Rebirth of an Empire "O Renascimento de um Império" v2.0

Now that you say it... yes, you're right. No big Portuguese India then. :(

On a more serious note, what could the Portuguese get from the French? Some French outposts in Africa must be taken. It would serve to improve the Lusitanian connections with the East. Also maybe some Carribean islands, though Brazil could take exception to that. I think the biggest part of the peace for Portugal will be the reparations. If the Portuguese do extraordinarily well, they could demand millions of livres as war reparations. Then sit back and watch as the French economy suffers a meltdown.
As for portuguese India and its conquest since 1750 they are huge. Both Diu and Damão have grown from small enclaves to large provinces rivaling old Goa. While Goa has doubled in size, plus in addition to that, Portugal has received several old ports in Malabar.

it was the dominant European power on the western coast of India. In some ways hindering British India Bombay office (much to the delight of it’s rival in the Bay of Bengal.

As for the French presence on the Indian subcontinent they centered in Pondicherry which was on the East in the Bay of Bengal. French possessions on the west was limited Malabe a small enclave close to recently acquired Portuguese ports in Malabar. French Indian Ocean other possessions at the time were a few islands to the east of Madagascar. While its African possessions were limited to a few outposts in west Africa. While french Caribbean does seem like a likely target the Portuguese also need to worry about French navy close to home and any attack against French Caribbean would require assistance from Portuguese Brazil which is not interested in obtaining more sugar producing territories. Northern Brazil has sufficient land and ability to expand and was already a major producer of sugar.

As for what would the Portuguese gain in peace treaty negotiations? Unfortunately we have to wait till peace treaty to find out.
 
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I know but... you know what I'm talking about.

Don't forget the various minor powers, mostly the Danes. They had a fort near Tranquebar if I'm not wrong, and they made a killing on transporting goods under their normally neutral flag. They also claim the strategic Nicobar Islands along with maintaining a fort or two in the Gold Coast and the Danish Virgin Islands (though I'm not sure again).
 
I hope the Portuguese eventually get Galicia. Maybe some important painter will create a painting titled 'Lusitania Triumphant'. After France blows up and Europe eventually establishes a Congress of Vienna-type system for peace, I can see Portugal pulling ahead of even France in the race for industrialization. Certainly the Iberian metropole will be most industrialized, but south Brazil and the Indian exclaves could also grow to be important industrial centres, particularly in India. The littoral exclaves could make a killing by selling modern goods on an industrial scale within sixty to eighty years. Maybe because of Portuguese dominance in the eastern coast, Britain (or more accurately, the Honourable East India Company) fails to establish dominion over all India... The Portuguese might also be able to snatch the Spice Islands from the Dutch soon.
 
I know but... you know what I'm talking about.

Don't forget the various minor powers, mostly the Danes. They had a fort near Tranquebar if I'm not wrong, and they made a killing on transporting goods under their normally neutral flag. They also claim the strategic Nicobar Islands along with maintaining a fort or two in the Gold Coast and the Danish Virgin Islands (though I'm not sure again).
Yes the minor powers are there but Portugal a trading country so would not be willing to simply seize other countries possessions without justification but it would not be against purchasing the Danish overseas possessions both in India, Africa or Caribbean. That would not involve military might. Just as can be imagined Portuguese fortunes are increasing as its trade empire and colonies increase.
 
I hope the Portuguese eventually get Galicia. Maybe some important painter will create a painting titled 'Lusitania Triumphant'. After France blows up and Europe eventually establishes a Congress of Vienna-type system for peace, I can see Portugal pulling ahead of even France in the race for industrialization. Certainly the Iberian metropole will be most industrialized, but south Brazil and the Indian exclaves could also grow to be important industrial centres, particularly in India. The littoral exclaves could make a killing by selling modern goods on an industrial scale within sixty to eighty years. Maybe because of Portuguese dominance in the eastern coast, Britain (or more accurately, the Honourable East India Company) fails to establish dominion over all India... The Portuguese might also be able to snatch the Spice Islands from the Dutch soon.
😊

those are all very valid ideas. We are already seeing some of those with industry establishing not only in metropolitan Portugal in various possessions foremost southern Brazil and in Portuguese India.

As for expansion we will see some at end of this war period and further on. The Napoleónic Wars will still occur their exact makeup and outcome still not defined. As portuguese growth will both influence its outcome it will not be enough to stop them. Watch out for the many future developments.

Sorry if I not provide more detail but want to maintain discussions on evens being posted and cannot specify future events other than in general terms.
 
I hope the Portuguese eventually get Galicia. Maybe some important painter will create a painting titled 'Lusitania Triumphant'. A
we actually have a spoiler for that,about industrialization that could happen since britain and portugal have close relations
Joseph II ‘the Great’ of Braganza
Born 20 August 1761
Death 25 May 1825
King of Portugal, Brazil and Algarve (1777-1815)
United King of Portugal, Brazil, León, Galicia and Algarve (1815-1825)
Head of the Josephine Cortes (1795)
Grandmaster of the Order of Christ (1790)[1] and Order of Santiago (1810)
 
The Peninsular War will go very different from OTL it seems. United Lusitanian Kingdoms? I like. 'Josephine Cortes'... another imprtant step on the path of constitutionalism in the Lusitanian realms. Portugal is well on its way on becoming a second-rate great power by 1900. I wonder if they will snatch some more hinterland around Macau during the Opium Wars... maybe another treaty port near Shanghai too.
 
The Peninsular War will go very different from OTL it seems. United Lusitanian Kingdoms? I like. 'Josephine Cortes'... another imprtant step on the path of constitutionalism in the Lusitanian realms. Portugal is well on its way on becoming a second-rate great power by 1900. I wonder if they will snatch some more hinterland around Macau during the Opium Wars... maybe another treaty port near Shanghai too.
2nd rate power??? Hmm......😏
 
The Three-Years War (1780-1783) (cont.)

The Luso-French Maritime War (1780-1782) (2 of 7)

War Outbreak & Counter-Revolution

As the Marquis of Bussy arrived in India, tensions back in Europe between Lisbon and Paris continued to increase. The French government felt the desperate need to ease their war effort at the potential cost of a massive peasant uprising (which would come anyway in the form of the French Revolution). The fighting with the British, however, already put them on a global-scale war effort so France felt little difficulty adjusting to the new war panorama, now frontally facing England’s allies for the first time in the war.

For Portugal, however, the scenario was much more frightening. France was no ordinary opponent and the society was just off a risky political revolution that almost triggered a religious civil war. A global war against a European superpower, even motivated by the Windsor alliance, was a terrifying prospect and many doubted the country could muster the capital for such effort. Hence, many blamed the current government for the situation against the French, but the popularity of the Pombaline Cabinet successes and projects countered this into a political stalemate, as most people felt that without its efforts, Portugal would be left in the dark ages.

Moreover, many in the capital felt the French attempts of espionage and sabotage after the Rope Busting incident were a breach of sovereignty and a direct attempt to harm them, so popular support for the conflict was high relatively to the huge threat France represented. As such, in terms of aggression, Portugal being at war openly or not with France felt like a small difference from the previous situation where diplomatic bullying occurred; many plutocrats were against the trade agreements cutting on their profits in selling essential wares to France (like sugar, which shortage caused thousands to die in the Caribbean conflicts of the Seven Years War), many Verneyist enthusiasts opposed the French Crown’s crackdown on radicals based on religious motives and many Tagus Declaration signers vocally expressed opposition to the Luso-French situation of stress-relieving prior to the open declaration of war as well as against the French Revolutionaries themselves for ideological reasons.

This coincided with the solidification of an important philosophical movement in Portugal triggered by the reconstruction period and the void left behind by the Jesuits, as promoted by Teodoro de Almeida, the Theodorian Thought. Believed to be the next phase of Pombaline rationalism, it was a reaction from the imperialized Portuguese culture to the violence perpetrated in France by the Revolutionaries, resulting in a moral quest for justification and motivation of Portuguese society revolving around the abolition not of slavery or serfdom, but of the death penalty, believed by Teodoro to be the ultimate sign of pre-Enlightenment barbarianism.


Theodore’s Five Arguments directly opposed the violence in Paris, arguing for rational and incremented acceptance of liberalism

Siege of Gibraltar & Luso-Hispanic Truce
You cannot allow the situation to devolve into war with Spain, your Majesty, and thus, ironically, I advise you to order your military to move out to the Rock.
-Secretary Cipriano to King Joseph II

National motivation for the war was therefore high also relatively to the military disadvantage Portugal faced thanks to this combination of factors that determined popular stance towards French society and actions. The war, however, could hardly be fought on land; although Spain was Britain’s enemy, it was still in truce with Portugal thanks to the Undeclared War and the Spanish King feared that the clash of ideologies would spread to Madrid if land transit was allowed through its territories. Many personalities in Spain also opposed France’s actions on both countries of the Iberian Peninsula, and many even viewed the Pombaline cabinet’s methods favorably, having the recent war failures in mind to remind them Spain was also in need of reform.

Finally, at 1779, motivated by the ambition of Charles III and monarchical fears of the French revolutionary movement, Spain signed a Family Pact with France, uniting the Bourbon dynasties. This allowed Madrid to initiate the Great Siege of Gibraltar, in what would become the longest military action in the war, and effectively join the war on the French side. This spurred the Portuguese Metropolitan army into border patrol frenzy, fearful that Madrid would involve Lisbon in the war next. Tensions became higher than ever before. It would take the direct action of Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Cipriano Freire, to mediate the situation.


Secretary Cipriano mediated the tense Luso-Hispanic situation following the start of the Siege of Gibraltar

Secretary Cipriano managed the diplomatic Corp at the time of the rise of tensions between Portugal and Spain and advised the king throughout the tense year of 1779. The main objective was to ensure the border would remain untouched by both sides, but Charles III made peace hard to bargain for despite the protests of his own diplomats. In fact, throughout the year, it was discovered that the French and Spanish wished to amass a great armada with which to attack the Island of Wright and Portsmouth and it was unlikely the Spanish government wished to back out from such daring effort build up.

Following advice from Cipriano, King Joseph II was forced to play a daring gambit; he personally wrote a letter for the Portuguese Diplomatic Corp, issuing a threat that, ‘should hostilities between the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal start dishonorably, the Navy of his Royal Majesty would immediately move out to assist the people of Gibraltar and great new sieges would initiate all over the Spanish borders, from Algeciras to Badajoz, with which to bleed it dry of able men it desperately needed to fight its desired wars’. This warning, passed on by the SIMP to the Foreign Affairs Secretary and eventually to Madrid, constituted a veiled threat against any land invasion from the East; should Spain attack Portugal, Portugal would make Spain’s efforts to take back Gibraltar completely null by doing everything in its power to relieve it.

To add a further punch to this letter, Joseph II ordered the navy to send relief cargo gathered at Lisbon, including sugar, citrus fruits, biscuits, salt and ammunition, to Gibraltar by sea, where it arrived before the year’s end. This gesture was viewed as a threatening affront to Spanish interests and a touching gesture to Gibraltarians, but one that would clearly aggravate matters if handled incorrectly. This effort was vital to help the garrison endure the end of 1779, when rations became nearly impossible to get, and was much appreciated by the local English troops. [1]


Relief of 1779
The small Portuguese boats carried cargo to Gibraltar British ships, materializing Joseph II’s threat

Charles III, however, was highly demoralized by the prospect of fighting a two-front war of logistics. The Fantastic War was still fresh in the memory of Spanish commanders, so while the Metropolitan Army was not viewed as a significant obstacle in a direct combat in open field, it posed a significant threat to Spanish long-term interests should land war break out. Joseph II knew his counterpart wished to avoid costly wars to Spain and appealed to him personally on a second letter to let go of Gibraltar and his ambition.


Joseph II personally appealed to King Charles III for peace in Iberia, lest a long bloody conflict for both sides akin to the Fantastic War begin

In January 1780, as Spanish troops realized the reinforced Gibraltar would take years to siege, Charles III agreed to sign with Portugal a pact of renewed truce, ruling themselves out of the American Revolutionary War in Iberia. Spanish efforts against the British would continue in North America, where its agents and colonial governors acted towards supporting American Revolutionaries.

Joseph II was congratulated on his effort by Cipriano but criticized by his other advisors who believed he acted recklessly for the sake of what would probably be a diplomatic equivalent of jumping out of the Spanish frying pan into the French fire. This mistake would be repeated in 1782 at the Nantes Negotiations, where Joseph II failed to secure peace and instead invoked the wrath of the Dutch Navy.

Spanish participation in the war was, however, therefore mostly resolved by 1779 after this failed attempt to harness resources to retake Gibraltar and their Central American possessions from the British. Thus, to protect Spanish sovereignty and not directly contradict his pledge to modernize Spain, Charles III announced Spanish borders would remain closed for both sides.

This pitted Portugal against France only at sea and where their ships could land them. The war was therefore a maritime war, determined by which side could overcome the other in the water first. At stake was either Portugal being able to repel a French amphibious invasion or risk having its navy seized and used against London.

[1] Portuguese support was crucial for the garrison of Gibraltar to save off disease and scurvy that afflicted the garrison iOTL.


Note:
The Luso-French Maritime War was a significant war and major challenge for the Portuguese Empire. It was the first time the Portuguese were being tested by a European power after the fiasco of the 7 year war in which the Portuguese had to be bailed out by the British. The Portuguese Empire of 1782 was not the same country from 20 years earlier. This was a country that had re-built its navy and armed forces. Instituted major and complete overhaul of its naval and army officer and troop training and recruitment. While the Portuguese were not as powerful as the French it had one advantage on its side, that France was also fighting the British forces throughout the world and could not devote its full force on the Portuguese. But was the Portuguese rebuilding enough? Would the Portuguese navy and armed forces be ready to meet and defend the country? Those were the major questions not only on the minds of the people but the nobles, government and merchants. Questions/Comments

Note regarding posting of this section. The Luso-French Maritime War is over 40 pages and will be divided in approximately seven sections.

Note that iOTL the Portuguese were able to sit out this war. But growth of Portuguese Empire, the recent betrothal of British King's eldest daughter to the Portuguese king and the refusal of the Portuguese to bow down to the French threat meant it would be forced to fight .

This section really dealt with two major issues for the Portuguese, convincing the Spanish that there should not be any war between the Portuguese and Spanish, who still smarting from defeat of the 7 year war considered the prospect of attacking the Portuguese again, but as seen Portuguese diplomacy convinced the Spanish that war between the two neighbors would result in the Spanish not able to provide enough resources to accomplish the Spanish main objective take Gibraltar and retake Minorca. This left the Portuguese to deal only with the French which was a momentous task on its own.

Please return on March 8 as we post the3rd part in
The Three-Years War (1780 -1784)
- The Luso-French Maritime War (1780-1782).
 
Just caught up. Excellent work! Bravo!
Thank you glad to have you as reader and fan.

This will be a difficult task, as the French Navy is still a major force...
Yes you are very right, thus the reason for the Portuguese diplomatic effort to keep Spain neutral towards them.

The only consolation for the Portuguese is that France was not only fighting them but also fighting the British navy. But even so it will be a Great War. This war was fought simultaneously in several theatres; Indian, south Atlantic and North Atlantic. The next chapters are the Portuguese - French India conflict, followed by southern Atlantic with North Atlantic theatre.
 
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The only consolation forceje Portuguese is that France not only fighting them but also occupied with British navy. But even so it will be a Great War. This war was fought simultaneously in several theatres; Indian, south Atlantic and North Atlantic. The next chapters are the Portuguese - French India conflict, followed by southern Atlantic with North Atlantic theatre.
Still in india,south atlantic and north atlantic portugal and britain will be working together against the french and givwn their combined migth they will be quite successful
I imagine they will seek a south atlantic victory immediately to cut the french from their indian colonies
Will spain be involved in the naval war?
And it seems the dutch will join after 1782 so the french will outnumbered In all fronts until then
 
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I wonder how the Bombay office will react if the Portuguese manage to snap up Mahé from the Fernch...

*cue the screaming and the headless-chicken-running*

More seriously though, the Calcutta office is even more important for the BEIC than in OTL. As Portugal blossoms into a Great Power, I think Luso-British relations will cool somewhat, especially Luso-BEIC relations. The Bombay office may soon find itself obstructed by allies of the metropole, with the Calcutta office cheering the Portuguese on. Maybe there won't be any single Raj in India as such, but multiple important colonial possessions along with two or three large and still-independent native states.
 
Mayhaps we have the British establishing themselves in Bengal and the lower Ganges mainly, the Portuguese spread out on the western littoral and... the French? (Or *plot twist* the Danes) established in the Tamil lands and the eastern littoral upto the Godavari delta. One thing is for certain - India is proving to be a far more dynamic place than in OTL.
 
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