Introduction: "Three miseries of Barbary: plague. famine. ciuill warre With a relation of the death of Mahamet the late Emperour: and a briefe report of the now present wars betweene the three brothers." - Title of a Pamphlet by George Wilkins of London, 1607. Excerpt from "Morocco, Russia and India: An examination of the aftermath of collapsing Empires" by G.R. Pennell @Bristol Pamphlets, 1987. "The Saadi Dynasty of Morocco never recreated the glory or power of the Almovarids or Almohads. But under Ahmad al-Mansur, for a brief time, they were considered a major power by European observers and given the respect due a powerful empire. It was under al-Mansur that Morocco had crushed the Portuguese army and killed their king, under him that they had invaded the Sahel and destroyed the Songhai and Mali Empires and under him that they had formed their own African Caliphate which aimed to unite all African muslims in looking to Marrakesh rather than Istanbul and which states as far south as the Kanem Empire recognised. But that power was in many ways a mirage. Even as al-Mansur plotted with Elizabeth I to conquer the West Indies from Spain and divide them between England and Morocco, his current empire was unravelling. Plague and famine stalked his land and with it came increasingly revolt and unrest, both in the new conquests and Morocco proper. Upon al-Mansur's death and the coming of his son Muhammed al-Shaykh al-Mamun, a brutal and lazy drunk, to the throne, the house of cards collapsed. Three brothers claimed the throne and, as they fought, central control retreated slowly inwards. Al-Mansur's empire crumbled in the face of rebellion and invasions. The Ottomans, having long claimed to be overlords of Morocco, finally made good that claim by bringing much of Eastern Morocco under the fold. The Spanish likewise extended control outwards from the formerly Portuguese cities in Morocco that they'd inherited in the Iberian Union. The Pashalik of Timbuktu found itself cut off and isolated from it's previous Moroccan overlords. The Alaouites of Tafilalt likewise took advantage of their defacto independence to grow in riches and power by monopolising control over the oases used in the Trans-Saharan trade. The most well known secessionist state however was the Republic of Rabat, which was founded by Moriscos driven from Spain by Philip II and which, in the aftermath of the Spanish annexation of much of Northern Morocco, became a hot bed of jihadist anti christian activity. Led by Sidi al-Ayachi and the followers of the Mahdi, Ibn Abi Mahalli, they vowed to avenge the defeats of the Moors by fighting an ever lasting Jihad on both land and sea. The Corsairs of Rabat would arguably achieve more in that goal that the mighty empire of the Saadis ever had. By contrast, in the rump Saadi sultanate of Marrakech, al-Mamum and his heirs grew increasingly unpopular for their lack of action as their realm bled. They ruled largely only thanks to the power of their elite bodyguard of Songhai slaves known as the Black Guard, members of which increasingly began to become the real power in the sultanate. By the 1630s, Ottoman and Christian sources referred to it mockingly as 'Sudanese Morocco'. And in the valleys of the Sus and the mountains of the Atlas, the slave ran sugar plantations and mosque ran super farms were reclaimed by the berber pastorialists who'd been driven off them by the Saadi's in the first place. The alliance of village councils and sufi brotherhoods known as the Commonwealth of Dila grew in power and influence as that of Marrakech declined." Authors Note: This is going to be another 8,000-11,000 words thing written in less than 14 days like Vodou Props and 15 battles were. 7 updates after this, each one a viewpoint from a person in one of the states that took over Morocco after the collapse of the Saadi Empire.