Named for the dear Sidney Rigdon, who took a path he might have not. He died in righteousness early, when he could have perished in sin later. It was his actions that gave the Mormon Church a chance to create a nation of their own, Deseret, a new Zion, a city upon a hill, in the American Far West. For Sidney Rigdon, who opened the doors to a special divine destiny.

In Our Timeline
The Kirtland Safety Society (KSS) was a quasi-bank organized in 1836 by the leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, specifically Sidney Rigdon. It was intended to serve the banking needs of the growing Mormon community in Kirtland, Ohio. However, to their misfortune, the Panic of 1837 struck the nation just as it was beginning to develop. Nearly four-hundred banks had to close and smaller, privately held financial institutions, (including the KSS), failed in droves. A five-year depression followed throughout the United States. The Kirtland Safety Society failed.

This had a profound effect on the growing Mormon Church. It weakened the people's trust in their prophet, and caused many dissensions. Former follower's blamed Joseph Smith for the depression and the soaring unemployment trend. Some of the founding members and leaders of the Church became disillusioned and left the Church. Heber C. Kimball, OTL future Mormon Prophet, later recalled that "not twenty persons on earth" remained faithful to Smith after the disaster. Later, Joseph Smith and his partner Sydney Rigdon would be chased out of Kirtland, to relocate in Clay County and Far West, to join with the members there and rebuild the Church of the Latter-Day Saints in Missouri.

However, the Church leaders had had a difficult and exhausting time creating the Kirtland Safety Society. The Ohio legislature retarded every move the Mormon Church made to attain a bank charter.

Furthermore, the effort was a waste. The KSS was a blunder from the start. It only focused attention on the Mormons, earning them public scorn throughout Ohio and Kirtland, and did little to help any of them economically. Many higher-ups jailed and fined Smith and Rigdon for their 'illegal' bank, and it remains that only negative results came about because of the KSS.


In an Alternate Timeline…
What if Sidney Rigdon did not feel so enthusiastic about the Kirtland Safety Society?

Without Sidney Rigdon fighting so strongly for a bank that the Mormons could call their own, Joseph Smith would have put little enthusiasm into the project. The idea would have been abandoned if Sidney had put just a little less effort and energy into it.

The year 1836 continues very much the same. The Church's money problems are still present, but there isn't a bank to muddle the situation.

The Mormons, 1837 to 1843

The National Bank Crisis consumes the United States of America. Depression follows. Many members of the Mormon Church lose their jobs during the record unemployment bout, and poverty spreads. In the end, many still become disillusioned of Joseph Smith and the Mormon Church, and emotionally there is little change in the attitude of the Church. Joseph Smith attempted to head efforts into providing jobs, while more and more people left Kirtland to find new prosperity. There was no easy solution. Nearly half of the Church membership in Kirtland would leave during these troubled times.

June – Kirtland experiences its largest departure of the membership. 100 leave the Church. Some publicly announce their disappointment with the Church. Non-Mormon vigilantes are aroused, and believe the time has come to take back the city. Twenty-four Mormons are lynched in the violence that follows.

Joseph Smith calls the membership to relocate en masse to Caldwell County, in Far West, Missouri, where another host of Mormons had grown in considerable influence. The city of Far West is established as the new Church Headquarters.

August – More than one thousand Mormons, the most devout of the membership in Kirtland, make the long trek to Far West in Missouri. The more apathetic remain behind, but a substantial amount would come in the later months or years.

A group of zealous Mormons begin to meet together under the leadership of Sampson Avard, Jared Carter, and George Robinson to discuss the problem of the dissenters. During their meetings under which hard-line measures are proposed, the organization calls itself, “The Daughters of Zion” as well as “The Sons of Dan” after the warrior tribe of Israel, Dan.

September – David Whitmer wants to continue to preside over the Church in Missouri, however, the exiled leadership from Kirtland objects. Charged with multiple crimes of keeping funds for themselves, Whitmer and his followers are eventually excommunicated, leaving for Richmond, Missouri.

October - The Church engages in colonialism in neighboring counties, which had not been done under the Whitmerites. Smith founds the settlements Adam-ondi-Ahman and DeWitt in nearby counties.

Danites begin the process of hunting down and threatening dissenters and anti-Mormons.

Oliver Cowdery, Second Elder of the Church, is excommunicated after he requests resignation.

November - Joseph Smith renames the Mormon Church to the 'Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints '.

December - The Prophet initiates the 'Law of Tithing', encouraging members to give a tenth of all of their produce and profit to the Church.

February - Anti-Mormon organizations and mobs begin to gather throughout Missouri. The rapid Mormon settlement causes many to object to the expansion of the Mormons. Colonel Peniston, an avid anti-Mormon, holds the county seat. His snide comments against the Mormons galvanize the public against the Mormon invasion.

The Mormons, meanwhile, have an excellent trend of conversion, thanks to their expansion. It nevertheless confirms anti-Mormon fears of an invasion.

March – An Anti-Mormon mob converges on the house of David Brown, a Danite known for threatening non-Mormons. The famous card game is played between the leader of the mob, the reputable Bartholomew Carter. David Brown claims victory, though if he had tried to lose during the game, he would have dispersed the mob. Carter moves his mob to begin shooting up the walls. David Brown survives, but his horse is killed and his bard is burned down. These actions hit the press, polarizing Missouri for and against the Mormons. Danites begin to make plans to strike revenge.

Meanwhile, Sydney Rigdon continues to endorse his earlier Resistance Sermon, preaching that the Mormons should resist against these tragedies, and put up a fight instead of fleeing again to the west. Danite membership triples.

The Missourian Mormon War
April – A council in Carroll County is called to decide on the Mormon question. Everyone votes in favor of forceful retaliation. An envoy is sent to tell the Mormons to leave. The message is largely unheard. When the County Council do not witness a mass exodus, vigilante mobs begin to form throughout Carroll County. Stables and houses are torched, and people killed.

June – Vigilantes encircle the town of DeWitt, encamp outside, and continue a siege. The Mormons, especially the Danites, lead raids into the forests, killing many of the vigilantes.

July – After many structures are burned to the ground, Mormon leaders call for members to leave the settlement of DeWitt, beginning a major exodus back to Caldwell County.

August – Colonel Dunn leads militia against the Mormons in Daviess County.

Brother Colonel Hinkle takes up arms and with the backing of the Mormon leaders and the Danites, begins to actively engage the anti-Mormons. Millsport, Gallatin, Grindstone Fork of Daviess County are captured by his actions. Colonel Dunn is repelled. Non-Mormon families flee to other counties. The Mormons plunder and gut each settlement, and the entire county capital of Gallatin is burnt to the ground, not one structure left standing.

The Mormons march upon DeWitt, taking it from the vigilantes. The Danite leadership forces the Mormons onto Richmond. They pillage and systematically raze the city. News of this horrendous act, the Burning of Richmond, travels quickly. The Mormons march upon Liberty, and the city is given the same treatment. The Danite-led Mormon army had begun a reign of revenge and terror for their many years of mistreatment.

August 24 - 27 – Colonel Samuel Bogart leads volunteers into Caldwell County, attacking unarmed Mormons and burning homes to the ground. Church leaders call for retribution from the ‘vigilante mobs’ and a force is quickly sent to challenge them. The Mormons capture the anti-Mormon group unaware, killing more than half, including Bogart, and take the rest to a prison in Far West.

September 2 – After hearing reports of the capture of Bogart’s militia, Generals Atchison, Doniphon and Parks decide they needed to call out the state militia to prevent further violence. Missouri’s governor, Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, making it legal for any citizen of Missouri to kill, steal from, or rape a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

September 6 – Colonel Jennings of northern Livington County assembles 275 militiamen to strike back at the Mormons. Moving into eastern Caldwell County, unprotected, they assemble to attack Haun’s Mill. The soldiers opened fire for a surprise attack, sending the 80 Mormon families there fleeing for the hills. Women and children attempted to make it into the woods, while the boys and men set up to defend the settlement. Though they managed to kill seven of the militiamen, they were all eventually shot down in the end. 39 Mormons are killed in what would become the Haun’s Mill Massacre.

News would soon reach Far West, where an enraged populace would begin to assemble a vengeful response. However, the Mormons were now clearly on the defensive.

September 9 – 13 - An army of 200 Mormons is assembled in Far West, and under David Patten, move out towards the Haun’s Mill area. They discover a much larger host of militia than supposed. Patten decides only a quick raid would suffice. Firing their guns from the cover of the forest, the Mormons were able to kill 17 men, and then escape unscathed at Patten’s orders.

September 21 - Major General Samuel D. Lucas marches the state militia to Far West to begin the siege of the Mormon headquarters. Once again, inexperienced Mormon militias are unable to prevent the entry of the anti-Mormons into their heartland.

September 22 – Joseph Smith requests Colonel Hinkle to seek terms with Major General Lucas, asking for a treaty on any terms except for bloodshed. Many Mormons, especially Danites, still continue fighting. In Adam-ondi-Ahman, soldiers are assembled to attempt to reinforce Far West. They are surrounded by vigilantes.

September 23 - 24 – Lucas demands harsh terms for peace. The Latter-day Saints were to give up their leaders for trial and to surrender all of their arms. Every Mormon who had taken up arms was to sell his property to pay for the damages to Missourian property and for the muster of the state militia. Finally, the Mormons and the entire Church were told to leave the state. Joseph Smith agreed on the settlement. The prophet Smith was promptly arrested with other leaders of the Church, held in Lucas’ camp overnight, and then imprisoned in Liberty jail.

October – December – The Latter-day Saints sell all of their lands to the determined Missourians for little in return, and make another trek to Quincy, Illinois, where the kind townspeople offer them food and shelter for the winter.

[Overall, a much more bloody and dark little war. The Danites are a little stronger, consisting of some notable new-blooded discontent from Kirtland. In OTL, Richmond was never razed, nor Liberty, the Danites never made it that far.]


The Church regroups in Quincy, Missouri, and is confronted by land agent Isaac Galland, who offers to sell them land in Hancock County, Illinois, including the abandoned town of Commerce, as well as land in Lee County in Iowa Territory. Church leaders buy the land immediately and in the spring begin to settle the land with the Latter-Day Saints.

Enthusiastic member, Israel Barlow is credited within the first month of the settlement of receiving a dream of “a dark and cold death, like the finger of Satan, lurking in the depths of the swamp.” He leads a team to purchase equipment to drain the swamp. Though he would die of malaria during his project, he purged the swamp of the deadly, disease-bearing mosquitoes. Many lives are saved from possible cholera, malaria, and typhoid epidemics.

[In our universe, the swamps of Nauvoo were left untouched for many months, taking a gruesome toll on the first Mormon settlers.]

April – Weak from months of mistreatment, Smith and the other prominent Church leaders held at Liberty jail are allowed to escape, and make their way back to the Church in Hancock County. Joseph Smith renames the city from Commerce to “Nauvoo”, meaning “to be beautiful”, referenced in the book of Isaiah.

Construction would begin promptly. Joseph Smith would develop a ‘Plat of Zion’ for the city, involving a generally orderly grid system with ample room for gardens, orchards, and grazing plots.

May – John C. Bennett, the Quarter Master General of the Illinois State Militia, joins the Church. With his experience, the Church is able to craft a city charter for Nauvoo. The document would give the city a number of important powers, including the establishment of municipal court, a university, and an independent militia unit.

The Illinois state government, at that time, was equally balanced between Democrats and Whigs. Both parties were eager to attract Mormon votes and passed the city charter, naming John Bennett as the city’s mayor.

The city grew quickly as Mormons flooded the area. Many were immigrants from England, the result of a successful mission there. Before long, the City of Joseph would become home to more citizens than Quincy’s or Springfield’s.

March 5th – The Nauvoo Legion, a militia unit of the City of Joseph, drills in a great parade to honor the laying of the cornerstone of the new temple, Sydney Rigdon gives the dedicatory speech.

Shortly after his speech at Nauvoo, Sidney Rigdon decides to leave the leadership to serve in a local church presidency in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His relationship with Joseph Smith has deteriorated as of late, and while he still believes strongly in his religion, he cannot cooperate so closely with the Prophet. In October he would catch influenza, and in his bad health, he dies quickly. His body is taken back to Nauvoo, where a lavish city-wide funeral would be held in his honor. Sidney Rigdon would be remembered as a hero, and few think he left with a bad mark to his name.

[In OTL, Sidney Rigdon remained as a significant figure, dying decades later in 1876. When Joseph Smith died, many flocked to a new Mormon sect he arranged in Pittsburgh, the Rigdonites. He died as a heretic to the faith, but here keeps his trappings of heroism, becoming more of a martyr than a stigma within the religion.]

June – The first Masonic Lodge is erected in Nauvoo.

November – In Illinois, anti-Mormon sentiment spreads when a local newspaper in Warsaw declares that there were nearly “twelve thousand Mormons” in Nauvoo. Certainly, the population in Nauvoo was even higher, already bustling with thirteen thousand Mormons, all devoted to building up the city and the surrounding areas. The population was growing so fast buildings could not be erected in time. Little Nauvoo, also named Lehi, would be built in Iowa Territory to hold in the surplus.

[In summary of 1841, the anti-polygamist faction of Rigdon has been severed completely. The Church is much stronger. There are twice as many members of the ‘Mormon Empire’ than in OTL at the same time. However, anti-Mormon opinions are flaring due to the increased population by a much larger factor, only a year after the foundation of Nauvoo.]

Successful missions in Britain and abroad in America cause a boom within the Latter-day Saint movement. [Very similar to OTL, a little more powerful with the extra population.] Some say that Nauvoo is home to 15,000; Lehi, Iowa is climbing steadily as well to 8,000. The anti-Mormon reactionary movement grows elsewhere in the state, in Carthage and Warsaw. The opposition will not truly begin until Joseph Smith begins preaching plural marriage. Mormon colonialism reminiscent of the Missouri Days begins once more, with settlements appearing along the Mississippi, throughout Iowa and Illinois.

April – Joseph Smith begins spreading the teachings of plural marriage, polygamy, in Nauvoo. A few thousands leave, but there is rumored to be 40,000 members within the Church, so it does not hit the Church hard.

January – Farmer and carpenter James W. Marshall is converted into the Mormon Church. He begins to plot to head upriver to Little Nauvoo. [He was living in Illinois at the time. In OTL, he was not converted, and would later move to Oregon and then to California, where his sawmill would become the site of the discovery of gold.]

February - William Mason, an inventor interested in firearms, steam pumps and power looms, joins the Mormons in Illinois. [In OTL, he would have gone off to work for Samuel Colt.]

March 10th – A great mob gathers in Carthage, Illinois; they purport to organizing a “wolf hunt”, though it was widely known the “wolves” were actually Mormons. Governor Ford of Illinois sends militia to break up the disturbance; however, the militia joins the party instead. Rumors that the Mormons were trying to make their own US state from Illinois and Iowa galvanizes the mob.

March 13th – Governor Ford arrives in Carthage in person to try and assert his orders. Much of the group has already left for Nauvoo. Over six hundred men assail settlements outside of the City of Joseph.

March 14th – Elder John C. Bennett, mayor of Nauvoo, declares martial law. John C. Bennett gives power over to Joseph Smith and the First Presidency for this war-time status. 9,000 militia-men in the Nauvoo Legion arm themselves and are sent throughout the land to capture or kill vigilantes.

March 15th – 700 militia-men of the Nauvoo Legion join 400 Carthage vigilantes in battle near a stream. The vigilantes retreat, followed by an organized force. They decide to hold their ground in the woods, but there is a slaughter. The arrival of 100 more anti-Mormons leads to a stalemate, and the Nauvoo Legion retreats. 300 casualties on both sides.

The ‘blood oath’ practice has been popular lately within the Mormon Church. Said to derive from teachings in the Old Testament, it upholds the statute that anyone has permission to kill another who has purposefully murdered a family member or friend, without sin. The 100 left for dead is easily enough to ignite the Mormon population.

March 17th – Another major clash erupts about fifty miles north of Nauvoo, with 200 dead. Many of the vigilantes have returned to their homes, no less agitated, but unwilling to fight now that the powerful Nauvoo Legion is patrolling the forests.

March 18th – William D. Cutler commands a group of anti-Mormons in a massacre of a small Mormon homestead, killing fifteen. Word travels fast. 120 Nauvoo Legion militia-men, mostly Danites, leave for Warsaw, currently heated against the Mormons. They find Cutler, repeat a verse from the Old Testament, and then open up fire, kill him instantly. Anti-Mormon Warsaw converges on the Mormons. A small battle sees 100 casualties on both sides, and the surviving fifty are imprisoned.

March 21st – A group rallied in Warsaw converges on Little Nauvoo from the south. Before the Nauvoo Legion can force them to flee, another 150 are dead.

March 25th – Illinois militia by the orders of Governor Ford approach Nauvoo to take into their custody Joseph Smith and a few other members, to be detained. Ford hopes this will appease the anti-Mormons, and be used as a bargaining chip to get the Mormons to accept some tighter laws about their expansion. Nauvoo bows before state authority, and reluctantly allow their prophet to leave with the militia.

Joseph Smith, the Martyr, and his Succession

March 27th – At a roadhouse, Joseph Smith discusses gospel tenets with some friendly Illinois militia. What could have been a conversion story, or perhaps a story of escape, becomes actually a sad tale of a conflict escalated too far. 300 anti-Mormon vigilantes surround the roadhouse and demand for Joe Smith to come out and face the consequences of the war he started. When the Illinois militia decides to open up fire on the brigands, a battle begins throughout the roadhouse. Joseph Smith is killed by a stray bullet, along with most of the men in the roadhouse. The vigilantes vanish into the night.

March 29th – Word of the assassination of their prophet leads to uproar throughout the Mormon Church. Small groups of Mormons leave to terrorize nearby non-Mormon settlements. The Mormons are vilified by terrified Illinoisans. Governor Ford himself approaches Nauvoo to demand peace, but returns without a treaty. The Mormon leaders grit their teeth, reporting that they’ll solve their own problems.

April 10th – A conference is held in Nauvoo to determine the successor to Joseph Smith. The unanimous choice is Brigham Young, President of the Quorum of the Twelve, the most influential personalities. He is elected by the Church leadership as the president of the Church, though not the prophet, to lead the Church during the crisis. [This is in contrast to the death of Joseph Smith in OTL, in 1844, when numerous people rose to fill his void, leading to a succession crisis that severely divided the Mormon Church. Thanks to the lack of Sidney Rigdon, and also to butterflies, and a more unified Mormon Church (thanks to the numerous more violent conflicts), Brigham Young immediately took the entire Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints under his leadership.]

May – President Brigham Young begins to reform the First Presidency, especially with pro-polygamist and pro-peace personalities.

May 4th – Governor Ford, though he dislikes the Mormon’s overly violent minority, respects the majority as citizens of Illinois. He fears that the Illinois legislature will repeal the Nauvoo city charter, provoking a new war with the Mormons. Brigham Young accepts a large force of 1,500 Illinois militia men to keep martial law over the Mormon counties, assisted by the Nauvoo Legion. Brigham Young reluctantly agrees to downgrade the Nauvoo Legion to 5,000 souls, disheartening the Mormons.

August – As much as 500 of the Illinoisan militiamen have been converted into the Mormon Church. The rest, fearing that their friends have been abducted by evil spirits, panic and many dissert. Nevertheless, the area has become more peaceful, with the resumption of trade with Nauvoo, though factions still roam the state looking to punish one person or another.

August 19th – 300 half-drunken anti-Mormon vigilantes approach Nauvoo in the dead of night. They demand the Illinois militia guard to let them enter the city, so that they can check for evil spirits. The superstitious guard, eager to finally root out any evil, allows them in. They approach the Nauvoo temple, under construction, searching for spirits; many claim that they see things in the night. Working themselves into a terror, the vigilantes become brash and careless. A torch is thrown upon the temple, which quickly catches aflame. Meanwhile, the Nauvoo Legion had been organized and sent to confront the vigilantes. Something of a shooting conflict begins, waking the entire city, but a large majority of the anti-Mormons flee from the city. The flames are eventually put out, but not without significant damage to the temple.

August 20th – The Nauvoo Legion confronts the Illinois militia men, ordering them to leave on grounds of letting vandals into the city. The lieutenant in charge does nothing, though he sends a letter to Governor Ford about the predicament.

August 23rd – The Illinois militia, under orders of Brigham Young, are forced out of the city, with only a few troubles. President Young orders the Nauvoo Legion to be doubled back to pre-May levels.

September – Unrest continues after the expulsion of the Illinois militia. A few heady Mormons venture out, seeking out those who burnt down the Nauvoo Temple. Larger vigilante groups, the established Carthage Greys and the Warsaw Whites, grow in strength and continue terrorizing outlying Mormon settlements.

September 14th Battle of Nauvoo – One thousand anti-Mormons march through the night from Warsaw to Nauvoo and engage the Nauvoo Legion. The surprise battle leads to more than a thousand casualties and many Mormon soldiers dead. The anti-Mormons eventually retreat to Warsaw, their numbers somewhat crippled, but nevertheless they make a declaration of war against the Mormons.

September 22nd – Brigham Young fears intervention from Illinois, or for that matter, the United States of America, into this new Mormon War. He believes that the enemies of God will send armies to purge the saints from the land. Young holds a week of fasting for guidance. On the seventh day, President Brigham Young claims to his First Presidency that God directed him to call the Saints to organize and head westward, beyond the border of the United States, into Mexico.

September 25th – Brigham Young meets with Governor Ford at Chicago, and signs a treaty recognizing the Mormon’s intentions to abandon Nauvoo and their areas in Illinois. In return, Young is obliged a detachment of militia to protect Mormon interests, and the freedom for Mormons to purchase goods in Chicago for the move. The treaty also allows for land to be sold for fair prices.

October – The process of planning for the migration to the west begins. Brigham Young buys many maps of the West, including California, Mexico, Oregon, and the Great Basin. He sends members to find guides and explorers who have been on those trails. Young also orders for the entire Church to mobilize in the selling of land and the movement to Iowa to prepare for a move west.

Missouri Mormon War.PNG
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Gobsmacked! I didn't check the length. If I had, I might just has missed one of the more pleasurable reads of the night. Excellent.


The United States of America, 1840 to 1844

November - The presidential election of the United States of America in 1840 results in a clear win for President William Harrison over Democrat Martin Van Buren.

March 4th – Martin Van Buren, the President of the United States, is succeeded by William Henry Harrison.

[William Henry Harrison survives to serve his term. During his inaugural address, he is saved from the cold and windy day when one of his aides gives him an overcoat. He would never catch a cold or pneumonia. Tyler remains a subordinate Vice President.]

July 7th – William Henry Harrison passes a bill establishing ‘the Third Bank of the United States’ righting the wrong that had been made by Andrew Jackson years before. The Whigs are overjoyed. [Tyler vetoed the bill in OTL.]

November 2nd – President Harrison passes a protective tariff bill, pushing rates to 45 percent on dutiable goods. International trade is significantly cut, imports are halved and exports are lowed by 30%. The Whigs are overjoyed once more. The populace is quite excited about the tariff. New development begins throughout the USA. Northern protectionists are ecstatic. Southern planters, however, have been hurt badly, some even openly discussing secession.

The ambitious sectors of American society who had been waiting for the full-scale implementation of the Whig American System finally received their wish. President Harrison was little more than a spokesman for the Whig Party and, more importantly, the charismatic Henry Clay. The Bank was back. The tariff wall was high. “Harrison, Two Dollars a Day and Roast Beef” had been given to the American people. However, the exorbitant rates are not as productive as thought, though it definitely increased revenue for the federal government. Meanwhile, the stresses between the North and the South intensify over economical imbalances.

President William Henry Harrison declares that he will not run for a second term, eager to enter into retirement. He is overall disappointed with his presidency. His famous remark hits the news stands, “Why now am I finally learned that the job of a president is in fact a dull and tedious chore?”

May 1st – The Whig convention selects Henry Clay as their candidate for the 1844 election. [There is little left for Henry Clay to do, as his system has already been established, but nevertheless, the Whigs don’t know who else to look to.]

May 27th – The Democratic convention selects Martin Van Buren as their candidate for the next election running on the aim to limit the expansion of slavery. [Without Tyler, the annexation of Texas never becomes so much of an issue. In OTL, Buren barely made the nomination… with a little more going for him, he does. Polk remains a small figure.] This leads a split amongst the more southern, pro-slavery figures within the Democratic Party. There is talk of forming a new party to try and take control, but they are unable to gather around one figure.

August 6th – New York Mayor Samuel F. B. Morse sends the first electrical telegram from Baltimore, Maryland, to Washington D.C., which is translated into, “ET FACTA EST LUX,” the famous Latin phrase for, “And there was light.” [Morse uses this phrase instead of “What hath God wrought?”]

December 4th – Henry Clay narrowly defeats Martin Van Buren for the presidency. There is something of a falling out in the South over which party to choose, for while Clay compromises on slavery, he wishes to enforce tighter and tighter of a tariff. Martin Van Buren may have decreased tariffs, but he ran on a campaign against slavery. Henry Clay begins work on reforming the American System, after four years as a ‘trial period’.


The Republic of Texas, 1839 to 1842

June – Sam Houston, the former President of Texas, contracts yellow fever in his own city, Houston. Sam dies later in the month. His peaceful, pro-American faction holds a lavish funeral for him in Austin (vacating Houston because of the epidemic). Meanwhile, the current President Lamar and his nationalist party are quietly enjoying the crippling of Houston’s faction.

April 20th – Through the designs of President Lamar, a large caravan departs for Sante Fe, New Mexico, in attempt to fortify Texas’ claim to their western border by raising 80,000 New Mexicans into a revolution against the Mexican Governor Manuel Armijo. It would include a military escort of 390 men, and a civilian component of sixty-one persons.

[Such an expedition existed in OTL, though it was slightly less of an effort, with 270 soldiers and 51 civilians. With the Lamarite faction stronger with the death of Sam Houston, it is probable such designs could have been accomplished.]

May 9th – The House and Senate of Texas passes a bill, allowing the Franco-Texienne Company bring in 8,000 families and build twenty-two forts from the Red River and the Rio Grande. The settlers would be exempted from all taxes and tariffs for twenty years. The company would receive three million acres of land. This would significantly aid ties with France, and would develop the area economically and militarily at a moderately low coast.

June 28 – The Texan Sante Fe expedition reaches the capital of New Mexico, but not before clashing with Armijo’s forces at the outskirts. The citizenry decide to rise up with Texans pushing to liberate them from Governor Armijo’s cruel policies. Armijo eventually surrenders to the Texans and his citizenry. More than half of the military escort lies dead, but the victory has been taken.

[In OTL, Armijo’s Mexican soldiers surprised the expedition at a settlement a few miles away from Sante Fe, and the group surrendered. With a few more men, and slightly better timing, an uprising came about instead.]

After a lax few days of planning and celebration, messengers are sent throughout New Mexico, to fortify Texas’ claim to the territory. Armijo’s Mexican soldiers are marched back to Houston.

August 30th William Peters receives authorization to settle 600 families in northern Texas from Ohio. [As in OTL.]

October – A victory caravan arrives in Houston with Mexican prisoners including Governor Armijo. There is a huge boost in morale for the Republic of Texas. President Lamar arranges for another few hundred Texan soldiers to be sent into New Mexico to fortify their borders. The Mexican prisoners are immediately returned to Mexico in an attempt to soothe hostilities.

November 2nd – Thanks to Harrison’s tariff, Britain and France begin to invest much more heavily in the Republic of Texas, with their slowly developing cotton fields, cattle, rice and sugar cane. Within only a few months, imports and exports in the Republic of Texas from these two European powers would rise by 25%, helping the Texan economy that was hurting due to the expensive militarization, colonization, and Native American eradication of the Lamar administration. Texas would have to turn to Europe for manufactured goods, with its American neighbor so unwilling to do business, increasing shipping overseas.

[In TTL, the Republic of Texas benefits much more from USA’s ‘the Black Tariff’. In OTL, the US tariff had been 32%. In TTL, without Tyler to force a compromise, the tariff remains at 45%.]

December 13th – Kenneth L. Anderson of the Houstonite faction runs against Edward Burleson of the Lamarite faction. Anderson is able to claim the position of the President of the Republic of Texas through his demeanor as a moderate candidate.

February 5th – More than 600 Mexican soldiers, led by Rafael Vasquez, invade Texas for the first time since the revolution. They cross the Rio Grande and occupy San Antonio.

February 22nd – William Kennedy, an Englishman, and Frenchman Henri Castro receive permission from Texan President Anderson to settle 600 or more immigrants between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. Castro would send 500 colonists that year, primarily from Alsace, to settle on the Medina River at Castroville. Kennedy and his associates decide to wait until the recent conflicts calm down to begin colonization. [As in OTL, however, with a higher tariff in the US, Texas is seen as a more profitable site, and Castro sends 500 instead of 300.]

March – After numerous attempts to uproot the Mexicans from San Antonio, the Mexican soldiers leave by their own designs, without any battle having been fought over the city. They take thirty prisoners with them.

April 15th – The Adelsverein, consisting of 25 German noblemen, obtain a grant from Texan President Anderson to colonize areas between the Llano and the Colorado Rivers, compromising of nearly four million acres. They would bring more than 1,000 Germans into Texas before the years end, and would begin on the work of the city New Braunfels.

[Very important!! In 1842, OTL President Houston had a choice between two German contractors for colonization: Henry Fisher and Burchard Miller, or the Adelsverein. Houston appealed to entrepreneurs more than noblemen and chose Fisher and Miller. The two Germans ultimately brought very, very few colonists into Texas. The Adelsverein in OTL ultimately attained their contract in 1844, and began one of the most successful colonization enterprises, bringing nearly 8,000 Germans into Texas by 1846. Under President Anderson in TTL, the Adelsverein were signed on two years earlier, and Texas would not have to deal with the hassles of Fisher and Miller.]

May 8th – A Mexican army 500 men strong are sighted approaching Sante Fe. The city’s militia awakens to defend the city from the soldiers, rallying a force nearly 1,000 men strong, though they have little more than 300 actual soldiers. The Mexican army has better equipment and training. The Battle of Sante Fe begins with a siege to rival the Alamo.

May 19th – After eleven days of laying siege to Sante Fe, enduring modest casualties, Vasquez orders a retreat from the city. A few towns and villages in New Mexico are looted, in no way strengthening the friendship between Mexico and western Texas.

June 29th – To strengthen frontier defense, President Anderson signed a contract with Alexandre Bourgeois d'Orvanne and Armand Ducosqv to settle 700 French families on the headwaters of the Medina and Frio rivers and 600 families along the lower Rio Grande.

September 21st – Led by Adrian Woll, 1,300 Mexican troops capture San Antonio once again. They retreat very soon, taking seventy-two prisoners with them to Mexico City, enraging Texan passions.


Latin America and the Caribbean, 1839 to 1844

February 19th The War of the Confederation – At the Battle of Yungay, off of the coast of Peru, General Manuel Bulnes’ disease-wracked soldiers are crushed by Confederate soldiers under Supreme Protector Santa Cruz. The Chilean Restoration Expedition suffers 2,500 casualties, most dead, and 1,800 men captured; the Confederation only suffers 1,700 casualties. The Chileans are forced to retreat, bringing already low morale crashed down within the Chilean-Argentinian coalition against the Peru-Bolivian Confederation.

[In OTL, the Chileans and Argentinians won against all odds. They had marched for days, and their soldiers had picked up foul disease, and the Peru-Bolivians were in a very strong position. Luck had its way, and by chance the Peru-Bolivian Confederation came crashing down thanks to one battle.]

August – After a few more setbacks, General Ramon Castilla of the Chilean force signs the Treaty of Arequipa, acknowledging the sovereignty of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Ships are returned, commercial trade is resumed, and debts are considered cleared. The populace, troubled with the progression of the war and the poor morale of subsequent defeats, does not put up significant resistance to the signing of the treaty. Tariffs between the two nations are regulated at a standard medium for the next five years.

September – Supreme Protector Santa Cruz begins a period of reform in the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. His authoritarian regime strengthens the army, the bureaucracy while paying for extensive campaigns to purge the nation of dissidents.

January - The Republic of the Rio Grande is organized with the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas. [As in OTL.]

February – Mexican General Arista begins organizing an army to attack the Republic of the Rio Grande. Word gets out, and General Canales leaves for Austin, Texas; he begs President Lamar to send aid. In return for a few Texan regiments and weapons, Rosillo reluctantly agrees to limit the Republic of the Rio Grande to south of the river. [In OTL, Lamar denied military aid. However, in TTL, Lamar is more optimistic following Houston’s death in 1839. Discussions are a little easier, and Canales gives up claims passed the Rio Grande in order to get Texan soldiers.]

March – With good news from the Rio Grande, the Yucatan Congress declares the independence of the Republic of the Yucatán. [As in OTL, only in 1841.]

April – Mexican General Arista meets the Federalist army (of the Rio Grande Republic) in the Battle of Morales. General Canales is able to wage a deadlock in the battle, but after coming close to turning the tide, is forced to retreat. [In OTL, the Federalist army was crushed.]

May – General Canales arrives in San Antonio, Texas, looking for volunteers to help the Republic’s survival. [As in OTL.]

June – Ecuador demands the return of the Jaen and Maynas jurisdictions, under de facto control of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. The natives of the regions have no desire to return to Ecuador. Negotiations fail soon after, and an economical blockade is arranged between the two countries.

July – The army of the Republic of the Rio Grande crosses the river and captures Ciuadad Victoria, the capital Tamaulipas, without resistance. His army is nearly a thousand strong with Texan volunteers. [As in OTL, only a little later.]

September – General Canales bashes the Mexican army at San Luis Potosi, yet flees before victory is won, heading towards Saltillo, Coahuila.

December – General Canales of the Rio Grande Republic and General Arista of Mexico discuss the war at a meeting during a ceasefire. Arista tempts Canales with defection, offering a high military rank in his army. Canales declines. [In OTL, he accepted, and that was the end of the Republic of the Rio Grande. With victories under his belt, Canales sticks to his guns.]

January 27th – The rebels of Tabasco join with the Yucatan in their revolution against Mexico and Santa Anna.

February – Mexican forces attack Saltillo, in the Republic of the Rio Grande. General Canales is forced to retreat. The Texan regiments of the Federalist Army of the Rio Grande decide to desert for home, during the night. Canales despairs. [The Texans did desert the Rio Grandeans, but here it happened a little later. They were good soldiers, but not loyal soldiers.]

May – General Canales attempts to retake Saltillo from the Mexicans. He fails abysmally, and his army captured.

August – President Cardenas of the Republic of Rio Grande announces the nation’s dissolution from Victoria, Texas. For its small size and poor organization, it struck a good deal of damage against the Mexican army. [As in OTL, only in 1840.]

September 16th – President Lamar sends the Texan navy to protect the Yucatan during their rebellion. [As in OTL, the Texan navy wasn’t doing much.]

September 24th – 700 Mexican soldiers storm Tabasco, to quell the rebellion in the peninsula. They fight their way up to Campeche, where they are surprised and encircled by Yucatecans. Half of his forces is lost before he begins the retreat.

July – Another Mexican army clashes with the Yucatecan army, but are repelled. Shortly thereafter, the Congress decides that economical ties with Mexico are too important for the stability of the Yucatan. Governor Barbachano negotiates a reunion with Mexico.

February 24th – The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti. [As in OTL.]

Cults: The Icarians and the Johnsonites, 1839 to 1844

The novel by Etienne Cabet, “Travel and Adventures of Lord William Carisdall in Icaria”, is published. [A year earlier than OTL. It would be slightly more popular due to butterflies.]

March – Benjamin Johnson, a failed sheep farmer in northeastern Ohio is reading the New Testament when he comes upon Matthew 19:12, which discusses eunuchs. He claims a voice spoke to him, and immediately afterward he castrated himself with his own tools. He begins preaching throughout Ohio, and he claims to be a new prophet.

April – Johnson has not found any followers as of yet. However, he does meet Dmitri Vasilyev, a Russian adventurer. This great coincidence is claimed to be divine in nature, for Vasilyev bears evidence of incredibly similar Skopzyist teachings. Though he was not a member before, Dmitri believes that if the teachings originated twice without each other’s influence, something must be divine. The two set out again to preach.

July – Benjamin Johnson, leader of the ‘Kingdom of Heaven’, is arrested amongst a congregation of twenty-four advocates, for convincing seven of the men to ritually castrate themselves. He is taken to Toledo to face trial.

August – Johnson is broken out of jail by four of his members. They gather their things and the cult leaves for the White River, Indiana.

February – 1600 Icarians, followers of Cabet’s books and principles, arrive in New Orleans from Le Havre, France. They begin to scout for a location they can settle.

April – The eunuch William Dale, one of Benjamin Johnson’s strongest devotees in the Church of the Kingdom of Heaven, arrives in New York City, to begin preaching and gathering followers.

August 25th – Corning, Iowa is decided by the Icarian pioneers to become the great colony of the American west. 400 members leave to build up the city.
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Sidney, 1844.

No territorial changes other than the survival of the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation.



*bump* Sorry if I'm not supposed to do this. I'm just going to be gone for the day and am not going to be able to update... so... I had to do something to keep it up on the first page. :(
Hey is your day off over yet? :p I'd love to hear some more. Thanks for the maps aswell. They're always appreciated.


I'm nearly done with the next update for the Mormons. 1844 to 1854. I've got to detail the Mormon Exodus, the colonization of Utah, California, and Oregon, and the beginning of a revolution. Should be out tomorrow.

Sorry to keep you waiting! I'm quite a perfectionist. Expect a deluge of an update soon though. :)


Changes to the Timeline

April 18th – Sam Brannan, a New York Mormon at the age of twenty-five sets sail with 360 other Latter-day Saints from New York on the ship Richmond. They travel around South America to Yerba Buena (OTL San Francisco), California. Yerba Buena's population is made 75% Mormon with their arrival. Sam sets up a printing press, a flour mill and is made the leader of the Mormons in California. [In OTL, he left for Yerba Buena in 1846, with 250 Mormons.]

The Mormons and the Mexican Northwest, 1844 to 1852

March 20th – After personally reviewing all information about the Great Basin and possible routes, Brigham Young decides to begin the Mormon Exodus. The Vanguard Company, consisting of 180 men, 4 black slaves, 7 members of the Quorum of the Twelve, 4 wives, 3 children, all separated into 18 companies, with 92 wagons, 117 horses, 65 mules, 83 oxen, 24 cows, 21 dogs and some chickens left Nauvoo, Illinois towards the Great Basin. The Vanguard Company would be managed down to every detail by Brigham Young. It was very organized, and ran on a strict schedule. Camp was awakened by a bugle at 5 a.m. and the company began to travel by 7 a.m. They ended stopped at 8:30 p.m every day. They would travel for six days a week, while they stopped on Sunday to observe the Sabbath. Overall, they were very efficient with their time and energy, and moved quickly. [As in OTL, with a few more people and animals thanks to a larger Mormon population to work with.]

April 24th – William Clayton, the company scribe, tires from personally counting the revolutions on a wagon wheel to compute the day’s distance. He consults with Orson Pratt, an accomplished mathematician, and together they build a mechanism of wooden cog wheels that can ‘count’ the revolutions itself. The ‘roadometer’ (odometer) is born.

May 24th – The Vanguard Company finish the first segment of their journey, arriving at Fort Laramie. They halt for repairs and to reshoe the draft animals. After a short stay they take the more established Oregon Trail toward Fort Bridger.

May 31st – Sam Brannan, leader of the strong, established Mormon colony in California, has moved overland to meet up with the Vanguard Company. He travels with Brigham Young for a time, trying to convince the President of the Church to settle the California Valley instead of the Great Basin. Young, however, feels the Great Basin is divine in nature, and created as a protected place away from the rest of the world. He is determined to continue. Nevertheless, Brigham appreciates Sam Brannan’s character and what he has done in Yerba Buena, and invites Brannan to see him again in a year’s time. [In OTL, Young disliked Brannan’s character, and ignored him completely. Young still views Great Basin as the prophesied Zion, but doesn’t rebuke Brannan, which will be important later.]

June 30th – The Vanguard Company arrives at Fort Bridger. They now faced a more rugged and hazardous journey in negotiating the passes of the Rocky Mountains. They split into four sections and follow ‘theoretical trails’ promoted by trappers into the Great Basin.

July 22nd – The first company enters the Salt Lake Valley. Brigham Young would report, “This is it. This is the right place, drive on.” Orson Pratt wrote: “… the moment our eyes bore witness of this great and lovely valley, an involuntary shout of joy escaped from our lips that we could not refrain. Zion was within our view.” Erastus Snow and two other scouts undertook a twelve mile exploratory circuit into the valley before returning to the larger party. Streams and hot springs were investigated and the first camp was established in the Salt Lake Valley. The land was dedicated to the Lord. Ground was broken, irrigation ditches were dug, and the first fields of potatoes and turnips were planted.

July 25th – Brigham Young establishes a location for the future Salt Lake Temple and presents a city plan to the larger group for their approval.

August – Brigham Young, after a short stay directing the Vanguard Company to begin settlement, leaves with a small group to return to Nauvoo to escort further groups.

September – Settlement begins throughout the Salt Lake Valley. Farms are made. Forts are established. The Mormons make contacts with the Indians, and luckily have healthy relations.

October – Popular revolt breaks out against Governor Manuel Micheltorena of Alta California.

December – By the end of the year, more than 3000 Mormons had entered the Salt Lake Valley, bringing civilization to the frontier.

February – Angry Californios oust unpopular Governor of Alta California, Manuel Micheltorena, in the Battle of Providencia. Pio Pico is installed as the new governor, who makes Las Vegas the capital of Alta California. [As in OTL.]

March – Jefferson Hunt, a major figure in the Mormon Wars, and Porter Rockwell, the infamous ‘Destroying Angel’ and lead bodyguard of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young, organize a small group of men to lead an expedition into California and OTL Arizona. They receive a good word from Brigham Young, and leave on a quick pace.

May – The Hunt-Rockwell Expedition reaches Yerba Buena, where they restock and pick up a few more members. Sam Brannan urges the men to locate good areas to settle in California, and to pass good word to Brigham Young. The Expedition spends the next few months in California, scouting out different areas, and are surprised at the lushness of the Valley.

June – Swarms of huge, black crickets begin to inflict severe damage on the crops of the Mormon settlers. However, as if by a miracle, a week later legions of seagulls appear and gulp them down. It quickly enters Mormon lore. The story reaches back east and entices many with the prospect of a mythical Zion where the powers of the Lord are strong. [As in OTL.]

August The Hunt-Rockwell Expedition stops at Sutter’s Fort at New Helvetia for a time before journeying off to scout out areas in Southern California and Arizona. John Sutter encourages them to bring settlers into the area. They dispatch a small group towards the Great Salt Lake to bring back findings on California to Brigham Young. Sam Brannan travels with them towards the Salt Lake Valley.

October Though they nearly faced calamity with an early snowfall, a splinter of the Hunt-Rockwell Expedition arrives in Salt Lake City. Brigham Young is away back east, but much of the leadership is interested in different sites of California. Sam Brannan spends the winter in the Valley, encouraging many to journey westward into California.

December – The Hunt-Rockwell Expedition, after attempting to cross northward into the Great Salt Lake from the south, moves instead back to Tucson to camp.

April James J. Strang, who had just arrived at Fort Laramie with a band of followers, receives approval from Brigham Young, to command a company endorsed by the Church to settle the Snake River Plain in Oregon. He will stay for the next couple of months gathering followers. [In OTL, James J. Strang’s unique charisma persuaded many Mormons in the succession crisis to follow him as a new prophet. He later asserted himself as the King of Michigan. This energy will be used in different ways on the frontier.]

May Brigham Young authorizes Sam Brannan to lead a group of 700 into California. He gives Sam Brannan the power of the western California Valley settlements.

May 26th – The Hunt-Rockwell Expedition returns from the south, bearing news of much of northwest Mexico. [Their findings point out interesting sites for settlement throughout Southern California and Arizona.]

June Strang leads a contingent of 1,400 Mormons to settle the Snake River. He mimics much of the policies of Brigham Young. Young’s mode of organization and Strang’s charisma and intelligence results in an efficient journey and a productive settlement, named New Jamestown. Strang stays for a few months before journeying back east to gather more followers. He is quickly gaining a reputation as a strong leader, a Brigham of the Northwest.

July – Governor Pio Pico, more of a businessman than a nationalist, grants passports to much of the Mormon 700 so as to develop the land.

August The local Ute chief Wakara invites the Mormons to colonize the Sanpitch Valley. Relations with the Native Americans are very friendly and the invitation largely creates a cooperative attitude between the Mormons and the Native Americans. [As in OTL.]

December Strang returns to New Jamestown for the winter. His settlement is blossoming. It’s popular amongst those who don’t wish to go live in the desert or continue for hundreds of more miles to California. It is also a stop on the Oregon Trail, and for many American settlers rushing to the Northwest, it’s a great place to sell eastern niceties and buy food. Such items can be sold southward to the Great Salt Lake Valley, where such passing consumers are rare.

April – The Ute chief Wakara is baptized into the Mormon religion. The already strong Native American-Mormon relations strengthen. [This happened in OTL in 1850. Non-Mormons are not arriving in the Great Salt Lake Valley because there is no Gold Rush yet. No non-Mormons, means no mistreatment of the Indians. The great relations between Indians and Mormons continue.]

July – Sam Brannan returns to the Salt Lake to encourage more colonists into California. The California Trail becomes very popular.

The Mormons begin to diversify their destinations. The Great Salt Lake still takes most of the Mormon settlers moving west, but many are also changing routes to California and the Snake River Valley. The populations of Yerba Buena, Sutter’s Fort, and New Jamestown rise drastically and become thoroughly Mormon. Brigham Young encourages this, though accentuates the Salt Lake as the proper place of Zion.

James J. Strang, leader of the Mormons in Oregon Country, who has established cordial relations with the British at Fort Hall, meets with representatives from the Hudson’s Bay Company in Oregon City. Strang buys land throughout the Snake River Valley for the Mormons at a very cheap price in return for an alliance against American settlers. The Mormons agree to vote as a bloc for British representatives.

March 2nd – The temple site for the Salt Lake Temple is dedicated.

May 4th – The groundbreaking ceremony is held for the Salt Lake Temple.

June – James J. Strang, leader of the Mormons in the Oregon Country, establishes very cordial relations with the British at Fort Hall. The Hudson’s Bay Company wants Americans out of Oregon.

March – John Sutter of Sutter’s Fort announces the city of Sutterville, to be built in his New Helvetia domain. He opens up the borders to all newcomers, and as his area is semi-autonomous, it becomes a haven for those who are not Mexican citizens.

May – A group of 60 colonists, sent by Brigham Young, arrive in the Las Vegas Valley and establish the Bringhurst settlement. They are there to try and convert the local Paiute Indian population.

June – 700 Mormons arrive to settle in the San Bernardino Valley, one of the highlights of the Hunt-Rockwell Expedition.

September – Brigham Young announces the practice of polygamy to the entire Mormon population and the rest of the world. This is the first deliberately public message on the issue. The practice had been relatively known, but never official.

Yerba Buena has grown quite considerably as of late. Its population nears 2,000 and becomes a center for shipping along the coast. It is in this way that the Mormon settlers become acquainted with the British. They form fast friendships, and the Hudson’s Bay Company finds profitable dealings with them.

March – Mexican authorities attempt to crack down on the city of Sutterville. They patrol the outskirts where militia cannot find them, searching passerby for passports. This causes John Sutter to expand his private army to number nearly 600 men.

April – Mexican officials lead a small militia against the missionary town of Bringhurst, imprisoning the settlers in Las Vegas. They also begin to assail the settlers in the San Bernardino Valley.

June – Brigham Young orders the Mormon settlers in the south to return farther north, to abandon their settlements and flee from the armies. With the news of the Mexican Constitution of 1850 coming in promising religious freedoms, many are galvanized to support rebellion against the Mexican armies. Liberales take over Yerba Buena and territory is seized throughout California from the Catholic Church.

July – After a short period, a large part of the military begins to leave for further south, preparing for a civil war. Settlers, about to embark to the north, take back their homes. The Republic of Alta California is declared in Sonoma, which succeeds in taking authority from the Mexicans but also in giving whites the power to do what they pleased with land around them.

When Mexican President Comonfort flees Mexico City in earlier November, leaving the capital to dissidents, movements begin throughout Alta California (OTL California, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah) to secede from Mexico. It receives support from both the Californios and the whites. Mexican soldiers are thrown from cities. [Unlike the Bear Flag Republic, there are more whites, and a much higher percentage of law-abiding Mormons, as such, the horrible acts of killing non-whites and stealing their land only occurs as isolated events.]

June – The Mormons erect Fort Bringhurst.

July – Governor Pio Pico flees Alta California for Mexico City.

August 12 – President and Prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints declares the Republic of Deseret. The message spreads throughout Alta California like wildfire. Claims are made as far as the Gulf of California, and of what words there are to say on the proposal, most is secular, merely promising a state free from the Mexicans. It garners support from many Americans, Californios, Mormons and even Native Americans, all hoping that the Republic might have something in store for them. Many, however, believe that Young has declared the Republic of the Desert, an inaccuracy that would continue for a few years.

August – Brigham Young begins the organization of the Legion of Zion.

September – John Sutter pledges his private army towards the cause of the independent republic, and announces Sutterville as the capital of the Republic of Deseret (which had never been agreed upon, certainly Young would want Salt Lake City). His ‘city’ however, provides for a powerful war machine to compete with that of the Salt Lake Valley.

September 9th – General Andres Manuel Rico organizes a 200-man army from southern California and marches them to Los Angeles. After a few casualties, they take the city.

September 30th – Sutter’s National Californian Army, as it is called, marches on Los Angeles. There is a bloody battle, but the city is nevertheless taken. Fort Lugo is erected. Both Californios and whites fight against the Mexican forces.

October 14th – Representatives from Salt Lake City arrive in Austin, Texas. They gain Texan approval of their claims in Alta California, down to the 30° N latitude. The Republic of Texas is still legally a province in rebellion, and they want to once and for all assert themselves as a nation to Mexico. They sell weapons to the emissaries of Deseret, while certain fanatics join armies to go and once again fight the Mexicans.

November – Near Sutter’s Fort on the American River, gold is found by a couple of men running a gristmill. They bring the gold to John Sutter, who is avidly trying to steer this ‘Republic of the Desert’ towards his liking as much as possible. He decides that a gold rush would be horrible for an independence movement, and attempts to keep it a secret.

February – Emissaries from Salt Lake City meet with John Sutter to outline a new republic. Many basic freedoms are outlined, but there is little in the way of real results. In the end, they divide the Republic of Deseret into two states, split at the half, the west side going to John Sutter with its capital in Sutterville, the east side going to Brigham Young with its capital in Salt Lake City. The southern reaches, south of Los Angeles and to the Gulf of California, are divided into the Territory of Sonora.

April – The Beginning of the Gold Rush – Rumors force John Sutter to announce the finding of gold in the American River. The people of Sutterville are torn between two movements: the first to establish a new country, and the other to ignore everything and try to make a personal fortune. John Sutter argues against a gold rush, urging everyone that there can’t be much gold in the rivers, they’ve been around too long; they should have seen it before. Nevertheless, many go a-panning in the rivers searching for fortunes. These consist of the American adventurer types that came to California to make a living, not to escape religious persecution. As such, it is left to the zealous Mormons to organize most of the armies. Sutterville winds down as a military engine. [The beginning of the Gold Rush is made less fantastic than OTL due to the current revolution.]

The Gold Finding does benefit the Deseret Revolutionaries in some ways. Some who were upset about separating from Mexico now find themselves in the Deseret camp; if they are independent from Mexico, then that means more gold for them! Many Mexican soldiers who still hold positions in the south abandon their posts to travel north and search for gold. Moreover, the Gold Rush does not immediately gain international reception, as its news doesn’t spread as extravagantly at the beginning.

May – A Californio pro-Mexican army of 150 clashes with the Legion of Zion near the Colorado River, south of Las Vegas. The Mormons flee towards Los Angeles.

June – Brigham Young passes a measure to combine the California National Army with the Legion of Deseret into the National Legion of Deseret.

July – Californio rebel army in the south based on the mouth of the Colorado river are forced to surrender by a combined Californian-Mormon army through overwhelming numbers. They are taken prisoner, but are later freed by a treaty.

September – A Mexican army of 250 is spotted west of San Diego. In the Battle of Whitewater, the casualties break a record for the revolution, but it ends in a firm victory for the presiding General Gabriel of the National Legion of Deseret. The Treaty of New River (a nearby waterway) is signed, giving those in Alta California official citizenship into the new Republic of Deseret, and forcing soldiers out of their territory. Though internal rebellions continue to be a problem, this is this last serious experience with a Mexican army, making the Deserite Revolution a relatively easy one.

October – Mormon miners near Dalestown find gold, prompting a gold rush in the region. [This is the OTL Comstock Lode.]
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The United States of America, 1845 to 1852

March 3rd – Florida joins the Union as the 27th state.

March 4th – Henry Clay succeeds William Henry Harrison as President of the United States of America.

September – The Warehouse Act is signed as mitigation to the South for the American System and its high tariff wall. However, it benefits northern cities much more, helping metropolises such as Boston and New York City grow into great centers of commerce.

February – President Henry Clay allocates $100,000 of federal funds towards the American Colonization Society, in resettling blacks to Liberia.

December 28th – The southeast portion of Iowa Territory is admitted as the 28th state, Iowa. The remainder becomes unorganized. Leads to a balance of 14 slave states and 14 free states. The South becomes concerned about where they can expand to, if the Missouri Compromise line still holds.

March – Wisconsinites approve of a state constitution via referendum and apply for statehood, which would increase sectional conflict by increasing the number of free states to 15, compared to 14 slave states. However, there are too many reasons for its admission than against it, and so Wisconsin becomes the 29th state in the United States of America.

October – [Abraham Lincoln never leaves politics to become a lawyer, because Zachary Taylor never becomes president, and never tries to send him to a small outpost in Oregon.]

November 7th – Whig Henry Clay is re-elected with Millard Fillmore as his vice president, defeating Democrat Lewis Cass. The Democratic Party was divided by the emergence of the Free Soil Party, and their nominee John P. Hale, who definitely took their share of voters from the Whig Party as well, but it nevertheless gave the Whigs the lead they needed. The idea of Clay supporting expansion into Oregon as well as popular sovereignty with Fillmore on the ticket was very appealing. However, the “fire-eaters” blossom consisting of disaffected southerners who don’t believe the recent administrations have been representing the South at all.

March – In Henry Clay’s inaugural address, he declares that the United State’s right to Oregon was “clear and unquestionable”. This angers many anti-Clayist southerners, while it incites Western Democrats.

March 3rd – Minnesota Territory is organized.

June – British Foreign Secretary Palmerston continues to rebuff President Clay’s attempts to open negations for Oregon. Clay offers the 49th parallel, while allowing the Hudson Bay Company rights to the Columbia River, but to no avail.

August – “Fire-eaters” host the Nashville Convention, discussing the prospect of secession from the Union. However, there are too many Unionists for it to gain any credence.

October – Henry Clay gives his “Union March” speech, declaring the importance of the Missouri Compromise, and that the South should be given no more territory to expand. Free states should be organized and admitted into the Union at their natural pace, not one dictated by Southerners who wish to keep the status quo. This agitates many southerners, who burn Clay in effigy.

December – Headlines appear in the North and West such as “The Whole of Oregon or None!” Western Democrats especially champion the idea of claiming the entire territory up to the 54°50’ mark.

December 2nd – President Clay, in his annual address to Congress, recommends giving the British the required one-year notice for the termination of the Oregon joint occupation agreement.

July 21st – After being incapacitated for the last month, President Henry Clay passes away, leaving the presidency to Millard Fillmore.

August 23rd – Congress passes the resolution notifying the British of the termination of the joint occupancy of Oregon, which was delayed due to intense debate and of course Clay’s death and his replacement by Millard Fillmore.

September – Congress becomes upset over the strong attempt to pass a bill that would abolish slavery in the District of Columbia. William Yancey becomes a notable agitator, arguing that the South could take only one more hostile strike to the face before it would rise up in defiance.

October 16th – British Prime Minister John Russell sends a proposal to President Fillmore, with a border at the 49th parallel and then along the Columbian River. Fillmore will not accept any treaty refusing Americans territory above the Columbian River.

February – The Columbian Compromise, drafted by Stephen Douglas, pushed through by President Fillmore, passes the Senate. Slavery is abolished in the District of Columbia, but a stronger Slave Fugitive Act is passed as well. This is more than a suitable overture to the South, to encourage peace, for now.

April – President Fillmore and Palmerston have still yet to come to a resolution on the Oregon boundary dispute, though they have but four months until they make a formal division. Newspapers have been drumming for war, and there are more than enough disputes in Oregon of Americans fighting with British settlers to call for official hostilities. Fillmore doesn’t want to surrender territory north of the Columbia, feeling that it would sour his political future. The hawkish Palmerston would rather go to war than yield any territory at all.

July 12th – A month before the Oregon joint occupation agreement comes to an end, in which there could be a shooting match between Britain and America, Fillmore and Palmerston agree to enter the matter into international arbitration.

August – The United States and the British Empire agree to freeze the date of dissolution of the Oregon joint occupation until a resolution was decided upon. The two nations continue to try and locate a suitable neutral third party for the matter.

October – First hostilities begin between American and British ships and navies, usually those far from civilization. There is a notable increase of ugly interactions between the two forces.

Frederick Townsend Ward never becomes an acquaintance of William Walker, and he never learns such a great deal about filibustering.

January – Negotiations break after Palmerston decides that the Americans will never decide upon a neutral third-party to lead the arbitration.

February – Prime Minister Russell declares the border of British and American Oregon country to follow the 49th parallel and then down the Columbia River. Both nations begin preparing for war, building up their border defenses. Meanwhile, American and British newspapers focus entirely on the possibility of a third British-American war. As Palmerston planned, however, the United States Congress will not even move to take a vote on a declaration of war until after the election in November. Parties begin selecting their candidates early.

Meanwhile, the Oregon War begins in earnest in the west. American settlers are far more numerous in Oregon country, and of the valiant pioneer stock, the kind of people who are skilled in rifles and bowie knives. The British, however, have many advantages. They have naval power and supply lines. They command all of the fifteen forts in the Oregon country, and the allegiance of Native American tribes who have known the British far longer than the Americans. Furthermore, the Hudson Bay Company begins centralizing power, organizing militias, gathering weapons and military equipment, and training men.

The spark to the powder keg is somewhat provided by troublesome American pioneers and typical problems over land distribution in the distributed territory, as well as some British authorities who regard the entire Oregon country as theirs. However, it is James Jesse Strang, leader of the Oregon Mormons, who takes the most radical stance. He denies passage to American pioneers and settlers, at the very least confiscating goods as payment for self-printed passports, in the worst case imprisoning entire caravans. Strang begins a series of reforms within the city. He renames the city ‘Yishai’, after the Hebrew version of his middle name, and also the name of the father of the biblical King David.

March – There is a strong streak of pessimism within the American Colonization Society due to the lack of Henry Clay to support them. With the encouragement of the Society, Stephen Allen Benson proclaims the independence of the Republic of Liberia and becomes the first president.

Brigham Young discovers of the conflict in the Snake Valley and the actions of James Strang. He does not encourage Strang of creating such tensions, but he has considered the area indisputably part of the Republic of Deseret, as the area is thoroughly Mormon-settled. He sends emissaries to the United States to attempt and bargain for the territory, though he knows that it will come to naught. He contacts the British, therefore, for aid.

March 7th – British soldiers at Fort Hall begin to depart for Fort Vancouver. James Strang occupies the fort himself with his own followers, and convinces a small cadre of the British to remain there with him. He also sends a message along with those leaving, that the Mormons and the Republic of Deseret would eagerly fight alongside the British Empire to take the entirety of Oregon country.

March 19th – President Millard Fillmore makes a stand over the trouble in the Oregon country. “As you all know,” he begins with in annual address to Congress, “I will serve for the next three hundred forty-nine days, seven hours, nineteen minutes, and eight seconds. Would you use that time to ignore the war in the west and allow the slaughter of defenseless American citizens in Oregon? Or should we call in the boys, rally our soldiers and beat the British into submission in half of that time?”

April – A British weapons and munitions shipment arrives at Yishai. Some higher up in the Hudson Bay’s Company have decided to fund the Mormon resistance in the southern Oregon country.

John Sutter, with news of the conflict initiated by James Strang, advocates the extension of the Republic into the Oregon country. He outlines his ambitious Sutter Plan, to divide Oregon country between Deseret and the British Empire, to allow Deseret to provide protection for the rest of the Oregon country. It is passed on to British sailors.

April 3rd – Fillmore sends General Zachary Taylor with 1,400 soldiers to quell the Mormons at Yishai.

May – Porter Rockwell, while in Kansas, discovers that a declaration of war has been made upon the Oregon Mormons. He journeys west to convey the news.

June The Battle of Yishai – Preceding the arrival of Taylor’s soldiers, James Strang comes to face a constant stream of hundreds of Oregonians who are heading south to search for gold. Strang does not yield his position against the Americans, and the Oregonians knew of this. They had been warned by other settlers earlier in the year that New Jamestown was imprisoning all Americans. Thus, the gold seekers arrive with arms. There is a clash around Yishai, and the Americans fall upon Fort Hall, claiming that it now belongs on American soil. After a month of fighting, the opposition decides to move back towards the Siskyou Trail to get into California. Strang releases his prisoners for good measures, but keeps many of the goods. He sends two messages, to both John Sutter and Brigham Young, about the threat of American encroachment because of the Gold Rush and the potential to expand into the Oregon country.

Fillmore’s order against the Oregon Mormons has caused anti-Mormon tones to erupt once more within the Mississippi states, which causes a large pioneer surge consisting of those Mormons still left in the States.

July 26th – Mormons lead a devastating guerilla style attack on Taylor’s wagon supply train, torching nearly fifty wagons.

September – James Strang is informed that the American army is only a week away. He orders women, children, and a small amount of men to leave for the south, and also sends runners into Deseret to find sympathizers. He continues to fortify Fort Hall.

September 21th - Zachary Taylor’s army reaches Yishai, and promptly begins a siege of the city and the nearby Fort Hall. Strang manages to wage a strong conventional battle, with artillery, arms and munitions, and suitable tactics. Taylor had expected to walk over the Mormons, but had instead found an organized army waiting for him. Nevertheless, the death toll includes fifty-six Mormon militiamen and one hundred American soldiers, before the battle is called off and Strang waves the white flag. The Mormons are held captive, while part of the city is destroyed, and the rest is fortified as a military center.

September 28th – Though he has not yet been informed about the defeat at Yishai, Palmerston orders the bolstering of military units throughout Canada and especially Oregon.

October - Taylor is ordered by President Fillmore to lead his soldiers to fortify Oregon City and Portland.

October 5th – Dissident and angry American settlers attempt to overtake Fort Vancouver on the northern side of the Columbia River. American soldiers, newly-arrived, rush to aid. British soldiers engage in a shooting match, before the artillery is brought out. The Americans are turned back from Fort Vancouver, but the day after, Taylor acknowledges a further engagement to protect the people of Portland. Fort Vancuouver is taken following a military engagement.

October 27th - The New York Herald reports the finding of Gold in California, along with overtones of war in the region.

November 2nd – The election is in some ways a referendum on the war between the British Empire and the United States of America. The Democrats nominate Lewis Cass, the Whigs hope to re-elect Millard Fillmore, while the new radical American Liberty Party, running on an anti-slavery, anti-war platform, nominates Salmon Chase. Election turnouts were very high, but many were dissuaded by the anti-slavery aspects of the American Liberty Party, and though they may have been against a new war with Britain, they turned to the other candidates. As such, Lewis Cass claimed the election and became the new president of the United States.

November 9th – The British receive word of Fort Vancouver falling to the Americans. Lord Palmerston arranges a declaration of war against the United States.
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The Republic of Texas, 1843 to 1852

April 23rd – President Kenneth Anderson orders Alexander Horton to lead 500 militia into East Texas to bring to an end the Regulator-Moderator War. Horton is immediately arrested, but soon released. The conflict is not solved.

September 9th – President Anderson sends Alexander Horton once more, along with Travis Brooks and 600 more militia men to conclude the Regulator-Moderator War. A treaty is signed between the two factions, and it is largely settled after a small show of military force.

February – The Texas Rangers are organized under Jack Coffee Hay under the Ranger Act, as an elite military force to patrol the borderlands and fight the Comanche and Mexicans. Hay will become an excellent leader, drilling his men into adept fighters. [As in OTL.]

December 9th – Moderate Lamarite John Richard Archer claims victory in the Texan presidential election, with James Collinsworth selected as his vice president, defeating Edward Burleson. Their platform includes a non-aggressive policy against the Indians and the repeal of the “exequer bill” currency laws, for Texas to become more dependent on specie and pull itself out of its inflation problem.

1845 - Frenchman Henri Castro has by now introduced a total of 2,670 settlers, primarily from the Alsace region, into the Republic of Texas. The frontiers of Texas are developing into ‘Little Europes’.

1846 - German settler John O. Meusebach founds Fredericksburg on the Pedernales River.

1847 - December 9th – Peter Hansborough Bell defeats J. Pinckey Henderson in the Texan presidential election. The elections continue to go to the most moderate candidate, thanks to the lack of large, credible political parties.

1848 – The Revolutions of 1848 begin in continental Europe. The events that will play out there will lead to an immigrant surge from Germany to the Republic of Texas. [Even more so in OTL, as the Revolutions of 1848 were a good degree more violent and just as inconclusive.]

1849 - President Bell pushes forward legislation allowing the President of Texas to run for a second term, eager to claim the seat for himself. Also, the presidential election day is pushed back a months, to November 15th.

1850 - November 15th – Peter Hansborough Bell is re-elected for president, defeating J.W. Henderson.

March – General Sidney Sherman receives a railroad charter from the legislature to begin construction on a line running from Harrisburg to Stafford’s Point.

May 19th – Texan emissaries arrive in San Luis Potosi to meet with the Juaristas to debate the question of Texas. The ambassadors are very successful, working out a peace treaty with the Liberale faction, with a promise included to discuss Texan independence once the war was over.

August – Texas begins selling weapons, military equipment, horses, beef, and cotton to the Juarista army in Mexico, making lucrative profits.

October – Emissaries representing the revolution in California arrive in Austin. President Bell immediately begins amicable relations, acknowledging the Republic of Deseret as a sovereign state. The weapon trade spreads to California. Moreover, anti-Mexican soldiers organize themselves into regiments-for-hire to fight in the far west. Meanwhile, President Bell pushes the borders of the Republic of Texas down to the 30° N latitude, allowing the Republic to control the region around El Paso.

1852 - Construction begins on the Harrisburg Railway.


Europe, 1845 to 1850

1845 - June 27th – Emperor Nicholas I of Russia is killed when he is thrown from a horse. The title passes on to his heir apparent, Alexander II.

1846 - December – Austrian General Joseph Radetzky falls prey to a heart attack during a training exercise.

Revolutions are declared throughout Europe, a consequence of bad harvests and a long-build up of liberal agitation against absolute monarchies.

March – All of the Italian states save Lombardo-Veneto under Austrian domination have become parliamentary monarchies thanks to the liberal agitation during the winter. An uprising in Milan threatens Austrian control of the area.

March 20th – The Republic of Venice is re-established, following successful uprisings against the Austrians.

June 5th – Italian armies seize the Venetian plains in the Battle of Custoza near Verona, in a very close battle.

August – After beating back its own case of revolutionaries in Vienna, Austria under the new emperor, Franz Joseph, begins an aggressive war against the increasingly liberal Hungary.

September – President Jonas Furrer of Switzerland sends a force of 14,000 soldiers towards Lombardy to support the insurrection and expel the Austrian troops. The complementary force is used to break the defense of the Quadrilateral, a set of strong fortresses in Austrian Lombardy.

October – The Austrian Emperor calls for a truce on the Italian front, battles cease for the moment in the Lombardo-Veneto.

November 1st – Representatives from the Frankfurt Assembly, convening to create a new German Empire, offer a crown to King Frederick William IV of Prussia so that he may ascend to the title “Emperor of the Germans”. He politely rejects the gift, secretly despising the liberal movements. This causes constitutionalist uprisings and revolutions throughout Germany.

November 8th - With Pope Pius having fled, the Roman Republic is re-established, consisting of the former Papal States. It adopts liberal measures, freedom of religion, and low taxes.

February 11th – Aurelio Saffi becomes the first President of the Roman Republic.

March – Hostilities begin once more between the Kingdom of Piedmont, with the Republic of Venice and other Italian powers on his side, against the Austrian Empire, due to Austrian provocations.

April – Hungary declares complete independence from Austria.

April 30th – A French interventionist force sent by Napoleon III, hoping to gain the support of Catholics in their own country, lands in the Roman Republic to bring the Pope back into power.

May 5th – The French army attempts to invade Rome, but due to their overconfidence, the Italian Republicans led by Guiseppe Garibaldi forces them to retreat to the sea. Italian armies are organized to chase them to the coast.

May 7th – An inconclusive battle is fought at the mouth of the Tiber River, Garibaldi turns back for Rome eventually.

August – French forces begin a siege of Rome to return temporal power to Pope Pius.

October – The Roman Republic disintegrates. Guiseppe Garibaldi is exiled to the United States along with other Italian nationalists. The Papal States are reinstated.

November – Though it continues to survive with the remnants of its resources and population, Hungary still remains a force to reckon with. An armistice is signed, though both Austria and Hungary know that it will be a very short time until hostilities resume.

March – Hungary capitulates under Austrian aggression, and enters a phase of foreign governance and reconstruction.

April – With French mediation, Austria cedes Lombardy to Piedmont in the Treaty of Zurich, while the Kingdom of Piedmont allows Austria to retain Venice, the territories of which have surrendered due to the Austrian blockade.

May – After long and intense fighting, under which both nations are war-weary, Prussia and Denmark agree to the Petersburg Convention. Schleswig is kept by the Kingdom of Denmark, while Holstein is ceded to become a duchy amongst the German Confederation.

October – King Frederick William IV of Prussia declares war on Bavaria.


South America, 1841 to 1852

1841 - Manuel Bulnes is never elected president in Chile because of his failure to break up the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy. Instead, Manuel Montt takes the presidency, continuing the reform movement began by Portales before him.

August – The Peru-Bolivian Confederacy signs several treaties with the British, allowing the company Anthony Gibbs to commercialize guano throughout Europe, bringing economic success to the nation.

A railroad begins construction between Lima and Callao in the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy, aiding the transportation of guano.

[Manuel Bulnes isn’t president; he never sends an expedition to colonize the Strait of Magellan because of this, and Fort Bulnes isn’t established.]

1844 - Inspired by the railroad from Lima to Callao, Supreme Protector Santa Cruz will use the rest of his term’s three years to begin numerous countrywide railroad and telegraph projects.

January 2nd – [Jose Joaquin de Herrera remains the president of Mexico, as the presence of American ambassador Slidell does not upset the Conservadores faction.]

July 16th - President Jose Joaquin de Herrera of Mexico is overthrown in a military coup. Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and his ultraconservative nationalist government take power.

January - Dissatisfied individuals throughout the Mexican Liberale and Conservadore factions unite under a new party, the Moderados.

October 29th – When Santa Cruz attempts to stand down to open up the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederacy to a general nation-wide election for the next Supreme Protector, several coups and rebellions break out. Some argue to reduce the position of Supreme Protector to little more than a secretary for all three state presidencies [North Peru, South Peru, Bolivia all had their own presidents, elected once a year]. Others desired to disband the confederation [though such opinion had died down in the last decade.]

As such, Santa Cruz pushes for the three presidents of the day, Ramon Castilla, Jose Segurola, Jose Echinque, to nominate him to keep the title of Supreme Protector for another two years. This invigorates the anti-Cruzist factions even more. For the next two years, the Supreme Protector switches from focusing on infrastructure and instead consolidating his regime. New prisons are built, while the military is also expanded and refurbished, all thanks to guano money.

1848 - May 4th – Benito Juarez drafts the Plan de Ayutla, causing a revolt by the Liberales and the Moderados against the Conservadores within Mexico.

July 28th - The Moderados take power, hold a Constituent Assembly, and elect Ignacio Comonfort as the President of Mexico.

September 20th – Supreme Protector Santa Cruz issues the Regulatory Laws of the Position of the Supreme Protector of the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederacy. The Regulatory Laws allows the Supreme Protector to nominate one of the three current presidents as the subsequent Supreme Protectors, to serve a term of seven years. A majority vote of confidence from each state senate would be required to pass a Supreme Protector into the position, while a 3/4ths vote was required to impeach a Supreme Protector, and only after a majority of his term had been served.

August 25th – After troubles with the central government re-emerges, Yucatan again declares independence. With political troubles brewing in the capital, Mexico can do little.

October 29th – Santa Cruz nominates the reputable, well-liked President of North Peru. Though he has a liberal slant that Santa Cruz does not appreciate, he is not confident to allow the country to rest in the hands of the other, more unpopular presidents.

March 21st - Ignacio Comonfort and Benito Juarez declare the Constitution of 1850, which includes numerous liberal reforms, including religious freedom, and the confiscation of land from the Catholic Church and Indians. [This is even less well-received by the Conservadores, without the Mexican-American War dealing so much damage on the traditional system, and without Santa Anna to force reactionaries to team up with the Liberales.]

July – Thanks to the prosperity of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy, the nation becomes the destination for a large population of Italian immigrants who become a noticeable ethnic group throughout southern Peru.

August 8th – In Mexico, Felix Zuloaga issues the Plan de Tacubaya, calling for the Consitution of 1850 to be repealed. Conservadores rally around it.

September 24th – Mexican President Comonfort throws Benito Juarez into prison along with many Congressmen, hoping to gain the support of the Conservadores and the Catholic Church.

November 13thThe Mexican Civil War - Mexican President Comonfort flees the capital due to pressure from the Conservadore faction, but not before freeing all of the Liberale prisoners, in order to gain their assistance to flee from Mexico City.

Without Comonfort, constitutionally Benito Juarez is assigned control over the Executive Branch, and so he is considered the new President of Mexico. In contrast, Felix Zuloaga is elected President of Mexico by a separate Congress consisting mostly of Conservadores. Zuloaga immediately takes control of Mexico City and repeals most of the liberal reforms of the Constitution of 1850. Benito Juarez creates a government in exile in San Louis Potosi. Battles are very violent and involve a large majority of the population.

The Tacna-Arica railroad is completed in the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation.

A rebellion begins in the southern provinces of Chile.

May - Orelie-Antoine de Tounens, a French lawyer, moves to Argentina.

June - President Benito Juarez establishes the Leyes de Reforma from San Louis Potosi; civil marriage laws would come into effect and church property would be nationalized.

November – The execution of a group of Mayan citizens causes a race war to spring up in the Yucatan between the native peoples and the Yucatecos.

December - President Juarez announces the Law on Freedom of Religion.

In the spring, the Mayan peoples initiate an intense campaign against the Yucatecos, forcing the Europeans to evacuate from the entire peninsula by summer time. The long sieges of Campeche and Merida end with Mayan victory, until the old order has been forced all the way to the port city of Sisal.

An exodus of non-Mayans begins from the Yucatecan peninsula; many migrate away from the civil war in Mexico towards South America or into Texas. Filibusters attempt to fund expeditions to reclaim the peninsula, but other than Sisal, the Yucatan now belongs to the natives. The land begins functioning as a loosely-run communal republic, though more nationalist order coalesces within the cities. The Cruzob, a radical cult that worships a metallic cross, rapidly expands from the south-east, attempting to build a theocratic state.


I didn't get to cults, dang it. Ah well, I'll leave that for the next installment. Enjoy the map of Sidney, 1852.

Next time: the Deseretian Gold Rush, the War of 1853, the War of the Pacific, the Prussian-Bavarian War, the Taiping Rebellion and more!



LordKalvan said:
There is another possible POD: the Swiss were just coming out of their civil war (where the catholic cantons had been supported by A-H) and the Swiss president (I should go and look for the name, but I'm a bit lazy) threatened to send 20,000 men in Lombardy to support the insurrection and to expel the Austrian troops. Nothing came out of it, but if it had happened...

Something that came from this thread. I didn't see a website or any resources backing up the information, but the POD of this timeline is in 1836, so it could have developed over the years. The possibility of a Swiss president sending a couple thousand men to Lombardy, after a civil war in which his opponents were supported by Austria... its definitely possible.


Do people regard this timeline as one that is far too long, that isn't innovative or interesting enough, and that's not worth the time to read and reply? I've put a significant amount of work into it, and I don't intend for it to become a simple Mormonwank, and so if people believe I'm creating a 'wishful' piece of alternate history, you'd be wrong to suspect that.