Sheba's Sons - Haile Selassie goes to Tokyo

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: After 1900' started by Hagre, Sep 23, 2019.

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  1. Threadmarks: Son of Sheba

    Hagre Well-Known Member

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    Sheba's Sons - Haile Selassie goes to Tokyo

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    Emperor Mikael Imru's decision to resurrect the likeness of His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie I, as a statue at the African Union's headquarters in Addis Ababa has been a controversial one, especially on the sixty-first anniversary of Haile Selassie's death in 1945. The rising tide of anti-Western sentiment and ultranationalism in Ethiopia has seen a wave of revisionism sweep the country as well, placing those Axis collaborators - such as HS himself, Araya Abebe, Afawarq Gebre Iyasus, etc. - on a pedestal for attempting to better their countries in spite of the means they went about doing it. This includes the creation of the Imperial Ethiopian Army from Ethiopian refugees fleeing Italian-occupied Ethiopia and its subsequent fighting under Japanese command, adopting tenets from Shōwa Statism and National Socialism in the Provisional Government of Free Ethiopia that was established by the Emperor in exile in 1937 with the assistance of the Ikki Kita government.

    Emperor Haile Selassie I was a reformist ruler who'd spent much of his Regency - since 1916 - centralizing power in his hands, subverting Empress Zewditu and her reactionary supporters in the Imperial Court who were fervently opposed to Ras Tafari Makonnen's proposals on modernization on the basis that it would compromise Ethiopian independence. In spite of the challenges he faced, the close of the 1920s had left him in a dominant position in the Imperial government with the death of Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis in 1927 and Zewditu's deteoriating health that ended with her death in 1930. Eventually, he acceded to the throne as Haile Selassie I in early November and vigorously continued his centralization initiatives that were being complemented by the introduction of reforms intended to restructure the Empire into a modern state on the Japanese model. By 1935, the Emperor directly controlled almost all of Ethiopia (sans Tigray) and was dedicating himself to its modernization with the cooperation of the intelligentsia - however, its course was put to a screeching halt with Mussolini's invasion in early October and Ethiopia's subsequent struggle for independence in vain.

    Despite some successes and even reverses in the Christmas Offensive in December-January, there was no doubt in the outcome - that the sheer manpower and firepower of Fascist Italy was to overwhelm the poorly-trained and ill-equipped armies of Africa's last Empire. Despite a successful counterattack by the Imperial Bodyguard at Maichew [1] that left Italian forces reeling, the northern front collapsed with the Ethiopian armies there disintegrating or multiple units reinventing themselves as guerrillas under men like Lij Haile Mariam Mammo in the mountainous terrain's safety. It allowed Haile Selassie to contact the Japanese over the possibility of seeking asylum in Tokyo, the Japanese government initially hesitant to grant him such. Tokyo was eventually convinced to in the face of massive pro-Ethiopia protests that were enraged at the Italians' invasion and even led Hirohito to personally intervene in order to sanction giving the Ethiopian Emperor and his Ministers asylum in the Empire of Japan.

    It was in Tokyo that the Ethiopian intellectuals accompanying Haile Selassie, most notably Heruy Wolde Selassie and Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariam, begun to absorb ideas from figures on the Japanese far-right, such as Ikki Kita and Seigo Nakano, and made contact with organizations like the Black Dragon Society. Considering the increasingly autocratic and militant nationalist stance the Ethiopian intellectuals had been gravitating toward, it is not exactly surprising to see them go even further right-wing but interestingly enough, contacts with Black nationalists through Japan's support for the former influenced them as well. It was through Malaku Bayan that the Ethiopian government-in-exile made contact with Marcus Garvey in Liberia [2] and Carlos Cooks in the United States, not to mention organizations like the Ethiopian Pacific Movement.

    It was on this unfortunate path, in combination with the series of events that occurred from the Italian invasion and occupation, that led Haile Selassie and other Ethiopians on the path to collaboration with the Axis alliance through Ethiopian links with Japan that had evolved out of the marriage between Araya Abebe and Kuroda Masako [3] in 1936-37. With the outbreak of war with Europe in 1940, Haile Selassie had aligned himself firmly with his Japanese comrades and presided over the inauguration of the Imperial Ethiopian Army in 1941, a force of 40,000 Ethiopian soldiers gathered from the sizable Ethiopian community that had been settled throughout the Japanese Empire. It gained the unofficial name of "Sheba's Legion" when it was dubbed so by Marcus Garvey in 1941. It fought alongside the Indian National Army under Rash Behari Bose and then Subhas Chandra Bose under Japanese command in the Burma campaign where it managed to acquire a string of victories throughout 1942-43 before it was mauled in the attempted Japanese invasion of India and Allied reclamation of Burma.

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    Sheba's Legion - or Sheba's Sons, as His Imperial Majesty fondly referred to them - stands at attention in Tokyo, 1941.

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    Ethiopian tankers equipped with Japanese tanks stroll through Japanese-occupied Burma, 1942-43.

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    [1] The Italian officer is killed before he can call in an artillery strike on his position and the Imperial Guardsmen successfully overrun the Italian position.

    [2] Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association is able to establish themselves in Liberia in 1927, not suffering the same financial troubles and deportation of Garvey as they did IOTL.

    [3] I have plans for the planned marriage ITTL.
     
    Last edited: Nov 27, 2019
  2. Sceonn Peace at a Bargain Price

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    Interesting, looking forward to how this plays out.
     
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  3. Hagre Well-Known Member

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    The first chapter was intended to be a rough outline. I’ll probably start with the POD in the next chapter, something that has to do with Japanese-Ethiopian relations.
     
    Last edited: Sep 23, 2019
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  4. Mersechal Obscure Nation Sympathizer

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    XD Have I started a trend? Looks great, will follow.
     
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  5. Hagre Well-Known Member

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    I can neither confirm nor deny that you’ve started a trend. Nice to hear you’ll be following of course.
     
  6. Ismaili777 Well-Known Member

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    Amazing
     
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  7. Hagre Well-Known Member

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    I’m glad you think so.
     
  8. Ismaili777 Well-Known Member

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    Given the monarchy survives, who eventually does lead Ethiopian independence?
     
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  9. Hagre Well-Known Member

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    As implied with Mikael Imru being Emperor, Ras Imru Haile Selassie.
     
  10. Alpha-King98760 Aku's most favorite assassin, babe!

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    The future where Aku's evil is law, babe.
    This has peaked my interest. I’m definitely filling this!
     
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  11. Hagre Well-Known Member

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    Great to hear!
     
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  12. Mersechal Obscure Nation Sympathizer

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    I've always admired Ras Imru, he was one of the really competent generals in the War, and a canny administrator too.
     
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  13. Hagre Well-Known Member

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    Same here, I especially admire aristocrats like Ras Nasibu Emmanuel and Ras Desta that agreed with Haile Selassie's reforms in the 1920s/30s. Might've been because of Nasibu that the Ethiopian forces in the Ogaden didn't succumb to Graziani's superior firepower until 1937, although it's more likely because it was less of a focus for the Italians than the Tigrayan front.
     
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  14. Mr.Gatsby Well-Known Member

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    I’m kinda waiting for the reaction by the US. Will we see blacks defecting and joining the axis.
     
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  15. Hagre Well-Known Member

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    I mean.

    We won't not see Blacks defecting to join the Axis.
     
  16. Threadmarks: The Sun Rises over Judah's Empire

    Hagre Well-Known Member

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    The Sun Rises over Judah's Empire

    The Italo-Ethiopian War, in light of the 1895 Sino-Japanese War, had sparked Japanese interest in the colonial war and in the African Continent as a whole. It led Dr. Tomizu Hirondo to publish
    Afrikua no Zento, a short pamphlet that advocated for an expansion of Japanese influence and presence in Africa before it fell under complete European control. Tokyo established a commercial precedent with the Japan Mail Steamship Company traveling to Europe through the Suez Canal, followed up by the establishment of consular offices and official economic missions whose ultimate intention was to gain access to a steady and cheap supply of raw resources and captive markets. By 1899, Japanese silk was entering Ethiopia via Harar and by 1918, had completely outperformed the American-dominated cotton imports. However, it was not until the interwar period that Japanese penetration of the Horn of Africa was more successful, due to European fears of the Yellow Peril [1] and the European predominance.

    The Ethiopian intelligentsia (whether from the Debtara [2] or educated abroad) greatly admired the quick Japanese modernization process, advocating for the emulation of the Rising Sun that would include the complete reorganization of the Ethiopian state along modern lines and state-led national development programs [3]. Ras Tafari Makonnen, the future Emperor Haile Selassie I, had been impressed by Japanese victory in 1906 and in lieu of his father's death, concluded that Ethiopia should adopt Japanese-style reforms and prove a non-White nation could stand on par with Europe. Shortly after Tafari came to power, a particularly prominent Japanizer by the name of Heruy Wolde Selassie [4] concluded a Treaty of Friendship in early November with Yoshida Isaburo, the Japanese minister in Turkey.

    The Japanizers' influence could be seen in Ethiopia's 1931 Constitution, heavily inspired by the 1889 Japanese Constitution, that was drafted by Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariam [5] and provided Haile Selassie's rule with a legalistic foundation. It also had the bonus effect of concentrating more power in his hands and generally reducing the hereditary nobility's power by reducing them to mere Members of Parliament in the upper Senate. The Japanizer faction spearheaded the attempts at establishing closer diplomatic relations with Japan, Heruy leading a mission to the country on November 5 and was welcomed by an ecstatic Japanese crowd waving around the Ethiopian tricolor alongside the Japanese flag at Kobe. It was there that Emperor Hirohito received the Ethiopian delegation, Heruy personally reaffirming Ethiopia's decision to mimic Japanese modernization and Hirohito responded positively to both this and His Imperial Majesty's decision to send a delegation from so far away. With the tour throughout Japan, Heruy later admitted that he couldn't help but keep admiring the progress Japan had made in the past few decades since 1868 and even made plans to reform the Ethiopian military along Japanese lines with the assistance of Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariam.


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    Modern Ethiopia's first Parliament in session, 1931.

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    Ethiopia's Members of Parliament, 1932.

    Japanese merchants and the Zaibatsu were eager about the economic implications behind Heruy's visits, seeking to develop Ethiopian markets and access the rich resources its soil possessed. Japanese cotton already dominated in Ethiopia's domestic markets, the merchants planning to expand the pool of exports to the Ethiopians while Heruy begun negotiations with Japanese manufacturers. It was in those negotiations that Heruy arrived back in Ethiopia with two Japanese volunteers, the first being a tailor that only resided in the African country for a month and the other was Dr. Yamauchi Masao. Masao was an eager proponent of promoting close Japanese-Ethiopian ties, quickly picking up Amharic and alarmed Europeans with the ferocity that he pursued Japanese economic penetration. It only reinforced European saber-rattling about the Yellow Peril, especially on the part of Italy whose historical push for expansion into Ethiopia had been reinvigorated under Mussolini's government and the renewal of the peripheral policies [6] by the Italian colonial administration.

    This received tacit support from countries like Britain and France who feared a repeat of the Great War, desiring to maintain Italy's neutrality and possibly bring it into war against a rapidly rearming Germany, as well as surprisingly from the USSR [7] who required external allies against the encroaching Germans and Japanese in the early 1930s. In spite of the difficulties placed before the two nations by the powers of Europe and because of said difficulties, the two independent empires would continue to grow closer as the zenith of Japanese-Ethiopian relations was reached with the marriage between Lij Araya Abebe and Princess Kuroda Masako in August 1934. It was in this process that skilled Japanese workers were brought into the country to facilitate proper assistance to Ethiopia's moves toward modernity, namely in the area of disseminating the needed information to a number of Ethiopians carefully handpicked by the Emperor himself, and were to cooperate with skilled African-American immigrants [8] in Ethiopia.

    However, the budding program was put to a screeching halt with the Wal-Wal Incident in November 1934 that ended with 107 Ethiopian dead and 50 Italo-Somali dead, inevitably bubbling over into demands of apologies and compensation from both sides once Rome claimed Ethiopian forces had unlawfully attacked the oasis. Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations to settle the issue on 3 January but met the deliberating twiddling-of-thumbs as Britain and France hesitated to take action, even sending their delegates to Rome to hammer out an agreement to maintain Ethiopian independence under the auspices of an Italian mandate but this did little to prolong the inevitable. Addis Ababa repeatedly requested international arbitration and pushed for the arms embargo to be lifted so that Ethiopia might have some means of defending herself in the case of potential war but the Great Powers of Europe were seldom-moved by this small nation's valiant efforts.

    The Italian invasion of Ethiopia occurred from Eritrea on 3 October 1935 without an official declaration of war and Ethiopia declared war shortly after, starting the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.

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    Haile Selassie's officers await orders upon the announcement of Italy's invasion, 1935.

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    [1] IOTL, Japanese influence and economic penetration into Sub-Saharan Africa during and after WWII led to the Yellow Peril becoming a popular concept among the colonial empires. See Japan, Britain and the Yellow Peril in the 1930s by Richard Bradshaw/Jim Ransdell and Mutual Interests? Japan and Ethiopia Before the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935-36 by Jospeh Calvitt Clarke for more.

    [2] The Debtara are figures traditionally educated by the Orthodox Church, having historically been the source of the Likwanent or the Learned Men, the intellectuals of Ethiopia.

    [3] See Evolution of Development-Oriented Ideas in Ethiopia, 1900-1991 by Kassa Belay for more.

    [4/5] Heruy and Tekle were both prominent leaders of the Japanizer group, the former having been a Debtara educated at St. Raguel and the other having received his education in Tsarist Russia.

    [6] Since the introduction of Italy into Eritrea in 1890, Rome had been meddling in Ethiopia via "peripheral policies" focused on the northern and southern regions adjacent to Italy's East African empire, mostly in Tigray and Ogaden in the late 1920s. Ultimately, Italy sought to establish direct control over the southwestern provinces and a protectorate of some sort over the "Amharic core" (Tigray, Gojjam and Shewa), expanding her East African territories at Ethiopia's expense. See A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855-1991 by Bahru Zewde and Italian mandate or protectorate over Ethiopia by Alberto Sbacchi for more.

    [7] Contrary to popular belief IOTL, the Soviet Union's support for Ethiopia during 1935-36 was mostly token and Moscow covertly supported the Italians throughout the conflict. See Soviet appeasement, collective security and the Italo-Ethiopian War of 1935-1936 by Joseph Calvitt Clarke for more.

    [8] ITTL, the number of African-American immigrants present in Ethiopia has increased with Garveyite Liberia acting as a sort of funnel for African-American immigration into Africa. The Ethiopian government has made sure to place an emphasis on the need for skilled workers in the modernization of Ethiopia, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs even resorting to quoting Marcus Garvey in such affairs.
     
    Last edited: Sep 25, 2019
  17. Threadmarks: Rally 'Round the Flag

    Hagre Well-Known Member

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    Rally 'Round the Flag

    De Bono's invasion of Ethiopia had met little resistance from the Ethiopian armies as Adigrat, Adwa and Axum fell into his lap with not so much as a gunshot. This was due to Haile Selassie's insistence on the presentation of Ethiopia as the innocent in spite of Italy's rapid advance into Tigray, ordering his commanders to move their troops away from Eritrea. This may have contributed to the League's declaration of Italy as the primary aggressor and the promulgation of economic sanctions but these were either slow coming or didn't restrict imports of valuable resources like oil. In spite of Italy clearly being the aggressor, Britain and France continued haggling with Rome to secure some sort of alliance. In a compromise, Italy was to be given huge chunks of northern and southern Ethiopia - 3/5 of Ethiopian land - and a mandate over a rump Ethiopian state in "the historical Amhara provinces" with the Emperor as a figurehead. However, the details of this "Hoare-Laval Pact" were exposed to the public via a French journalist and outrage on the part of their countries' respective populaces, as well as from the international community, forced London and Paris to rescind the offers officially.

    Another interesting development unfolded on the northern front - the surrender of Dejazmach Haile Selassie Gugsa and 1,200 of his retainers to the Italians. The Italian Ministry of Propaganda had a field day with the surrender of the Emperor's son-in-law and took liberal doses of inflating the numbers of surrendering soldiers, one Ethiopian commander complaining to Haile Selassie that it set back the war effort a few months. To follow up the propaganda success, De Bono proclaimed the abolition of slavery only three days later in an edict but this found no support for him amongst the slaveowners nor even the slaves as Italian forces looted Axum and seized the Obelisk of Axum to be taken back to Rome. This seemed to elicit a reaction from the Ethiopians, with the mobilization of tens of thousands of men in the Mehal Safari and even more from feudal calls to action in Gondar and Gojjam.

    Despite the mobilization of some 300,000 men by mid- to late October, the Italians' advance continued unabated and quite slowly, much to Mussolini's impatience. Meqele finally fell into Italian hands on 8 Nov. and De Bono now focused on the consolidation of the territory taken so far, fearing that the Ethiopian counterattacks might sweep their gains away as the Duce continued to grow impatient under the pressure of the League. He needed faster victories to end the war in a fait accompli to force the League to accept the Italian conquest of Ethiopia and be done with it, ordering De Bono to advance into Tembien to which he refused and pointed out that it'd leave the Italians' flanks exposed to Ethiopian counterattack. That finally did the trick and Mussolini relieved De Bono of command on the northern front after promoting him to the rank of Marshal of Italy on 16 November and was immediately replaced by Marshal Pietro Badoglio who'd been plotting behind the scenes to replace the old General [3] with Mussolini.

    Ironically enough, the same thing that Badoglio had supported De Bono on and denied to Mussolini was the first thing he was faced with - an Ethiopian counteroffensive all along the frontlines and against his men who hadn't enough time to secure their gains. This would put him to the test with the string of Ethiopian victories on the Tembien front that occurred in Haile Selassie's Christmas Offensive.

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    Dembeguina Pass, December 1935


    A chorus of yelling and screaming filled the air when the tidal waves of Ethiopian soldiers collided violently with the Italian Blackshirts, Ethiopian bayonets and blades tearing into the flesh of unlucky Italian soldiers that hadn’t been able to prepare themselves. Soon, it devolved into chaotic hand-to-hand combat as soldiers desperately attempted to kill the man in front of him with anything he had on his hands, whether that be traditional Ethiopian weapons or European-made steel from the Great War. Someone bearing the flag of the Ethiopian Empire – or New Aksumite Empire, as Selassie’s officers had promised them – ran through the mess of it all, proudly flying the banner of the Conquering Lion of Judah across his shoulder.

    It was nothing less than total hell but fortunately for them, the Ethiopians had thousands of years’ worth of experience with such affairs.


    Makonnen’s arms shook with the effort to try and pull the rifle out of the Italian’s hands but managed to shove him to the ground with a great heave. Unsheathing his Jile [1] and straddling the Italian, Makonnen plunged the dagger’s curved blade into the European’s stomach repeatedly until the soldier under him fell limp and the light from his eyes gone, all the while the Italian struggled against his hold and grabbed at his neck in hopes of choking the Ethiopian. As he yanked his blade out of what remained of the Italian’s stomach, Makonnen saw the young American next him – wasn’t his name Michael? – bashing in an officer’s skull with his rifle’s butt and his eyes widened at an approaching Askari moving to thrust forth his fixed bayonet.

    He lunged to push the boy out of the way and intercept the stabbing attack, grabbing the very bayonet itself to prevent it from burying itself into his gut. How ironic, seeing he’d done the same thing to the corpse lying behind him, but Makonnen couldn’t find it in him to appreciate irony at the moment. Michael stumbled in place for a minute, making eye contact with Makonnen before scrambling for his own rifle and aiming at the base of the Askari’s skull but with violently trembling arms as the Ethiopian groaned internally. In his admittedly basic English, Makonnen managed a “Shoot.”


    . . . Why wasn’t the boy shooting the damned Hamasien [2]?

    Despite it all, Makonnen couldn’t help but chuckle at the odd – albeit deadly – situation the trio was found in, even as the bayonet’s cold metal tore into his hands’ skin. He repeated the word in spite of the Askari before him attempting to gut him like a fish, “Shoot.” Still nothing and he swore to himself loudly in his native Amharigna, something the Askari smiled darkly at. To his luck, this seemed to spark a reaction out of the volunteer and he finally pulled the trigger, Makonnen grimacing when bits of the Askari’s brain landed on him. The body slumped to the ground and Makonnen hissed at the pain he felt in his hands, blood flowing freely from his palms but he simply ignored it as he snatched up his Jile and bellowed, “For God, Emperor and Ethiopia!”

    This seemed to inspire inspiration in his men to sweep the Italians aside in one final blow, but not as much as the appearance of the Emperor's Guardsmen, with their European uniforms and modern guns. They joined their lesser-equipped brethren in battle to rally together and make a final push, sweeping aside their enemy in one final blow. The sheer manpower overwhelmed the Italian forces, forcing them to retreat and scramble out of their positions to safety in their rear, only for many of them to be gunned down by the Guard machine gunners. Makonnen hauled Michael up from the ground, patting him on the back in a silent congratulation on saving him and climbed out of the trench after pulling out a pistol, sprinting to join his eager men.

    It had been done. The pass was theirs and by Christmas, no less. Perhaps God was looking down fondly on his Negro children after all. The Emperor would have his offensive, delivered on a silver platter.


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    The Christmas Offensive had been much more successful than Haile Selassie had expected, especially with Ras Imru's complete encirclement of Major Criniti's 1,000 Eritrean Askaris and his advance across the Tekkeze River. In the process, Imru's troops had captured over 50 machine guns and Ende Selassie in Tigray, within the proximity of the holy city of Axum as the Ras considered an attack on these areas. In the meantime, Ras Kassa forced the Italians back from Abbi Addi and linked up with Ras Seyoum in the center while Ras Mulugeta marched on Meqele. Additional victories were won with the surrender of Italian forces at Warieu and Abarro Passes that provided the Ethiopians with more favorable positions on the Tembien front, threatening to not just reclaim Tigray but make a push into Eritrea. By January 1936, those same Ethiopian soldiers were launching regular attacks against their Italian foes and with startling artillery support from the Imperial Bodyguard detachments protected by the cover of the Highlands.

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    The Imperial Bodyguard's artillery supports their brothers on the ground, December 1935-January 1936.

    In the Ogaden, Ethiopian forces had been faring surprisingly well against the overwhelming firepower of Graziani's troops and with the assistance of the torrential rains and difficult terrain of the country that prevented the Italians from exploiting the wide and open spaces of the arid desert province to their advantage. The Ethiopian troops under the command of Ras Nasibu Emmanuel had some professional training as a result of the Turkish Military Mission's tenure during the 1930s, having dug themselves in around Degehabur and Harar with the oversight of Wehib Pasha. Ras Desta's army was responsible for the planned invasion of Italian Somaliland, although this had little success of being achieved and the shock advantage was rendered useless with it being common talk at the market places of the south.

    These losses enraged Mussolini who, ironically enough, threatened to replace Badoglio with De Bono or Graziani if he didn't get the Italian forces on the northern front back on track. Badoglio's requests for the use of mustard gas and other chemical agents were finally approved in the hopes of bringing the war to a sudden end. The Regia Aeronautica delivered their payload first at Ende Selassie, the initial aerial bombardments having already shaken the Gojjame troops and this one completely terrified them, with Ras Imru being unable to help and remarked, "I was completely stunned . . . I didn't know how to fight the terrible rain that burned and killed." The chemical warfare couldn't be kept a secret for long, despite Badoglio's rigid censorship, and news of the war crimes quickly traveled to Geneva where Haile Selassie filed a formal complaint with the use of mustard gas. It nearly caused an international incident with the gassing and subsequent deaths of dozens, if not hundreds, of Americo-Liberian volunteers in the Garvey Legion.

    It was at the Second Battle of Tembien that the strategic initiative passed back to Italy after the mass bombardment of Ethiopian forces under Ras Kassa and Seyoum that entailed the looming defeat of the Ethiopian armies, especially with Badoglio's creeping advance that took casualties in the thousands with the Ethiopians' staunch defenses and the safety of Amba Aradam. The Imperial Bodyguard's artillery was particularly damning with the direct fire being played and its anti-aircraft training being used to full effect against their technical superiority but it was only prolonging the inevitable, even as the Italians started seeing their casualties mount. Ras Mulugeta was killed in the fighting around the mountain, gunned down by an Italian airplane after hearing of his son's death and this is what caused the regular troops to break under the sustained pressure of the Italians, the retreat turning into a rout. The Imperial Guardsmen attached to the Mehal Safari were virtually wiped out to a man, what remained of them fleeing to the Emperor's base at Qorem to regroup alongside with Ras Kassa and Ras Seyoum's armies.

    On the northern front, disaster broke out for Ras Imru whose Gojjame forces had been forced back with the Battles of Enderta and Shire, collapsing with the unwavering chemical attacks that left them melting into the Ethiopian countryside as Imru fled to join his cousin at Qorem. It seemed Ethiopia was on the brink of falling to Italian control . . .

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    [1] The Jile is a curved dagger commonly found in the Horn of Africa, most prominent amongst ethnic Afars and Somalis in northeastern and eastern Ethiopia.

    [2] Hamasien was a term used to refer to Eritrean soldiers by Ethiopian soldiers throughout the Second Italo-Ethiopian War and Italian occupation, derived from the former region in central Eritrea.

    [3] According to Jeff Pearce's Prevail: The Inspiring Story of Ethiopia's Victory over Mussolini's Invasion, 1935-1941, Badoglio consistently discredited De Bono behind the scenes and denied the obvious in how exposed Italian flanks were - until he himself experienced said threat in December 1935.
     
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  18. Seandineen Member

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    Do the Garvey followers work with Indian nationalists, not committed to non violence, like Subhas Bose?
     
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  19. Hagre Well-Known Member

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    There were already Garveyites IOTL that were committed to a similar militant stance as Bose was and also collaborating with Japanese organizations too. I don't see why that wouldn't also occur ITTL.
     
  20. Seandineen Member

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    I wonder if the Liberian opposition to the true Whig party, gets involved also?
     
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