would manage hold back repeated attacks from Sedgwick in some of the finest defensive fighting in the entire Civil War, serving the double purpose of protecting the rear of the CSA lines under Lee and Jackson, and also tying up thousands of troops that could have been serving in Hooker's main line. Secondly, John F. Reynolds and his I Corps arrived at Hooker's line, replacing for the most part the Union losses of the last day's fight. Third and finally, Lee's two forces were divided into by Sickles' III Corps, which was preventing Lee from being his full weight to bear against the formidable Union lines. Once again, Hooker provided Lee with another advantage when he ordered Sickles to move further back into the Union lines, not only allowing Lee to consolidate his forces, but to also use Sickles' former position in Hazel Grove as a strong artillery position. With this artillery position (a shot from which would concuss Hooker temporarily, which some say was a factor in his later decisions) and repeated assaults, Lee made the Union line untenable, while also severely damaging the III Corps. All the while during this action, Jackson was riding with only a small party of five staff officers, Douglas, Pendleton, Hotchkiss, Hunter McGuire, the II Corps' chief surgeon, and Stapeton Crutchfield, the II Corps' chief of artillery, up and down his lines, constantly exposing himself to enemy fire. By the end of the night, Hooker agreed to have a council of war with his senior corps commanders. Several, including Darius Couch, II Corps commander and 2nd-in-command, Slocum, Sickles, and Meade, where in favor of staying and fighting it out. Hooker decided, however, that a withdrawal his necessary, and ordered that the preparations for it be set in motion. It was decided that the I Corps and Hancock's division of the II Corps would serve as a rearguard, while the rest of the army withdrew. The next day, the Army of the Potomac recrossed the Rappahannock River while Jackson launched more attacks against the defending Union rearguard. By the end of May 4, the Union had completely withdrawn from both Chancellorsville and Fredericksburg, ending the battle. Stoneman and his cavalry, who had ineffectively been raiding in central and southern Virginia, returned to the Union lines by May 7, ending the campaign.


A picture of the Confederate defensive line at Marye's Heights following the battle

Chancellorsville would cost both heavy losses, with the Union losing a little over 18,000 men, and the CSA losing a little less than 12,000. Both sides also took heavy hits in terms of officers. The Union would lose two division commanders killed, both from the III Corps, Hiram Berry (who commanded Hooker's former division) and Amiel Whipple. Six brigade commanders would also be killed, Gershom Mott, Joseph Revere, and Charles Graham of the III Corps, William Hays and Joshua Owen of the II Corps, and Thomas Rowley of the I Corps. The III Corps would take terrible losses in this battle, forcing into the to be consolidated from three divisions into two. In terms of Rebel losses, the senior loss was Raleigh Colston. Three brigade commanders were killed as well, Alfred Colquitt, John R. Jones, and Edward T.H. Warren. Interestingly, almost all of Lee's best brigade commanders, including John B. Gordon, Stephen D. Ramseur, Robert F. Hoke, Samuel McGowan, Cadmus Wilcox, and George Doles, were wounded in the action, but all would recover in time for Lee's next campaign. One however, Elisha F. Paxton, commander of the famed "Stonewall" brigade, would wounded and put out of active command for the rest of the war, along with such capable colonels as Philip Cook, William Cox, and Thomas Garnett.


A picture of wounded Union troops following the battle from the National Archives of the U.S.
With such an overwhelming, and seemingly impossible victory under his belt and the Union army in complete panic and disarray, Lee would again look north, hoping to bring an end to the Civil War, once and for all.
 
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OK, so assuming that the CSA Somehow wins it's independence, how long before the slaves full-on revolt and the Confederate Government has to abolish slavery anyway? I give the Confeds half a year after their victory before shit goes wrong for them, + another 3 months tops before they give in. There's only so much bullshit the slaves will take before they get righteously pissed and go full-on Hamilton, minus the musical numbers.
 

kruscica

Donor
I’m more interested in why George Thomas, the “Rock of Chckamauga” decides to go with his state and join the CSA, acceding to his family’s pleas.

I suspect his presence at Marye’s Heights somehow works to hold the Yankees long enough to somehow doom the AoP.

Someone who was so determined as to not only be neutral but actively consider his family as effectively dead in their treason would not easily just decide to fight ‘Old Glory’. Also, given the numerous other Virginians and veterans (ie West Pointers) from other states, how does he come to lead a corps by early 1863.

Thomas’s utility in 1863 was as a symbol of Unionism in the South and as someone who was competent and hadn’t made a mistake yet rather than someone of any particular distinction. Had there been a smaller army, as in the Confederate States, he’d likely have been a Division commander. I also note he spent his time in the West, which I interpret as being a result of there being more openings (hence if restricted to the East or even to smaller armies he’d not have the recognition to advance as easily).

When I make the points above I’m not intending to come across as critical or sarcastic. It’s possible and an interesting PoD but would require some detail, some reference to his inner conflict in finally deciding to go with Virginia or that the U.S. Army didn’t trust him and insulted or attacked him. Of course, from an in-universe perspective it would be seen as utterly natural and unobjectionable for a Virginian to have followed his state. The problem is that we know differently because in our world he did not and so his thoughts had to be stated ie. he justified his decision in one form or another.
 
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I’m more interested in why George Thomas, the “Rock of Chckamauga” decides to go with his state and join the CSA, acceding to his family’s pleas.

I suspect his presence at Marye’s Heights somehow works to hold the Yankees long enough to somehow doom the AoP.

Someone who was so determined as to not only be neutral but actively consider his family as effectively dead in their treason would not easily just decide to fight ‘Old Glory’. Also, given the numerous other Virginians and veterans (ie West Pointers) from other states, how does he come to lead a corps by early 1863.

Thomas’s utility in 1863 was as a symbol of Unionism in the South and as someone who was competent and hadn’t made a mistake yet rather than someone of any particular distinction. Had there been a smaller army, as in the Confederate States, he’d likely have been a Division commander. I also note he spent his time in the West, which I interpret as being a result of there being more openings (hence if restricted to the East or even to smaller armies he’d not have the recognition to advance as easily).

When I make the points above I’m not intending to come across as critical or sarcastic. It’s possible and an interesting PoD but would require some detail, some reference to his inner conflict in finally deciding to go with Virginia or that the U.S. Army didn’t trust him and insulted or attacked him. Of course, from an in-universe perspective it would be seen as utterly natural and unobjectionable for a Virginian to have followed his state. The problem is that we know differently because in our world he did not and so his thoughts had to be stated ie. he justified his decision in one form or another.
I haven't decided where in the timeline I am going to put it, but Thomas' decision to fight the South will eventually be explained.
 

G-6

Banned
I have a feeling that another war with union will happen because slaves will keep trying to escape north
 
Chapter Three: The Road to Gettysburg
Chapter Three: The Road to Gettysburg

A detail from Hampton's Duel by Daniel Troiani, which shows General Wade Hampton III personally fighting in the Battle of Brandy Station

Following his crushing victory at Chancellorsville, Lee prepared for what he hoped would be the decisive campaign of the war, a second invasion of the North. He hoped that victories in the North, and possibly even capturing major Union cities like Baltimore, Annapolis, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, or possibly even Washington D.C., (which was Lee's ultimate goal), would ruin what Northern morale was left after two bloody defeats in the East. He also hoped that invading the North would bring the armies of the North into northern soil, letting farmers in the South have an uninterrupted harvest, while Union farmers would have to provide for the two armies. He further believed that a successful campaign in the East would force Union forces in the Western Theater, particularly those sieging Vicksburg and Port Hudson, to be pulled out to support the Eastern Theater. With the approval of President Davis, and supremely confident in the superiority and invincibility of his troops, Lee began his invasion of the Union. Before he did, however, he did something he had been planning for a while, a reorganization of his army. Hoping to relieve Generals Thomas and Jackson of the stress of commanding four divisions, Lee had been planning to form a third corps for a while, but was unsure of which of his senior division commanders, Major Generals James Longstreet, D. H. Hill, and A.P. Hill, to give the command. With Longstreet and the two divisions under his command returning from his time with independent command during the Chancellorsville campaign, Lee made his decision. Longstreet, the senior of the three generals, would be given the command of the new III Corps, which consisted of his division, now under newly promoted Major General John B. Hood, from Thomas' I Corps, D.H. Hill's division from Jackson's II Corps, and a newly created division under Isaac Trimble, which was formed by taking Heth's and Archer's brigades from A.P. Hill's division, and transferring in the brigades of Joseph Davis and James Pettigrew in exchange for some of the Army of Northern Virginia's brigades. With the transfer of the cavalry brigades of Beverly Robertson and Albert Jenkins into Stuart's Cavalry Corps and John Imboden's men being placed under Stuart's command, and Robert E. Rodes being confirmed in command of the Stonewall Division following his temporarily appointment to command in during the Battle of Chancellorsville, Lee's reorganization was complete. With his army ready, Lee began his invasion of the North.


Distant Thunder by Matthew Kunstler, the most prominent CSA Civil War painter, and fierce rival of Daniel Troiani

As Lee planned and began his invasion of the North, Hooker seeked someone who he could blame for the defeat at Chancellorsville. Ultimately, Generals Stoneman and William Averell, a division commander in the Cavalry Corps, would be Hooker’s victims, and they would be sacked, with their replacements being Alfred Pleasonton and David McM. Gregg respectively. Hooker would also have to assign the II Corps a new commander, as Darius Couch had requested and received reassignment, leaving the position open. Hooker would fill it with General Winfield S. Hancock, Couch’s most trusted subordinate and who had distinguished himself in the retreat from Chancellorsville. Meanwhile, the Army of Northern Virginia had begun its northward movements by moving down through the Shenandoah Valley, and Stonewall Jackson engaged in two of his classic lightning campaigns. In rapid succession, Jackson captured the garrisons at Harper’s Ferry and Winchester under the command of Generals William H. French and Robert Milroy respectively. Hooker, meanwhile, had not started moving, instead planning a campaign to capture Richmond. President Lincoln would personally veto this plan, and ordered Hooker to begin a pursuit of Lee, while making sure that Washington and Baltimore remained protected. Hooker would follow these orders, and began his pursuit of Lee. All the while, Hooker’s senior subordinates began a whisper campaign behind his back questioning his ability to command.

From left to right: Alfred Pleasonton, David McM. Gregg, Winfield S. Hancock, William H. French, and Robert Milroy

As both armies moved north rapidly, Hooker’s worry began to grow. Receiving reports that J.E.B. Stuart had established a camp near Culpeper, Virginia, Hooker feared that Stuart was planning a raid of his lines of supplies. He would dispatch the Cavalry Corps, along with two infantry brigades to attempt to at least disrupt and disperse, but hopefully destroy Stuart and his Cavalry Corps. The result was the Battle of Brandy Station. In preparation for the attack, Pleasonton divided his force into two wings, each with an attached infantry brigade, and under the command of Generals John Buford and David Gregg. When the attack began, Pleasonton would manage to catch Stuart by surprise, and Buford’s advancing Union cavalry wing, led by a cavalry brigade under Col. Benjamin F. Davis, a fighting commander if there ever was one, was opposed merely by Stuart’s horse artillery. Unfortunately for the Union, the artillery was under the command of Major John Pelham, a brilliant artillerist. The Confederate batteries blunted the Union attack, killing Davis in the process, and managed to buy time for Stuart’s cavalry to form. Pelham's valiant actions at Brandy Station, along with those at Fredericksburg, would earn him promotion to Colonel.

Benjamin F. Davis and John Pelham

Despite Pelham’s heroics, Stuart and his cavalry were not safe yet. Pelham had been forced by overwhelming odds to pull back, and Gregg’s wing, which had planned to attack with Buford, but had been delayed by a forced reroute, also began their attack. Pleasonton’s two wings trapped three of Stuart’s brigades, under Generals Rooney Lee, Grumble Jones, and Wade Hampton, between them. Despite this, the Confederate cavalry held, and at the end of the day, it was the Union, not the Confederate cavalry that left the field. However, they were not forced off, and had proven themselves in hard combat. They also had damaged Stuart’s reputation, which helped lead to his decision to go off raiding, leaving Lee unaware of the Army of the Potomac’s positions.

A picture showing Rooney Lee’s defense on Fleetwood Hill

With Lee advancing further north, Hooker began to panic. He repeatedly asked for troops, and each time, his request was denied. Eventually, he demanded that the IV Corps, which was currently operating in Virginia, be transferred to the Army of the Potomac and under his command. President Lincoln and General-in-Chief Halleck would deny this request, leading Hooker to offer his resignation, which they accepted. They would replace him with George Meade of Pennsylvania, with Lincoln allegedly making the comment that he would “fight well on his own dunghill.” Meanwhile, the Confederate forces had entered Pennsylvania. General Trimble would send the brigade of James Pettigrew to search the town of Gettysburg, reportedly in search of supplies, particularly shoes. Pettigrew would find Union cavalry under the command of John Buford in the town, and would pull back, and report it to Trimble and Longstreet, Trimble’s corps commander. Longstreet and Trimble believed Buford’s command to merely be militia, and ordered two brigades of Trimble’s division, Joseph Davis’ and James Archer’s, to perform a reconnaissance in force the next day. On July 1, the two forces would collide. A skirmish broke out, which soon lead to actual fighting. The Battle of Gettysburg had begun.
 
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