Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by Xanthoc, Aug 31, 2019.
Part #4: Where Cotton is King
“This idea, though not incorporated in the constitution, was the prevailing idea at that time. The constitution, it is true, secured every essential guarantee to the institution while it should last, and hence no argument can be justly urged against the constitutional guarantees thus secured, because of the common sentiment of the day. Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error.”
- Alexander Stephens on “All men are created equal.”
“December 20, 1860. February 8, 1861. October 14, 1865. November 11, 1865. These three dates all have something in common. Each was in consideration for date of Dixie Independence Day. 12/20 was the day South Carolina declared secession from the United States, triggering the beginning of what would be the Confederacy. On 2/8, the Confederacy was officially declared, and this date gained the most backing during the war. Even today, it remains the date of the Confederation Festival, a celebration of unity between all our sovereign states. 10/14 was the date of the ceasefire between the Union and the Confederacy, and some saw it as the de facto date of true independence. Furthermore, it being the fourteenth was evocative of July Fourth, American Independence Day.
However, the intense celebrations that ensued on 11/11, following the signing and overnight telegrams announcing the Treaty of Lexington. The South was alight with jubilation, and it would be again the following year. It was a time of joy and victory, and a number of traditions were created in this first Sovereignty Day, as we shall explore:
1. Pumpkin Cracking. A pumpkin is tossed in the air and (often inebriated) men try to crack it open with a swing of a bat. A number of farms and families have claimed to have invented this tradition, but it was documented in several places in 1866 as being done as a recreation of festivities from 1865, either done on the farm or heard about from other families.
2. Midnight Kissing. Youths ranging from 13 to 17 are blindfolded and dance in cricked around in a tight group, one arm out and held up. When the music loops, they grab the first outreached hand they feel, partners then switching and reaching out the other arm. Growing dizzy and giddy, the music finally stops, blindfolds come off and partners must kiss, regardless of who it is. There is great hilarity when brothers bemoan their luck and have to share a fraternal peck, while others cheer as the fiddleplayer expertly waited until two lovebirds were paired. This event was documented as being invented on Thomas Abernathy’s farm in Georgia.
3. Powder Shoot. Other nations celebrate with fireworks, but by 11/11, the South had grown tired of cannons thundering. Instead, small sacks of colored powder are hurled into the sky with a sling, catapult, or arm, and a marksmen shoots to make it explode into a delightful cloud. This was invented at Fort Matthias on the Kentucky border, where soldiers used bags of dried spices, flour, and dirt.
4. Star-racing: Negro slaves were always noted as having strong legs and a fast gait. Strong slaves ran along the perimeter of a large field, carrying small white stars. The finish line has a blue blanket that the slave would slap their star on, the ‘first star to hit the Bonnie Blue.’ After Abolition, the tradition remains, often done first by children and then by adults of any race. First recorded on Daniel Dew’s plantation, and the following year he invited neighbors.”
- “National Holidays,” by Nathan Farbrook, in the Oklahoma Herald
 This is a real quote. Real stand up act, that Stephens.
 I was leaning towards one of the two, but decided to do something a bit more original.
 This may sound contradictory, but firing a rifle was a normal peacetime occurrence. Cannons were not.
 Sovereignty Day is usually celebrated as a huge community festival outside of the more disconnected areas. Like a huge county fair with all these events.
“A young nation has a lot of things to consider upon independence. For the Confederacy, three things dominated the agenda: debt, agriculture, and bureaucracy.
Let’s start at the top and work our way down. Now, the Confederate States Congress was empowered to collect taxes for the payment of debts. The problem? The debtors weren’t a foreign power or bank, but instead the states and citizens. The common historiography of the Civil War is that it was easy. The Confederacy gained time to build troops thanks to the recognized tentativeness of the Northern armies, and soon the defensive line became a shield to hold up until the North broke down. But a more modern and increasingly accepted perspective is that the war was a game of poker. Both sides had no understanding of the other’s resources in totality. Certain moves elicited certain reaction, both sides trying to find tells.
We have to understand that the commanders on either side were West Point alumni and veterans of the Mexican-American War. They shared similar ideas of warfare, rooted in Napoleonic thought. Many innovations that military historians point to were outgrowths of this thinking, such as the trenches in Tennessee. Both North and South were scared, playing against men who knew all their tricks. The difference between them was that the Confederates took risks faster than the Union. Had Sherman been allowed to take his bold actions sooner, the South may have fallen. But the gambles the South made were expensive. Lee’s Army of Appalachia had cost a fortune, and every new soldier meant another check to cut after the war. And then there was the famine relief, which owed farmers subsidies for growing corn. Thus we come to the debt.
The government owed soldiers their pay, they owed States for equipment, and they owed planters. Printing bills was considered, and we saw inflation rise dramatically post-war. But everyone knew this wasn’t a lasting solution. Taxes were also right out; taxing the soldiers and farmers to pay them would’ve caused absolute anarchy. The next solution was found in a war time slogan: King Cotton. Cotton exports were resumed to the world. Initially, sale was at a small loss, a ploy by the new Secretary of the Treasury John H. Reagan. Reagan corresponded with the British and French, and then reached out to the German Powers and the Russians. While the latter rejected his offer, the other world powers agreed to recognize the Confederacy rather quickly in exchange for cheap cotton. While this created a rift for the United States, the US had already been made to recognize the Confederacy.
Once trade in cotton was growing, Reagan began to raise the prices, just so slightly. At the same time, loans were now on offer by various countries. Using loans and US reparations, the planters were paid their subsidies, while the soldiers were given a portion of their pay with a compromise to either be paid in installments or to be supplemented by grain and cotton, or land in Arizona. The cotton trade, meanwhile, would help to raise money to pay those loans off. Of course, taxes and inflation were both going on, but without these ideas they’d have been much worse.
“So next, agriculture. Someone needs to grow that cotton. But famine was still feared. The corn subsidy was lessened, but not ended. It was still believed that corn needed to be grown heavily, alongside wheat, to keep the nation fed and stable. Plus, cheap local goods would help ensure a positive trade deficit. This is the predecessor to Jackson’s Stronghold System. But cotton is still the cash crop. And so slavery was further cemented as necessity for Southern existence. Rewards for fulfilling cotton quotas were offered while laws on the treatment of slaves were encouraged to be repealed. Productivity on plantations soon rises by the next harvest.
So that takes us to bureaucracy. Hm. Maybe I should have started with this one. You see, the Confederate Constitution was lauded for its defense of state authority and property rights. But the war had demanded the approval of a number of emergency powers. Some thought they needed to be extended for several more years. Others wanted it ended immediately, and it was on this that Davis and Stephens would pull apart as enemies. Davis had come to believe that the emergency powers granted the government were just that; powers to handle any emergency. He wanted to build a large executive bureaucracy that would be powerless when not granted authority by the Congress, but nevertheless maintained and extant.
Stephens opposed this. He had become wary of the general trend of big government in the Confederacy. He took up the autonomy of states as a cause to champion. The emergency bureaucracy was unneeded and only a means of tempting the government with an easy use of powers it shouldn’t have. By this point, Davis was only in the second half of his presidency, and he had made numerous enemies. In the war, his own politicking and consolidation of power had drawn harsh criticism already. Despite his status as a ‘Founding Father,’ others of the same rank and seniority were ready and willing to toss out words like ‘tyrant’ and ‘King Jeff’.
After a bit of debate, Davis finally decided this wasn’t the hill he planned to die on. Stephens and his faction won out. Now who was in that faction? He worked close with Robert Toombs, an old friend, and fellow-Georgian, and with Robert M.T. Hunter, a Virginian, both of whom were previously Secretary of State and loud critics of Davis. Already, looking down the syllabus, we can see the rifts in the Democratic Party. The trio was appealing to a rather grand and romanticized idea of what the Confederacy could be; decentralized, agrarian, and with a government incapable of even considering the infringement of property.
Davis, who was always a rather emotional man, began to take their attacks personally. He soon saw himself as a defender of the Confederacy, standing between it and anarchy. This quote from him, in response to if he supported the states, sums up his evolving stance; ‘The rights of states, yes. Their infidelity, never.’ He’d go on to compare the confederal government to a father and states as sons; let them grow, let them learn, and support their endeavors. But punish their sins and keep them righteous. This idea, of course, completely clashed with Stephens’ rhetoric. They drifted further apart and grew bitter. Davis called him a snake in his tent, and a wolf in his hen house.
And Stephens grew dynamic. Rather than let the President pro tempore, who was R.M.T. Hunter, his ally, Stephens, as Vice President, sat in on the Senate. He embraced his role as presiding officer and head of the Senate, taking a dynamic stance to help kill bills that didn’t fit with his vision. This would start to distinguish the CS government from the US quite radically. Davis, meanwhile, had effectively lost control of his government. He gave up the emergency bureaucracy, and now focused on the matters of debt and economics, mostly because it was the only thing he could get past Stephens…”
- Michael Warren, lecture on early Confederate History
 Tennessee was a major area of contestment in the later war ITTL. The fieldworks grew more elaborate and usage of things like gatling guns start to increase until it starts looking like proper trench warfare.
 Tying your entire economic stability plan to a single crop. What could go wrong?
 Davis and Stephens were often at odds. As you’ll see, this was provide the basis for the early divisions in Confederate politics.
 In theory any Vice President of the US could do this, but they don’t as not to cause tensions between the Executive and the Legislative Branches. But this is Stephens using his powers to help weaken the Executive, but inadvertently has set a precedent that strengthens the presidency.
“The CS Flag Referendums of 1865 and 1866 has often been denigrated as a mere quirk. A small affair the represented little beyond a cosmetic choice by a government that was settling all the minor details of being a proper state. But this view neglects to see how the referendum serves as a microcosm of contemporary issues and as a predictor of future issues amongst Dixie society…
...The first referendum reflect the aristocratic nature of the Confederacy and its politics. The government did not enjoy the Bonnie Blue, not the least because its hue evoked a connection to the blue of Union soldiers. Stripes, however, were discounted due to the memorable confusion the Stars and Bars had created on the battle-field. Thus, when recalling the aforementioned star discussion and the ratio debate, we see that the concerns of warfare and diplomacy were widely on the mind. The Stainless Banner was cut from the referendum entirely due to angry remarks of Lee, despite Senator King’s impassioned defense of presenting the Confederacy as a nation of ‘morality, Whiteness, and peace.’
The flag options then had their parameters: (1) Minimize the usage of ‘Yankee Blue,’ (2) Avoid Union-esque Stripes, (3) Avoid confusion for any other flag, (4) To avoid a 10:19 ratio, (5) To display all State Stars equally…
The Flag Referendum of 1865 had the following options:
1. The Blood-Stained Banner: Bearing a 13 star all-red Southern Cross in the canton on a field of white, at a 2:1 ratio, with a red horizontal bar across the bottom.
2. The Bonnie Burgundy: The Bonnie Blue, with 13 Stars at 3:2 ratio, blue rendered a dark red.
3. The Blood Stars: A white field in 2:1 ratio with 13 red stars in a circle in the canton, and a vertical red bar at the fly.
4. None of the Above
Each option was paired with a depiction of the flag design, which I have rendered in color here. The government was at the time still using the Stainless Banner and the Old Blood-Stained. The lack of any blue again shows the dominance of the government’s aversion to the color, and all the designs were made by Congressional committee. Each tells a different story about Congress...
...The Blood-Stained’s committee was chaired by C. J. Villeré, a proponent of the original Stainless. Under the belief that the blue on the Southern Cross would hurt their chances of victory in the referendum, the saltire was made red. The bottom stripe helped to ensure the surrender flag debacle would not be repeated. But there was almost no consideration of incorporating the wishes of the general public. They took the use of the Bonnie Blue as a sign of discontent with the current flag, not desire for that flag to replace it...
...The Bonnie Burgundy’s committee was chaired by Robert Toombs, who partly made the flag out of a lacking desire to waste much time on the matter. However, he was a populist who recognized that the Bonnie Blue was simply the most popular flag, flown at plantations across the South. Yankee Blue was still intolerable for a design within the committee, but the general design was kept with a change of color…
...The Blood Stars were designed by Alexander Bess, a junior Congressman who submitted the design on his own, but it was supported by President Davis himself, who believed it a brilliant design that incorporated all the rules outlined by the Congressional debates, and straddling the line between the present Stainless Banner and the star-centric dichromatic design of the Bonnie Blue. This in turn mirrored Davis’ attempt to rally against Stephens’ populism while still trying to be dynamic and forward thinking…
...With this overwhelming rejection that sparked far more backlash than anyone could have imagined, the Referendum of 1866 altered the rules. Blue was back and permitted, especially more vibrant and dynamic shades than the dark and dull blue of the Union flag. Another three proposals were submitted, each different than the last. The new flag options then had their new parameters: (1) Make usage of ‘Bonnie Blue’ as a color, (2) Avoid Union-esque Stripes, (3) Avoid confusion for any other flag, (4) To avoid a 10:19 ratio…
The Flag Referendum of 1866 had the following options:
1. The Southern Cross: Bearing a 13 star Rebel Red and Bonnie Blue Southern Cross that occupies ⅔ of the flag, at a 3:2 ratio, with a thin white vertical stripe and a Rebel Red fly occupying the final third.
2. The Blood-Stained Bonnie Blue: The Bonnie Blue, with 13 Stars in a circle, occupying ⅔ of the flag, at a 3:2 ratio, with a thin white vertical stripe and a Rebel Red fly occupying the final third.
3. The Bonnie Stars: A white field in 2:1 ratio with 13 white stars in a circle in a Bonnie Blue canton, and a vertical Rebel Red stripe at the fly.
4. None of the Above…
...Even this was a close win. Many still wanted just the plain Bonnie Blue, but the Blood-Stained Bonnie drew people in, garnering it enough votes to defeat None of the Above with a 2% plurality. The win meant it was official, and the moment the tally came in, the new flag was hauled up the flagpole in Montgomery…”
- “The Political Relevance of the Flag Referendums of 1865 and 1866” by Richard Parker, Undergraduate thesis, Georgia State Institute of Humanities
 This dislike of blue was prevalent in OTL as well, when designing the Confederate flag.
 This was a proposal to fix the Stainless Banner in OTL. TTL, they never got around to making a new flag, what with the total loss of Richmond and Sherman stomping around in ‘64 and ‘65. All the generals were already using the Bonnie Blue alongside their regimental flags.
“‘Its gotta have a moat, and its gotta have walls. A castle for King Cotton and his fair Queen Dixie. A fortress for our liberty.’ These words were spoken by President Jefferson Davis when he gathered the nation’s best architects to Montgomery. They entered the First Confederate Capitol, and Davis sat them down with a plethora of maps and land surveys. ‘Here, gentlemen,’ he said, ‘Here is where it shall be. And it will be your responsibility to design it.’
The men were more than a little uncertain. The task was not only difficult but as that first day went on, they realized just how much forethought they’d need to have when beginning the layout. How much space would be needed? Where should everything go? What of the shape? How far would the unwalled regions extend? What would go there as opposed to within the walls? What non-essentials deserved to fill the space?
But soon, it became an exciting challenge. Thompson, as described, was an innovator, who began to invigorate the others with his enthusiasm. It was contagious, as MacLaughlin put it. They soon fully understood just what an opportunity to have. To build the next great capital city. A city for all the world to see, to serve as a home for the government for generations to come…
...At last they came to an agreement on the layout. As in all other drafts, the Capitol was at the center of everything, a building that looked like the Pantheon of Rome, but massive, and flanked by two, long adjoined buildings; two levels of basement for clerical officers, the western and eastern wings for a Congressmen’s offices, a lower floor for public assembly, a second floor for the Lower House and Upper House to meet separate rooms, and a third floor opened for all of Congress to meet in, with double the seating needed in each legislative room to allow for the optimistic expansion of the country. With its position in the city, the common name for the Capitol appeared: Confederate Centre...
...The northern fifth of the city held all the buildings for the Executive departments, and at the center of that fifth was the Presidential Manor, commonly known as Rebel Manor. It was always meant to look like a plantation home, being two stories with a large inner-courtyard, and plenty of greenery surrounding it…
...This south-eastern fifth was for the Judiciary, the Supreme Court’s ‘Hall of Justice’ at it center. The name of course derives from the lengthy straight building that leads to the grand circular hall that holds the Court’s main chamber. This was not part of the original design. The main circular Courthouse was designed and built to have a long lawn that was to have numerous statues. Like everything else, the lawn ran towards the center of the city. During construction, Chief Justice Magrath felt that the proposed statues didn’t look right and asked they be redesigned. In the meantime, he also requested an extension to the building, along the lawn, for offices and clerks, removing any need for tedious travel between buildings.
This extension would then be extended yet again soon after, and the statues were never approved. Within two years, as the Supreme Court garnered more power and responsibilities and a more extensive bureaucracy, the building was extended again, until at last we have the long corridor of offices preceding the courthouse, hence its name the ‘Hall of Justice’. Statues were finally put in the place at the end of the now occupied lawn, just before the Hall’s entrance. One a winged blind woman being Lady Justice, holding a sword and scales, and the other being a blind man holding a shield and scales, known commonly as Lord Justice. One to represent the punishment of the wicked (the Lady) and the other the protection of the innocent. Interestingly, while his hair seems like that of George Washington and while his face is partially obscured by cloth around his eyes, the model for Lord Justice seems to have been African or of mixed race, though this an admittedly very modern speculation based on revisionism…
...Thus, while controversial, the situation of the Army and Navy’s headquarters to be in its own fifth, along with numerous lodgings for the Capital Guard, helped to round out the city. Rather than one central building, the Military Fifth holds a massive statue of George Washington on horseback, saber raised into the air, with the waters of the Delaware flowing at his horse’s feet in the form of the fountain at the base. This leads us into the Garden Fifth, the entire region of the city dedicated to parks, fountains, and in the future a number of small zoos and aquariums…
He would not get to properly move in and live in the city, but Jefferson Davis did have the privilege to officially declare construction complete and to call into order the first session of Congress in Confederate Centre. In a large celebration, the city was declared complete and recognized as the new capital, with Davis laying one last, final, golden brick into the archway of the Dixie Capital Wall. Equipped with a moat, steel drawbridges, a massive and thick city wall, and well-armed bastions, at last the Confederacy had its great, impenetrable city, within the newly declared Capital Enclave: Eden, C.E.”
- Building Eden by Jessica L. Hawthorne
 This is the fortress capital alluded to in the Burning of Richmond. Eden is a large star-shaped city with a surrounding ‘civilian’ town around it, with the government region having a wall, a moat, and cannons. It is located roughly in the area of OTL Birmingham, which was established after the Civil War in the 1870s.
 To clarify, it is called an enclave of the confederal government to denote that it is a region of civilization that stands out from the state of Alabama around it.
“The Election of 1868 was being watched carefully. It was the first peacetime election in Confederate history, and the first to be held with all states under non-provisional governments. Davis had made it clear he was through with the political scene, though he was, of course, ineligible for reelection. However, some had tried to argue on his behalf that his election had been a mere confirmation of the provisional government, and as such he might be able to be seen as having not yet served a full non-provisional term.
But Davis silenced these voices immediately. He was done, and tired at that. The main group campaigning was known by everyone, even before the campaign had been officially declared; Alexander Stephens was running, with Robert Toombs as his running mate. The pair were supposed to be unbeatable, especially once Toombs made a public declaration of his support for the early Temperance Movement, which had grown thanks to the alcoholism rampant amongst Southern veterans. He did not go so far as to say he’d illegalize drinking, but his approval acted to validate that he was no longer an alcoholic.
Few seemed properly poised to oppose them. Davis, for his part, certainly did, but had not yet found anyone to support. The dominance of Stephens and Toombs would seen John C. Breckenridge depart for Kentucky, where he would go on to become President and Chancellor. But soon enough, a contender would emerge, driven by a dream many called prophetic, even to this day. A man hailed and hated in equal parts after his time, and one of the few Planterate leaders to be respected in the Proletariate: Thomas ‘Stonewall’ Jackson…
...He claimed this had occurred after a particularly warm day in the field, in which he had become exhausted after rushing to stop an overly angry farmhand from beating a slave. Jackson had needed a rest, and he claimed that the moment his eyes shut, the following was seen:
‘Before me was a field. I saw in it cotton, ripe for picking, the stalks blowing in a gentle breeze. Above, there was only shadow. I walked forward, naked as a babe, and my hands caressed the cotton as I meandered toward the only stars in the sky, a ring of 13, nearly as bright as the sun. I heard in the distance the sound of thunder and gunfire, nigh inseparable from one another, the clap of sound coming in such rapid succession, it would require the whole of an arsenal, and every bolt at God’s command to be maintained. The stars began to grow dim, and my fingers grew wet. I stumbled, something catching my foot. I looked down, to see the my fingers stained red, and to see in the field around me a litany of corpses. All were emaciated, worked to the bone, bloody with shackles of gold that ate into their wrists, ankles, and necks. And I knew these pitiful dead, who were of all colors. I saw negroes of my flock and my plantation, and I knew that the bodies beside them were their children and their children’s children. But I saw red men too, and I knew them to be the kin and descendants of General Drew. And mixed amongst all of these were white men and women, and I saw my own family amongst them. All wore the same chains, bore the same wounds.
All around me, the cotton was red with blood.
As I fell back, I looked up to those fading stars. And now I could see who was sapping their brilliance, gorging the light like a calf takes milk. Two demons, who sneered at me, flesh pale and blue. One was fat and vulgar, and liquor oozed from his lips like puss from a wound. The other was thin and gnarled, but its face and manner was like a child, petulant and angry, wailing though I heard no sound. As the stars died, I heard a voice, neither man nor woman nor white nor black, speak to me the words of Ephesians 6:12. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places. Then the stars went out, and all was dark, but I felt water pool up around me. But the warmth and thickness of this rising tide made me know it was blood, even before it consumed me and flooded my mouth.’
After this dream, Jackson claimed he awoke with a start, and meditated on its meaning. He understood it to be a warning, that if the wrong man took control of the South, ruin and death would follow. It was only once he read an editorial in the paper about Stephens and Toombs that he felt he understood. Toombs had been a drunkard, even if he claimed sobriety. And Stephens was, in that editorial, criticized as an overgrown child, having lost his parents as a boy and having never had a wife or son to temper him. Jackson saw then, that these men were the demons of his dream, and he readied himself for what he felt was a holy duty…”
- The Stonewall Presidency by Jupiter J. Spartacus
 Davis hated being President, and was somewhat reluctant when he found out he’d been selected by the CS provisional Congress. His wife described him as looking upset and troubled when he received the letter confirming he was President.
 Even before he claimed sobriety, Toombs was nearly CS President, having been the option if Davis declined the position, as well as just being the pick for those who disliked Davis at the time.
 Breckenridge was running against Lincoln and Stephen Douglas in the 1860 election of OTL and TTL. As in OTL, he commanded the Kentucky Orphan Brigade, and though for less time, he was still close with them. Given that numerous troops who remember him fondly have entered the government, he has little trouble assimilating into Kentucky, first becoming Chancellor (think Prime Minister) and then President. He was upset OTL at not being considered for the office of President of the CS, given how he was the South’s candidate in the US election.
 I’m a bit of a Stonewall apologist, I’ll admit. Though not too bad of one, don’t worry, his faults will be apparent. As for the dream, it’s possible it was to some capacity real, but likely Jackson added more and more detail with each retelling to help it fit his ambitions, and may have begun to remember the dream as having such details.
So is the new confederate capital ( Eden I think is the name you gave it) literally a walled city.
The 'Capitol Hill' part is. It has six sections to it; a center where the Legislative Branch is headquartered, the Executive Fifth which has the Confederate White House and offices for the Departments, the Judicial Fifth that has the Supreme Court and offices, the Military Fifth that houses the HQ for the military, the Garden Fifth that has all bunch of parks, and the Residential Fifth where Congressmen live. Then a separate town within the state of Alabama surrounds the city, and the drawbridges are mostly down.
This thing cost them a fortune, but thankfully, the Cotton trade and support from the French and British (who wish to leverage the situation against the US), means that Davis is able to get the funds for it. Mind you, thats funding siphoned away from recovery. Even three years later, there are regions of the South where the Davis administration has yet to repair the scars of war, thanks largely to building Eden, CE.
As a a Southerner I have some important questions for this new nation.
1. Which State has the best sweet tea?
2. Which State has the best barbecue?
1. It'll be a contentious debate between Georgia Peach Tea (which has a bit of peach juice) and Floridian Sweet Tea (which has lemon juice).
2. Depends on if you prefer the sweet Tuscaloosa wet ribs, or spicy Arizona dry rub, though the Carolinas have the 'standard' and 'safe' kind of barbecue. Unfortunately, due to the lacking development thanks to the war, Tennessee won't develop much of a BBQ presence.
Separate names with a comma.