Rebirth of an Empire "O Renascimento de um Império" v2.0

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by Lusitania, Dec 2, 2016.

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  1. Johannes Parisiensis Well-Known Member

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    I could see New Zeeland be divided up in farms and other landed estates for agriculture, with wool and wheat cultivated there. And will Australia be explored too?

    And, as for Congo (sorry for being late on the subject!), how is Rome reacting to a "schismatic" church expanding its influence on Catholic lands? And how much is Portugal going to follow the Congo river to explore?

    Will a Great War ever erupt there?
     
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  2. Gian Wizard of Watkins Mill

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    Well, we already had two Maori tribes from Taranaki to utterly annihilate the Moriori with muskets in the 1830s IOTL so there's that.
     
  3. Lusitania Donor

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    Welcome and there never is a late or wrong question, just a question. All are welcome especially from the new readers who may be playing catchup. Yes settlement will follow very similar to Cisplana with farms being allocated to settlers. As for Australia it was known at this time but is not within the Portuguese sphere of influence which the Portuguese tried to respect on the hope other countries respected ours.

    Congo it will be a mixture of the new and old church the major difference will be that the new church will not be limited by Latin doctrine (more of that when we discuss the Religious developments) plus the promotion and inclusion of non-Europeans in the hierarchy of the church will go along way to provide the PCC with an advantage over the traditional church. There is also the fact the religious orders from outside the country have been expelled and new portuguese ones are arriving in their place.

    The Roman Catholic Church cries foul at the expansion of the Portuguese empire / church but has little influence in areas of Portuguese control. The issue will be in adjacent lands where the Portuguese were one of the principle evangelical forces now being replaced by "New Portuguese Catholic Church". What is helping the Portuguese is that this is happening at the fringes of the Catholic church's reach and the number of Catholics (under the influence of the PCC) is growing at a much greater number than per the old ways including the inquisition. You know what they say easier to catch someone with honey than vinegar.

    There will be a great war, exactly where and between whom is not revealed at this moment. The reasons for the great war are easily recreated, with growing nationalism in late 19th and early 20th century. overlapping and competing national interest coupled with alliances and mutual defense treaties. What is needed is simple a trigger that sets off the whole thing.
     
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  4. Lusitania Donor

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    Yes I believe that the potential for that to happen will be too great. Although other alternatives to annihilation are available, I will be certain that loosing tribes maybe forced out the islands and since the Portuguese will have a mechanism to move and relocate people built up and still operating into the mid to late 19th century. Although its roles and power will change over time. While tragic the expulsion of certain tribes be more humane the death.
     
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  5. Wolttaire Well-Known Member

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    Will New Zealand have a lower population then otl? Also is any other great power threatentec by this
     
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  6. Lusitania Donor

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    Sorry for delay in response but information was slow in gathering we had national figures but needed to delve into provincial archive for New Zealand specific information and the Department of Statistic while very rich in data is very slow in granting access to information.

    Here is the information we received

    Native​
    Year----------Native Population------Lusophone​
    1800 ------------89,000 Est ------------3,500
    1820------------99,999Est-------------11,500
    1840-------------71,000Est------------105,000
    1860--------------49,985 --------------425,560
    1880---------------52,589--------------898,805
    1900------------69,801---------------1,506,923​

    1) Note: due to mistake on my part when I filled out the request for information I only requested during the 19th century and will have to resubmit application for 20th century data.

    2) Lusophone was classified as emigrants arriving from other parts of the empire. As with many provinces in the late 18th and the 19th century emigration was only be granted to people residing in the Empire for minimum period of 10 years at which time Lusophone residency and nationality could be obtained and freedom of travel received. Prior to that emigration while open to both Europeans and other nationalities the location they could emigrate to was controlled by Department of Security.

    3) We can compare the data to iOTL where in 1900 the number of Europeans was close to 800,000 here the 1.5 million is mixture of European, Indian, African and Asian. The Native population did decrease but while iOTL the decline was more pronounced and by 1900 had started increasing it still not reached 50,000 here half the loses were actual relocation of about half a dozen tribes who were losers in the Native fight for supremacy during the first 30 years of Portuguese colonial administration. While remaining tribes grew stronger they soon faced unprecedented pressures on their lands by the increasing number of emigrants both settlers and mineral (gold) prospectors and miners like iotl.
     
    Last edited: Jan 20, 2019
  7. Joao97 Well-Known Member

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    Was there any sgnificant miscegenation between the lusophone and Maori populations? I imagine there must have been. If yes, in which category are mixed-raced people counted?
     
  8. Lusitania Donor

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    St the end of the 18th century the Portuguese and British who were the only two major power in the area vying for increased in their empire came to an understanding on the fate of New Zealand in portugal’s Favor due to Portuguese exploration before Cooks on behalf of British. It helped Portugal had very warm relationship with the British.

    The Portuguese have been mixing with locals since their first colonies. Generally they are very well accepted that being those who speak the language and catholic. Most of Portuguese India ruling class were from this group. Those that stayed with their indingenous group were treated the same as others. It was the adoption of language and religion prior to the 1760s. Since then it became the acceptance of language as most important with religion being less important.
     
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  9. Joao97 Well-Known Member

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    So, this TL has been getting increasingly interesting lately, so I've nominated it for the Turtledoves
     
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  10. Threadmarks: The New Frontiers (3 of 3)

    Lusitania Donor

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    The New Frontiers (3 of 3)

    Brazilian Interior Exploration – The Ferreira Expedition
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    As early as 1770 the Minister of Navy and Colonial Affairs in conjunction the Vice-Roy of Rio began planning to explore the interior of the Brazil, which till then was largely unoccupied and uncharted. A search was started for the right candidate to lead such expedition. In the summer of 1776 both Lisbon and Rio agreed on naturalist Alexander Rodrigues Ferreira, who at time was employed at time at the Royal Museum of Ajuda, Lisbon. He was also a member of the Lisbon Royal Science Academy. On 5 October 1777 he left Lisbon for Belem with the mission of exploring Grão-Pará, Rio Negro, Mato Grosso and the Cuiabá regions of Brazil.

    His mission wasn’t just to explore the interior of continent but also to describe, collect, transport and send to both the Royal Museum and the Rio de Janeiro Colonial Museum the samples of fauna, animals, minerals, food and utensils of the native populations. He was also tasked in providing philosophical and political commentary on the places and things he saw during his voyage. This additional task would set the Ferreira Brazilian Expedition apart from other future naturalists that would continue to explore the American continent.

    In Belem he organized what would be a decade long journey to the very heart of Brazil. The expedition was captained by José Joaquim Freire (who had attended courses on exploration and planning expeditions by Royal Museum of Ajuda and the Royal Military College. His second in command was José Codina. Assisting Alexander Rodrigues Ferreira was botanist Agostinho do Cabo. The expedition took over three months to organize and only on 10 February 1778 did he leave Belém do Pará on the charruas “Águia” and “Coração de Jesus”.

    His first stops were along the islands of Marajó, Cametá, Baião, Pederneiras e Alcobaça located in the estuary of the Amazon River. From there for the next nine years he explored the rainforest interior. He traversed the Amazon River and the Black River till the Spanish frontier. He then navigated the White River till the Cananauaru Mountain before following up the Madeira and Guapore rivers until reaching the town of “Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade”, at the time the capital of Mato Grosso. This segment of his expedition alone established a fluvial route through the dangerous Amazon Rainforest from its estuary to its south-central edges, not to mention mapping one of the longer river tributaries of it that would become a major historical border.

    Encouraged by this massive success, he then traveled to the town of Cuiabá, leaving the Amazon basin, and exploring the marshes of Mato Grosso in the Prata River watershed. He navigated and explored the Cuiba, San Lourenco and Paraguay rivers till he reached the Portuguese fort town of Santiago on the estuary of the Prata River on 16 December 1780. His massive expedition was considered to be complete when he finally reached Cisplatina in May 1783, to the joy of the Portuguese scientific community.

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    He returned to Belem de Para in January 1785 traveling along the coast. In Belem Alexander Ferreira collogued all his samples that over the years had been sent to Belem for storage. While half of the samples were sent to Rio to the new Rio Royal Science Museum the other half were sent to Lisbon.

    Interest in his travels was very high and fellow naturalists clamored for his journals and notes, but the governments of Lisbon and Rio were reluctant to release data it deemed sensitive. A compromise was reached with the two academies; data detailing scientific and nature about flora and fauna was released but, due to the size of it, it would take over five years for all his journals to be copied and released to both academies. For the next twenty years papers and books were written both in Lisbon and Rio Royal academies. Since two copies of the samples existed many disagreements existed between the two academies over what each academy would study, till in 1799 when the Lisbon academy was given exclusive right to publish works about the Amazon and Black River samples and data while Rio Academy would publish on the remaining works and samples. It would take over 20 years for all the major information to be published in scientific articles. [1]

    But to the governments of Rio and Lisbon the primary concern was the potential exploitation of the interior and its people. Alexander Ferreira was charged with providing the two governments with summary of his travels and potential for Portuguese expansion. In 1787 he published the ‘"Viagem Filosófica", Theosophical Voyage that till the middle of the 19th century was classified. The main points of his paper were:
    • Impact of Jesuit expulsion – He provided detailed information on the negative economic impact the expulsion of the Jesuits had in these remote regions. Areas continued to be negatively impacted by the lack of Portuguese management, indifference and naivety of the natives, lack of manpower and reduction of black slaves in the regions;
    • Quality and Diversity of Economy – He provided detailed examples and explanation how rationalization of the areas and introduction of new methods of production;
    • Demographics – Graphs showing the potential manpower for each community he visited detailing active and inactive workers, number of whites, natives, black slaves, women children and elderly was provided showing the economic viability of each community;
    • Agricultural Production – Detailed analysis of current production of flour, rice, corn, coco, coffee and tobacco was provided as well as estimates of maximum productions;
    The government of Rio was both shocked and astounded at the economic potential of these regions. The Viceroy decided to create two new companies “Companhia de Amazonia” and Companhia de Mato Grosso”. They were tasked with the development of the Amazon River Basin and the Mato Grosso areas respectively.

    Over the next 20 years the Brazilian interior would witness a significant population influx as administrators, farmers, entrepreneurs began joining the Bandeirantes and followed in Alexandre Ferreira path and opened up the interior to development and settlement. In 1795 Alexander Ferreira was awarded the Order of Portugal by Lisbon and the Order of Christ by Rio. He returned to Rio in 1796 to take up the post of Director of the Rio Botanical Gardens at the new University of Rio and administrator of Brazil Royal farms on the outskirts of Rio.

    [1] iOTL, unfortunately Alexander’s work lay in obscurity for close to 100 years forgotten in the museum archives. Only in the 1870s was the material re-discovered and most of the remaining samples, journals and records sent to Rio. Much of the materials were also lost during the French occupation. Here economic and political advances allow for economic development as well as a more developed and mature Royal Science Academy provided the impetus for study and publishing of his studies.


    Note:
    The exploration of the Amazon and rediscovery of the economic benefits there was a god send for the Portuguese / Brazilian administration and more importantly the claim of the Amazon for the Portuguese Empire against the Spanish and the sucessor states in the 19th century. It also made other individuals and administrators begin to wonder what riches lay inland in both Americas and Africa. iOTL It was a great shame that this information lay undiscovered and lost for close to 100 years. For even a much smaller and weaker iOTL Portugal could of developed and reaped the benefits of exploiting them. Comments / questions???


    Please return Sunday February 10 as we go delve into Rebirth of Empire (2 of 2) - The Last Years of Pombal 1777 - 1782.
     
    Last edited: Jan 28, 2019
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  11. Lusitania Donor

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    The Last Years of Pombal (1777-1782)
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    The ascension of Joseph II to the Portuguese throne brought several changes to Portuguese government cabinet. Foremost was the active participation of King Joseph II in many cabinet meetings, one noted difference at regular cabinet meetings was the tempered manner of the meetings as some of the more boisterous cabinet members toned down their behavior. Disagreements between different cabinet ministers still existed and after some hesitation in the first months continued. Still, the government continued to govern the country, implementing the reforms and modernization programs started under King Joseph reign with renewed zeal and importance.

    King Joseph II a keen observer, at first observed the workings of the cabinet and the various ministers and secretaries. He planned on making slight improvements but being a cautious person he wanted to wait and get a better understanding of the needs and available personnel before he made any cabinet changes. His plans unfortunately were changed when suddenly less than 8 months after his ascension with the tragic death of the Count of Lippe. The Ministry of Army and Foreign Affairs had now suffered a second loss in less than a year and was without leadership.[1] King Joseph II met with Pombal and the rest of cabinet reviewing several possible candidates for both positions. On 19 November 1777 a decision was made to appoint Aires de Sá e Melo Viscount of Anadia as the new Ministry of Army & Foreign Affairs and Cipriano Ribeiro Freire as Secretary of Foreign Affairs & Portuguese Diplomatic Corp.

    In 1778, King Joseph II against the objections of Pombal but with support from Duke John and Ambassador Castro, announced his plans to visit Brazil. On 10th of August, a flotilla of 20 armed ships set sail from Lisbon and sailed for the first official Royal visit to Bahia, and Rio. The visit was a great success[2]. In Rio de Janeiro, King Joseph met with Vice-Roy, Marquis of Lavradio, and the two discussed the issues facing Portugal and more specifically Brazil. As well, they discussed the Marquis’ future after his term as Vice-Roy ended at end of the year. Impressed by the Marquis and his work King Joseph offered him a position in his government. King Joseph offered him the position of Minister of Interior ‘Secretaria de Estado dos Negócios Interiores do Reino’.

    In 1780 Aaron Lopez the Minister of Heath and Agriculture requested leave from King Joseph II to retire but as the United States (Aaron Lopez’ intended destination) were in ongoing Revolutionary War and the country faced its most dangerous situation both militarily as well as politically King Joseph requested that he postpone his retirement. The country was locked into a worldwide war against both France and Dutch Republic; in addition, Portugal was committed to supporting Great Britain in their war against the American Colonies as part of the King Joseph betrothal to King George’s eldest daughter. But most troubling was the deteriorating health of the 80-year-old Marquis of Pombal. The King did concede to the request for lighter workload and brought on Félix de Avelar Brotero as Aron Lopez assistant to lighten the Minister’s workload though.

    1777 Cabinet Reform - Early Josephine Model

    With the PM’s sickness glaringly obvious, Joseph II sought to make his single direct contribution to the cabinet by laying out the blueprint for a reformed framework of the Ministry and Secretaries. He intended to reorganize the government organ, advance it, expand it and make it more comprehensible, especially considering he intended to spend a great deal of his lifetime working with it. As early as 1778, after returning from Brazil, King Joseph gathered the ministers and personally discussed with them a new model they could agree upon and that could be implemented as soon as possible.

    Finding common ground was not easy; every single one of the ministers, including Pombal, intended to make one change or another and sometimes stepped on each other’s toes trying to be heard. By the next month, however, a draft of major points was laid out that would help change the cabinet’s laws for the better:
    • Further Restriction Lifting: All remaining bars on religion, race and background were removed asides from criminal ones. This would allow for the nomination of António Silva, a dark-skinned man, to be named Minister of Justice;
    • Term Rework: The policy on Ministry terms was reworked into terms of five to six years, depending on Ministry and war circumstances, though the actual maximum number of terms per candidate was left untouched. To balance the limitlessness of terms, laws were placed allowing for personal barring pending certain conditions, such as a cabinet-wide veto (something Pombal showed dislike for);
    • Salaries & Pensions: Monetary rewards were equalized along the posts at base and bolstered on accomplishment, using collected scientific statistics on national improvements to determine what projects were, indeed, to be considered successful;
    • Sector Reorganization, Expansion and Addition: Several secretaries were shifted around and new Ministries were created, modernized, separated or joined, most notably the Ministries of Justice, of Interior, of Armament & Industry, of Health and of Agriculture;
    • Aristocratic Titling Banning: Citing the ceremonial nature of aristocracy as understood by the Tagus Declaration as basis for this, Joseph II affirmed that posts of dukedom, marque, county or barony would no longer be awarded to Ministers for doing their job, making the Marquis of Pombal the last Minister to be given an aristocratic title for his efforts in cabinet;[3]
    The Early Josephine Model, as it became known, was approved by all ministers on 1 April 1779.

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    Late Pombaline Cabinet Model

    Green: New Ministries

    This model decentralized government functions even further to accommodate the increased capacity to draw in competent representatives, especially in the H&A Ministry which received Secretaries for its two main cores.

    This was, however, a model that was very much directed at the present faces of the Ministry; the H&A minister was known for his inadequate background and therefore his office suffered the most significant breakdown, demonstrating that this reform was still very context-specific and therefore unlikely to flourish for long. New, more efficient models, however, would arise after Pombal’s death.

    Prime Ministry – Pombal’s Final Years
    “The Prime Minister of Portugal is aged. The dictator, as we called him, is nearing his end. I can see it in his walk, in his face and even, may I had, his choice of garment. Our great threat to Port Wine prices, gentlemen, is now swept away by the inexorable tide of time. The Marquis of Pombal is not a PM, he’s a relic; a trophy of a harsh age kept around due to the new King’s endearment and his cabinet’s benefit.”
    William Augustus Fawkener[4] - addressing the British Parliament regarding Pombal’s proposal to marry King Joseph to Charlotte

    Pombal had been Prime Minister for 22 years at time of King Joseph II accession to the throne. The decisions and position had weighed heavily on Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo and he was slower as his 76 age began showing. But for all his body’s limitations Pombal’s mind continued sharp right to the end. His greatest dream and wish, to see his reforms continue and be supported by the new King was Melo’s greatest joy. While Duke John and other cabinet ministers had provided King Joseph with a balanced view regarding the king’s opinion to Pombal, Pombal looked upon King Joseph II with great admiration and wonder for the young king’s quick wit and keen mind. Over the years on occasion Duke John would catch Pombal looking upon King Joseph II with glaze in his eyes enchanted at speech the king was making.

    As for the Kings matrimony, Pombal took it as a personal mission to win Portugal the most powerful and important Princess possible. His first attempt to arrange the betrothal of Great Britain King George III eldest daughter had been rejected outright at time of King Joseph ascension to the throne but since King Joseph was still in his teens he was determined to wait. Suggestion by new Minister of Army and Foreign Affairs regarding Infanta Maria of Spain, King Charles III eldest daughter was rejected outright by Pombal. In 1778, during King Joseph II visit to Brazil, King George consented to the betrothal of Princess Charlotte to King Joseph III as a means of closing Portugal’s market to the American colonists.[5]

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    Aged Pombal negotiating Joseph’s marriage to Charlotte with English embassy
    Despite his obvious frailness, the minister insisted in remaining in power

    Pombal’s aversion to war and hopes of keeping Portugal free of from European wars were dashed by the French navy attacking Portuguese ships soon after the betrothal of King Joseph to Princess Charlotte in 1778. The French viewed the betrothal as a declaration of alliance and sought to bring Portuguese commerce to complete stop. The Dutch also brought their might against the Portuguese in hopes of profiting from a distracted enemy. The plan by both countries failed and both the French and Dutch suffered losses to Great Britain and Portugal. Pombal and Aires de Sá e Melo were able to maintain neutral stand with Spain when it too declared war on Great Britain, but not because it feared Portugal it concentrated most of its forces on the Iberian Peninsula to siege Gibraltar and had no forces to attack Portugal.
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    [1] The death of Luís da Cunha Manuel 1 month before the death of King Joseph I had still not been filled.

    [2] See section: Rebirth of an Empire 1777 – 1799 - Coronation in Brazil

    [3] The ceremonial aristocratic title while removed from work in Cabinet but was still granted for outstanding accomplishment in the name of the kingdom be it military, economic or other service to the kingdom. The granting of aristocratic title was left to the king and the cabinet and it was felt that it would be a conflict of interest if members of cabinet gave themselves aristocratic titles.

    [4] William Fawkner had been sent in 1777 to Portugal as a special representative of the Privy Council to study the implication of the retirement and death of Pombal to Portugal and British trade opportunities.

    [5] In October 1777 the British army had suffered a huge defeat at Saratoga and in February of 1778 the French had entered the war on the American Colonists side. Several members of Parliament including William Pit the Elder had advocated making peace with Colonists and striking an alliance with them against the French. Lord North and British government rejected the idea. It was coincidence that the Portuguese Ambassador was summoned to the Royal palace on the same day that King Joseph set sail for Brazil. At the meeting with both Lord North and King George the British announced the approval of the betrothal of Princess Charlotte to King Joseph. Only condition was that Portugal close all ports to the colonists and their allies. On the day that the Portuguese Ambassador sailed to Lisbon with the news, there was a Royal proclamation on the betrothal, which France viewed as alliance with Great Britain and declared war on Portugal. The news of the betrothal arrived almost at same time as French declaration of war against Portugal. Although many have speculated, the British government of Lord North always specified that the betrothal had nothing to do with French siding with the American colonists. The result of the betrothal was that French Navy had to deal with both British and Portuguese navies and that took some of the pressure off the British navy.




    Note:
    After several important storylines regarding the expansion and military accomplishments around the empire between 1777 - 1782 we now turn our attention to the developments and accomplishments of the country as a whole. As a reminder we will be detailing this under the headings of each of the government departments. This week's post had two sections an introduction to the new king's 1st cabinet and also the last section on Prime Minister Pombal major endeavors during the his last tenure as Primer Minister 1777 - 1782. In some ways many historians have written that the Betrothal of king Joseph II to the British royal house was Pombal's crowning achievement and his last major political accomplishment. Is that true, not sure but it did shape Portuguese and British political policies for decades to come. Comments / questions???


    Please return Sunday February 17 as we post the 2nd installment 0f the Rebirth of Empire (2 of 2) - The Last Years of Pombal 1777 - 1782 (Minister of Internal Affairs).

    At this time we would like to thank our readers especially Joao97 for the nomination of best Colonial TL. We hope all the TL's readers and fans will vote for it. As a special bonus for being nominated we will post the next installment next Sunday instead of in 2 weeks. Obrigado.
     
  12. Rui Well-Known Member

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  13. Johannes Parisiensis Well-Known Member

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    Will a system of medals be created instead?

    Who will replace him?

    Has Portugal enacted Salic law? This marriage might create interesting cases of succession.

    How this will influe on the French Revolutionnary Wars?
     
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  14. Astronomo2010 Well-Known Member

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    another great update , Portugal and England , close Allies , perfect , they will crush the French and the Dutch ,can hardly wait for the next part
     
  15. Lusitania Donor

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    I wanted to respond to these two together since they deal with the same topic.

    While alliance with Britain has been a cornerstone of Portuguese diplomacy since 1386, with the Portuguese sacrificing lots to renew it after regaining their independence in 1640 (giving both tangier and Bombay) to the British. The issue is that Portugal does not have the luxury of natural protection from invasion so while Portugal would stick close to British position it would also try to maintain a neutral stance. Not always successful of course. iOTL Portugal refused to abandon Britain during Napoleonic wars suffering greatly for it.

    So now we have a more powerful Portugal with a much stronger navy facing off not only against France (like iotl) but also against the Dutch. The alliance with Britain is also stronger although the British are still top dog and they not view the Portuguese as their equal. For now the Portuguese are accepting of the situation and attempting to seek advantages where possible.
     
  16. Lusitania Donor

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    The Portuguese already had a system of medals and honors, these will continue and be expanded.

    The young king upon gaining the throne starting looking at several candidates and some very talented officials were considered but in the end the king chose ....... (sorry but you will need to wait).

    I did want to state that pombal was the last official to be minister for life. From now on all political positions will be appointed for set number of years. We will need to wait for little longer for their name to be revealed.

    The Portuguese have never enacted Salic LAw, while male line was dominant if no direct male was alive then the throne would be claimed through the female line. Actually both of Portuguese succession crises with Castile/Spain were a direct result of foreign king through marriage of eldest daughter of late Portuguese king claiming the the Portuguese throne. And we know how those two played out. While a daughter could claim Portuguese throne the wife could never.

    We will touch on that in the next book 1782-1799 but we cannot expect the Portuguese to influence either positive or negatively.
     
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